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Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.

    Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (δ) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (β) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (δ and β) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced δ values (P 0.05). β values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

  2. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.36±0.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.32±1.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33±0.30 mg and 33±44 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  3. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Gudjnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou; Jnsson, sbjrn; Karlsdttir, Magnea Gudrn; Arason, Sigurjn

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  4. A novel methyl pyridinium salt for the detection of water content in organic solvents

    ZHANG Mingyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel pyridinium salt,TM was synthesized from 2,6-dimethylpyridin.TM exhibits pronounced negative solvatochromism and possesses high absorption spectral sensitivities to water content changes.TM could be used to measure the water content in organic solvents such as THF,1,4-dioxane,acetone,and methanol.The detection limit was 0.04% for THF.The calibration curve for the determination of water in THF was obtained.TM exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity in the absorbance detection of water in organic solvents.

  5. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  6. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  7. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  8. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  9. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  10. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  11. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  12. Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content

    Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Dordick, J.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-04-20

    The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

  13. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m3 and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository

  14. Hexose uptake by Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions is inhibited by a high medium salt content.

    Hoefnagel, M H; Libbenga, K R; van der Plas, L H

    1994-05-01

    The uptake of glucose and fructose from the medium by Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions was strongly inhibited by high medium salt concentration, such as found in LS (Linsmaier and Skoog 1965) medium. After inoculation into standard LS nutrient medium with less than 5 mM hexose no uptake occurred, while in low salt medium hexose was completely depleted. At a hexose concentration of 50 mM the uptake rate was higher in low salt medium than in standard medium. The lower rate of uptake at high salt concentration was not the result of a pH or osmotic effect of the salts. Probably the affinity of the hexose carrier is affected by the ion concentration of the medium. The decrease in medium salt concentration during normal batch culture probably will have a considerable effect on hexose uptake. PMID:24194027

  15. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  16. Effect of water phase salt content and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes survival in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe and caviar (ikura).

    Shin, Joong-Han; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-06-01

    Salmon caviar, or ikura, is a ready-to-eat food prepared by curing the salmon roe in a brine solution. Other seasonings or flavorants may be added, depending upon the characteristics of the product desired. Listeria monocytogenes growth is a potential risk, since it can grow at high salt concentrations (>10%) and in some products at temperatures as low as 3 degrees C. Ikura was prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe by adding food-grade NaCl to yield water phase salt contents (WPS) of 0.22% (no added salt), 2.39%+/- 0.18%, 3.50%+/- 0.19%, and 4.36%+/- 0.36%. A cocktail containing L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113) was incorporated into the ikura at 2 inoculum levels (log 2.4 and 4.2 CFU/g), and stored at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 30 d. L. monocytogenes was recovered by plating onto modified Oxford media. Aerobic microflora were analyzed on plate count agar. Samples were tested at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d. L. monocytogenes did not grow in chum salmon ikura held at 3 degrees C during 30 d at any salt level tested; however, the addition of salt at these levels did little to inhibit Listeria growth at 7 degrees C and counts reached 5 to 6 logs CFU/g. Components in the salmon egg intracellular fluid appear to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. Total aerobic microflora levels were slightly lower in products with higher salt contents. These results indicate that temperature control is critical for ikura and similar products, but that products with lower salt contents can be safe, as long as good refrigeration is maintained. PMID:17995738

  17. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-15

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  18. Pearsons correlations between moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid and salt-induced water gain of broiler pectoralis major muscle

    Moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid, and % salt-induced water gain are widely used to estimate water states and water-holding capacity of raw meat. However, the relationships between these four measurements of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle describe are not well described. The objec...

  19. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  20. Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method

    Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ≈2.4 g/cm3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

  1. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excreti...

  2. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective

  3. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.)

  4. Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo

    The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.)

  5. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    There are few types of nuclear probes that measure the soil water content. The aim of this study is to develop a new nuclear probe, optimise its geometry using the code MCNP4C and calibrate it. This nuclear probe is constituted by a 60 keV gamma radiation source, a soil sample and a plastic scintillator. A beam of radiation coming from the source reaches the sample and is scattered by Compton effect. The scintillator then detects this scattered radiation. Its optimization is made using the MCNP4C adjusting the three parameters: distance between the source and the scintillator, dimensions of soil sample and source's energy. After choosing the optimized system, small amount of water is progressively added into the soil sample until its saturation, what permits correlate counts with water content. The results showed the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. (author)

  6. Water purification using organic salts

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  7. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  8. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered γ ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

  9. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    Møller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.; Andersen, Simon Ulf; Lillevang, Søren K.; Rasmussen, Anitha; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphyloc...

  10. [Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    L, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

  11. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  12. Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method

    The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na2SO4, K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

  13. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  14. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ∼98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. (paper)

  15. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  16. Quaternary diffusion coefficients in a protein-polymer-salt-water system determined by rayleigh interferometry.

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Vergara, Alessandro; Paduano, Luigi; Sartorio, Roberto; Miller, Donald G; Albright, John G

    2009-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated multicomponent diffusion in a protein-polymer-salt-water quaternary system. Specifically, we have measured the nine multicomponent diffusion coefficients, D(ij), for the lysozyme-poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl-water system at pH 4.5 and 25 degrees C using precision Rayleigh interferometry. Lysozyme is a model protein for protein-crystallization and enzymology studies. We find that the protein diffusion coefficient, D(11), decreases as polymer concentration increases at a given salt concentration. This behavior can be quantitatively related to the corresponding increase in fluid viscosity only at low polymer concentration. However, at high polymer concentration (250 g/L), protein diffusion is enhanced compared to the corresponding viscosity prediction. We also find that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect increases in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol). Finally, we have evaluated systematic errors associated with measurements of protein diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering. This work overall helps characterize protein diffusion in crowded environments and may provide guidance for further theoretical developments in the field of protein crystallization and protein diffusion in such crowded systems, such as the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:19746957

  17. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For...... of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt...... content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13...

  18. Predicting the effects of landuse change on water and salt balancea case study of a catchment affected by dryland salinity in NSW, Australia

    Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Vaze, Jai; Murphy, Brian; Barnett, Paul; Rancic, Aleksandra; Evans, Ray; Geeves, Guy; Rassam, Daud W.; Miller, Michelle

    2003-12-01

    An integrated and comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments is presented. The framework is applied to the Mandagery Creek catchment (1688 km 2), located in the south-eastern part of Australia. The catchment is affected by dryland salinity and the effects of landuse, climate, topography, soils and geology on water and salt balance are examined. Landuse change scenarios designed to: (a) increase the perennial content of the pastures and crop rotations and (b) increase the current remnant native woody vegetation with additional tree cover are investigated to determine the level of intervention required to develop ameliorative strategies. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in water flow and salt export are also estimated.

  19. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  20. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

  1. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium Carbonates and Oxides

    Zayed, A M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid alcohol was studied to enhance the sorption efficiency. Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X ? Ray Fluorescence, Inductive Coupled Plasma, Pour Point and Thermostatic Water Bath instruments. Determination of the amount of crude oil in water was done by extracting the crude oil in tricholorotrifluoroethane and measuring absorbance by FTIR spectrometer. @JASEM

  2. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts

    Jing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA as electron donor and eosin Y (EY as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON reached 148 (H2/Co in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene.

  3. Solubility of inorganic salts in water under high pressures

    Solubility of inorganic salts (including SrSO4, CdI2, CsBr, KI) in water at pressures up to 1000 MPa and 273-373 K temperatures was considered. A series of qualitative regularities, dictating change of solubility in particular water-salt systems, depending on electrolyte type, concentration of saturated solution, crystallization water content in solid phase, was revealed. It is shown for salts, moderately and highly soluble in water, that increase of pressure up to 600-1000 MPa leads to decrease of solubility for 19 of 21 experimentally studied salt-water systems

  4. Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes

    Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

  5. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  6. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    Gujnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou; Jnsson, sbjrn; Karlsdttir, Magnea Gudrn; Arason, Sigurjn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical...

  7. Titanium for salt water service

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  8. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  9. Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (?b) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ?b as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (?b and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

  10. Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: Mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy

    Eppler, Ross K.; Komor, Russell S.; Huynh, Joyce; Jonathan S. Dordick; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Clark, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, which were contributed almost entirely by D2O rather than hydrogen–deuteron exchange on the protein. The results indicate that the timescale of motion for residual water molecules on the biocatalyst, (...

  11. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  12. Simulation of detection of total content of N, P in water using PGNAA by MCNP code

    The total content of N, P is an important index of water quality detection. The content of a special element in a water sample could be determined by prompt γ rays neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) quickly. The process, γ rays were emitted while the water sample was irradiated by neutron beam, was simulated by a model set up MCNP code and a pulse neutron generator as neutron source. The total content of N, P of class Ⅳ-Ⅴ water demanded by the surface water environment quality standard were used as basis. So that detection limit of N, P using PGNAA could be gained. If the total content of N, P in the water sample were small, the detection precision could be improved by increasing the neutron flux or concentrating the water sample. For contaminated water, the total content of N, P can be obtained quickly by PGNAA so that related departments could take measures to deal with polluted water in time when emergency of water pollution takes place. (authors)

  13. “Inexhaustible” source of hydrogen may be unlocked by salt water

    Logan, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    A grain of salt or two may be all that microbial electrolysis cells need to produce hydrogen from wastewater or organic by-products, without adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or using grid electricity, according to engineers in the USA at The Pennsylvania State University. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    M.J. RAHMAN; H. Inden

    2012-01-01

    Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper Papri new-E-red by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit qu...

  15. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  16. Analysis of aqueous solutions by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS) III. Binary mixtures of inorganic salts in water

    Frost, Volker J.; Molt, Karl

    1997-06-01

    It is shown that binary mixtures of inorganic salts in aqueous solutions can be analyzed quantitatively by near-infrared spectrometry (NIRS). Each component influences the structure of water by miscellaneous cation/anion-OH interactions causing specific effects in the NIR spectra which can be evaluated in a quantitative way. The calibrations described were performed using principle component regression (PCR) and optimised with respect to the standard error of analysis (SEA).

  17. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  18. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  19. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 5.7% and 63.3 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  20. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  1. Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content

    R.P. Ewing

    2005-08-29

    Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

  2. Deep purification of salts from suspended particles of submicron sizes by microfiltration

    The method for salt (calcium chloride, sodium borohydride, ammonium fluoride, cadmium iodide, chloroplatinic acid) purification from suspended particles of submicron sizes using microfiltration of their solutions in high-purity water and isopropyl alcohol with further salt separation from a solvent is presented. Atomic emission analysis of a precipitate on a filter is carried out to determine the particle element composition and their content in the initial salts. Analysis of salt solutions for suspended particles content is carried out by the laser ultramicroscopy method. The suspended particles content after purification is shown to decrease by 2-4 orders

  3. Protoplast water content of bacterial spores determined by buoyant density sedimentation.

    Lindsay, J.A.; Beaman, T C; Gerhardt, P.

    1985-01-01

    Protoplast wet densities (1.315 to 1.400 g/ml), determined by buoyant density sedimentation in Metrizamide gradients, were correlated inversely with the protoplast water contents (26.4 to 55.0 g of water/100 g of wet protoplast) of nine diverse types of pure lysozyme-sensitive dormant bacterial spores. The correlation equation provided a precise method for obtaining the protoplast water contents of other spore types with small impure samples and indicated that the average protoplast dry densi...

  4. Modelling the effects of land-use change on water and salt delivery from a catchment affected by dryland salinity in south-east Australia

    Vaze, Jai; Barnett, Paul; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray; Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Murphy, Brian; Geeves, Guy; Miller, Michelle

    2004-06-01

    A comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments affected by dryland salinity is applied to the Boorowa River catchment (1550 km2), located in south-eastern Australia. The framework comprised two models, each focusing on a different aspect and operating on a different scale. A quasi-physical semi-distributed model CATSALT was used to estimate runoff and salt fluxes from different source areas within the catchment. The effects of land use, climate, topography, soils and geology are included. A groundwater model FLOWTUBE was used to estimate the long-term effects of land-use change on groundwater discharge. Unlike conventional salinity studies that focus on groundwater alone, this study makes use of a new approach to explore surface and groundwater interactions with salt stores and the stream.Land-use change scenarios based on increased perennial pasture and tree-cover content of the vegetation, aimed at high leakage and saline discharge areas, are investigated. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in flow and salt export are estimated.The water balance model was able to simulate both the daily observed stream flow and salt load at the catchment outlet for high and low flow conditions satisfactorily. Mean leakage rate of about 23.2 mm year-1 under current land use for the Boorowa catchment was estimated. The corresponding mean runoff and salt export from the catchment were 89 382 ML year-1 and 38 938 t year-1, respectively. Investigation of various land-use change scenarios indicates that changing annual pastures and cropping areas to perennial pastures is not likely to result in substantial improvement of water quality in the Boorowa River. A land-use change of about 20% tree-cover, specifically targeting high recharge and the saline discharge areas, would be needed to decrease stream salinity by 150 ?S cm-1 from its current level. Stream salinity reductions of about 20 ?S cm-1 in the main Lachlan River downstream of the confluence of the Boorowa River is predicted. The FLOWTUBE modelling within the Boorowa River catchment indicated that discharge areas under increased recharge conditions could re-equilibrate in around 20 years for the catchment, and around 15 years for individual hillslopes.

  5. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with inhouse catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly sele...

  6. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

  7. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite–sand buffer backfilling materials

    Highlights: ► SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite–sand mixtures is researched. ► The ku of bentonite–sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. ► Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite–sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (ku) of bentonite–sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and ku increase slightly with the concentration of Na+ in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in ku, which is the “safe” value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of ku.

  8. Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

    2012-04-01

    Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed sandy loam sample exhibited drop of the flow rates between the first and second infiltration run and a gradual recovery of flow rates and water contents during the third run. This supports the assumption that air that was trapped in the flow pathways when water infiltrated in wet soil was dissolved in degassed water during the third run. The TDR probes show the dynamics of the quasi-saturated water content changes. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  9. Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography

    Computed tomography (CT) is a promising tool that may help provide measurements needed to obtain finer resolution in soil-water content and bulk density for water uptake studies or detailed investigation of root-soil interactions. Research was conducted on soil collected from the A horizon of Mexico silt loam (Udollic Ochraqualfs) and the B2t horizon of Crider silt loam (Typic Paleudalfs) to evaluate the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids and water. Air-dry soil (3 and CT slices or tomographs were taken before and after water was added. The relationship between attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids was linear for both of the soils evaluated. Parameter values for the Mexico soil compared favorably with those determined on previous data collected from Metea fine sandy loam (Arenic Hapludalfs). Differences in the parameter values for the Mexico and Crider soils were attributed to differences in Fe content. An experiment with Fe added to the Mexico soil was conducted that verified the effect of Fe content on the attenuation coefficients. Approximately 98% of the variation between the attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil water was accounted for by using linear regression relationships after correction for swelling. Results from this study indicate that it may be possible to develop a universal relationship for computed tomography data vs. soil bulk density and water content; however, more research is needed to characterize the influence of sample size on the calibration relationship

  10. Rheological behaviour of wormlike micelles : effect of salt content

    Candau, S.; Khatory, A.; Lequeux, F.; Kern, F.

    1993-01-01

    We study the effect of salt content on the rheological properties of wormlike micelles formed from hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in presence of potassium bromide (KBr) and of cetylpyridinium chlorate (CPClO3) in presence of sodium chlorate (ClO3Na). Upon increasing the salt concentration, at fixed surfactant concentration, we observe for both systems a maximum of the zero-shear viscosity ?0. For salt concentrations less than that corresponding to the maximum of [MATH], the variati...

  11. Investigation of solubility and phase transformations in water-salt systems under high pressures by electric conductivity method

    On the basis of experimetal data (288-353 K and pressure up to 1000 MPa) in accordance with three water-salt systems: cadmium nitrate-water, zinc nitrate-water, copper nitrate-water, the correspondence between isotherm types: high-frequency electric conductivity (20-100 kHz) of a cell-pressure (S-P) for different compositions to types of dependence: solubility-pressure (N-P), in the presence of phase transformations in the salt-water system (eutectics, dystectics, peritectic, polymorphous transformation), has been established. Investigation of S-P isotherms at some temperatures for different compositions of the water-salt system permits to determine both the sections of P-T phase diagrams and solubility of different solid phases

  12. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    McCann S.M.; Franci C.R.; Favaretto A.L.V.; Gutkowska J.; Antunes-Rodrigues J.

    1997-01-01

    Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons) have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induc...

  13. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and used worldwide in other semi-arid regions requiring irrigation for agriculture as well as urban areas in developing countries with inadequate sanitation infrastructure. PMID:26773431

  14. Changes in Phosphatidylcholine Headgroup Tilt and Water Order Induced by Monovalent Salts: Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Sachs, Jonathan N.; Nanda, Hirsh; Petrache, Horia I.; Woolf, Thomas B.

    2004-01-01

    The association between monovalent salts and neutral lipid bilayers is known to influence global bilayer structural properties such as headgroup conformational fluctuations and the dipole potential. The local influence of the ions, however, has been unknown due to limited structural resolution of experimental methods. Molecular dynamics simulations are used here to elucidate local structural rearrangements upon association of a series of monovalent Na+ salts to a palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl...

  15. Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters

    A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 ?g/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations 95%)

  16. Fiber optic sensor system for controlling salt contents in the near-coastal shrimp farms

    Pham, Van Hoi; Vu, Duc T.; Phung, Huu A.; Hoang, Cao D.; Bui, Huy; Tran, Thi Cham

    2000-03-01

    The fiber optic sensor system, that consists of 6 - 8 fiber sensor heads and can measure the salt-content in the water of near-coastal region of 1 Km2, is presented. The fiber optic sensor head was made by polishing the end of a double fiber in the form of a prism, with reflecting coating on one side, and had a dimension of 250 - 300 microns. The fiber optic sensor with lead-in power of 3 - 15 mW from visible laser diodes was tested for measuring salt content in the seawater from 0 to 4 wt.%. The results are repeatable and the accuracy less than 10-3 is suitable for controlling the salinity degree in the range of 0.5 - 1.7% in the near coastal shrimp farms, especially for the childhood shrimp fields.

  17. Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

    2005-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

  18. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  19. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    L, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

  20. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    Preeti Tiwari; Rajiv Chandak

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining ha...

  1. Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Long, Yunchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2013-03-19

    By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect. PMID:23425248

  2. Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2

    Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  3. Activity of water mixed with molten salts at 3170C

    The authors have determined the activity of water in extremely concentrated solutions of individual salts and common ion ternary mixtures in the system Na+-K+-OH--acetate-Cl--H2O at 3170C. The sodium salts of boric acid, phenol, propionic acid, benzoic acid, and toluenesulfonic acid were also studied. These solutions are relevant to water chemistry and corrosion control in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant. The data have been fitted by using the thermodynamic model of very concentrated salt solutions recently proposed by Pitzer and Simonson. The model is able to successfully represent the data in all cases, and allows salt activity coefficients to be calculated

  4. Zirconium recovery process for spent zircaloy components from light water reactor (LWR) by electrorefining in molten salts

    The simulated channel boxes were electrolyzed in molten salts in order to fix the electrorefining conditions. The decontamination effects were investigated by using the samples of the actual spent channel boxes, which were obtained, at Hamaoka nuclear power station by Chubu Electric Power Inc. This paper outlined zircaloy wastes treatment and zirconium recovery process by electrorefining in molten salts. (author)

  5. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  6. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  7. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  8. Hormonal activity in detached lettuce leaves as affected by leaf water content.

    Aharoni, N; Blumenfeld, A; Richmond, A E

    1977-06-01

    The interrelationship between water deficiency and hormonal makeup in plants was investigated in detached leaves of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. ;Hazera Yellow'). Water stress was imposed by desiccating the leaves for several hours in light or darkness at different air temperatures and relative humidity. In the course of desiccation, a rise in abscisic acid content and a decline in gibberellin and cytokinin activity were observed by gas-liquid chromatography, by both the barley endosperm bioassay and radioimmunoassay and by the soybean callus bioassay. Gibberellin activity began to decline in the stressed leaves before the rise in abscisic acid, the rate of this decline being positively correlated with the rate of increase in leaf water saturation deficit. Recovery from water stress was effected by immersing the leaf petioles in water while exposing the blades to high relative humidity. This resulted in a decrease in leaf water saturation deficit, a reduction in abscisic acid content, and an increase in gibberellin and cytokinin activity.Application of abscisic acid to the leaves caused partial stomatal closure in turgid lettuce leaves, whereas treatment with gibberellic acid and kinetin of such leaves had no effect on the stomatal aperture. In desiccating leaves, however, gibberellic acid and kinetin treatment considerably retarded stomatal closure, thus enhancing the increase in leaf water saturation deficit. These results suggest that the effect of desiccation in changing leaf hormonal make-up, i.e. a rapid increase in abscisic acid and a decrease in both cytokinin and gibberellin activity, is related to a mechanism designed to curtail water loss under conditions inducing water deficiency. PMID:16660015

  9. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  10. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  11. Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes

    The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3?, and NO2?) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

  12. METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER

    Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard.The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision.The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

  13. Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat

    Shokoofeh Hajihashemi; Khadijeh Kiarostami

    2007-01-01

    The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reducti...

  14. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragišić-Maksimović Jelena J.; Maksimović V.M.; Živanović Branka D.

    2012-01-01

    Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrom...

  15. Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon

    Alonso Valdés, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus Astiz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading.

  16. Determination of Deuterium Content of Deuterium Depleted Water by Gas Chromatography

    An applicable deuterium analysis method of deuterium depleted water was experimentally studied by used H2 carrier and the chromatogram calumniation with 5A molecular sieve at natural temperature after decompounding the deuterium depleted water by magnesium at 500 degree C. Decompounding the water using the magnesium instead of uranium can avoid the radioactive danger and the isotope effect was smaller than zinc. Determination by chromatograph at natural temperature can overcome the operation complexity at liquid nitrogen and the difficulty of determining the emend factor of the H2, HD, D2. The results showed that standard curved using standard sample of super low heavy water can reversely extend to below the natural deuterium abundance, deuterium content of deuterium depleted water can be calculated. The relative standard deviation of the method<5%, recovery rate with added specimen with three addition level was 96.6%-99.9%, the combined relative uncertainty was 0.166. It can meet the need of quantitative analysis during the deuterium depleted water manufacturing. (authors)

  17. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  18. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  19. Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density

    J. Pytka

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

  20. Determination of uranium and thorium in solar salts by neutron activation analysis

    Uranium and thorium contents of solar salts were measured by neutron activation analysis. In advance of neutron irradiation, U and Th were concentrated and separated from some interfering elements by neutralization in which they were precipitated with aluminium hydroxide from solutions obtained by dissolving the salts in water or dilute nitric acid solution. The uranium and thorium concentrations determined were from several hundred ppt to 10 ppb.It was strongly indicated that uranium tends to remain in the solution (brine from seawater)phase in the process of solar salt production while thorium tends to transfer to the solid (solar salt)phase. (author) 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  1. Continuous and nondestructive determination of the water content in plants by absorption of microwaves

    A nondestructive method to determine watermass in plants or parts of plants is described. The attenuation of microwaves with a frequency of 26.5 GHz is measured. They are generated with high stability by a semiconductor device (gunn diode) and detected by a crystal diode. The continuous measurements give information on the dynamics of water content, and derived from thus, of stomate states. Transmitter and receiver can be installed distant from the test object, far enough to avoid shadow effects. Plexiglass or glass do not contribute to the attenuation of microwave radiation. It is possible to measure through climatic chambers constructed of these materials

  2. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  3. RELATIVE WATER CONTENT AS INFLUENCED BY VARIED PLANT DENSITIES AND IRRIGATION LEVELS IN PIGEONPEA

    K Suresh; V. Praveen Rao; Srinivas, A.; A. Siva sankar; V. Govardhan

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy clay soil at Agricultural Research Station, Basanthpur, Medak district of Andhra Pradesh during the kharif seasons of 2009-‘10 and 2010-’11 to study the variation in relative water content (RWC) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Mill Sp.) as influenced by plant densities and supplemental irrigation through drip. Three varied plant densities of pigeonpea (D1–55,555 plants ha- 1, D2–41,666 plants ha-1 and D3–33,333 plants ha-1) were tested as 3 main tre...

  4. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR, using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U. For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox, at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes; in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD. Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  5. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

  6. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  7. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  8. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  9. Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat

    Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

  10. Synthesis of a-aminonitriles catalyzed by montmorillonite K10 in the presence of dicationic phosphonium salt in water under ultrasonic effect

    YILDIRIM, i?dem; YOLAAN, i?dem; AYDO?AN, Feray

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a-aminonitriles was successfully accomplished by the 1-pot 3-component reaction of several aldehydes with (S)-a-phenylethylamine and sodium cyanide in water in the presence of montmorillonite K10 and dicationic phosphonium salt under ultrasonic effect with good yields and moderate diastereoselectivities.

  11. Monitoring of water quality around tailing pond at PPGN by chemical and radioactivity content

    This research purpose is to monitor the water quality of soil around the waste pond through measurement of chemical constituents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and U) and water radioactivity. The water quality around tailing pond can be identified by analyzed the water sample from 4 control wells as deep as 20 m located on the fourth side of the pool and 2 comparison wells with a distance of 50 m and 100 m from the tailing pond. The measurement of chemical constituents of control well water and comparison well water was done by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The measurement of Uranium content was done by using UV - VIS Spectrophotometer, whereas measurement of radioactivity was measured by Eberline SPA-1 α detector associated with a counter scalers Ludlum model 1000. Determination of the quality of well water was used Storet method. Measurement result obtained in 2010 : the chemical content water in the control wells; Ca (2.31 - 2.91) mg/l, Mg (0.22 - 0.34) mg/l, Fe (0.024 - 0.033) mg/l, Ni (0.0028 - 0.030) mg/l, Zn (0.0019 - 0.025) mg/l, Cu (0.038 - 0.060) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.041) mg/l, Mn (0.004 - 0.005) mg/l, U (0.051 - 0.298) mg/l, Ni (0.003 - 0.004) mg/l, Zn (0.03 - 0.04) mg/l, Cu (0.004 - 0.004) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.003), Mn (0.005 - 0.021) mg/l, and radioactivity of Uranium was (0.025. 10-3 - 0.028.10-3) Bq/l. The radioactivity of control wells in the first quarter (2.321 - 2.635).10-2 Bq/l, second quarter (2.162 - 2.823).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.424 - 2.931 ).10-2 Bq/l, fourth quarter (2.283 - 2.643).10-2 Bq/l. The radioactivity of comparison well water in the firs quarter was (2.931 - 2.931).10-2 Bq/l., second quarter (2.162 - 2.550).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.931- 2.931 ).10-2, fourth quarter (2.450 - 2.632).10-2 Bq/l. This result showed that there are no pollutant release into the environment. Based on the evaluation result using Storet and US-EP A (Environmental Protection Agency) method, the water quality around tailing pond of PPGN - BATAN is expressed as A in class classification (best). (author)

  12. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscopeenergy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasmamass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  13. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  14. Alleviation of the Harmful Effects of Soil Salt Stress on Growth, Yield and Endogenous Antioxidant Content of Wheat Plant by Application of Antioxidants

    M.T. Sakr; M.A. EL-Metwally

    2009-01-01

    Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons (2005/2006; 2006/2007) to investigate the role of some plant antioxidant materials such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, α-tocopherol and spermine in alleviating the harmful effects caused by soil salt levels (3840 and 6080 mg L-1) on wheat plant. The grains were pre-soaked then the plants sprayed with any of antioxidants used. Moreover, the data showed that 6080 mg L-1 soil salt level alone or in combination with any of appl...

  15. Unfrozen water contents of submarine permafrost determined by nuclear magnetic resonance

    Tice, A.R.; Anderson, D.; Sterrett, K.F.

    1981-12-01

    Prior work resulted in the development of techniques to measure the unfrozen water contents in frozen soils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It has been demonstrated that NMR is a promising new method for the determination of phase composition which circumvents many of the limitations inherent in the adiabatic and isothermal calorimetric techniques. The NMR technique makes it possible, in a non-destructive, non-intrusive way, to explore hysteresis by determining both cooling and warming curves. Corrections are made for dissolved paramagnetic impurities which have the effect of increasing the signal intensity at decreasing temperatures. The results demonstrate that NMR techniques can be effectively utilized both at and below the melting point of ice in frozen soils and that accurate melting points can be determined. Refs.

  16. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H2O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author)

  17. WATER, SALT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

  18. Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications

    Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHSwater pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100110 C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

  19. Profile of water contents in concrete under dry-absorption repeated condition by neutron radiography

    The authors have examined the moisture content distribution inside concrete, which is closely associated with the durability evaluation of reinforced concrete, using neutron radiography. In particular, they experimentally examined water content distribution in the concrete under environments of repeated drying and water-absorption, and the effects of cracks and temperature on drying. As a result, it was confirmed that moisture was further diffused into the inside and water was accumulated during drying, while generating the increase or decrease of moisture content on the surface. Under the temperature of 20degC, the existence of cracks under 0.05 mm in width did not significantly affect the drying rate of the part within 1 cm from the cracks. The existence of cracks 0.3 mm in width was confirmed to have slightly fastened the drying rate around the cracks. It was also confirmed that under the temperature of 20degC, the change in drying rate was little, and under 50degC, relative moisture content decreased to 60% or less at the position up to 8 cm in depth after 28 days of drying. It was clarified that moisture content was fluctuated inside concrete, and its temporal change was not homogeneous. (A.O.)

  20. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-07

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

  1. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention

  2. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study.

    Hoad, C L; Marciani, L; Foley, S; Totman, J J; Wright, J; Bush, D; Cox, E F; Campbell, E; Spiller, R C; Gowland, P A

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention. PMID:18029983

  3. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  4. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  5. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  6. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of drinking water salt deposits

    Soktoev, B. R.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the research results on the features of element and mineral composition of salt deposits (limescale) formed in household conditions in heat exchanging equipment. The major part of limescale is represented by two species of calcium carbonate - calcite and aragonite. We have shown that high concentrations of chemical elements in the limescale promote the formation of their own mineral forms (sulphates, silicates, native forms) in salt deposits. Detecting such mineral formations suggests the salt deposits of drinking water to be a long-term storage media which can be used in the course of eco-geochemical and metallogenic studies.

  7. Effect of salts on the interfacial tension of asphaltene-toluene/water interface : prediction by Poisson-Boltzmann modified model and experimental validation

    Se, R.A.G.; Lima, E.R.A.; Nele, M.; Tavares, F.W. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Chemistry; Bostrom, M. [Linkoping Univ., Linkoping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Chemistry and Biology

    2008-07-01

    This study presented new experimental data of interfacial tension of toluene-asphaltene/water systems in the presence of different salts. In order to study the stability of emulsions caused by the presence of salts in produced water, it is important to understand the interaction of ions at the interface. It was simpler to use model systems consisting of asphaltenes dissolved in toluene because of the complexity of the interfacially active components in oil. The study involved a Brazilian crude oil in which asphaltene was precipitated with a 1:15 ratio of n-heptane and solutions of water with salts LiCl, KCl, NaCl, NaI, NaBr and KBr in concentrations of 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 M. The study investigated salt mixtures NaCl/NaBr and NaCl/NaI in the proportions 0.8:0.2, 0.6:0.4, 0.4:0.6, 0.2:0.8 molar. The experimental data was modeled using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation that considered dispersion in order to take into account the influence of ions at the interface.

  8. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  9. Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD--water and salt revisited.

    Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

    2014-07-01

    An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

  10. Method of freshening salt water in a saline evaporator

    Khalikov, T.T.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described for freshening salt water in a saline evaporator by heating the water, blowing the evaporation surface with air and condensation of the distillate. In order to reduce heat losses in the air freshener before blowing, the evaporation surfaces are preliminarily heated.

  11. Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo

    We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since γ-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 0C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

  12. Non-enzymatic antioxidants content in several species collected from salt marshes from Dobrogea

    Mihaela Aurelia Ivan; Marius Nicusor Grigore; Lacramioara Oprica; Maria+Magdalena Zamfirache

    2014-01-01

    Salt tolerant plants have been the subject of different studies about the mechanisms of salt tolerance atbiochemical level. They developed different mechanisms to cope with abiotic stress effects, also by increasing antioxidantactivity. Results of this study include polyphenols and flavonoids contents from several species: Plantago lanceolata L.,P. coronopus L., P. maritima L. (Plantaginaceae), and Spergularia media (L.) C. Presl (Caryophyllaceae), duringvegetative and flowering time. The pla...

  13. Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

    2014-12-01

    A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20 µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1 µg/L-300 µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02 µg/L and 0.27 µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). PMID:25242239

  14. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (PH2O) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, PH2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  15. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  16. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  17. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  18. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

  19. Critical phenomena in water-salt systems

    Experimental data on critical phenomena in aqua-salt systems, where water is defined as a more volatile component, and solid phases of the salts are stable to the point of supercritical temperatures, are generalized. The systematization of the basic types of full phase diagrams describing all phase state of substance over a wild range of temperatures and pressures is presented. Besides the analysis of experimental data on the binary and ternary systems, among which are CsCl, CsNO3, H3BO4, HgI, PbI, Na2B4O7, Na2WO4, UO2SO4, Li2SO4, KLiSO4, certain theoretical models used for describe of high temperature aqueous solutions of electrolytes are under consideration

  20. Characterization of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough by 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) under transient unsaturated conditions

    Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of preferential flow and transport is still a major challenge but may be improved employing noninvasive, tomographic methods. In this study, 3-D time lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during infiltration on an undisturbed, unsaturated soil core in a laboratory lysimeter. A tracer breakthrough was conducted during transient conditions by applying a series of short-term infiltrations, simulating natural precipitation events. The electrical response was quantitatively validated using data from a multicompartment suction sampler. Water content probes were also installed for ground-truthing of ERT responses. Water content variations associated with an infiltration front dominated the electrical response observed during individual short-term infiltration events, permitting analysis of water content dynamics from ERT data. We found that, instead of the application of an uncertain petrophysical function, shape measures of the electrical conductivity response might be used for constraining hydrological models. Considering tracer breakthroughs, the ERT observed voxel responses from time lapse tomograms at constant water contents in between infiltration events were used to quantitatively characterize the breakthrough curve. Shape parameters of the breakthrough derived from ERT, such as average velocity, were highly correlated with the shape parameters derived from local tracer breakthrough curves observed in the compartments of the suction plate. The study demonstrates that ERT can provide reliable quantitative information on both, tracer breakthroughs and water content variations under the challenging conditions of variable background electrical conductivity of the pore solution and non steady-state infiltration.

  1. The estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbons content in waste water by IR spectrometry with multivariate calibrations.

    Vershinin, Viacheslav I; Petrov, Sergey V

    2016-02-01

    Alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes have rather different sensitivities to IR-spectrometric determination, leading to high relative uncertainty (δc) for the total petroleum hydrocarbon index (TPH) in natural and waste waters. Another source of TPH uncertainty is the mismatch of group composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in the sample and in the standard substance used for one-dimensional calibration. Increasing the number of wavelengths and using of multivariate calibrations permit the reduction of δc to <10% rel. These calibrations may be constructed from IR-spectra and findings of extracts from aqueous solutions with known content of hydrocarbons. The method takes into account the losses of hydrocarbons during sample preparation. The accuracy of TPH estimations for this method is much better than for standard methods based on one-dimensional calibration with Simard mixture. This new method is useful in produced waste water analysis. PMID:26653437

  2. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Okholm, Bolette; Saxholt, Erling

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The...... increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98% of...... the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  3. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  4. Measurements of Iodine Contents in Some Iodized Salts (Consumer Level) in (Myanmar)

    The amount of iodine contents in iodized salt (consumer level) of six brands in Myanmar were measured by means of volumetric method (WHO recommended) and vibrational spectroscopic technique. The results optained from both methods were in good agreement within the statistical error

  5. Attraction by repulsion: compounds with like charges undergo self-assembly in water that improves in high salt and persists in real biological fluids.

    Garnett, Graham A E; Daze, Kevin D; Pea Diaz, Jorge A; Fagen, Noah; Shaurya, Alok; Ma, Manuel C F; Collins, Mary S; Johnson, Darren W; Zakharov, Lev N; Hof, Fraser

    2016-02-01

    We report a family of highly anionic calixarenes that form discrete homo-dimeric assemblies in pure water, that get stronger in high salt solutions, and that remain assembled in complex, denaturing solutions like real urine. The results reveal the potential of like-charged subunits for self-assembly in high-salt solutions and biological fluids. PMID:26762538

  6. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  7. An Integrated Approach to Identify Water Resources for Human Consumption in an Area Affected by High Natural Arsenic Content

    Giovanna Armiento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the occurrence of arsenic in the groundwater system of the Cimino-Vico volcanic area (central Italy, different parts of which are currently widely used for local drinking water supply and for irrigation. The system shows a complex groundwater circulation, including a continuous basal aquifer, discontinuous perched aquifers, groundwater flows at high altitude, and local interactions with rising thermal fluids. Data on arsenic contents in 250 water samples from springs and wells and in 68 samples from rock outcrops were measured and combined with already existing information. Results highlight that arsenic concentrations of groundwater are influenced by type of aquifer, groundwater flow path, arsenic content of the aquifer rocks, and interaction with fluids rising from depth. Waters circulating in the Vico volcanics, one of the prominent rock units of the area, have high concentrations of arsenic, both for the basal and the perched aquifers. A large fraction of the waters associated with this rock unit have arsenic contents higher than 10 ?g/L (82 percent for basal, 40 percent for perched. In contrast, waters circulating in the Cimino volcanics have lower arsenic contents: 30 percent of the basal and 10 percent of the perched aquifers have arsenic concentrations greater than 10 ?g/L. Through an integrated approach, including leaching tests to investigate the arsenic behavior concerning the water-rock interaction and a geostatistical modeling of data, it has been possible to identify and tentatively quantify suitable water resources that have arsenic content not exceeding the quality standards for human consumption.

  8. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

  9. Oxidation by metal salts

    Oxidation of toluene and para-substituted toluenes containing electron acceptor groups: p-toluic acid, p-methyltoluylate and p-nitrotoluene by ammonium cerium (4) nitrate and ammonium cerium (4) sulfate in aqueous solutions of trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals is studied. The rate and selectivity of oxidative halogenation in side chain and/or aromatic ring under the conditions studied depend both on the nature of substrate and halogenide-ion and on the reaction conditions and ligand surrounding of cerium (4) atom

  10. Sewage sludge sanitization by ionizing radiation. Part 2. Water content influence on sludge hygienization process

    Decrease of specific filter resistance of anaerobically digested sludge (5% dry matter) is independent up to the dose 3 kGy at dose rate in the range 0.2-2.2 kGy/h when irradiated by 60Co. Irradiation by 4.5 MeV electrons has almost the same effect. Costs analysis shows that the sludge dewatering by either organic or inorganic flocculants is less expensive than by irradiation. Lowering of microbial concentration remains the main purpose of sludge irradiation. A combination of belt filter press and electron accelerator seems to be technically and economically very promising. The dose dependence of the concentrations of 8 types of bacteria was estimated up to the dose of 12 kGy in sludge with 5.24 and 95% content of dry matter. No distinct differences in the dose dependences by dry matter content were found. (author)

  11. Model selection for salt water intrusion in delta areas

    Xu, M.; Van Overloop, P.J.; Giesen, N. C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to land subsidence and sea level rise, salt intrusion in delta areas increases. This is a potential thread for agriculture in these areas. To investigate this thread and measures that can counteract on it, numerical models are developed to mimic the behavior of the water system under different strategies and scenarios. This behavior is characterized by a complex interaction among flows, water levels and salinity concentrations, distributed in time and space. On top of this, controllable s...

  12. Protection against flashback by backfilling with rock salt gruss

    If wastes are disposed of in deep geological formations, e.g. in salt domes, radiolytically produced hydrogen may escape from the waste forms into the boreholes, forming an inflammable mixture with air. Complementary to part I (Report Juel-Spez--573), here the protection against flashback by salt gruss backfillings, the volume and form of the flammability range are examined. It was found out that salt gruss backfillings, under certain conditions, can prevent flashbacks in hydrogen-air mixtures, the most important condition being that the backfillings contain trickling material of the finest particle size of between 0 and 2 mm. Unfractional backfillings drilled in the domes of rock salt formations meet this requirement in their dry state. Their water content must not exceed 2 mass per cent. For flashback, the flammability point referred to as 'near' is more critical than the one referred to as 'far'. The length-diameter ratio of the hollow space where the mixture is ignited only has a secondary influence on the flashback. It hardly plays a role either whether the surfaces of the flammability ranges are rough or smooth. (orig./BBR)

  13. Elemental content in deionized water by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    This study aimed to evaluate minor and trace elements in the water during different water purification steps of a deionized water production plant, located at CENA, by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, using Ga as internal standard for elemental quantification. This approach was capable of determining Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb at concentrations higher than 40-100 ?g L-1, and for K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V and Sr at concentrations higher than sub mg L-1 in the water samples. TXRF spectrometer encompasses an X-ray tube with a Mo target with a Zr filter. The elemental characteristic X-rays were recorded by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector and the X-ray spectra deconvoluted by AXIL software. (author)

  14. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines

  15. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of ?40 to ?80 A were applied to human subjects tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  16. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

  17. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  18. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge effluent with CBOD and total ammonia as nitrogen concentrations substantially below the permit limits. If the STP's discharge effluent with CBOD and total ammonia as nitrogen concentrations at the permit limits for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, DO concentrations less than 5 mg/L are expected for all of Salt Creek downstream from Fullerton Avenue (river mile 23.1).

  19. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  20. Non-enzymatic antioxidants content in several species collected from salt marshes from Dobrogea

    Mihaela Aurelia Ivan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerant plants have been the subject of different studies about the mechanisms of salt tolerance atbiochemical level. They developed different mechanisms to cope with abiotic stress effects, also by increasing antioxidantactivity. Results of this study include polyphenols and flavonoids contents from several species: Plantago lanceolata L.,P. coronopus L., P. maritima L. (Plantaginaceae, and Spergularia media (L. C. Presl (Caryophyllaceae, duringvegetative and flowering time. The plant material has been collected from salt marshes located in Dobrogea region(Sulina, Murighiol and Histria. The level of non-enzymatic antioxidant compounds measured in both vegetative andflowering stages in almost all locations generally show higher values for Plantago species compared with Spergularia.Within these compounds, the polyphenols biosynthesis is more noticeable than that of flavonoids. The level of totalpolyphenols was higher or unchanged in salt tolerant plants during the vegetative phase compared with flowering stage.Contrarily, the flavonoids content was lower during the vegetative phase in P. coronopus, while in P. maritima andSpergularia, flavonoids content was found to be slightly higher than in plants during flowering.

  1. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. PMID:26755416

  2. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg++ and K++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na+ and Cl- contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4-- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO-- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4-- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl- content was higher than Na+ content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  3. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  4. SURVEY ON IODINE CONTENT OF SALT CONSUMED IN TEHRAN AND THE EFFECT OF HEAT, LIGHT AND MOISTURE ON ITS CONTENT

    M. Kimiagar

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders are among the most important health problems in Iran. Use of iodized salt is one of the oldest, most convenient and cheapest ways of IDD control, although not very easy to implement. Factors such as the chemical form of iodine, heat moisture, light and storage affect its stability. In this survey, salt iodine content at production site and the effect of heat, moisture and light on salt produced in 6 factories in Tehran were measured in May 1994. The results showed that salt iodized with potassium iodated at 40 ppm and stored for 15 days in favorable conditions, kept over 90% of its iodine content. Keeping the salt in solution form for 3.5 h resulted in 5% reduction of the iodine (P<0.0l. Storage at 50% relative humidity, sunlight and low ordinary lamp for 15 days did not affect the salt content appreciably. Boiling in uncovered pot for 3.5 h caused a 10% reduction of iodine. Only 61% of the surveyed families (84% in the north and 42% in the south consumed iodized salt which pointed to the need for further education of the public. The iodine content of the factories was between 29 to 50 ug/kg. In view of negligible loss of iodine during cooking, it seems the recommendation of adding salt at the end of cooking process is unnecessary and may cause hesitation on the part of the housewives to use iodized salt.

  5. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  6. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation are key factors to sustainable development of arid wetlands.

  7. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  8. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine

    Maciej J. KOTARBA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical studies were conducted on bitumen and salts saturating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia. This location is noted for the discovery of remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses in 1907, and a nearly completely preserved rhinoceros carcass in 1929. The bitumen (oil and brines (chloride ions were preserving agents for the large Pleistocene mammals. The main mass of organic carbon hosted in the Pleistocene muds is related to bitumen originating from oil migrating from deep accumulations within the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. The highest analysed bitumen content is 9.26 wt%. The chloride ion content, originating from highly concentrated brines ascending from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds, vary from 0 to 4.66 wt% but this usually does not exceed 1 wt%. The natural pathways of underground fluids (oil, gas and water migration within the Quaternary sediments were disturbed by intensive ozokerite mining operations run between the last three decades of the 19th century and 1960. Therefore, the present preservation and conservation conditions of large, extinct mammals' remains can be different from those prevailing during the Pleistocene, when the mammals were buried. Taking into consideration the contents of the remaining preservatives: chloride and bitumen, the most favourable zone for fossils conservation and preservation is located close to boreholes Nos 22, 23, 28 and 36N, where the thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. Generally, the spatial distributions of bitumen and chloride ion contents within the Holocene sediments and salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds are very similar to those in the Pleistocene sediments.

  9. The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water

    Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, 1H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics

  10. Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium content in water samples by nuclear physical methods using XRFA and the MT-25 microtron

    Some of element contents in the samples have been determined by nuclear physical methods (XRFA, GAA and NAA). The possibility of determining Al, Si and Mg content in water samples has been studied. The detection limits of 0.03 mg/1 for Al, 0.3 mg/1 for Si and 0.1 mg/1 for Mg in water samples have been obtained. Monitoring of the aluminium and silicon content in water is important because the high concentration of aluminium or the low content of silicon in drinking water may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

  11. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current trends and technologies allowing economically feasible desalination at large scales present a sustainable alternative where salts are removed from water prior to irrigation.

  12. Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents

    The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

  13. Ice melting and crystallization in binary water-salt systems

    Paper contains the results of comparison of the published data on physical and chemical properties of the Periodic system I and II group metal chlorides and sulfates (radius of cation, heat of salt solution in water) and position of eutectics point in the appropriate salt-water binary systems. In addition to metal chlorides one investigated, as well, into HCl and NH4Cl aqueous systems. It is shown that there are rather strict relationships between physical and chemical properties of some salts, nature of phase diagrams of the appropriate aqueous-salt systems and peculiarities of ice crystallization and melting there

  14. Service (salt) water system life-cycle management evaluation

    This document provides a description of how the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging required by 10 CFR Part 54 was tailored at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant to a system which had known reliability and availability concerns. This customizing of the requirements of the License Renewal Rule allowed many short term benefits to be gained from the implementation of a regulation normally associated only with extended plant operation. The Important to License Renewal Screening of the Salt Water Cooling System at Calvert Cliffs identified four important to license renewal functions performed by the system. The next step in the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging would normally be to evaluate whether existing practices at the plant were effectively managing the age-related degradation of the components of the system so that these components could continue to perform the important functions through a license renewal term. In the case of the CCNPP Salt Water System, it was recognized early on that portions of the existing system needed to be replaced with an alternate design due to reliability, availability and maintainability concerns. Therefore, instead of evaluating the existing components for aging as part of the IPA process, it made more sense to determine the most beneficial replacement option for these components and design the new system components with aging management programs in mind. This report describes how the Salt Water System Life Cycle Management Evaluation was conducted, from its inception to the planning stages of implementing its results

  15. Brain water content. A misunderstood measurement?

    Keep, Richard F.; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In animal models, edema has historically been quantified as a change in % brain water content (water content/wet weight). As described in this communication, this number can be misleading, as small changes in % brain water content actually reflect much bigger changes in brain swelling. Using either water content, expressed as g/g dry weight, or a measure of brain swelling, better reflect the impact...

  16. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions. PMID:27027570

  17. Attachment of Escherichia coli to Soil Aggregates as Affected by Aggregate Water Content and Presence of Manure Constituents

    Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D. R.; Yu, O.

    2006-12-01

    Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and Echerichia coli is widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Echerichia coli attachment to soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, aggregate water content, and presence of suspended manure colloids and dissolved organic compounds. Three aggregate fractions of 3.4-4.8 mm, 4.8-7.9 mm and 7.9-9.5 mm diameters were obtained by dry sieving of a loam soil. Air-dry and water-saturated aggregates were submerged in bacteria-water and bacteria-manure suspensions at four E. coli concentrations for 24 h. Amounts of attached E. coli were calculated from the difference between the amount applied and the amount remained in the suspension. Significant differences in E. coli attachment to air-dry and saturated aggregates were found. Both increase in water content and the presence of manure significantly decreased the Echerichia coli attachment to all aggregate fractions regardless of the aggregate size. Because E. coli transport in soil generally occurs through large pores between structural units when rainfall follows manure application, the decrease in bacteria attachment as a result of soil saturation and presence of suspended or dissolved manure components can enhance bacterial mobility and increase risk of ground water contamination.

  18. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    Villaluenga, J.P.G. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barragan, V.M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: vmabarra@fis.ucm.es; Seoane, B. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Bauza, C. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs{sup +} ion.

  19. Evaluation of salt content in school meals / Avaliao do contedo de sal em refeies escolares

    Cludia Alexandra Colao Loureno, Viegas; Jorge, Torgal; Pedro, Graa; Maria do Rosrio Oliveira, Martins.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando que a presso arterial elevada constitui um dos maiores fatores de risco para as doenas cardiovasculares e sua associao ao consumo elevado de sal, bem como o fato de as escolas serem considerados ambientes de excelncia para fomentar a aquisio de bons hbitos alimentares [...] e promover a sade, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o contedo de sal presente nas refeies escolares e a percepo dos consumidores sobre o sabor salgado. MTODOS: Foram recolhidas refeies nas cantinas das escolas, analisando-se todos os seus componentes (po, sopa e prato principal). A quantificao de sal foi realizada com um medidor de sal porttil. Para a avaliar a percepo dos consumidores foi desenvolvido e aplicado um questionrio aos alunos das escolas preparatrias e secundrias. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 798 componentes de refeies. O po apresentou o valor mais elevado de sal, com mdia de 1,35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). O contedo de sal nas sopas apresentou mdia de 0,72 g/100 g a 0,80 g/100 g (p=0,05) e, nos pratos principais, de 0,71 g/100 a 0,97 g/100 g (p=0,05). Em mdia, as refeies escolares disponibilizaram entre 2,83 e 3,82 g de sal por poro servida, o que representa de duas a cinco vezes mais em relao dose diria recomendada para crianas e jovens. Para a maioria dos estudantes, o sabor das refeies foi percebido como sendo nem salgado nem insosso, o que parece demonstrar adaptao intensidade/ quantidade de sal consumida. CONCLUSO: Escolhas alimentares saudveis e adequadas s so possveis se sustentadas por um ambiente que as facilite. Considerando o impacto que o consumo de sal tem na sade, em particular nas doenas crnicas, a implementao de estratgias de reduo de sal - nas indstrias, servios de catering e restaurantes -, imperativa, em particular direcionada para o pblico mais jovem. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals se [...] rved in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05) and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05). The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  20. On dissolution of salts in water and aqueous solutions

    New concepts of the mechanism of chemical interactions between salts and water (water solutions) are put forward. It is shown experimentally, using tungstates by way of example, that in the most cases heterogeneous reactions in the systems above involve a stage, in which radical particles formed as a result of phase contact take part. The reactions mentioned, exchange reactions between tungstates, of bivalent metals and solutions of sodium carbonate, alkali (or inorganic acid) in particular, occur in the layer of liquid adjacent to the solid phase surface

  1. Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set-up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures

    Full text: Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content is a main topic both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. The evaluation of gross alpha/beta and individual radionuclides concentrations usually requires specific sample treatments, purification and measuring techniques. In our institute a step by step procedure has been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water by a single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC). LSC was equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device and has been coupled to quick radiochemical procedures. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. A few becquerel per liter alpha and beta activity can be checked in 24 hours in more than one hundred samples. More sensitive gross alpha and beta measurement can be performed on water samples after preconcentration by evaporation under controlled conditions. This procedure allows the determination of the actual gross alpha and beta activity of most drinking waters. Total and isotopic uranium content is measured by selective extraction followed LSC. This procedure is less cumbersome than the traditional one (chemical separation followed by electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry) and allows evaluation of 234U/238U ratio. Then a quick check of depleted uranium contamination in a wide number of samples is also possible. 226Ra and 228Ra can be directly measured in a few mBq/l concentrations after specific concentration and purification steps. The procedure has proven to be quick and highly specific. Our emergency screening procedure has been adopted by all district laboratories of Lombardia Environmental Protection Agency to face both accidental and intentional drinking water contaminations. High sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium analytical procedures have been applied to the first extensive monitoring program of natural radioactivity in Lombardia drinking waters, in compliance with the most recent European Council Directives. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique, which can be easily implemented in new laboratories. (author)

  2. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10 μm was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  3. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S; Jorgensen, A; Andersen, S

    1999-01-01

    water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders......The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce...

  4. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  5. The fluoride content of bottled drinking waters.

    Toumba, K J; Levy, S; Curzon, M E

    1994-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking waters in the United Kingdom have tripled over the last 5 years. The fluoride content of 12 bottled waters purchased from two Leeds supermarkets was determined by both the direct and acid diffusion methods and found to vary from 0.10-0.80 mg/l fluoride (ie ppm fluoride). This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. There is no apparent difference between the direct and acid diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride concentrations of drinking waters. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations are mainly inaccurate. Dentists should be aware of the fluoride concentrations of the drinking water of their child patients, be they municipal or bottled drinking water, when prescribing fluoride supplements. Also, some parents are using bottled waters to prepare baby milk formulations which themselves may contain high levels of fluoride and subject their children to the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:8186036

  6. Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress

    Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

  7. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  8. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L−1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

  9. Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats

    Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

  10. Salt and fat contents in preparations at commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO

    Camila Silva Kunert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sodium and fat contents added to preparations of commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. It included ‘pay-per-weight’ restaurants with a medium standard menu and having as daily preparations white rice, beans and grilled chicken. Among the establishments with these characteristics, three agreed to participate. The production process of the above-mentioned preparations was accompanied for three non-consecutive days in each establishment. For quantification of sodium and fat added into the preparations, oil and salt were weighed, as well as the finished preparation; the weight of the standard portion and the yield of the preparation expressed in number of portions prepared were settled. From these data, the per capita amount of salt and oil added to cook one portion of each kind of preparation was calculated by dividing the total quantity of salt and oil by the number of prepared portions. Results: The levels of salt (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively and oil (17.0, 11.3, and 11.2 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively added in the three preparations are superior to the recommendations. Conclusion: The sodium and fat contents in the analyzed restaurants are higher than it is recommended by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. It is essential that commercial restaurants become partners of public policies on health promotion, adopting good nutritional practices, by reducing the sodium and fat contents, to offer healthy meals daily.

  11. Water, heat and salt transport through the Strait of Otranto

    Yari, Sadegh; Gačić, Miroslav; Kovačević, Vedrana; Cardin, Vanessa

    2010-05-01

    The water, heat and salt transports through the Strait of Otranto are estimated applying direct method to historical current and hydrographical data (from December 94 through November 95). A variational inverse method based on a variational principle and a finite element solver is used to reconstruct the current, temperature and salinity fields across the Strait section from sparse measurements. The mean annual inflow and outflow water transport rates are estimated as 0.901±0.039 Sv and -0.939±0.315 Sv, respectively, and the net transport for the period of study is equal to -0.032±0.208 Sv. Thus, on a yearly time interval, the inflow and the outflow are practically compensated. The heat and salt transports due to advection process are estimated for five monthly periods, namely December 1994, February, May, August and November 1995. Considering these five periods representative of the seasonal cycle during the year, their average values show that there is a net heat advection into the Adriatic Sea on a yearly basis. The estimated value of advected heat and the corresponding error are 2.408±0.490 TW, which is equivalent to a heat gain of 17.37±3.53 W m-2 for the whole basin. This value is compared to the heat loss of -36±152 (std) W m-2 through the air-sea interface calculated by means of bulk formulas over the Adriatic Sea. The two values are expected to be balance each other in order to close the heat budget of the basin. The possible reasons for this difference to occur are discussed. On a yearly basis, the salt transport is estimated as an input of salt equal to 0.05×106 Kg s-1. The average annual fresh water budget is estimated as -0.002 Sv, equivalent to the mass of fresh water of 2.00×106Kg s-1 or to the level of 0.45 m yr-1 for the entire Adriatic Sea. The import of salt that is less than the gain of fresh water is in agreement with the fact that the Adriatic Sea is a dilution basin.

  12. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  13. Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2

    Youcef Daoud

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2 on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

  14. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  15. Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.

    Song, Rui; Xia, Guangmei; Xing, Xueqing; He, Linghao; Zhao, Qiaoling; Ma, Zhi

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (β- and γ-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of α-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period. PMID:23587338

  16. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system

    In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metal fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements is purified and reused. For this purpose, a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A is under development. For obtaining the basic data of salt treatment process by using 'column type method' in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt through the columns was measured by using columns of 1 cm in inner diameter and 10 cm or 30 cm in length. The average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. The relationship between velocity and gas pressure was close to that of obtained by using water, whose kinematic viscosity is similar to that of molten LiCl-KCl salt. Additionally, the absorption behaviour of cesium, which was used as a representative of univalent FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the effluent molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. It was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and the value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent salt was confirmed. (author)

  17. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  18. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  19. Determination of microelement content in natural waters by X-ray fluorescence and activation analyses after preliminary concentration

    The technique of analysis of natural waters which differ in the mineralization level for determining Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Tl, Bi, Cd, Ag, In, Pb microimpurities is proposed. To improve the analysis sensitivity preliminary concentration by means of evaporation and extraction of microcomponents by chloroform and extracting them in an organic phase in a form of diethyl-dithiocarbamate complexes have been carried out. Most microimpurities have been determined by means of the X-ray fluorescence analysis method in concentrates which provides sensitivity from 10-3 to 10-2 mg/l. The Tl and Pb content is determined by the gamma activation analysis. The determination sensitivity constitutes 3x10-3 mg/l. The technique may be recommended for serial analysis

  20. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  1. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  2. Isotope enrichment by electromigration in molten salts

    It is shown that a cell for isotope separation by molten salt ionic migration is a mini-plant corresponding to a square cascade of the gaseous diffusion process. Electroosmosis, migration of metals dissolved in molten salts and the discovery of the Chemla effect are discussed. (author)

  3. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  4. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  5. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system

    In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metallic fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements should be purified and reused. For this purpose, we are developing a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A. The absorption behaviors of FP elements in molten LiCl-KCl salt have been studied by batch type absorption tests. However, salt treatment process by using 'Column type method', in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, is preferable in the practical process in the view points of high decontamination of FPs in a single step and effective treatment of the salt in shorter processing time. For obtaining the basic data of the column system such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. (1) The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt go through the columns was measured by using columns of 1cm in inner diameter and 10cm or 30cm in length. As shown, the average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. Additionally, the relationship between velocity and gas pressure was quite close to that of obtained by using water instead of molten salt, whose kinematic viscosities are quite similar. (2) The absorption behavior of cesium, which was used as a representative of FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the exhausted molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. As shown, it was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and its value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent molten salt was confirmed

  6. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Water Content of a Red-Yellow Argissol Cultivated With Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Irrigated by Center Pivot

    Elder Snzio Aguiar Cerqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the water content in a red-yellow argissol cultived with bean, irrigated by central pivot. The samplings were made at a depth of 30 cm, in systematic grid of 10.0 by 10.0 m with 108 and 54 sampling points in conventional tillage (CT and no tillage (NT, respectively, sampled at four stages of crop development: V3 (1st trifoliated leaf, R6 (flowering, R8 (filling of string beans and R9 (physiological maturity. The water content of the soil was determined by the greenhouse standard method and the analysis of spatial dependence was obtained with the GS+ Program. The semivariograms presented dependence spatial in conventional tillage, adjusting to the spherical model with ranges of 68.5, 78.3, 73.3 and 75.4 m, and in no-tillage system with ranges of 172.3, 210.9, 193.7 and 100.0 m for the steps V3, R6, R8 and R9, respectively. The relationship between the nugget effect and sill indicated that the spatial dependence was strong, lower than 25%. Using the graphical representation of the surface, the area studied presented higher water content at the low elevation and lower water content at the part of high elevation. Overall, the soil water content in CT showed a narrower range of spatial dependence on the scale, compared to soil water content in NT. The spatial distribution mapping of water content in the soil showed that there is a stability of the time variability for water content in the two cultivating systems.

  8. Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet

    Sonam Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase. The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoaglands solution with different concentrations of Sodium chloride (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. Measurement of chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were taken at different time intervals of salt treatment (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The results showed statistically significant differences in traits for the salt treatment. A significant increase in Catalase activity was observed under all the salt concentrations while no significant activity of Ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed. The protein content and chlorophyll content decreased with increasing salt concentration. This result shows salt stress affects the photosynthesis rate by decreasing chlorophyll content. Catalase enzyme plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species generated due to salt stress in the plant cell.

  9. SMAPVEX08 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008 (SMAPVEX08) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference...

  10. Estimation of soil clay content from hygroscopic water content measurements

    Wuddivira, Mark N.; Robinson, David. A.; Lebron, Inma; Brechet, Laëtitia; Atwell, Melissa; De Caires, Sunshine; Oatham, Michael; Jones, Scott B; Abdu, Hiruy; Verma, Aditya K.; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Soil texture and the soil water characteristic are key properties used to estimate flow and transport parameters. Determination of clay content is therefore critical for understanding of plot-scale soil heterogeneity. With increasing interest in proximal soil sensing, there is the need to relate obtained signals to soil properties of interest. Inference of soil texture, especially clay mineral content, from instrument response from electromagnetic induction and radiometric methods is of subst...

  11. Landfill CH4 oxidation by mineralized refuse: Effects of NH4+-N incubation, water content and temperature

    Mineralized refuse, excavated from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that had been closed for more than 10 years, was incubated in livestock wastewater for 150 d to accumulate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and also co-oxidize methane (CH4). The extent of CH4 oxidation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the incubated mineralized refuse (IMR) were investigated to assess its applicability as a bio-cover material at landfill sites for minimizing total greenhouse gas emission equivalents. From the initial 200 mg nitrogen (N) kg−1 incubated for 120 h, the nitrate-N content produced in the IMR was twice (P 4 concentration of approximately 10% by volume in the headspace, CH4 consumption and net emission of CO2 from the soil, IMR and OMR all agreed well with first-order and zero-order kinetics models for a 120-h incubation (R2 = 0.667 and R2 = 0.995, respectively). Similar to N turnover, the rate of consumption of CH4 by the mineralized refuse was some 50.0% higher than for soil (P 2 generation, the CH4 oxidation rate by IMR was 14.2% (P > 0.05) greater than for OMR and 56.1% (P > 0.05) higher than for soil. Variation of water content and temperature produced substantially higher CH4 consumption rates by IMR than by either OMR or soil. After treatment by livestock wastewater, the CH4 oxidation capacity of mineralized refuse was moderately improved, due to the enhancement of CH4 adsorption by retained suspended solids and the subsequent co-oxidation by the accumulated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. By correlation analysis for the three experimental materials, CH4 oxidation rate was significantly correlated with specific surface area and organic matter content (P 2 generation, NH4+-N nitrification and NO3–-N generation rate (P > 0.05). - Highlights: ► Mineralized refuse was improved through NH4+-N incubation. ► Ammonia oxidizing bacteria were accumulated for methane oxidation. ► Mineralized refuse was very tolerated to extreme climatic conditions.

  12. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  13. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

  14. The use of airborne electromagnetic for efficient mapping of salt water intrusion and outflow to the sea

    Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Ribeiro, Joana; Foged, Nikolaj; Kok, Arjen

    2010-01-01

    not only the salt-fresh water boundary in the coastal zone, but also the mixing of fresh-salt-water on the seaside. Even freshwater layers under several meters of brackish water can be mapped. Sufficient depth of investigation is obtained by time domain methods as they have a significant higher...

  15. Classification of 17 DES supernovae by SALT

    Kasai, E.; Bassett, B.; Crawford, S.; Childress, M.; D'Andrea, C.; Smith, M.; Sullivan, M.; Maartens, R.; Gupta, R.; Kovacs, E.; Kuhlmann, S.; Spinka, H.; Ahn, E.; Finley, D. A.; Frieman, J.; Marriner, J.; Wester, W.; Aldering, G.; Kim, A. G.; Thomas, R. C.; Barbary, K.; Bloom, J. S.; Goldstein, D.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Foley, R. J.; Pan, Y.-C.; Casas, R.; Castander, F. J.; Desai, S.; Paech, K.; Smith, R. C.; Schubnell, M.; Kessler, R.; Lasker, J.; Scolnic, D.; Brout, D. J.; Gladney, L.; Sako, M.; Wolf, R. C.; Brown, P. J.; Krisciunas, K.; Suntzeff, N.; Nichol, R.; Papadopoulos, A.

    2016-02-01

    We report optical spectroscopy of 17 supernovae discovered by the Dark Energy Survey (ATel #4668). The spectra (380-820nm) were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the South African Large Telescope (SALT).

  16. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-Kα radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water sample collected in A5 is strongly influenced by a tailing dump, and showed high trace element contents. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH.The DRX results of evaporate water showed that halite, hexahydrite and gypsum are present: halite corroborates the sea influence and gypsum and hexahydrite the importance of soluble sulphates. A9 water showed acid pH and high trace elements content; is influenced by the tailing dump and also by waters from El Beal gully watercourse, transporting materials from Sierra Minera Waters affected by secondary contamination are influenced by mining wastes, the sea water and also are affected by agricultural activities (nitrate content). These waters have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The DRX analysis in the evaporate if A14 showed that halite and gypsum are present: halite confirms the seawater influence and gypsum the relationship between calcium and sulphates A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed: acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The evaporate of B8 and B12 showed the presence of soluble sulphates: gypsum, halite, bianchite, paracoquimbite, halotrichite and siderotil in B8; gypsum, bianchite, paracoquimbite and coquimbite in B12; gypsum, hexahydrite, carnalite, bianchite, copiapite and sideroti in B10 and polihalite, gypsum, bianchite, coquimbite and paracoquimbite in B14. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps and sampling points are located close to them. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As (remains soluble) and Zn and Cd (high mobility). In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. However, the As remains soluble. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. Some differences were found from the high and the low part: samples located in the lower part (D2-D7) showed higher As content while Zn is higher in the high part (D8-D13) The DRX analysis in evaporates suggest that in D4 copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, bianchite and ferrohexahydrite are formed and in D11 gypsum, bianchite, halotrichite and siderotil. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements.

  17. SMAPVEX12 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the vegetation water content map derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) from SPOT and RapidEye satellite imagery as...

  18. CLASIC07 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water...

  19. Effect of agricultural activity in the salt content in soils of Murcia: comparison with other land uses

    Salinization is one of the main problems of soil degradation in arid and semiarid areas, causing a reduction of soil quality, declining yield and productivity, and even land abandonment. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different land uses, particularly agricultural use in the salt content in soil. The study area is located in the surroundings of Murcia city (SE Spain), with an surface of 100 km2, with high agricultural productivity. In order to determine salt content in soil, E. C. was measured in the 1:5 ratio. The results showed that the study area is saline, being the salinity higher when anthropogenic activity is more severe. Agricultural lands present the widest range of data, probably due to the application of poor quality irrigation water, fertilizers and livestock waste. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  1. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  2. Effects of Salt Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Carbohydrates Content in Four Hullless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars

    A. Bagheri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of salinity on some traits of barley, Four hullless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars (Namely, UH3, UHM7, EHM81-12 and CM67 were grown in research station of Islamic Azad University of Eghlid in Iran, under salt stress in two years (2006 and 2007. Four salinity treatments (1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 were used. The experimental design was a split plot which salt treatments were arranged as main plots and cultivars as subplots, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The measured parameters were yield and its components, mono, poly and disaccharides content in flag leaves. Results showed that grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain per ear, grain weight and plant height were reduced significantly by salt stress. In all treatments of salinity, CM67 cultivar produced the highest and UH3 cultivar produced the lowest grain and biological yield. In all cultivars, salinity stress decreased starch content but increased sucrose content. In high level of salinity, CM67 cultivar had the highest sucrose content (100.20 mg g-1 in comparison with other cultivars. Thus, this cultivar had the highest tolerance to salt stress than the others and is suitable for cultivation in salinity conditions.

  3. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....

  4. Water content in the anodization electrolyte affects the electrochemical and electronic transport properties of TiO2 nanotubes: a study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    The TiO2 nanotube system has attracted much interest for applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting. Optimization of their photoelectrochemical properties may be carried out by modifying the water content of the anodization electrolyte, but a rigorous understanding of the underlying electronic and electrochemical properties responsible for the differences in the photocurrent efficiency remain elusive. In this paper, we used electrochemical impedance methods to determine that while TiO2 nanotubes formed in low (2 vol%) and high (11 vol%) water content electrolytes have similar electrical conductivity and charge transfer resistances, the presence of a lower density of deep level defect states contributes to increase the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 nanotubes formed from high water content electrolytes. Passivation of these defect states may lead to an improved photoelectrochemical performance

  5. Query by Image Content

    S. R. Bharamagoudar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of images or the pictorial data is growing day by day with the expansion of internet services. As the network and development of multimedia technologies are becoming more popular, users are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques. So nowadays the content based image retrieval are becoming a source of exact and fast retrieval. . It is very difficult for the users to retrieve the required images using a operative and efficient mechanism. There are many techniques which are used to retrieve the images depending upon the requirement of different applications. This paper provides an extensive review of various latest research work and methodologies applied in the field of CBIR. Images are retrieved on the basis of automatically derived features such as, texture, shape and color which is generally referred to as Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. Content based image retrieval is an important research area in image processing, with a vast domain of applications like recognition systems i.e. finger, face, biometrics, medical sciences etc. However, the technology still lacks maturity, and is not yet being used on a significant scale. In the absence of hard evidence on the effectiveness of CBIR techniques in practice, opinion is still sharply divided about their usefulness in handling real-life queries in large and diverse image collections. The concepts which are presently used for CBIR system are all under research.

  6. Solubility estimation of inorganic salts in supercritical water

    Highlights: A pragmatic approach to estimate solubility of inorganic salts in SCW is employed. R-HKF, Density and SAA models are used to evaluate chemical equilibrium constant. Models predictability in estimating solubility of inorganic salts is evaluated. A simplified SAA model competes well with a complex R-HKF in solubility estimation. - Abstract: Presence of minute amount of inorganic salts in supercritical water (SCW) can cause equipment scaling, erosion and corrosion, reaction disturbance and process malfunctions. Thermodynamic modeling reduces experimental measurements; hence, solubility of several inorganic salts with available empirical solubility data (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and MgSO4) within temperature and pressure ranges of (623823) K and (9.025.0) MPa, respectively, is estimated following determination of the dissociation constant, K, in SCW using three known models, namely, R-HKF, SueAdschiriArai (SAA) and Density model. Results obtained are compared with the experimental data to assess the suitability of the models in predicting the solubility of these inorganic salts in SCW, which indicate that R-HKF model is satisfactorily capable of correlating solubility for these salts. In almost every case except NaCl, SAA has provided similar estimation to R-HKF model. The Density model however, has offered the least accurate estimation in all cases

  7. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.; Seinfeld, John H.

    X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye-Hückel long-range effect term and a second virial coefficient-type mid-range effect term. The method is formulated for application in modeling the formation of liquid aerosol particles consisting of general organic+inorganic salt+water solutions in which phase separation is likely to occur. Existing extended UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation methods can be problematic in modeling phase separation, since they require independent reference state corrections that may introduce significant errors. In X-UNIFAC.3, this problem is avoided by selecting appropriate reference states for all solution components, and imposing additional constraints on method parameters, when necessary, by inclusion of reference state correction terms within the activity coefficient expressions. Interaction parameters in the X-UNIFAC.3 equations are optimized for 12 different chemical groups (CH 3-, -CH 2-, -C|H-, -C||-, -OH, -COOH, H 2O, NH 4+, Na +, Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-) using available data for systems containing multi-functional oxygenated organic compounds and/or inorganic salts that are relevant to atmospheric aerosol applications. Estimations of water activities and mean ionic activity coefficients using X-UNIFAC.3 are compared with those of other extended UNIFAC methods. To demonstrate the use of X-UNIFAC.3 in predicting phase separation, the method is also applied to the butanoic acid+NaCl+water system, for which experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data is available. The method performs well for aqueous salt solutions with salt concentrations within 30 mol kg -1 and for organic+inorganic salt+water solutions with salt concentrations less than or equal to 10 mol kg -1. Suggestions are proposed for improving the predictive capabilities of the method in future work.

  8. Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

    Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M.; Larson, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea...

  9. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

  10. Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

    2011-02-01

    Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

  11. Flavor and quality characteristics of salted and desalted cod (Gadus morhua) produced by different salting methods.

    Jnsdttir, Rsa; Sveinsdttir, Kolbrn; Magnsson, Hannes; Arason, Sigurjn; Lauritzsen, Kristin; Thorarinsdottir, Kristin Anna

    2011-04-27

    Flavor characterization and quality of salt-cured and desalted cod (Gadus morhua) products was studied using sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques. The products were produced in Iceland using two different processing methods (filleting and splitting) and three different salting procedures, i.e., the old single-step kench salting or a multistep procedure, and presalting (injection and brine salting or only brine salting), which was followed by kench salting. The main difference observed was between fillets and split fish, where the split fish was darker and had stronger flavor characteristics. Comparison of different salting procedures showed that the use of presalting improved the appearance of the salted products, which can be described as increased lightness and reduced yellowness of the products. In the same products, the intensity of curing flavors was milder, as described by sensory analysis and key aroma compounds. Derivatives from lipid and protein degradation contribute to the characteristic flavor of the salted products. PMID:21401095

  12. GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING

    Nur Islami

    2011-01-01

    A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivit...

  13. Modulation of collagen by addition of Hofmeister salts.

    Oechsle, Anja Maria; Landenberger, Markus; Gibis, Monika; Irmscher, Stefan Björn; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Collagen can be modified by addition of chaotropic or kosmotropic salts of the reversed Hofmeister series. Hence, telopeptide-poor collagen type I was suspended in H2SO4 (pH 2) and 0.05-0.5 M KCl and KNO3 (chaotropes), as well as KI and KSCN (kosmotropes). Rheological parameters, including storage and loss modulus, intrinsic viscosity, and critical overlap concentration, were assessed and the microstructure was characterized by applying confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The addition of up to 0.1 M KCl and 0.05 M KNO3 increased the intrinsic viscosity from 1.22 to 1.51 L/g without salt to a maximal value of 1.74 L/g and decreased the critical overlap concentration from 0.66 to 0.82 g/L to a minimal value of 0.57 g/L. Higher salt concentrations increased the collagen-collagen interactions due to ions withdrawing the water from the collagen molecules. Hence, 0.1 M KSCN delivered the largest structures with the highest structure factor, area value and the highest critical overlap concentration with 17.6 L/g. Overall, 0.5 M salt led to salting out, with chaotropes forming fine precipitates and kosmotropes leading to elastic three-dimensional networks. The study demonstrated that collagen entanglement and microstructure depend strongly on the ionic strength and type of salt. PMID:26014138

  14. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  15. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  16. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  17. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  19. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and γ-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

  20. Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet

    Sonam Sneha; Anirudha Rishi; Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX) responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase). The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoagland’s solution with differ...

  1. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  2. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling

  3. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  4. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  5. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-05-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  6. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.91.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.51.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.51.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  7. Dependence of unified activity coefficients of ferrocenium iodide in aqueous and mixed water-isopropanol solvents on the nature of salt background

    Unified activity coefficients (y±) of ferrocenium iodide in aqueous and water-isopropanol solvents of different salt composition have been determined by potentiometric method at 298.2 K. Dependence of y± on the nature of cations (Li+, Na+, K+) and anions (Cl-, Br-, I-, CIO4-) in the salt background and their concentration, as well as on the content of isopropanol in mixed solvent, has been studied. Assumption on ferrocenium cation association with iodide- and perchlorate-ions is made. The association constants have been calculated using different standard states

  8. GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING

    Nur Islami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivity inverse model with position around 20-30 m depth. This aquifer is referred to second aquifer. As the final result, a map with the possibility of salt/brackish and fresh water interface can be generated

  9. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as part of a broad channel complex. Salt water migrates up the Gaspur channel and into the underlying Gage aquifer that is comprised mostly of shallow marine and tidal sands, silts, and clays. Beneath the Gage, the Pleistocene San Pedro Formation consists of an aggradational set of marine-deltaic sands that thicken offshore and develop clinoform beds infilling the Palos Verdes basin. How these units are connected hydraulically controls the flow of salt water. We are incorporating the offshore seismic and onshore core data in a regional groundwater flow simulation model for the Los Angeles basin and in a transport model emphasizing salt-water intrusion.

  10. Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes

    The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

  11. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    Wido Schreiner; Moreira, Regina F. P. M.; Peruch, Maria da Gloria B.; Eduardo Humeres

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction o...

  12. New methods for recovery of inorganic salts from waste water in the petroleum industry / Lydia Oosthuizen

    Oosthuizen, Lydianna Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study three novel methods for the removal/recovery of inorganic salts from aqueous solution were explored to make a contribution to ongoing efforts by the petroleum industry to upgrade waste water for reuse by immobilising and removing inorganic substances from such contaminated water. These methods were targeted precipitation, supercritical treatment and eutectic freeze crystallisation. The feasibility of these methods for waste water treatment was investigated by u...

  13. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-01

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:24751269

  14. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  15. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Lana Matijević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  16. Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

    2009-10-01

    Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

  17. Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.

    Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

    2013-07-10

    The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

  18. Pulse pressure effect on the gas-water-salt nuclei dynamics in water solutions

    The processes of growth and decay of water, gas and salt nuclei in solution under the effect of the acoustic pulses were investigated using the method of Rayleigh light scattering. A model of the nucleus was proposed.

  19. Global heat and salt transports by eddy movement.

    Dong, Changming; McWilliams, James C; Liu, Yu; Chen, Dake

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic mesoscale eddies contribute important horizontal heat and salt transports on a global scale. Here we show that eddy transports are mainly due to individual eddy movements. Theoretical and observational analyses indicate that cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies move westwards, and they also move polewards and equatorwards, respectively, owing to the β of Earth's rotation. Temperature and salinity (T/S) anomalies inside individual eddies tend to move with eddies because of advective trapping of interior water parcels, so eddy movement causes heat and salt transports. Satellite altimeter sea surface height anomaly data are used to track individual eddies, and vertical profiles from co-located Argo floats are used to calculate T/S anomalies. The estimated meridional heat transport by eddy movement is similar in magnitude and spatial structure to previously published eddy covariance estimates from models, and the eddy heat and salt transports both are a sizeable fraction of their respective total transports. PMID:24534770

  20. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase transformations in water

    Palash Sanphui; Ashwini Nangia

    2014-09-01

    Theobromine, a xanthine derivative analogous to caffeine and theophylline, is an effective central nervous system stimulant. It has lower aqueous solubility than caffeine and theophylline. Salts of theobromine with hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and -toluenesulfonic acid were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding (LAG). Proton transfer from the strong acid to the weak base imidazole N resulted in N+-H…O− hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies of theobromine salts. The mesylate salt is polymorphic with amide N-H…O dimer and catemer synthons for the theobromine cations. A variable stoichiometry for phosphate salts (1:3 and 1:2.5) were observed with the latter being more stable. All new salts were characterized by FT-IR, PXRD, DSC and finally single crystal X-ray diffraction. In terms of stability, these salts transformed to theobromine within 1 h of dissolution in water. Remarkably, the besylate and tosylate salts are 88 and 58 times more soluble than theobromine, but they dissociated within 1 h. In contrast, theobromine co-crystals with gallic acid, anthranilic acid and 5-chlorosalicylic acid were found to be stable for more than 24 h in the aqueous slurry conditions, except malonic co-crystal which transformed to theobrominewithin 1 h.Water mediated phase transformation of theobromine salts and co-crystalmay be due to the incongruency (high solubility difference) between the components. These results suggest that even though traditional salts are highly soluble compared to co-crystals, co-crystals can be superior in terms of stability.

  1. Estimation of Canopy Water Content by Means of Hyperspectral Indices Based on Drought Stress Gradient Experiments of Maize in the North Plain China

    Feng Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted drought stress gradient experiments of maize, and used ten water content related vegetation indices (VIs to estimate widely variable canopy water content (CWC and mean leaf equivalent water thickness at canopy level (\\({\\overline{EWT}}\\ based on in situ measurements of Lambertian equivalent reflectance and important biological and environmental factors during the 2013−2014 growing seasons in the North China Plain. Among ten VIs, the performances of green chlorophyll index (CIgreen, red edge chlorophyll index (CIred edge, and the red edge normalized ratio (NRred edge were most sensitive to the variations of CWC and \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\. Simulated drought in two differently managed irrigation years did not affect the sensitivities of VIs to the variations in CWC and \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\. However, the relationships between CWC and VIs were more noticeable in 2014 than in 2013. In contrast,  \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\ and VIs were more closely related in 2013 than in 2014. CWC and relative soil water content (RSWC obviously exhibited a two-dimensional trapezoid space, which illustrated that CWC was determined not only by soil water status but also by crop growth and stage of development. This study demonstrated that nearly half of the variation in CWC explained by spectral information was derived from the variation in leaf area index (LAI.

  2. Response of antioxidant enzyme activity and pigment content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings under salt stress

    MOHARRAMNEJAD, Sajjad; TAHERKHANI, Tofigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In order to evaluate the effects of osmotic stress on fresh weight, pigment content and responses of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT), a factorial experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions with five common bean genotypes and two salt stress levels induced by NaCl (control and 400 mM). Electrophoretic analyses were performed for three antioxidant enzymes SOD, POX and CAT in leafs of common bean genotype seedlin...

  3. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  4. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the Hα line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an Hα velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  5. Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes

    Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484.19*(Fe3+/Fetot) and ppm H2Oopx=193.14+3.18*P-6.22*T-178.78*(Fe3+/Fetot).The derived linear equations suggest a strong influence of the Fe3+/Fetot in the water dissolution mechanism in agreement with recent work.

  6. Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations

    Pluha?ov, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2012-11-01

    The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

  7. Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of...... a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 – 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a...... permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5°C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation....

  8. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  9. SMAPVEX08 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008 (SMAPVEX08) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference...

  10. Automated image analysis for experimental investigations of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Robinson, G.; Hamill, G. A.; Ahmed, Ashraf A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to quantify important salt water intrusion parameters in a sandbox experiment using image analysis. Existing methods found in the literature are based mainly on visual observations, which are subjective, labour intensive and limit the temporal and spatial resolutions that can be analysed. A robust error analysis was undertaken to determine the optimum methodology to convert image light intensity to concentration. Results showed that defining a relationship on a pixel-wise basis provided the most accurate image to concentration conversion and allowed quantification of the width of the mixing zone between salt water and freshwater. A high image sample rate was used to investigate the transient dynamics of salt water intrusion, which rendered analysis by visual observation unsuitable. This paper presents the methodologies developed to minimise human input, promote autonomy, provide high resolution image to concentration conversion, and allow the quantification of intrusion parameters under transient conditions.

  11. Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (X-ray fluorescence data and alteration assemblages in martian meteorites suggest the presence of sulfate salts in martian regolith. Viking data from excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and that 10% of an Mg-sulfate salt is a likely cementing agent. However, the range of possible Mg sulfates is large. Epsomite (7-hydrate, 51% water) and hexahydrite (6-hydrate, 47% water) are the most hydrated; both form structures of isolated SO4 tetrahedra with isolated octahedral sites consisting of Mg coordinated by six H2O molecules (epsomite has an extra H2O in addition to the six required to coordinate with Mg). Pentahydrite (5-hydrate, 43% water) has infinite chains of alternating SO4 tetrahedra and Mg octahedra, with 4/5 of the water forming apices in octahedral sites. Starkeyite (4-hydrate, 37% water) has clusters of two SO4 tetrahedra and two Mg octahedra, linked only by hydrogen bonds. The Mg-sulfate sanderite (2-hydrate, 23% water) is rare and has poorly known structure. Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than 20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric analysis of this amorphous solid shows that it contains 26% H2O (compared with 47% in crystalline hexahydrite), and its observed macroscopic expansion behavior suggests that it can reversibly hydrate and dehydrate. Although neither epsomite nor hexahydrite is likely to be stable near the surface of Mars, their amorphous derivatives or crystalline forms of the lower hydrates might be present (preliminary thermogravimetric data indicate that kieserite is likely to be stable). However, the limited rehydration of structurally degraded hexahydrite indicates that unrealistically large amounts ( 50%) would be required in the upper meter of regolith to account for the higher water contents ( 13%) suggested for some martian equatorial regions; even larger amounts of kieserite ( 100%) would be required. A more important role for sulfates may be in the formation of a low-permeability salt crust that could restrict dewatering of underlying soil horizons.

  12. Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation

    Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

  13. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 27 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P? peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

  14. Hydrogen Bonding in Liquid Water and in the Hydration Shell of Salts.

    Dagade, Dilip H; Barge, Seema S

    2016-03-16

    A near-IR spectral study on pure water and aqueous salt solutions is used to investigate stoichiometric concentrations of different types of hydrogen-bonded water species in liquid water and in water comprising the hydration shell of salts. Analysis of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-bond formation signifies that hydrogen-bond making and breaking processes are dominated by enthalpy with non-negligible heat capacity effects, as revealed by the temperature dependence of standard molar enthalpies of hydrogen-bond formation and from analysis of the linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effects. A generalized method is proposed for the simultaneous calculation of the spectrum of water in the hydration shell and hydration number of solutes. Resolved spectra of water in the hydration shell of different salts clearly differentiate hydrogen bonding of water in the hydration shell around cations and anions. A comparison of resolved liquid water spectra and resolved hydration-shell spectra of ions highlights that the ordering of absorption frequencies of different kinds of hydrogen-bonded water species is also preserved in the bound state with significant changes in band position, band width, and band intensity because of the polarization of water molecules in the vicinity of ions. PMID:26749515

  15. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  16. Determination of 2,4-D content in water surfaces by gas-liquid chromatography. [2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Gitsova, S.; Rizov, N.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on surface waters were carried out for the presence of 2,4-D. The studies were selected from regions with intensive application of the herbicide. The studies were carried out by means of gas-liquid chromatography after derivatization of 2,4-D to methyl ester by diazomethane. The presence of 2,4-D in concentrations from 0,1 to 2,6 micrograms/dm3 was confirmed in an average of 68 per cent of the samples analyzed--rivers, dams, microdams and field water sources, with no data for seasonal or local oscillations. The residual quantities of 2,4-D in the surface water, confirmed in the present study, are 1000 and 100 resp. times less as compared with the literature data and the standards of the foreign sanitary legislations.

  17. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  18. The effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and proline content of two Turkish tobacco varieties

    EL?K, zge; Atak, imen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salinity tolerances of 2 oriental tobacco varieties (?zmir zba? and Akhisar 97). Salinity stress experiments were performed under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Seedlings of each variety were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 mM NaCl. Photosynthetic pigment levels, lipid peroxidation rate, total protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and proline concentrations were determined for seedlings treated with salt for 14 da...

  19. The determination of the radon content in water by using a liquid scintillation counter equipped with the multi channel pulse height analyzer

    The integral counting method is established to determine the radon (Rn) content in water by using a liquid scintillation counter(LSC). However, it is not clear whether this method is applicable to the measurement with TRI-CARB 460CD or not, since the mechanism of the spectrum analysis of the 460CD equipped with a multi channel pulse height analyzer is quite different from a conventional type of LSC. Then, the optimum method for the measurement of the Rn content in water is investigated with the 460CD. It is found that the counting by using the one region set to the full range (0-2000 keV) is preferable to the integral counting by using the two regions in the measurement with the 460CD. It is also shown that the data obtained with keV to the β particles above 2000 keV emitted from 214Bi. (author)

  20. Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design

    Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K.M.; Thiros, S.A.; Giddings, E.M.; Hadley, H.K.; Stephens, D.W.; Gerner, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

  1. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

  2. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  3. Dry matter accumulation and foliar K, Ca and Na contents in salt-stressed cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. plants

    Miranda Diego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment aimed at determining the effect of five NaCl
    concentrations (namely 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM, determining
    respective EC values of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 on cape
    gooseberry plants was set up at Humboldt University’s greenhouse
    in Berlin, Germany. Dry weight (DW of roots, stems
    and leaves, as well as foliar content of ions K+, Ca2+ and Na+ and
    the relationship they hold with one another, were determined
    over a 75-day period. DW of all plant organs was observed
    to decrease with increasing salinity. The lowest values of this
    variable, which were recorded from the 120 mM NaCl plants,
    were found to be significantly smaller than those recorded at
    60 mM and lower salt concentrations. Salt stress effects on dry
    matter (DM accumulat ion were observed to increase with
    plant age. Leaf K+ content increased with salinity and peaked
    at 90 mM NaCl, where the value was significantly higher than
    that observed at 120 mM. Foliar Ca2+ content remained unchanged
    at the different salt concentrations, whilst Na+ content
    increased together with salt stress. The relationship among ion
    concentrations was significantly influenced only by 90 mM or
    higher NaCl concentrations, which determined a progressive
    increase of the Na+/Ca2+ ratio and a similar decrease of the K+/
    Na+ ratio. According to the results, cape gooseberry can be
    considered as moderately tolerant to salt, as shown by the 30
    mM NaCl treatment, which did not affect DM accumulation in
    plant organs. This tolerance is also supported by steady leaf Ca2+
    contents at all levels of salinity, indicating that cape gooseberry
    uses K+ as an osmoprotectant, at least up to 90 mM NaCl.

  4. Effects of a 5-HT3 antagonist, ondansetron, on fasting and postprandial small bowel water content assessed by magnetic resonance imaging

    Marciani, Luca; Wright, Jeff; Foley, Stephen; Hoad, Caroline L.; Totman, John J; Bush, Debbie; Hartley, Caroline; Armstrong, Alexander; Manby, Paul; Blackshaw, Elaine; Perkins, Alan C; Gowland, Penny A.; Spiller, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background 5-HT3 antagonists have been shown to be effective in relieving symptoms of IBS-D. Using a recently validated MRI method we have demonstrated reduced fasting small bowel water content (SBWC) in IBS-D associated with accelerated small bowel transit. We hypothesized that slowing of transit with ondansetron would lead to an increase in SBWC by inhibiting fasting motility. Aim To assess the effects of ondansetron compared with placebo in healthy volunteers o...

  5. Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer

    Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

  6. Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water

    Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2005-01-01

    A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a

  7. Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2002-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the ambient vertical stratification. The inclusion of ice water stress in the model makes the coastal current much wider due to the resulting offshore Ekman transport and also doubles the amount of salt exported.

  8. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

    1966-01-01

    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  9. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

  10. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  11. Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content

    Maindl, Thomas I; Schfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

  12. Radiation methods in soil physics problems with special reference to soil water, salts and nutrients movement studies

    A brief review of some recent developments in the uses of different isotopes and radiation techniques for studies of measurement of soil water content and simultaneous movement of water, salts and nutrient ions in soil is presented. Experimental work using radiotracers to study relative importance of convection and diffusion on the movement of different ions to plant roots and its availability to plants has also been discussed. (author)

  13. Comparison of measured changes in seasonal soil water content by rainfed maize-bean intercrop and component cropping systems in a semi-arid region of southern Africa

    Ogindo, H. O.; Walker, S.

    Seasonal water content fluctuation within the effective root zone was monitored during the growing season for a maize-bean intercrop (IMB), sole maize (SM) and sole bean (SB) in Free State Province, Republic of South Africa. Comparisons were undertaken for progressive depths of extraction 0-300 mm; 300-600 mm and 600-900 mm respectively. These enabled the understanding of water extraction behavior of the cropping systems within the different soil layers including the topsoil surface normally influenced by soil surface evaporation. Additive intercrops have been known to conserve water, largely due to the early high leaf area index and the higher total leaf area. In this study, the combined effect of the intercrop components seemed to lower the total water demand by the intercrop compared to the sole crops. During the two seasons (2000/2001 and 2001/2002) the drained upper limit (DUL) and crop lower limits (CLL) were determined. The maize-bean intercrop, sole maize and sole bean had CLL of 141 mm/m, 149 mm/m and 159 mm/m respectively. The DUL was 262 mm/m for the site and therefore the potential plant extractable soil water for the cropping systems were: 121 mm/m (IMB); 114 mm/m (SM) and 103 mm/m (SB). Overall, the intercrop did not have significantly different total soil water extraction during both seasons, although it was additive, showing that it had higher water to biomass conversion.

  14. Water solubilities of salts as a means to interpret liquidus diagrams for anhydrous ternary reciprocal systems

    Relation between solubility in water of initial salt components and some characteristics of anhydrous salt ternary reciprocal systems formed by the components was considered using two pairs of systems by way of example (Ag, Cd//F, SO4 and Ag, Cd//Cl, SO4; K, Sr//Cl, SO4). It is shown that data on solubility permit predicted the direction of exchange reactions in such systems, the type of meltability diagram square diagonals and the ratio of the components crystallization fields. Liquids surface in the system Ag, Cd//F, SO4 was predicted

  15. Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1

    Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

    The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ζ) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ζ values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ζ expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ζ values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture data include NaCl, NaNO 3, Na 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, and CaCl 2 so that the cations and anions considered include Na +, NH 4+, and Ca 2+, and Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-, respectively. The method predicts the UNIQUAC-fitted ζ values for all datasets with an average error of ˜20%. In an application of the method, ζ values are predicted in an aerosol PM phase containing four oxidation products (from α-pinene/O 3) and water, without and with 1 and 2 mol kg -1 dissolved (NH 4) 2SO 4. The presence of the dissolved salt can cause significant increases in the ζ values of the oxidation products considered, reflecting a potential "salting-out" effect for (NH 4) 2SO 4 on the oxidation products considered. Results indicate an important role played by dissolved salts in affecting the thermodynamic properties of atmospheric organic PM and the utility of X-UNIFAC.1 as a tool for evaluating those effects.

  16. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  17. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    Brodersen, K.

    Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid...... conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A...

  18. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that treat classes of measurement systems, or individual sensors/methods if they do not belong to one of the major classes, which include neutron moisture meters, capacitance sensors that work from within a plastic access tube, time domain reflectometry systems that employ waveform capture and analysis, tensiometers, and direct sampling methods. Obviously, not all sensor systems could be included in the studies that led up to this manual. Much of the work supported by the IAEA involves determination of the soil water balance to determine crop water use and water use efficiency. Thus, many of the systems studied were those that work in access tubes so that measures could be made to well below the crop root zone. However, a few other widely used systems employing probes that are inserted into the soil were also studied

  19. Reduction of organic mercury in water, urine, and blood by sodium borohydride for direct determination of total mercury content.

    Margel, S; Hirsh, J

    1984-02-01

    We have established the optimal conditions for use of sodium borohydride as the reducing agent before the direct determination of mercury in water, urine, and blood by atomic absorption spectroscopy. We evaluated the effects of pH, temperature, and cupric sulfate concentration on the direct determination of both organic and inorganic compounds of mercury. Accurate and precise quantification of mercury requires that the pH be between 9.3 and 9.5, the reaction temperature above 25 degrees C, the reaction time longer than 1 min, and, for urine samples only, the cupric sulfate concentration 10 mumol/L. The detection limit of the method is 1 to 2 ng and the precision (CV) is 3.8% for blood and 4.0% for urine. PMID:6692529

  20. Realisation of a test facility for the ITER ICRH antenna plug-in by means of a mock-up with salted water load

    By the use of a mock-up operated at higher frequency it is possible to measure with good accuracy the rf characteristics of an ICRH antenna, the plasma loading being simulated by a water tank in front of it. This concept has motivated the construction of the mock-up of the antenna array foreseen for ITER

  1. Realisation of a test facility for the ITER ICRH antenna plug-in by means of a mock-up with salted water load

    Messiaen, A. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)]. E-mail: a.messiaen@fz-juelich.de; Dumortier, P. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Koch, R. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Lamalle, P. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Louche, F. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Martini, J.L. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium); Vervier, M. [Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas/Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, Royal Military Academy, EURATOM-Belgian State Association, B-1000 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-11-15

    By the use of a mock-up operated at higher frequency it is possible to measure with good accuracy the rf characteristics of an ICRH antenna, the plasma loading being simulated by a water tank in front of it. This concept has motivated the construction of the mock-up of the antenna array foreseen for ITER.

  2. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including autolysis, permeabilisation, and intracellular enzyme release. However, it may be possible to reduce the fat and salt content of Cheddar cheese by 30 or 50%, respectively, without largely altering permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations and, in turn, the amount of released intracellular Pep X activity, such that these performance parameters are similar to those observed for control full-fat, full-salt Cheddar cheese. PMID:26905194

  3. Extensive NMRD studies of Ni(II) salt solutions in water and water-glycerol mixtures.

    Kowalewski, J; Egorov, A; Kruk, D; Laaksonen, A; Nikkhou Aski, S; Parigi, G; Westlund, P-O

    2008-11-01

    Aqueous solutions of simple nickel(II) salts are a classical test case for theories of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and its dependence on the magnetic field (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion, NMRD), going back to late fifties. We present here new experimental data, extending the NMRD range up to 21T (900 MHz). In addition to salt solutions in (acidified) water, we have also measured on solutions containing glycerol. The aqueous solution data do not show any significant changes compared to the earlier experiments. The interpretation, based on the general ("slow-motion") theory is also similar to the earlier work from our laboratory. The NMRD-data in mixed solvents are qualitatively different, indicating that the glycerol not only changes the solution viscosity, but may also enter the first coordination sphere of the metal ion, resulting in lower symmetry complexes, characterized by non-vanishing averaged zero-field splitting. This hypothesis is corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. A strategy appropriate for interpreting the NMRD-data for the chemically complicated systems of this type is proposed. PMID:18809345

  4. Extensive NMRD studies of Ni(II) salt solutions in water and water glycerol mixtures

    Kowalewski, J.; Egorov, A.; Kruk, D.; Laaksonen, A.; Nikkhou Aski, S.; Parigi, G.; Westlund, P.-O.

    2008-11-01

    Aqueous solutions of simple nickel(II) salts are a classical test case for theories of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and its dependence on the magnetic field (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion, NMRD), going back to late fifties. We present here new experimental data, extending the NMRD range up to 21 T (900 MHz). In addition to salt solutions in (acidified) water, we have also measured on solutions containing glycerol. The aqueous solution data do not show any significant changes compared to the earlier experiments. The interpretation, based on the general ("slow-motion") theory is also similar to the earlier work from our laboratory. The NMRD-data in mixed solvents are qualitatively different, indicating that the glycerol not only changes the solution viscosity, but may also enter the first coordination sphere of the metal ion, resulting in lower symmetry complexes, characterized by non-vanishing averaged zero-field splitting. This hypothesis is corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. A strategy appropriate for interpreting the NMRD-data for the chemically complicated systems of this type is proposed.

  5. States of Salt Water in Polyampholyte Hydrogel Networks at Ice Forming Temperatures

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Li, Xinda; Elliott, Janet A. W.

    The behavior of water in polymers, including ice formation, is of increasing interest. For example, one can achieve improved longevity of water-borne polymeric coatings and aqueous electrolytes that operate at low temperature by understanding the polymer-water interaction. Water molecules that are bound to hydrophilic polymer backbones are known to be non-freezable at extremely low temperatures such as -100°C, whereas non-bound water is still freezable at higher temperatures. Polyampholyte, which contains both cationic and anionic groups in its backbone, is an interesting class of anti-fouling coating material with a hygroscopic nature and self-healing ability. In real operational condition, for example in maritime petroleum production in the arctic climate, multiple species of salt ions can complicate the ice formation, but their effect has not been exhaustively studied. Using a random copolymer of sodium p-styrenesulphonate (NaSS) and 3-(methacryloylamino)propyl-trimethylammonium chloride as a model system to study the phase behavior of NaCl salt in the hydrogel, this work presents (i) intriguing mechanical and electrical properties of polyelectrolytes at low temperature (<-20°C), (ii) differential scanning calorimetry studies on the effects of salt concentration, polymer chain density, degree of polymerization, and (iii) effect of dialysis on microstructure and phase water behavior in the polyampholyte hydrogel.

  6. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0C. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2 for Esso, 36.7 for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8 in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  7. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Highlights: 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. The contents of H2O2 and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H2O2 and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings

  8. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  9. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  10. Complexation and extraction of halogenoacetates in ternary systems salt-water-extractant

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into uranyl halogenacetates, acetat and nitrate in ternary systems salt-water-extractant (diethyl ether or tributyl phosphate) at 25 deg C. Reciprocal solubility diagrams for uranyl salt systems are presented. Relationship between the character of phase diagram and anion properties at the fixed cation and extractant was revealed. Tendency to formation of the closed binodal curve correlates with hydration number and is connected with electron-donor ability. Deviations are explained satisfactorily by the difference in solvation numbers, which seems to be connected with steric effects. The data obtained show that relationship between anion characteristics and salt extraction ability is ambiguous. Edwards parameter should be used to obtain more accurate evaluations

  11. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 μg/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 μg/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 μg/day). (author)

  12. Inter-annual and Seasonal Variation of UT/LS Cloud Ice Water Content in the Asian Monsoon as Observed by CALIPSO

    Avery, M.; Winker, D. M.; Heymsfield, A.; Young, S.; Vaughan, M.; Getzewich, B.; Hu, Y.; Kar, J.; Trepte, C. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Jensen, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) project has recently included a new cloud ice water content product in the V3.01 data release. CALIPSO ice water content (IWC) is parameterized from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) cloud extinction measurements. The parameterization is derived from in-situ cloud probe measurements from a variety of aircraft field campaigns. CALIOP extinction retrievals are most accurate in the highest level of bright clouds where the backscatter signal to noise ratio is largest. Therefore, CALIPSO is ideally suited for characterization of cloud IWC in the climate-sensitive upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) between 10-18 km, including the Tropical Tropopause layer (TTL). The CALIOP lidar has been operational since June, 2006, providing 4 years of global UT/LS IWC measurements. The straightforward nature of the extinction-based CALIPSO IWC parameterization is ideal for assessing regional distributions and temporal variability in UT/LS cirrus cloud ice water content. Currently much scientific interest is focused on the TTL in the Asian Monsoon and Western Pacific as a major global source of energy, water and anthropogenic particles and gases to the lowermost stratosphere. Two major upcoming NASA aircraft field missions will study this region - the Earth Venture Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX) and the Southeast Asia Composition, Cloud, Climate Coupling Regional Study (SEAC4RS). CALIPSO IWC measurements in the UT/LS over the past 4 years can inform the planning of these missions, and provide a context for understanding the seasonal and inter-annual variation in cirrus clouds associated with the monsoon cycle and related deep convection. In this paper we present both maps and statistics of the regional distribution and seasonal cycle of ice water content in the UT/LS as measured by CALIPSO in the Asian Monsoon and Pacific region from August 2006 - August 2010. In addition to presenting IWC and its associated uncertainties measured by CALIOP, we also compare our measurements with other IWC observations and estimate the IWC accuracy.

  13. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  14. Elasticidade do solo em funo da umidade e do teor de carbono orgnico / Soil elasticity as affected by water and organic carbon content

    Joo Alfredo, Braida; Jose Miguel, Reichert; Dalvan Jose, Reinert; Letcia, Sequinatto.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O acmulo de carbono orgnico (CO) observado em solos sob sistema de semeadura direta pode resultar em aumento de sua elasticidade, levando a maior resistncia compactao. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da umidade e do enriquecimento de CO sobre a elasticidade de dois solos, send [...] o um Nitossolo Vermelho distrfico latosslico e um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrfico arnico. Amostras superficiais de solo, coletadas no Argissolo e no Nitossolo, com variao significativa do teor de CO, foram equilibradas em quatro diferentes tenses de gua e, ento, submetidas a carregamentos e descarregamentos em uma prensa de compresso uniaxial, determinando-se o coeficiente de descompresso (Cd), o ndice de recuperao do ndice de vazios (Ir) e a reduo da densidade (Re), aps remoo das cargas aplicadas. Os resultados demonstram que o Ir variou de 11,4 a 16,4 % no Nitossolo e de 14 a 23,4 % no Argissolo, dependendo da tenso de gua e do teor de CO da amostra. O teor de CO das amostras afetou significativamente o Cd e, conseqentemente, a Re aps a retirada das cargas. A Re mdia observada variou de 0,023 a 0,059 Mg m-3 e de 0,018 a 0,078 Mg m-3, respectivamente para o Argissolo e o Nitossolo. A elasticidade do solo sensivelmente afetada pela variao no teor de gua e de CO. Abstract in english The organic carbon accumulation observed in soils under no-till system can increase the soil elasticity, resulting in a higher resistance to soil compaction. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of water content and soil organic carbon (SOC) enrichment on soil elasticity. Samples of a [...] Hapludalf and a Typic Hapludox in southern Brazil, both with a significant variation in SOC content, were equilibrated at four different water tensions, and then loaded and unloaded on a uniaxial apparatus. The decompression coefficient (Cd), the recovery index (Ir) of the void ratio and the density rebound (Re) after load removal were determined. Results demonstrate that Ir varied from 11.4 to 16.4 % in the Hapludox and from 14 to 23.4 % in the Hapludalf, depending on the water tension and SOC content. The SOC content affected Cd significantly and, consequently, the rebound after load removal. The observed mean rebound varied from 0.023 to 0.059 Mg m-3 and from 0.018 to 0.078 Mg m-3, respectively, for the Hapludalf and the Hapludox. Soil elasticity is affected by variations in the water and SOC content.

  15. Salt marsh ecohydrological zonation due to heterogeneous vegetation - groundwater - surface water interactions

    Moffett, K. B.; Gorelick, S.; McLaren, R.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Among the most fundamental characteristics of intertidal salt marshes are distinctive vegetation zonation and tidally-forced hydrology. Vegetation zones often correlate with tidal hydrology and plant water use is significant in the wetland balance; however, specific links between vegetation zonation, plant water use, and spatiotemporally variable intertidal hydrology have eluded thorough characterization. This investigation developed the first comprehensive salt marsh ecohydrology models integrating the transient, 3D, coupled surface water and groundwater flow and plant water use of an intensively studied salt marsh field site. The physics-based modeling demonstrated that superimposing heterogeneous sediment hydraulic properties, evapotranspiration rates, and rooting depths, together with tidal dynamics, induced surprising spatial variations in root zone hydraulics: variations pronounced enough to constitute wholly different root zone habitats with different pressure heads, saturations, and vertical groundwater velocities. These diverse habitats were apparent only when both hydraulic and vegetative influences were accounted for, leading to their definition as discrete "ecohydrological zones." We distinguished five different ecohydrological zones (EHZs) by distinct combinations of sediment hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration rates and two EHZs by topography. The hydraulic variations among EHZs were masked shortly after a flooding tide, but again became prominent during prolonged marsh exposure. Boundaries between EHZs exhibited large gradients in head, saturation, and vertical flow magnitude and direction due to a combination of vegetation and sediment effects. We suggest that ecohydrological zones, combining spatially-variable topographic, sediment, and vegetation influences, are the fundamental spatial habitat units comprising the salt marsh ecosystem. This perspective contrasts with historical emphasis on vegetation zones as the foremost unit of habitat variation within salt marshes.

  16. [Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

  17. Imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization response by sunflower subjected to salt stress

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses in arid and semi-arid regions that substantially reduce the germination, growth and average yield of major crops. The study was mainly aimed to select the most salt tolerant cultivar of sunflower. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of four different salinity levels having electrical conductivity viz., 1.19, 9.54, 16.48 and 22.38 mS/cm on the imbibition (water uptake), germination and lipid mobilization of seedlings of 4 varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) i.e., DO-728, DO-730, Hysun-33 and Suncross-843. Salinity levels were prepared by dissolving calculated amount of NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, CaCl/sub 2/ and MgCl/sub 2/ (4:10:5:1) in half strength Hoagland culture solution. Imbibition was studied using plastic glasses at an interval of 12 and 24 hours. While germination studies were separately carried out in plastic pots and noted after every 12 hours till 20 days. Whereas, lipid contents of the salt stress germinating seeds were determined at three time intervals viz., 48, 96 and 144 hours of germination. Results showed that there was a linear decrease in imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization as the level of salinity progressively intensifies. Maximum significant reduction in imbibition (12.88%), germination (31.03%) and lipid mobilization (38.62%) is recorded in highest dose of applied salts (22.38 mS/cm). Results further exhibited that maximum significant reduction in imbibition (17.95%) and germination (43.05%) is recorded for variety Suncross-843. While minimum for the same attributes is recorded for variety DO-728. Therefore, in term of imbibitions and germination, DO-728 could be ranked as salt tolerant. Similarly maximum reduction (14.85%) in mobilized lipids is noted for DO-728 and minimum (40.89%) for DO-730. Therefore, in term of lipid mobilization, variety DO-730 could be ranked as salt tolerant and DO-728 as salt sensitive. While remaining 2 varieties i.e., Hysun-33 and Suncross-843 is rated as salt intermediate in response, respectively. (author)

  18. Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes

    Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

  19. Isotopic and chemical investigation of ground water salinization in upper part of Chaj Doab

    Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salts in upper part of Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaporation, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. no evidence for mixing with connate marine water could be found. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as the dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

  20. Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat

    Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

  1. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Windsat and Modis

    Retrieval of soil moisture content from microwave sensors also returns an estimate of vegetation water content. Remotely sensed indices from optical sensors can be used to estimate canopy water content. For corn and soybean in central Iowa, there are allometric relationships between canopy water c...

  2. [Effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics, photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Man, Jian-guo; Yu, Zhen-wen; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yong-li

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 winter wheat growing seasons. Six irrigation treatments were designed: rainfed, W0; a local irrigation practice that irrigated at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm each time, W1; four irrigation treatments were designed with target relative soil moisture of 65% field capacity (FC) at jointing and 70% FC at anthesis in 0-20 (W2) 0-40 (W3), 0-60 (W4) , and 0-140 cm (W5) soil layers, respectively, to study the effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics and photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat. The irrigation amounts at jointing in W1 and W4 were the highest, followed by W3 treatment, W2 and W5 were the lowest. The irrigation amounts at anthesis and total irrigation amounts were ranked as W5 > Wl, W4 > W3 > W2, the total water consumption in W3 was higher than that in W2, but had no difference with that in W1, W4 and W5 treatments, W3 had the higher soil water consumption than W1, W4 and W5 treatments, and the soil water consumption in 40-140 cm soil layers from jointing to anthesis and in 60-140 cm soil layers from anthesis to maturity in W3 were significantly higher than the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of flag leaf at middle stage of grain filling from the W3 treatment were the highest, followed by the W1 and W4 treatments, and W0 treatment was the lowest. In the two growing seasons, the grain yield and water use efficiency in the W3 were 9077-9260 kg hm(-2) and 20.7-20.9 kg hm(-2) mm(-1), respectively, which were higher than those from the other treatments, and the irrigation water productivity in the W3 was the highest. As far as high-yield and high-water use efficiency were concerned in this experiment, the most appropriate soil layer for measuring moisture content was 0-40 cm. PMID:26685598

  3. [Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].

    Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (psoils in Wensu and Hetian counties, and correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.45, respectively; there was no significant relationship between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Baicheng county. Therefore, the correlations between S(t) and EC(1:5) varied with studied sites. S(t) and EC(1:5) were significantly related with spectral reflectance, first derivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the responses of high spectral information to St were more sensitive than those of high spectral information to EC(1:5). Accuracy of St predicted from high spectral data was higher than that of EC(1:5) estimated from high spectral data. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis to improve hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring accuracy of soil salinization. PMID:24822430

  4. Critical water contents of hydrophobic soils in New Zealand

    Landl, Magdalena; Holzinger, Ursula; Singh, Ranvir; Klik, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency is an important problem for pasture farming in New Zealand which causes low infiltration rates and increased surface runoff. However, the real extent of this issue is not yet evaluated. Water repellency is thought to appear on dry soils, when the water content falls below a critical limit. The main objectives of this study was 1) to investigate the effects of different amounts of infiltration water on hydrophobicity of three selected soils under grassland in the North island of New Zealand, and 2) to determine the critical water content for ten sites with five different soil types. In April 2011 undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from a brown, gley and organic soil have been taken from sites around Mount Taranaki. Soil water repellency was determined using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Test (WDPT) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet Test (MED). During the lab experiment four amounts of water were applied to the 270 cm³ samples: 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 mL . One test was performed with cold and one with hot (80 °C) water. Each test was replicated four times. In the leachate the amount of dissolved organic carbon was analyzed. The experiments showed that only for the brown soil water repellency decreased significantly with increasing amount of infiltration water whereas for gley soils no correlation was found. Gley soil had initially a lower degree of hydrophobicity compared to the other soils. Possibly due to the higher bulk density of these soils, the carbon compounds directly surrounding the soil particles wre rearranged rather than leached. No clear pattern could be obtained for organic soils. This may be explained by the high initial carbon content of more than 20%. It may take a much greater amount of infiltration to affect hydrophobicity. The critical contact angle of investigated soils above which water repellency is moderately persistent, was 93.8°. In May 2012 ten more sites were sampled and five soil types were investigated with respect to the critical water content. Soil hydrophobicity was again tested during 4 wetting and drying cycles on 3 replicates each of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. The tests confirmed that water repellency does not exist at high water contents. It generally starts to appear at a certain limit, increases rapidly up to a peak value and finally decreases slowly when the water content approaches 0. Critical water contents were very high in the first wetting cycle and stabilized at a rather constant level during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th wetting cycle. This phenomenon may be due to inhomogeneous water distributions within the field moist soil samples in the 1st wetting cycle and it was thus chosen to take the critical moisture content from the 2nd wetting cycle for further purposes. We found relatively broad transition zones where soils were found to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Critical water contents or rather transition zones were found to differ significantly between the various soil orders and showed values between 0.34 (m³/m³) for recent soil and 0.44(m³/m³) for organic soil.

  5. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B; Petersen, P

    1999-01-01

    CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water......Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r...

  6. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

  7. Metal Production by Molten Salt Electrolysis

    Grjotheim, K.; Kvande, H.; Qingfeng, Li; Zhuxian, Qiu

    Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed.......Chemistry and electrochemistry of molten salts are reviewed. Technological aspects of electrolytic production of aluminium, magnesium, and other metals are comprehensively surveyed....

  8. Fast and simple method for determination of iodide in human urine, serum, sea water, and cooking salt by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Křivánková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, 7-8 (2004), s. 1102-1110. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * cooking salt * human serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  9. In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

  10. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  11. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  12. [Estimating canopy water content in wheat based on new vegetation water index].

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Yang, Gui-jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Li, Zhen-hai; Feng, Hai-kuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-01

    Moisture content is an important indicator for crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring crop water content is of great significance for evaluate crop water deficit balance and guide agriculture irrigation. In order to improve the saturated problems of different forms of typical NDWI (Normalized Different Water Index), we tried to introduce EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to build new vegetation water indices (NDWI#) to estimate crop water content. Firstly, PROSAIL model was used to study the saturation sensitivity of NDWI, and NDWI# to canopy water content and LAI (Leaf Area Index). Then, the estimated model and verified model were estimated using the spectral data and moisture data in the field. The result showed that the new indices have significant relationships with canopy water content. In particular, by implementing modified standardized for NDWI1450, NDWI1940, NDWI2500. The result indicated that newly developed indices with visible-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral feature may have greater advantage for estimation winter canopy water content. PMID:25881445

  13. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  14. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

  15. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  16. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for...... bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for...

  17. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.; Berg, P.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of...... manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  18. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil. PMID:22059454

  19. Nanostructure and salt effect of zwitterionic carboxybetaine brush at the air/water interface.

    Matsuoka, Hideki; Yamakawa, Yuta; Ghosh, Arjun; Saruwatari, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    Zwitterionic amphiphilic diblock copolymer, poly(ethylhexyl acrylate)-b-poly(carboxybetaine) (PEHA-b-PGLBT), was synthesized by the reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) method with precise control of block length and polydispersity. The polymers thus obtained were spread onto the water surface to form a polymer monolayer. The fundamental property and nanostructure of the block copolymer monolayer were systematically studied by the surface pressure-molecular area (π-A) isotherm, Brewster angle microscopy (BAM), and X-ray reflectivity (XR) techniques. The π values of the monolayer increased by compression in relatively larger A regions. After showing a large plateau region by compression, the π value sharply increased at very small A regions, suggesting the formation of poly(GLBT) brush formation just beneath the water surface. The domain structure of μm size was observed by BAM in the plateau region. XR profiles for the monolayer at higher surface pressure regions clearly showed the PGLBT brush formation in addition to PGLBT carpet layer formation under the hydrophobic PEHA layer on the water surface, as was observed for both anionic and cationic brush layer in the water surface monolayer studied previously. The critical brush density, where the PGLBT brush is formed, was estimated to be about 0.30 chains/nm(2) for the (EHA)45-b-(GLBT)60 monolayer, which is relatively large compared to other ionic brushes. This observation is consistent with the fact that the origin of brush formation is mainly steric hindrance between brush chains. The brush thickness increased by compression and also by salt addition, unlike the normal ionic brush (anionic and cationic), whose thickness tended to decrease, i.e., shrink, by salt addition. This might be a character unique to the zwitterionic brush, and its origin is thought to be transition to an ionic nature from the almost nonionic inner salt caused by salt addition since both the cation and anion of the GLBT chain obtained counterions by the addition of salt. This stretching nature of the PGLBT brush depends on the ion species of the salt added, and it followed the Hofmeister series, i.e., more stretching in the order of Li(+) > Na(+) > K(+). However, it was rather insensitive to the anion species (Cl(-), Br(-), SCN(-)), which suggests that the carboxylic anion has a more dominant effect than the quaternized cation in GLBT although the former is a weak acid and the latter is believed to be a strong base. PMID:25867972

  20. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C1 to C40) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain boundaries of halite crystals, on the surfaces and knuckles or inside of micro capillary tubes of anhydrite crystals and anhydrite clusters, in newly formed micro cracks due to drilling respectively preparational works or rarely in micro-porous parts of the Hauptsalz. In order to get additional information about the origin of hydrocarbons detected in the Gorleben Hauptsalz organic geochemical analyses of potential source rocks in the vicinity like the Stassfurt Carbonate (z2SK) have been provided. These analyses revealed that the level of maturity of hydrocarbons in the Gorleben Hauptsalz correspond to 0,8 to 1,2% vitrinite-reflection-equivalent for the oil, similar to the organic-petrographical data of Stassfurt Carbonate and Copper schist in the periphery of the Gorleben salt dome (Gerling et al. 2002; Senglaub 2001; Cramer 2005). The analyses of biomarkers (esp. triterpenoid biomarkers) detected in the hydrocarbon mixtures from the Hauptsalz point to the Stassfurt Carbonate as source rocks of most of the hydrocarbons.

  1. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain boundaries of halite crystals, on the surfaces and knuckles or inside of micro capillary tubes of anhydrite crystals and anhydrite clusters, in newly formed micro cracks due to drilling respectively preparational works or rarely in micro-porous parts of the Hauptsalz. In order to get additional information about the origin of hydrocarbons detected in the Gorleben Hauptsalz organic geochemical analyses of potential source rocks in the vicinity like the Stassfurt Carbonate (z2SK) have been provided. These analyses revealed that the level of maturity of hydrocarbons in the Gorleben Hauptsalz correspond to 0,8 to 1,2% vitrinite-reflection-equivalent for the oil, similar to the organic-petrographical data of Stassfurt Carbonate and Copper schist in the periphery of the Gorleben salt dome (Gerling et al. 2002; Senglaub 2001; Cramer 2005). The analyses of biomarkers (esp. triterpenoid biomarkers) detected in the hydrocarbon mixtures from the Hauptsalz point to the Stassfurt Carbonate as source rocks of most of the hydrocarbons.

  2. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

  3. Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type,...

  4. Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine

    The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2β, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C

  5. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization. PMID:23323426

  6. Salt determination in salted bovine hide

    Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Soler Sol, Jaume; Saborit, Merc

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple and inexpensive method has been developed to determine the amount of salt contained in a salted raw hide. Two different systems of analysis have been tested. In both methods, salt is removed by stirring the hide with deionized water and analysing the resulting salt bath. The first method is based on the measurement of the chloride amount in the salt bath by the Mohr method. The second method is based on measuring the density of the salt bath. The second method has yield...

  7. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  8. Mechanisms of water-salt metabolism disturbances in dogs subjected to six month hypokinesia

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Krotov, V. P.; Ilyushko, N. A.; Kondratyeva, V. A.; Kondratyev, Y. I.

    1980-01-01

    Water-salt metabolism in dogs during prolonged restricted motor activity (hypokinesia) was investigated. It was found that hydration occurred and fluid was redistributed between the extra- and intra-cellular sectors. Also, electrolyte excretion rose, and magnetism and calcium metabolism changed significantly. It is concluded that the forces caused by muscle strain proper (which was decreased under conditions of hypokinesia) influence the state of bone metabolism.

  9. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  10. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  11. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  12. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  13. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  14. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.1. Some uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition

    Present article is devoted to various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. Various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition were described.

  15. Water dynamics in aqueous solutions of tetra-n-alkylammonium salts: hydrophobic and Coulomb interactions disentangled.

    van der Post, Sietse T; Scheidelaar, Stefan; Bakker, Huib J

    2013-12-01

    We studied the effects of tetra-n-alkylammonium bromide (N(C(n)H(2n+1))(4)(+)Br(-)) salts on the dynamics of water using polarization-resolved femtosecond infrared spectroscopy. With this technique, we are capable of distinguishing the response of water solvating the hydrophobic cations from that of water solvating the bromide anion. We observe that both types of ions slow down the orientational dynamics of the water molecules in their solvation shells. However, the nature of this slowdown is different for both ions. For the hydrophobic cation, we find an increasing number of retarded water molecules, scaling with the alkyl chain length. Water in the bromide solvation shell experiences a partial decay of its orientation by a fast wobbling motion, after which the remaining anisotropy decays much slower. The dynamics of the wobbling motion are observed to be dependent on the nature of the cation. For Me(4)NBr, the slow reorientation time is not concentration-dependent, and no aggregation is observed. This is in contrast to the tetra-n-alkylammonium salts with longer alkyl chains, for which the slow reorientation time of bromide-bound water molecules increases dramatically with concentration, and clusters of cations and anions appear to be formed. PMID:24228939

  16. The reaction kinetics of lithium salt with water vapor

    The interaction of lithium salt (LiH and/or LiD) with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10-5-2657 Pa has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with LiH cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiH surface temperature, suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to 0.007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product approached full coverage. As the film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from 0 deg. C to 20 deg. C and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit (?10-4). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion-limited process in this regime. For micrometer thick hydroxide films grown in high moisture concentration environment on LiD and LiH, the reaction probability reduced to ?4x10-7 and was independent of exposure time. In this regime of thick hydroxide films (LiOH and/or LiOD), microcracks generated in the films to release stress provided easier pathways for moisture to reach the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, was also employed to investigate the surface morphology of hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH H2O and/or LiOD H2O) grown on hydroxide at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth

  17. Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil

    F.C. Oad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD and adequate (50 percent SMD levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.

  18. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  19. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  20. Correcting the errors from variable sea salt retention and water of hydration in loss on ignition analysis: Implications for studies of estuarine and coastal waters

    Stavn, Robert H.; Rick, Hans J.; Falster, Alexander V.

    2009-03-01

    The standard technique of determining the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSSs), particulate inorganic matter (PIM), and particulate organic matter (POM) by filtration with glass fiber filters is subject to an error or bias from sea salt plus water of hydration retention, when applied to saline waters. The sea salt plus water of hydration retention by the filters occurs even after washing the filter with 300 ml of deionized water, a greater volume than any wash recommended in the literature. We determined that the mass retention on a glass fiber filter, at a given salinity, is essentially constant, no matter the volume of seawater passed through the filter. We also determined that the sea salt plus water of hydration retention on glass fiber filters is directly proportional to the salinity of the seawater filtered. Sea salt plus water of hydration retention causes an overestimate of TSS; sea salt retention causes an overestimate of PIM; volatilization of water of hydration causes an overestimate of POM. Thus a correction curve is required for sea salt and water of hydration errors in the determination of TSS and PIM. Corrected POM comes from the difference between the two. Also, filter blanks (procedural control filters), run with deionized (DI) water rather than the seawater sample, are required to correct for possible filter mass loss during the analysis. We demonstrate correction curves for sea salt plus water of hydration retention for Whatman GF/F filters, 47 mm diameter, utilizing the methods of the APHA Manual, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Application of other glass fiber filter types or an analytical technique differing significantly from that employed here requires a different correction curve for retention of sea salt and water of hydration. These methods can be used to reanalyze older data on PIM, POM, and TSS. We apply these corrections to PIM and POM data from the northern Gulf of Mexico and examine the interactions of these filter corrections with corrections for structural water volatilization from suspended clay minerals in the determinations of PIM and POM. We analyze published data on PIM and POM determinations and their application to remote sensing. We conclude that sea salt and water of hydration retention on filters has an adverse effect on remote-sensing algorithms inverting radiance reflectance to estimate concentrations of suspended matter.

  1. Parameter sensitivity to climate and landscape variability of a simple, lumped salt and water balance model

    Bari, M. A.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2005-08-01

    A salt and water balance model is developed to represent salinity generation following land use changes in Western Australia. The model consists of five interconnecting stores: (i) Dry, Wet and Subsurface unsaturated Stores, (ii) a transient Stream zone Store and (iii) a saturated Groundwater Store. The salinity generation process in Western Australia is highly dependent on annual rainfall, potential energy for evaporation, salt fall and land use history of a catchment. We selected six experimental catchments with different land use histories across a climatic gradient to test the model and assess parameter sensitivity. The model was successful in representing the streamflow and salinity generation processes of all catchments. In the process of application, we classified the model parameters into three sets: (i) "known", (ii) "fixed" and (iii) "variable". The "known" parameter set is calculated a priori from catchment attributes. The "fixed" set comprises regionalised parameters that remain unchanged across all catchments once calibrated in one catchment. The "variable" set of seven physically meaningful parameters were calibrated at one catchment, estimated a priori for other catchments and then subsequently adjusted for best fit. The "variable" set represents: (i) the depth (d), spatial distribution (b, c), relationship of the lateral hydraulic conductivity with moisture content (ia) and vertical conductivity (Kuv) of the top soil, (ii) lateral conductivity (Kll) of the groundwater system, and (iii) salt release (Cu) from top soil. Sensitivity analyses of key model parameters show that the relationship of the top soil lateral hydraulic conductivity with soil moisture content (ia) is the most sensitive parameter. Other sensitive parameters include the depth of the top soil and its spatial distribution (d, b, c).

  2. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies. PMID:27105414

  3. The Occurrence of Trihalomethane Compounds in Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah, Drinking Water Supplies

    Peters, Thomas; Adams, V. Dean; George, Dennis B.

    1981-01-01

    A purge and trap, gas chromatography system was developed to analyze for trihalomethane (THMs) compounds at the ppb (parts per billion) level in drinking water. Monthly influent and effluent samples were taken from three Weber Basin Water Conservancy Distrcit treatment plants, three Salt Lake City water treatmetn platns, and one Slat Lake Metropolitan water treatment plant. In addition tap water samples were taken...

  4. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  5. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    Wido Schreiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction on account of the stable reactive intermediates in the reduction of SO2. In the presence of NaNO3 or Na2S, the amount of sulfur incorporated was in the molar ratio Na:S = 3 ± 0.3, and the XPS spectra of the residual carbon showed an increase of ca. 9% of the non-oxidized form of sulfur in the intermediates. In the absence of salt, it is proposed that after the adsorption of SO2 on the carbon, a 1,3,2-dioxathiolane or 1,2-oxathietene 2-oxide are formed and that decompose to produce CO2 and atomic sulfur. The non-oxidized sulfur intermediate would be an episulfide 3, formed from the reaction of the atomic sulfur with the nearest double bond and followed by consecutive reactions of insertion of atomic sulfur to form a trisulfide. Extrusion of S2 from the trisulfide would regenerate the episulfide, establishing a sulfidedisulfide-trisulfide equilibrium that worked as a capture-release cycle of sulfur. In the presence of salt, the results are consistent with the assumption that the episulfide 3 reacts with the corresponding sulfide anion to form a disulfide anion, which upon reaction with atomic sulfur forms a trisulfide anion that decomposes releasing diatomic sulfur S2, transporting the sulfur and generating a thiolate that is part of the catalytic cycle.

  6. Lithium content in potable water, surface water, ground water, and mineral water on the territory of Republic of Macedonia

    Vesna Kostik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine lithium concentration in potable water, surface water, ground, and mineral water on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. Water samples were collected from water bodies such as multiple public water supply systems located in 13 cities, wells boreholes located in 12 areas, lakes and rivers located in three different areas. Determination of lithium concentration in potable water, surface water was performed by the technique of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, while in ground water samples from wells boreholes and mineral waters with the technique of ion chromatography. The research shows that lithium concentration in potable water ranging from 0.1 to 5.2 μg/L; in surface water from 0.5 to 15.0 μg/L; ground water from wells boreholes from 16.0 to 49.1 μg/L and mineral water from 125.2 to 484.9 μg/L. Obtained values are in accordance with the relevant international values for the lithium content in water.

  7. Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance

    Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

  8. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  9. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha−1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  10. Significant depth of ground water table for thermal performance of salt gradient solar pond

    Saxena, A.K. [Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP (India); Sugandhi, S. [Jawaharlal Institute of Technology, Borawan, Khargone MP 451228 (India); Husain, M. [SSBT' s College of Engineering and Technology, Bambhori, 94 Jalgaon, MS (India)

    2009-03-15

    In case of noninsulated salt gradient solar pond, heat losses through bottom and sides are significant. The magnitude of losses depends upon the location (depth) of water table, which act as a heat sink. Simulation analysis indicates that deeper the water table, lesser are the heat losses and higher is the temperature achieved by the pond. The present analysis, however, reveals two more significant conclusions - firstly; increase in depth of water table increases the maturation temperature and highest temperature of the pond, but does not affect the time of acquiring these temperatures. Secondly, there is a significant depth of water table, below which, further depression does not have significant impact on thermal performance of pond. This conclusion is of practical significance where efforts are done to depress the water table. (author)

  11. A Raman spectral study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Rio Tinto, Spain

    Sobron, Pablo; Sanz, Aurelio; Acosta, Tayro; Rull, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Acidic waters and sulfate-rich precipitates are found in mine tailings such as Rio Tinto (Huelva, SW, Spain). In this work we have characterized the chemical constituents of stream water and have identified some efflorescent salts and precipitates by means of Raman spectroscopy. Variable amounts of sulfate and bisulfate are found in the aqueous samples, suggesting changes in the acidity of the solutions. An estimation of the sulfate/water relative abundance is also given. Solid samples are readily identified as gypsum and as mixtures of hydrated hydroxysulfates belonging to the copiapite group. These results are consistent with previous works reporting the mineralogy and water composition of acid mine drainage-related sites, and proves the importance of Raman spectroscopy as a tool for accurate and noninvasive analyses of acid waters and associated geochemistry.

  12. Development of integrated aquaculture : agriculture with brackish and salt water, Egypt

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Sadek, S.; Elsamadony, E.; Eweas, M.; El-Dib, H.; Sabry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the development of an integrated saltwater aquaculture agriculture farming system at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt. During the first two years of the project promising salt-tolerant plant species were identified, the methods for seed germination and growing of three salt-tolerant plant species with potential for human consumption and animal fodder were developed, and the culture of red tilapia in a so-called biofloc system with salt water was tested. Report number CDI-13-004

  13. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  14. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  15. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  16. Comment on the paper: "Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete- the possibility of NDE". Ultrasonic 38(2000) 546-552 by Etsuzo Ohdaira and Nobuyoshi Masuzawa

    Gonzalez, Manuel Rodriguez; Caceres, Rolando Bonal

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental application of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method (UPV) in the study of concrete, consist in the analysis and estimation of the mechanical properties (compressive strength). The precission of the estimation may be dependent on the incidence of various factors, one of which is the water content acquired by the sample of concrete. In [Etsuzo] a lineal dependence of the UPV in terms of the water content for different dosifications of concrete is proposed. This paper presents an...

  17. Vertical profiles of soil water content as influenced by environmental factors in a small catchment on the hilly-gully Loess Plateau.

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0-20, 20-160, and 160-300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (Psustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

  18. EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE AMMONIUM SALT ON THE BIOAVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT AND THE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED PHOSPHATASES IN LOAMY SAND

    Maciej P?atkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glyphosat? ammonium salt on the activity of some enzymes involved in the metabolism of phosphorus in the soil: acid phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.2, alkaline phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.1, phosphotrieaterase (EC 3.1.5.1, inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.1.6.1, and a phosphorus content in a form available to plants. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand samples with organic carbon content 8.7 g kg-1. Into soil samples the aqueous solutions of Avans Premium 360 SC (360 g glyphosate ammonium salt in 1 dm3 were added. The amount of introduced glyphosate ammonium salt was 0 (control, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, on days 0 (1 hour after glyphosate application, 7, 14, 28 and 56 measured parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed that the application of glyphosate ammonium salt resulted in changes of available phosphorus content and the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of this element in loamy sand. The effects glyphosate ammonium salt dosage and effect of day of experiment were ambiguous. Among the determined parameters the most sensitive to the presence of the glyphosate ammonium was alkaline phosphomonoesterase.

  19. Clear salt water above sediment-laden fresh water: Interfacial instabilities

    Schulte, B.; Konopliv, N.; Meiburg, E.

    2016-05-01

    The stability of an interface separating less dense, clear salt water above from more dense, sediment-laden fresh water below is explored via direct numerical simulations. We find that the destabilizing effects of double diffusion and particle settling amplify each other above the diffusive interface, whereas they tend to cancel each other below. For moderate settling velocities, plumes form both above and below the interface, whereas for large settling velocities plume formation below the interface is suppressed. We identify the dimensionless parameter that determines in which regime a given flow takes place, along with the critical value at which the transition between the regimes takes place.

  20. Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

  1. Guanidinium-Induced Denaturation by Breaking of Salt Bridges.

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Panman, Matthijs R; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm(+) ) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm(+) can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm(+) -induced denaturation of a series of peptides containing Arg/Glu and Lys/Glu salt bridges that either stabilize or destabilize the folded conformation. The peptides containing stabilizing salt bridges are found to be denatured much more efficiently by Gdm(+) than the peptides containing destabilizing salt bridges. Complementary 2D-infrared measurements suggest a denaturation mechanism in which Gdm(+) binds to side-chain carboxylate groups involved in salt bridges. PMID:26490361

  2. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Ran?elovi? Saa S.; Kosti? Danijela A.; Zarubica Aleksandra R; Miti? Sneana S.; Miti? Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I), with exception of lead conten...

  3. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  4. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  5. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  6. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  7. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  8. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced salt tolerance in maize plants induced by H2O2 leaf spraying is associated with improved gas exchange rather than with non-enzymatic antioxidant system

    Franklin Arago, Gondim; Rafael de Souza, Miranda; Enas, Gomes-Filho; Jos Tarquinio, Prisco.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates plant responses against several biotic and abiotic stresses. H2O2 pretreatment has emerged as a signaling way, inducing salt stress acclimation in plants. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 leaf pretreatment on the non-enzy [...] matic defense system (ascorbate and glutathione), plant growth, relative water content (RWC), relative chlorophyll content, H2O2 content, and gas exchange in maize plants under NaCl stress. The results showed that salinity reduced the leaf area and shoot and root dry mass as compared to control, and the leaf spraying with H2O2 significantly improved the growth of salt stressed plants. Photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were strongly decreased by salinity after 7 and 14 days of salt exposure; however, the decrease was lower in plants sprayed with H2O2. The improved gas exchange in H2O2-sprayed stressed plants correlated positively with higher RWC and relative chlorophyll content and lower leaf H2O2 accumulation under NaCl stress conditions. Ascorbate and glutathione did not play any obvious effects as non-enzymatic antioxidants in the ROS scavenging. In conclusion, the salt tolerance induced by H2O2 leaf pretreatment is attributed to a reduction in the H2O2 content and maintenance of RWC and chlorophyll in maize leaves. These characteristics allow maize plants to maintain high rates of photosynthesis under salt stress and improve the growth.

  10. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  11. Numerical modeling of water flow and salt transport in bare saline soil subjected to evaporation

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to evaporation, which was simulated using the bulk aerodynamic formulation. As evaporation was assumed to depend on the pore moisture, the evaporation flux evolved gradually causing a gradual increase in the pore salinity. This is in contrast to prior studies where the high salinity was imposed instantaneously on the ground surface. Key factors likely affecting subsurface hydrodynamics were investigated, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, relative humidity in the air, and surrounding groundwater replenishment. The simulations showed two temporal regimes where the first consists of rapid evaporation for a duration of hours followed by slow evaporation, until evaporation ceases. In the absence of surrounding groundwater replenishment, evaporation-induced density gradient generated an upward water flow initially, and then the flow decreased at which time a high density salt "finger" formed and propagated downwards. Capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. The results also suggested that the presence of subsurface water replenishment to the evaporation zone tended to produce a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface.

  12. Characteristic monitoring of groundwater-salt transportation and input-output in inland arid irrigation area.

    Xu, Cundong; Zhang, Hongyang; Han, Liwei; Zhai, Luxin

    2014-11-01

    The rules of microscopic water-salt transportation can be revealed and the impact on the macroscopic water and soil resources can be further predicted by selecting a typical study area and carrying out continuous monitoring. In this paper, Jingtaichuan Electrical Lifting Irrigation District in Gansu Province (hereinafter called as JingDian irrigation district (JID)) located at the inland desert region of northwest China was selected as study area. Based on the groundwater-salt transportation data of representative groundwater monitoring wells in different hydrogeological units, the groundwater-salt evolution and transportation tendency in both closed and unclosed hydrogeological units were analyzed and the quantity relative ratio relationship of regional water-salt input-excretion was calculated. The results showed that the salt brought in by artificial irrigation accounts for the highest proportion of about 63.99% and the salt carried off by the discharge of irrigation water accounts for 66.42%, namely, the water-salt evolution and transportation were mainly controlled by artificial irrigation. As the general features of regional water-salt transportation, groundwater salinity and soil salt content variation were mainly decided by the transportation of soil soluble salt which showed an obvious symbiosis gathering regularity, but the differentiation with insoluble salt components was significant in the transportation process. Besides, groundwater salinity of the unclosed hydrogeological unit presented a periodically fluctuating trend, while the groundwater salinity and soil salt content in water and salt accumulation zone of the closed hydrogeological unit showed an increasing tendency, which formed the main occurrence area of soil secondary salinization. PMID:25522523

  13. Canopy water content retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing

    2007-01-01

    Biogeochemical processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, evaporation and net primary production, are directly related to foliar water. Therefore, canopy water content is important for the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem functioning. Spectral information related to the water absorption features at 970 nm and 1200 nm offers possibilities for deriving information on leaf and canopy water content. Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a range of canopies were simulated at the ...

  14. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    Carr, A. P.; Blackley, M. W. L.

    1987-01-01

    A further year's elevational data has been obtained from creek profiles at a salt marsh site on the north side of the Esk estuary, Cumbria. Comparative sections were taken on the south shore. The 'seasonality' found previously on the north shore and again recorded was less well defined at the southern site probably reflecting smaller proportions of clay minerals and greater exposure. Porewater pressure data from an upper salt marsh location showed a similar situation to that obtained previously from a lower marsh site, i.e. when tides overtopped the marsh surface the uppermost transducers responded first. Neap tides were only registered by the lowest transducers (or not at all) with upper sensors showing draining except during periods of precipitation. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern.

  15. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3. PMID:14714619

  16. Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils

    Soil colonization by plants affected spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals. - The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the same variations. Soils not colonized by plants had the highest pH and lowest heavy metal concentrations in the summer. These results support the idea that higher temperatures lead to an increase in the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which in turn leads to an increase in alkalinity and concentration of sulfides in the water. Trace metals tend to precipitate with sulfides under these conditions and are removed from the interstitial water. In contrast, in the soils colonized by Spartina maritima, the oxidation of metal sulfides during the summer led to a decrease in pH and an increase in the metal concentrations in the interstitial water. The results obtained concur with those found for seasonal variations in metal sulfides in soils from the same salt marsh

  17. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

  18. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  19. Involvement of ethylene in reversal of salt-inhibited photosynthesis by sulfur in mustard.

    Nazar, Rahat; Khan, Md Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur (S) assimilation results in the synthesis of cysteine (Cys), a common metabolite for the formation of both reduced glutathione (GSH) and ethylene. Thus, ethylene may have regulatory interaction with GSH in the alleviation of salt stress. The involvement of ethylene in the alleviation of salt stress by S application was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan). First, the effects of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0?mM SO4 (2) (-) were studied on photosynthetic and growth parameters to ascertain the S requirement as sufficient-S and excess-S for the plant. In further experiments, the effects of sufficient-S (1?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) and excess-S (2?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) were studied on the alleviation of salt stress-induced by 100?mM NaCl, and ethylene involvement in the alleviation of salt stress by S. Under non-saline condition, excess-S increased ethylene with less content of Cys and GSH and adversely affected photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, excess-S maximally alleviated salt stress due to high demand for S and optimal ethylene formation, which maximally increased GSH and promoted photosynthesis and growth. The involvement of ethylene in S-mediated alleviation of salt stress was further substantiated by the reversal of the effects of excess-S on photosynthesis by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor. The studies suggest that plants respond differentially to the S availability under non-saline and salt stress and excess-S was more potential in the alleviation of salt stress. Further, ethylene regulates plants' response and excess S-induced alleviation of salt stress and promotion of photosynthesis. PMID:24547902

  20. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  1. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step sol–gel method

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by sol–gel co-precursor process. • Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. • Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. • By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step sol–gel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H2O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other sol–gel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH4OH, EtOH and H2O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission

  2. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step solgel method

    Ramezani, Maedeh, E-mail: m.ramezani@merc.ac.ir [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, Mohammad Reza [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemzadeh, Asghar [Division of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by solgel co-precursor process. Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step solgel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H{sub 2}O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other solgel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH{sub 4}OH, EtOH and H{sub 2}O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission.

  3. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

  4. On the Variation of Water Diffusion Coefficient in Stratum Corneum With Water Content.

    Li, Xin; Johnson, Robert; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    Water permeability and transient water sorption data in human and porcine stratum corneum (SC) are analyzed in conjunction with equilibrium water sorption data and a dynamic skin swelling model to develop a quantitative model for water diffusivity in the SC as a function of its water content. The recommended function (model 1) is phenomenological and treats the SC as a uniform, swellable slab. This approach yields satisfactory agreement with experimental data over a wide range of RH and associated equilibrium SC water content, Cw. It is supported by two alternative approaches. Model 2 considers the SC to be a multilaminate membrane consisting of alternating lipid and protein layers. Diffusivity in the protein phase is estimated from water diffusivity in other keratinized tissues, whereas diffusivity in the lipid phase is assumed to be linearly related to the swelling strain on intercellular lipids. Model 3 uses an analysis previously suggested by Stockdale to rationalize transepidermal water loss data in humans over a wide range of relative humidity. All models yield similar results for 0.20 ? Cw ? 0.78 g/cm(3), the usual range of SC water content invivo. PMID:26886319

  5. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  6. Ion contents, relative electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm seedlings in response to salt stress

    Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Sodium ions, proline content and the percentage of relative electrolyte leakage in seedlings subjected to salt stress increased, depending on the degree of salt concentrations. Sodium ion accumulation in oil palm seedlings grown under 200 mM NaCl was enriched and positively related to membrane injury or relative electrolyte leakage subsequently correlated with total chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (OEPSII) and quantum efficiency of PSII (qP) in the seedlings under salt stress dropped significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth, especially in 200 mM NaCl. A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including sodium ion, relative electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II, Pn and plant dry weight was found. These data may further be applied to establish criteria for salt tolerance screening in oil palm breeding programs. (author)

  7. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  8. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ΔP rather than sigma ΔP2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ΔP is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

  9. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...

  10. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  11. Elementary Analyses and Heavy Metal Contents of Tap Waters in Konuralp District: Comparison of Mains Water, Spring Water and Zamzam

    Muammer Yılmaz 1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We meet our water needs such as city water supply, natural spring water, Zamzam water was aimed to compare in terms of chemical ion concentration and heavy metal content. Methods: City water from the four regions with different source, Zamzam water and bottled natural spring water in samples, ions and heavy metal values measured. Results have been assessed according to the criteria specified in the United States environmental protection agency (EPA and the World Health Organization (WHO. Results: In the sample of tap water taken from Konuralp, Al and Fe values were found over the EPA-WHO limit value. In the sample of bottled natural spring water, heavy metals are within the limits established. In the sample of Zamzam water Ca+2, Mg+2 values were higher than other samples but not exceeding the limits. In the sample of Zamzam water nitrate (NO3-, and vanadium (V values is very high from samples taken of the city water. Conclusion: Water content may be different with the water supply and environmental effects. More extensive analysis should be done by municipalities to drinking water that contains ions and heavy metal and citizens to know the measurements of the water they drink should be informed periodically of local authority’s websites.

  12. Salt-dependent increase in triterpenoids is reversible upon transfer to fresh water in mangrove plants Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Baba, Shigeyuki; Kinjo, Yuji; Putri, Lollie A P; Hakim, Luthfi; Oku, Hirosuke

    2012-12-15

    This study examined the salinity dependence of triterpenoid content and triterpenoid synthase gene expression in mangrove plants, Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Rhizophoraceae) after long-term exposure to salinity and subsequent re-adaptation. Seedlings of the two mangrove species grown in varying salt concentrations for 4 months were divided into two treatment groups and grown for another 4 months, one group continued under the respective saline condition and the other in fresh water for re-adaptation. The total content of triterpenoids increased with increasing salinity in roots and leaves of K. candel, but only in roots in B. gymnorrhiza. This increase was reversed to a variable extent, depending on the species and organ, after transfer to fresh water. In contrast, the total content of phytosterols showed no correlation with salinity throughout the experiment. The increase in total triterpenoids was accompanied by an up-regulation of several triterpenoid synthase genes: KcMS, a multifunctional triterpenoid synthase, in roots and leaves of K. candel and BgLUS, a lupeol synthase, and BgbAS, a β-amyrin synthase, in roots of B. gymnorrhiza. The expression of root KcCAS, a cycloartenol synthase, which is involved in phytosterol biosynthesis, was not modulated by the salinity conditions but decreased with increasing salinity in leaves, followed by the restoration to the initial level after transfer to fresh water. The concentrations of individual triterpenoids, but not of phytosterols, in the roots positively correlated with the salinity. These results reinforced the importance of triterpenoids in the adaptation of mangroves to withstand salt and/or water stress. PMID:22921677

  13. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    C. Comina; Lasagna, M.; D. A. De Luca; L. Sambuelli

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geoph...

  14. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    Comina, Cesare; Sambuelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (...

  15. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    C. Comina; Lasagna, M.; D. A. De Luca; L. Sambuelli

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncer...

  16. Water and Salt Stress in the Germination of Anadenanthera colubrina (Veloso Brenan Seeds

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify levels of tolerance in Anadenanthera colubrina seeds to water and saltstress simulated for polyethyleneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000, manitol and KCl. The seeds was collected from nine treesand stored in cold chamber at 5 ºC. For the evaluation of the germination under it water stress was used PEG 6000solutions and manitol, and under salt stress solutions of KCl in different osmotic potentials: 0.0 Mpa (control, -0.6MPa, -0.8 MPa, -1.0 MPa, -1.2 MPa and -1.4 Mpa. The seeds were made use in gerbox and placed in germinationchambers, under constant light to the temperature of 25 ºC. The percentage and the germination speed index (GSIwere evaluated. The seeds of Anadenanthera colubrina showed moderate tolerance to the water stress simulated byPEG 6000. The percentage of germination was affected from -1.0 MPa, and the GSI from -0.6 Mpa. Manitol did notreveal efficient in the simulation of water stress, therefore it did not reduce the percentage of germination. Under itsalt stress, simulated for KCl, the germination percentage was affected from the potential -1.2 MPa, characterizinga high limit of tolerance to this salt.

  17. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  18. Boron content of the Freetown drinking water

    A method is described for the analyses of water samples in the Freetown area of Sierra Leone for their boron concentrations. The method involves alpha counting during thermal neutron irradiation of the samples utilising the 10Ba(n,α)7Li reaction. The alpha counting is via a liquid scintillator which also incorporates the water samples. A detailed outline of the experimental setup is given and the results obtained from measurement on water samples presented. (author)

  19. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

  20. Water and sediment chemistry of Sutton Salt Lake, east Otago, New Zealand

    The Sutton Salt Lake is the only saline lake in New Zealand, and has formed in a windy cool-temperate maritime climate. Consequently, the lake is distinctly different from most of the world's saline lakes that form in arid continental settings. Sutton Salt Lake forms annually in a shallow (5 m) bedrock-floored depression c. 50 km from the nearest coast. The site receives c. 500 mm/year rainfall compared with coastal rainfall of near 1000 mm/year because of a minor rain-shadow effect of coastal hills. Surface evaporation rate is high (c. 700 mm/year) because of frequent strong winds. Sediments on the lake floor are derived by rain and wind erosion of the surrounding quartzofeldspathic schist bedrock, with a contribution from organic sources, particularly ostracods, and evaporative halite. The sediments have a higher proportion of phyllosilicates (muscovite, kaolinite, and chlorite) than the source rocks because of differential transport of these minerals into the lake depression. Lake water is entirely derived from rain, rather than groundwater, and the lake waters have had minimal chemical interaction with bedrock. Lake water pH is near 9 and pH of pore waters in drying lake sediments is near 8, compared with a pH near 7 for regional surface and ground waters. When full, the lake has salinity about one quarter to one third of that of sea-water, and ion ratios are similar to sea-water. The lake salinity is derived from marine aerosols in rainwater concentrated by c. 20,000 evaporation and refilling cycles in the lake depression. (author). 35 refs., 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)

    Koch ia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m-1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m-1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

  2. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm3. Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  3. Gas migration through salt rocks

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  4. Salts Production from Dead Sea by using Different Technological Methods: Prospective Outlook

    Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh; Hossam I. Al-Itawi

    2005-01-01

    This study presents alternative methods for the utilizing of Dead Sea resources. These include crystallization through cooling by passing the Dead Sea water across cooled surfaces, or by direct contact between a cooling agent and the water solution. The cooling process of the Dead Sea water leads to the saturation state, after which precipitation of the main salts occurs. However, more work is required to study the effect of freezing on the crystallization process and to obtain the equilibriu...

  5. Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh

    Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made available to participating farmers. Yields obtained by farmers with these varieties at both Noakhali and Satkhira ranged from 1 to 3 tons per hectare. Such a harvested yield, compared with nothing if land were left fallow, would provide a substantial increase in food crop production and a significant economic benefit to resource-poor farmers. The soil moisture neutron probe (SMNP) was used to measure the soil content in order to ensure optimal irrigation scheduling. The soil salinity observed after the harvest of the crops in March/April averaged 1.5 ppt with drip irrigation, compared to 6.9 ppt on fallow land, hence showing that there is no adverse effect on soil salinity associated with the sustainable and productive use of these fallow lands for additional food production and income generation.

  6. Active THz inspection of water content in plants

    Etayo, D.; Iriarte, J. C.; Palacios, I.; Teniente, J.; Ederra, I.; Gonzalo, R.

    2010-04-01

    The THz range offers the possibility of measuring water content. This can be useful in wine industry to control plants water levels and also to decrease irrigation costs. This paper presents a THz imaging system used to characterise water content in leaves using frequency and time domain methods from 0.14 to 0.22 THz. Our results show the possibility of getting useful information out of the preformed measurements.

  7. Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.

    Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and ind...

  8. Physiological Changes in Grapevines Induced by Osmotic Stress Originated from Salt and Their Role in Salt Resistance

    SİVRİTEPE, Nuray

    1999-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of Çavuş (salt-resistant), Müşküle (salt-sensitive) and Sultani Çekirdeksiz (moderately salt-sensitive) grapevine cultivars, grown in perlite medium, were subjected to salt stress by irrigating them with 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution including different NaCl concentrations (0.00, 0.50 and 0.75%). It was determined that stomatal conductance and transpiration were strongly inhibited in Müşküle and Sultani Çekirdeksiz with salt treatments, while these physiological activities we...

  9. Graphene Oxide Nanofiltration Membranes Stabilized by Cationic Porphyrin for High Salt Rejection.

    Xu, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Fu-Wen; Du, Yong; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-05-25

    Swelling has great influences on the structure stability and separation performance of graphene oxide laminate membranes (GOLMs) for water desalination and purification. Herein, we report cross-linked GOLMs from GO assembled with cationic tetrakis(1-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) by a vacuum-assisted strategy. The concave nonoxide regions (G regions) of GO are used as cross-linking sites for the first time to precisely control the channel size for water permeation and salt ion retention. Channels around 1 nm are constructed by modulating the assembly ratio of TMPyP/GO, and these cross-linked GOLMs show high salt rejection. PMID:27158976

  10. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd Thin–Long Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40°C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  11. The effect of salt solutes on the relaxation dynamics of water from 65 to 720 GHz

    Vinh, Nguyen; Sherwin, Mark; Allen, Jim; Plaxco, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    During the past decade, a variety of measurement techniques have provided evidence that ions and other solute molecules effect the structure and dynamics of the water molecules directly surrounding them. Most of these experiments have employed infrared spectroscopy which explores vibrational relaxation of the hydration shell by observing intramolecular vibrations. Terahertz spectroscopy, in contrast is sensitive to intermolecular dynamics. Here we use a vector network analyzer based terahertz dielectric relaxation spectrometer operating over the frequency range from 65 to 720 GHz. The literature on relaxation dynamics of water is extensive and variable. But these measurements clarify the situation and confirm that the dynamics of water over this regime are best described in terms of three Debye relaxation processes with the characteristic times of 8.56, 1.1 ps and 179 fs (at 25.0 C). Remarkably, while the relaxation times themselves are not sensitive to salt concentration, the relative strength of the relaxation modes depends in a systematic way on the solute molarity. We discuss these results by relating the salt concentration dependent strength of the three processes to the dynamics and structure of first three hydration shells. Our measurements shed light on the dynamics of hydration shells around solute molecules in a biologically relevant environment.

  12. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  13. Vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants (glycols + water + salts)

    The vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants have been studied for temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 343.15) K. The mixed-solvent desiccants investigated were aqueous-organic systems with salt. The studied organic solvents were diethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and dipropylene glycol. The chosen salts were lithium chloride and lithium bromide. Six ternaries (glycol/water/salt) were selected for this study. For each ternary system, four systems of which (4-25) mass% salt mixed with various glycols (50-80) mass% were investigated. Incorporated with the pseudo-solvent approach, a vapour pressure model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions was used to represent the measured vapour pressure of glycol/water/salt systems. A simplified density equation was applied to model the measured density of glycol/water/salt systems. Satisfactory results were obtained for vapour pressure and density calculations. The vapour pressures of the aqueous-organic systems with salt yield smaller values of vapour pressures compared to the conventionally used liquid desiccants. The properties obtained and presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations, such as the design of dehumidifier process using mixed-solvent desiccants as absorbents.

  14. Salt tectonics on Venus?

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (4700C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus

  15. Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Wheat Cultivars by Foliar Treatment with Antioxidant 2—Changes in Some Biochemical Aspects, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Amino Acid Contents

    Ebtihal M. Abd Elhamid; Mervat Sh. Sadak; Medhat M. Tawfik

    2014-01-01

    Ascobin (compound composed of ascorbic acid and citric acid) is considered one of exogenous protectants which may alleviate the harmful effects of salinity stress. Pot experiments were performed at the screen greenhouse of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt to study the effect of foliar treatment of two cultivars of wheat plant with different concentrations of ascobin (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/l) on some biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzymes, element contents an...

  16. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L-1 to 1,2 mg.L-1. Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na2SO4) > TR(CaCl2) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand Ps respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution.

  17. Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?

    Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

    2014-03-01

    Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

  18. Effects of Ammonium and Non-Ammonium Salt Additions on Methane Oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Maine Forest Soils†

    King, G M; Schnell, S

    1998-01-01

    Additions of ammonium and non-ammonium salts inhibit atmospheric methane consumption by soil at salt concentrations that do not significantly affect the soil water potential. The response of soils to non-ammonium salts has previously raised questions about the mechanism of ammonium inhibition. Results presented here show that inhibition of methane consumption by non-ammonium salts can be explained in part by ion-exchange reactions: cations desorb ammonium, with the level of desorption varying...

  19. Determination of the Thermal Properties of Sands as Affected by Water Content, Drainage/Wetting, and Porosity Conditions for Sands With Different Grain Sizes

    Smits, K. M.; Sakaki, T.; Limsuwat, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that liquid water, water vapor and temperature movement in the subsurface near the land/atmosphere interface are strongly coupled, influencing many agricultural, biological and engineering applications such as irrigation practices, the assessment of contaminant transport and the detection of buried landmines. In these systems, a clear understanding of how variations in water content, soil drainage/wetting history, porosity conditions and grain size affect the soil's thermal behavior is needed, however, the consideration of all factors is rare as very few experimental data showing the effects of these variations are available. In this study, the effect of soil moisture, drainage/wetting history, and porosity on the thermal conductivity of sandy soils with different grain sizes was investigated. For this experimental investigation, several recent sensor based technologies were compiled into a Tempe cell modified to have a network of sampling ports, continuously monitoring water saturation, capillary pressure, temperature, and soil thermal properties. The water table was established at mid elevation of the cell and then lowered slowly. The initially saturated soil sample was subjected to slow drainage, wetting, and secondary drainage cycles. After liquid water drainage ceased, evaporation was induced at the surface to remove soil moisture from the sample to obtain thermal conductivity data below the residual saturation. For the test soils studied, thermal conductivity increased with increasing moisture content, soil density and grain size while thermal conductivity values were similar for soil drying/wetting behavior. Thermal properties measured in this study were then compared with independent estimates made using empirical models from literature. These soils will be used in a proposed set of experiments in intermediate scale test tanks to obtain data to validate methods and modeling tools used for landmine detection.

  20. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

  1. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Sekar Sudharshan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salinity (110% w/v of tannery wastewater makes it difficult to be treated by conventional biological treatment. Salt tolerant microbes can adapt to these saline conditions and degrade the organics in saline wastewater. Results Four salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from marine and tannery saline wastewater samples were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth factors of the identified strains were optimized. Tannery saline wastewater obtained from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP near Chennai (southern India was treated with pure and mixed consortia of four salt tolerant bacterial strains. Experiments with optimized conditions and varying salt content (between 2 and 10% (w/v were conducted. Salt inhibition effects on COD removal rate were noted. Comparative analysis was made by treating the tannery saline wastewater with activated sludge obtained from CETP and with natural habitat microbes present in raw tannery saline wastewater. Conclusion Salt tolerant bacterial mixed consortia showed appreciable biodegradation at all saline concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% w/v with 80% COD reduction in particular at 8% salinity level the consortia could be used as suitable working cultures for tannery saline wastewater treatment.

  2. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  3. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force

  4. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe; E.A. Hammer; Y. Kaahwa

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, β expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, γs expressed in mL/L of salt...

  5. The production of metal salts by anodic dissolution

    Millington, P.; Surfleet, B. [EA Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Hoy, A. [Sherman Chemicals Ltd. (United Kingdom); Crowle, V.A. [ERG, Environmental Resource Group PLC (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    Electrochemical technology and its application to the production of metal salts was discussed. Electrochemical techniques offer high product yield and operate at high electrical efficiency. A minimum amount of effluent is produced which is an important environmental advantage. Three production techniques for salt were described. Salts can be produced by the reaction of an acid with a base, such as in the case of sodium sulphate. The process production technique is used for the manufacture of salts of more valuable metals by initiating a reaction between the metal or the metal oxide with the appropriate acid, such as in the case of cobalt bromide. An alternative to both these techniques is to use an electrochemical technique to aid the dissolution of the metal. This process involves pumping a solution of an appropriate acid through an electrochemical cell which contains, as an anode, a metal ingot. This last process is the one most environmentally acceptable. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  6. Access tube devices to monitor soil water content

    Cepuder, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Neutron Probe is considered to be one of the best indirect measurement-systems to obtain the soil water content. However, due to health problems and new measuring-techniques, other measurement systems have been developed and placed on the market. The IAEA in special tried hard to find alternatives to the radioactive measurement-techniques. Consequently, the IAEA in co-operation with institutes from Australia, France, Austria, and the USA compared the TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) and the FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) to the radioactive Neutron Probe. During the period from June 2000 to May 2002 those three measurement-systems were tested in practice at three locations in Lower Austria (sandy, loamy, and clay soil conditions) by the Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water-Management (University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna). The used equipment consisted of access tube devices TRIME (TDR), DIVINER 2000 (FDR), and SOLO 40 (radioactive). Once a week, measurements of soil water content were taken every 10 cm down to a depth of 1 m with three replications each. In the course of this experiment, all systems were field-calibrated and compared to standard-calibration. Concerning the practical utilisation the Diviner by Sentek is best to handle. After comparing those three systems for more than two years, the FDR-method has proved to be better in results and handling than TDR. The availability of appropriate measurement systems to determine the soil water content is a basic prerequisite for further descriptions of subsurface flow and solute transport process as well as for agricultural aspects.

  7. Characterizing the dynamics of Orimulsion spills in salt, fresh, and brackish water

    The objective of this study was to characterize the behaviour of Orimulsion spills under dynamic conditions in salt, fresh, and brackish water. The effect of surface or subsurface release of Orimulsion was also examined. A 600 litre tank filled with 400 litres of water was used for the experiments. A motorized hoop oscillated vertically beneath the surface of the water. A bitumen-to-water ratio of 1:1000 was used for all experiments. Water samples were withdrawn from the top and the bottom of the tank at different time intervals to analyze particle size distribution and concentration. Results showed that in brackish water, the coalescence of bitumen droplets was rapid. In fresh water, no increase in median particle size was detected. In all water types, bitumen concentration decreased significantly within 48 hours. There was also a significant difference in bitumen concentrations between the top and bottom addition runs with salt water. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  8. Sorption of pertechnetate by salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    The sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. Distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 ml/g were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K+, NH4+, Rb+ and Cs+ salts. A saturation capacity of proportional0,19 mmol/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was found from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase is supposed. (orig.)

  9. Sorption and pertechnetate by salts of molybdophosphoric acid

    The sorption of pertechnetate on salts of molybdophosphoric acid from nitric acid and in the presence of electrolytes was investigated. Distribution coefficients from 10 to 100 ml/g were found. The sorption of pertechnetate can be increased by the addition of K+, NH4+, Rb+ and Cs+ salts. A saturation capacity of proportional 0,19 mmol/g ammonium phosphomolybdate was found from the adsorption isotherms. The formation of alkali metal pertechnetate associates in the sorbent phase is supposed. (orig.)

  10. Nuclear reactor using molten salts cooled by helium

    This reactor is used to produce electricity, and consists of a vessel lined with graphite containing a heat transfer fuel formed by a molten salt mixture of the fluorides of fissile- and nonfissile metals, and possibly the fluorides of fertile metals. The salt is circulated through the reactor to create heat, and is then pumped through several heat exchangers to heat pressurized He. The hot He is circulated through a gas turbine driving an electricity generator

  11. Visualization of the stem water content of two genera with secondary phloem produced by successive cambia through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Robert, Elisabeth,; Schmitz, Nele; Copini, Paul; Gerkema, Edo; Vergeldt, Frank,; Windt, Carel,; Beeckman, Hans; Koedam, Nico; Van As, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs and trees with secondary phloem tissue produced by successive cambia mainly occur in habitats characterized by a periodical or continuous lack of water availability. The amount of this secondary phloem tissue in stems of Avicennia trees rises with increasing soil water salinity and decreasing inundation frequency. Hence, increased water storage in secondary phloem tissue produced by successive cambia was put forward to be advantageous in harsh environmental conditions. It was however n...

  12. Remote analysis of high-tritium-content water

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation. (authors)

  13. Study of the multiplication and kinetic effects of salt mixtures and salt blanket micromodels on thermal neutron spectra of heavy water MAKET facility

    The main goal of the Project is to study and evaluate nuclear characteristics of materials and isotopes involved in processes of irradiated nuclear fuel transmutation. This principal task is subdivided into 9 subtasks subject to the neutron or proton source used, the type of the nuclear process under study, isotope collection, characteristics of which are to be investigated, etc. In the presented extract of the Project Activity report the measurements there were used the MAKET zero-power heavy-water reactor in the measurements there was employed a large set of minor actinide samples highly enriched with the main isotope. The samples were obtained with mass-separator SM-2 (VNIIEF). At the heavy-water reactor MAKET (ITEP) there were measured multiplying and kinetic characteristics of salt mixtures basing on the spectra of fast and thermal neutrons. The salt mixtures of zirconium and sodium fluorides were available in salt blanket models (SBM) of cylindrical shape. There were measured the neutron spectra formed by this micro-model as well as the effective fission cross-sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes caused by SBM neutrons. The neutron spectra in the measurement positions were determined from activation reaction rates. (author)

  14. Extraction of erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium(3) nitrates by the mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate from water-salt solutions

    A study was made on extraction of rare earth nitrates by mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate at different component ratios, T = 298.15 K and pH2. It was established that compounds of [Ln(NO3)3L3], (R4N)i[Ln(NO3)3+i] (i = 2, 3), (R4N)2[Ln(NO3)5L], (L - tri-n-butyl phosphate, R4H+-cation of quaternary ammonium base) composition formed in organic phase. The values of extraction constants of homogeneous and mixed solvates of rare earth metal (3) nitrates decrease in metal (3) series: Er > Tm > Yb > Lu. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  15. Quantitative modeling of the Water Footprint and Energy Content of Crop and Animal Products Consumption in Tanzania

    felichesmi Selestine lyakurwa

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the link between water footprint and energy content of crop and animal products is vitally important for the sound management of water resources. In this study, we developed a mathematical relationship between water content, and energy content of many crops and animal products by using an improved LCA approach (water footprint). The standard values of the water and energy contents of crops and animal products were obtained from the databases of Agricultural Re...

  16. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  17. Control of dermestes Maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Through Combination Treatment of Salt Contents and Gamma Radiation on Dried Swordfish, Lepturacanthus Savala

    The effects of combination treatment of salt content and radiation against D. maculatus for the reduction of damage to dried swordfish were investigated. The developmental period of first instar larvae was prolonged with increasing salt content in fish sample. No adults were emerged from the first instar larvae in dried swordfish containing 14.48% salt. Maximum mortality of first and last instar larvae was found in 9.90 to 14.48% salt containing dried fish sample at treated with 1 kGy radiation dose within the two days after treatment.(author)

  18. Comparison of hyperspectral retrievals with vegetation water indices for leaf and canopy water content

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Qu, John J.; Wang, Lingli; Hao, Xianjun

    2011-09-01

    Leaf and canopy water contents provide information for leaf area index, vegetation biomass, and wildfire fuel moisture content. Hyperspectral retrievals of leaf and canopy water content are determined from the relationship of spectral reflectance and the specific absorption coefficient of water over the wavelength range of a water absorption feature. Vegetation water indices such as the Normalized Difference Water Index [NDWI = (R850 - R1240)/(R850 + R1240)] and Normalized Difference Infrared Index [NDII = (R850 - R1650)/(R850 + R1650)] may be calculated from multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, SPOT HRG, or MODIS. Predicted water contents from hyperspectral data were much greater than measured water contents for both leaves and canopies. Furthermore, simulated spectral reflectances from the PROSPECT and SAIL models also had greater retrieved leaf and canopy water contents compared to the inputs. Used simply as an index correlated to leaf and canopy water contents, hyperspectral retrievals had better predictive capability than NDII or NDWI. Atmospheric correction algorithms estimate canopy water content in order to estimate the amount of water vapor. These results indicate that estimated canopy water contents should have a systematic bias, even though this bias does not affect retrieved surface reflectances from hyperspectral data. Field campaigns in a variety of vegetation functional types are needed to calibrate both hyperspectral retrievals and vegetation water indices.

  19. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively...... coupled mass spectrometry. Results: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 mu g/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. Conclusions: Large...

  20. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  1. Effect of post treatments on the corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed duplex stainless steel coating in salt water

    The uniform composition of a thermally sprayed duplex stainless steel coating is essential to ensure its good corrosion resistance in salt water. Stainless steel coatings made by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) always contain pores and oxides accompanied with chromium-depleted zones which destroy the corrosion resistance of such coatings. To reduce porosity and oxidation of the coatings, several post treatments for the coatings sprayed by APS and by APS with gas shielding around the plasma jet (APS/S) were studied including resin impregnation, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), shot peening and vacuum annealing. Electrochemical corrosion tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the APS coatings could not be improved by any post treatments because oxidation during spraying caused chromium-depleted zones in the coating. The best corrosion resistance was obtained by using the shielding gas shroud with APS. Such coatings had a very low oxide content and primarily ferritic structure. The corrosion resistance of these APS/S coatings can be further improved by shot peening to densify the coating or by post annealing, which balances the austenite/ferrite ratio of the coating as well as reduce porosity

  2. Swelling pressure, water uptake, and permeability of 70/30 crushed salt/bentonite

    Two experiments were conducted on specimens consisting of 70 percent by dry weight crushed salt and 30 percent by dry weight bentonite. The experiments included fifteen tests and were designed to measure the swell pressures induced by the introduction of saturated Brine A, a high magnesium-content brine, and to measure permeability. Specimens of three dry densities were used: 1600 kgm-3, 1800 kgm-3, and 2100 kgm-3. Experiments were conducted in an oedometer which is a stiff pressure vessel designed to maintain specimens at constant volume. Test durations ranged from 3 to 112 days. When specimens were put into contact with brine, their swelling was inhibited by the oedometer, and the pressures that were required to restrict swelling were recorded. Permeability measurements were made on specimens with densities of 1600 kgm-3 and 1800 kgM-3 using the constant hydraulic head, steady-state flow method. Flow was neverestablished for the 2100 kgm-3 specimens. Including recent data, permeability changed approximately two orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10-15m2 to 1 x 10-17m2) as density increased from 1600 kg m-3 to 1950 kgm-3. Moisture content and distribution measurements were made on all specimens post-test. On the average, all specimens reached saturation; however, moisture content distributions were nonuniform in many specimens

  3. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel; Ren, Tusheng

    2014-01-01

    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (?RH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...

  4. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi; Omid Younesi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max) plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater...

  5. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    MJ Zibaeenezhad; Abtahi, F.; M Hooshangi; ST Heydari

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt) and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were select...

  6. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  7. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the...

  8. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in...

  9. Evaluation of Robust Heat Pulse Probes for Water Content Measurement

    Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Kluitenberg, G. J.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the vadose zone are typically highly variable, and are interrelated with water content. Thus, knowledge of temporal and spatial soil water content distributions is essential for understanding both natural and managed soil ecosystems. Despite the vast importance of soil water content, its measurement remains challenging as sensor capabilities are limited and deployment of sensor-networks are costly. Heat pulse sensors are advantageous for measuring water content and thermal properties of porous media. Measurements with these sensors are soil independent and data acquisition requirements are relatively simple. Though the principles have been tested in the laboratory, alternative probe designs are needed for application in field conditions. In this study we laboratory-tested a robust probe design and analyzed the results. Because of the larger-diameter probes of our design, for data interpretation we use a heat transfer solution that accounts for probe geometry as opprosed to the more traditional line-source model that can not be used.

  10. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.; Emeis, K.-C.; Kunzendorf, H.

    1997-01-01

    observations of salt-water ingressions. The sediment record of the dated core is marked by seven Mn/Fe-excursions and suggests that major inflows terminating longer stagnation periods have occurred more frequently during the last 250 years. This in turn suggests the more frequent generation of low-pressure...... areas over the North Atlantic in more recent times. The last three events have also been observed by hydrographic measurements. During the long time stagnation periods, Fe and Mn will be segregated into a particulate phase (iron sulfide) which accumulates at the seafloor and a dissolved phase (Mn2...... body. Mn/Fe-ratios in longer sediment cores thus have a potential to reconstruct chemical regimes of the deep water of the Baltic Sea in the past and indirectly trace variability in the strength and frequency of storms over the North Sea and the North Atlantic during the Holocene. Copyright (C) 1996...

  11. Stability and forcing of the Iceland-Faroe inflow of water, heat, and salt to the Arctic

    Hansen, B.; H. Hátún; Kristiansen, R.; Olsen, S.M.; Østerhus, S.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of Atlantic water across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (Atlantic inflow) is critical for conditions in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean by importing heat and salt. Here, we present a decade-long series of measurements from the Iceland-Faroe inflow branch (IF-inflow), which carries almost half the total Atlantic inflow. The observations show no significant trend in volume transport of Atlantic water, but temperature and salinity inc...

  12. Stability and forcing of the Iceland-Faroe inflow of water, heat, and salt to the Arctic

    Hansen, B.; H. Hátún; Kristiansen, R.; Olsen, S.M.; Østerhus, S.

    2010-01-01

    The flow of Atlantic water across the Greenland-Scotland Ridge (Atlantic inflow) is critical for conditions in the Nordic Seas and Arctic Ocean by importing heat and salt. Here, we present a decade-long series of measurements from the Iceland-Faroe inflow branch (IF-inflow), which carries almost half the total Atlantic inflow. The observations show no significant trend in volume transport of Atlantic water, but temperature and salinity increased during the observational period. On shorter tim...

  13. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  14. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under changing land uses.

  15. IMPACT OF INORGANIC SALT SOLUTIONS ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYMES ACTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS CONTENT IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM SEEDLINGS

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have several pharmacological effects such ashypoglycemia, hypocholesterolemia, gastroprotective, chemopreventive, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic andappetite stimulation attributes. This plant is known to contain many secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids,salicylate, and nicotinic acid. Present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of salinity on fenugreekantioxidative defense mechanism. The response of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase(POD activities as well as the pigment content in fenugreek seedlings was investigated after 24 days of treatment withinorganic salt solutions. It was used for treatment different concentration of NaCl alone and in combination with CaCl 2 aswell as MgCl 2 . The fenugreek treatment was effected to elucidate the adverse effect of NaCl salinity and its possibleamelioration by CaCl 2 or MgCl 2 . Generally, all treatments diminished the activity of antioxidant enzymes take in thestudy with one exception (150mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 in case of SOD. Only a few concentrations (50mM NaCl,100mM NaCl, 50mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 , 150mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 , 100mM NaCl+20 MgCl 2 increased thefenugreek soluble protein content. Both CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 treatments applied alone and in combination determined anincrease of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b and carotenoids contents compared with control

  16. Effect of calcium salts and surfactant concentration on the stability of water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions prepared with polyglycerol polyricinoleate.

    Mrquez, Andrs L; Medrano, Alejandra; Panizzolo, Luis A; Wagner, Jorge R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work was to obtain water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions with polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) as emulsifier and to study the effect of the addition of calcium in the dispersed aqueous phase on the stability of these systems. Emulsions were formulated with 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0% w/w PGPR and 10% w/w water containing calcium chloride at varied concentrations or other salts (calcium lactate or carbonate; sodium, magnesium or potassium chloride). The stability of these systems was studied with a vertical scan analyzer during 15 days; coalescence and sedimentation were observed as simultaneous destabilization processes. The increase of PGPR concentration and/or calcium chloride content gave more stable emulsions. The stabilizing effect of calcium salt was attributed to the diminution of the water droplets size, the decrease of the attractive force between water droplets and the increase of the adsorption density of the emulsifier. The viscoelastic parameters of the interfacial film were decreased with increasing calcium and PGPR concentrations. Calcium chloride produced a higher increase of stability than calcium salts with lower dissociation degree. The presence of any assayed salt in the aqueous phase also allowed the stabilization of w/o emulsions with higher water contents. PMID:19822323

  17. Salt water intrusion in the aquifers in the south oriental coastal zones of Sicily

    Along the oriental south coast Sicily are present a plurality of phenomenons of interest concomitant hydrogeological, they had focused the attention both of the Authorities of the control of the water resources and those of the researchers interested to the study of the environmental problems. The progressive salting up of the aquifers coastal it is becoming, in Sicily, one of the maximum problems. The causes of such phenomenon are well noted and resume in two terms: ground water mining and irrationality of the wells use. Every lack of control in the distribution of the wells and the wrong and having opposite effect modalities with which water is extracted, are to the origin of the instant lowering phenomenons and, finally, progressive of the piezometric level of the underground aquifer coastal. By now, in different coast lines, also to different kilometers from the shore- line, depression zones are found in which the dynamic level also reaches negative values some times superior to the 150 meters under the sea level and the static level also superior to the 60 meters always under the sea level. This situation determines, within the coastal aquifers, a rapids salt water intrusion with consequent progressive salting up of the sweet aquifers. Such pollution manifests it in very persistent way and alone slow the native conditions could also be recovered after the elimination of the phenomenon causes. The salinity increase in the underground aquifer it happens with greater rapidity and with so much greater gravity when aquifer is carbonatic type, as that of the study areas, that is interested from karst phenomenons and from tectonic fractures. The thematic that, under these conditions, attracted the attention of the researchers were: The underground runs of the submarine springs feeding, to be able to value possibility of earth intercept. The relationships established along the coastal lines, in the coastal aquifers, among sweet water and sea water and the preferential streets followed by intrusion. The pollutants diffusion, organic and chemical, particularly hydrocarbons and heavy metals, in the round waters and their dispersion in the sea water. The induced variations to the phenomenons above- mentioned, from the antropic interventions realized in the hinterland: obstruction dams, springs intercept, wells distribution and exploitation modality. A project, on purpose compiled, financed by UNESCO and IAEA, and finalized to the phenomenons study of which above, it has as object the possibility to experiment the methodologies applicability of isotopic analysis in the wells and springs study, with particular reference to those submarine, observing and attentively valuing the complexes relationships that coexist between underground waters and sea waters along the Sicily coastal regions. To such purpose has been formulated a research program based on the samplings and analysis of the springs waters individualized to inland and to sea and some wells on purpose selected present along the coast line from North Syracuse to South-West Donnalucata. We had retained opportune to effect, in coincidence with the seasonal variations, 4 series of annual drawing of water samples to be submitted to analysis chemical-physics; the study program had beginning with the first series of samplings in the individualized zones in the March's month 2002 and they still continues in the year 2004. Shown are the water points of which the periodic sampling is foreseen. The sampled points are 31, it are divided in the 5 zones: Zone A. - Ciane: n. 4 inland springs and n.5 wells; Zone B - Ognina: n. 1 submarine springs n. 2 wells; Zone C - Cassibile: n. 5 wells and 2 submarine springs; Zone D - Avola: n. 2 inland springs and n. 2 submarine springs; Zone E - Donnalucata: n. 5 wells and n. 2 submarine springs and n. 1 inland springs. The analyses are conducted by different groups of search of three Italian Universities and precisely: 1. Palermo University will effect the analyses inherent: Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Ni, As, Hg); Microcontaminants (NO2-, NO

  18. Fitoextração de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a extração de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sódico sob condições de estresse hídrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e após seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sódico em quatro níveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo, montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições. As altas concentrações de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas à elevada produção de massa seca, caracterizam esta espécie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variáveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases e o carbono orgânico total, permaneceram estáveis entre o início e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sódio trocável diminuíram após o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produção de biomassa e a extração de sais.This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity with a control (soil without plant. The experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. The variables of the exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, sum of bases and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while Na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. The Atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.

  19. Compression Behaviour of Reconstituted Soils at High Initial Water Contents

    Hong, Zhenshun; Yin, Jie; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Oedometer tests starting from a very small effective vertical stress of 0.5 kPa were performed on three reconstituted clays with different liquid limits. The soils were prepared at various initial water contents, ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 times their corresponding liquid limits. It is observed that the e-log?v compression curves show an inverse ?S? shape due to suction pressure resisting deformation, similar to that of soft natural clays caused by consolidation yield stress. The suction pressu...

  20. Compression Behaviour of Reconstituted Soils at High Initial Water Contents

    Hong, Zhenshun; Yin, Jie; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2010-01-01

    Oedometer tests starting from a very small effective vertical stress of 0.5 kPa were performed on three reconstituted clays with different liquid limits. The soils were prepared at various initial water contents, ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 times their corresponding liquid limits. It is observed that the e-logσv´ compression curves show an inverse “S” shape due to suction pressure resisting deformation, similar to that of soft natural clays caused by consolidation yield stress. The suction pressu...

  1. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran at different temperatures

    M L Parmar; M K Guleria

    2005-07-01

    Relative viscosities for the solutions of oxalic acid and its salts, viz. ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, at different concentrations have been determined in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) [5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of THF] at 298.15 K, and in water and in 5% (w/w) THF + water at five different temperatures. The data have been evaluated using the Jones-Dole equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have been obtained which depicts the mechanism of viscous flow. The oxalic acid and its salts behave as structure breakers in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of THF.

  2. Electrochemical and physicochemical properties of small phosphonium cation ionic liquid electrolytes with high lithium salt content.

    Girard, G M A; Hilder, M; Zhu, H; Nucciarone, D; Whitbread, K; Zavorine, S; Moser, M; Forsyth, M; MacFarlane, D R; Howlett, P C

    2015-04-14

    Electrolytes of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), trimethyl(isobutyl)phosphonium (P111i4) bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) with a wide range of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt concentrations (up to 3.8 mol kg(-1) of salt in the RTIL) were characterised using a combination of techniques including viscosity, conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We show that the FSI-based electrolyte containing a high salt concentration (e.g. 1 : 1 salt to IL molar ratio, equivalent to 3.2 mol kg(-1) of LiFSI) displays unusual transport behavior with respect to lithium ion mobility and promising electrochemical behavior, despite an increase in viscosity. These electrolytes could compete with the more traditionally studied nitrogen-based ionic liquids (ILs) in lithium battery applications. PMID:25820549

  3. Tomato salt tolerance: Impact of grafting and water composition on yield and ion relations

    We evaluated the salt tolerance of tomato cv Big Dena under both non-grafted 2 conditions and when grafted on Maxifort rootstock, under a series of 5 salinity levels and two irrigation water composition types. The salinity levels of the irrigation water were -0.03, -0.15, -0.30, -0.45, and -0.60 MPa...

  4. Accurate determination of DNA content in single cell nuclei stained with Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome at high salt concentration.

    Araki, T; Yamamoto, A; Yamada, M

    1987-01-01

    In an attempt to achieve accurate quantification of DNA levels in cell nuclei, we studied the influence of salt concentration on the fluorescence of cell nuclei complexed with Hoechst-33258 (Hoe) fluorochrome. The fluorescence of cell nuclei was compared with that of extracted DNA as well as that of nucleosome core. Conformational changes in these complexes were examined by measuring both fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence lifetime in the nanosecond region. The results showed that the fluorescence of DNA-Hoe was quenched by the nucleosomal structure, there being an associated increase in anisotropy and a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime; however, the fluorescence was restored to the original level by the addition of a high concentration of NaCl, CsCl, or LiCl. The reduction in fluorescence may have been due to loss of fluorescence energy caused by collision of the fluorophore with histones in the nucleosome. The addition of 1 M NaCl to the medium used for staining with Hoe greatly stabilized the fluorescence of DNA in cell nuclei. The DNA content of individual cell nuclei was determined by comparing the fluorescence of these nuclei with that of a standard DNA solution. For lymphocytes and liver ploidy cells, reasonably accurate values were obtained by applying the present method. PMID:2447036

  5. Composition for preventing salt depositing

    Mikhaylov, S.A.; Balakin, V.M.; Lezhenin, V.V.; Litvinets, Yu.I.; Marinin, N.S.; Talankin, V.S.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for preventing salt depositing which includes polyethylene-polyamine-N-methyl phosphonic acid or its salt and water. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the degree of prevention of the salt depositing under low temperature conditions, it additionally contains ethylene glycol with the following ratio of components (% by mass): polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid or its salt 5-12; ethylene glycol 30-50; water--the rest.

  6. Genetic uniformity of ion-salt composition of water of Balkhash-Ile and Aral-Syr-Darya basins

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Small Aral and the Lake Balkhash are ones of the largest inland water bodies of Kazakhstan. Their water ways are the Syrdariya and Ili rivers. The ion-salt regime is considered as the most important parameter in water chemistry of natural water objects. The peculiarity of water composition of the Lake Balkhash and desalinated area of the Small Aral with mineralization 2100–6000 mg/dm3 is the dominance of sulfate ions among anions and in the cation composition an increase in the concentration of alkali metals is fixed. The ionic composition of the water is characterized by an index SІІNa. Further growth of water mineralization within 5000–11700 mg/dm3 leads to the formation of mixed composition of water, then to the dominance of sulfate and chloride ions. The composition of water becomes an index SІІNa → SCIІІNa → CIІІNa .

  7. Tailoring of poly(vinyl alcohol cryogels properties by salts addition

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to study the possibility to modify the properties of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA hydrogels prepared in the presence of different salt types (Na2SO4, NaCl and NaNO3 in order to extend the nature of the salts already used in obtaining films or gels, to expand their concentration domains and to explain the increase of film strain, concomitantly with the increase of their crystallinity. The morphology of the PVA based hydrogels has been studied by Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM, the interaction between the PVA macromolecular chains and salts has been determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, while the mechanical properties of the cryogels have been investigated by oscillatory dynamic mechanical measurements. The gels swelling in water have been monitored by gravimetric method in order to evidence the alteration of the PVA cryogel properties such as crystallinity and porosity determined by the salt addition to the initial PVA aqueous solution. The data reported show that the ions present in the PVA solution influence the interaction between PVA-water and PVA-PVA chains; their influence on the salt-based PVA hydrogels follow the Hofmeister lyotropic series.

  8. Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low-concentration salt water.

    Yuan, Lulu; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia

    2012-04-01

    A new technology (CDI-MFC) that combined capacitive deionization (CDI) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to treat low-concentration salt water with NaCl concentration of 60mg/L. The water desalination rate was 35.6mg/(Lh), meanwhile the charge efficiency was 21.8%. Two desorption modes were investigated: discharging (DC) mode and short circuit (SC) mode. The desalination rate in the DC mode was 200.63.1mg/(Lh), 47.8% higher than that in the SC mode [135.715.3mg/(Lh)]. The average current in the DC mode was also much higher than that of the SC mode. The energy stored in the CDI cell has been reused to enhance the electron production of MFC by the discharging desorption mode (DC mode), which offers an approach to recover the electrostatic energy in the CDI cell. PMID:22364771

  9. Correlation of liquid-liquid equilibrium data of water + inorganic salt + alcohol systems using the MNRTL model

    Gomis Yagües, Vicente; Ruiz Beviá, Francisco; Saquete Ferrándiz, María Dolores; Boluda Botella, Nuria

    2002-01-01

    The liquid-liquid equilibrium of water+salt+alcohol systems have been correlated and predicted using the MNRTL model (Chen et al., 1982). The MNRTL model uses the extended Debye-Hückel formula proposed by Pitzer (1980) to represent the contribution of long range ion-ion interactions while the NRTL local composition model is used to represent the contribution of short range interactions of all kinds. The alcohols studied were the different propanols, butanols and pentanols. The salts were NaCl...

  10. Heavy metal contents and other physical quality indices of sewerage, canal and drinking water

    Analysis of Cd, Pb and Cu in canal, sewerage and drinking water by potentiometric stripping analysis (PSA) is described. Other quality indices of water such as temperature, pH, EC and total solid were also determined. The levels of heavy metal contents of sewerage, canal and drinking water revealed marked differences and wide coefficient of variability (CV). Generally Cd and Pb contents were higher in sewerage than canal and drinking water. However, Cu content of drinking waters was higher than other water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water tested. The total solids were found to be generally higher in sewerage and canal water than drinking water The variations in temperature, pH and EC were marginal to marked depending upon the source and the location. (author)

  11. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per; Karup Jensen, Dan; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water......%). While the first model encompasses all 150 soils regardless of organic carbon (OC) content, the second model considers only soils with OC<2.4%. Independent validation of the proposed regression models at 50, 60 and 90% RH using literature data for water vapour adsorption showed reasonably accurate...... for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour...

  12. Martian hydrogeology sustained by thermally insulating gas and salt hydrates

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Furfaro, Roberto; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; David R. Montgomery; Gillespie, Alan R.; Marion, Giles M.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations and geologic studies suggest that high thermal anomalies beneath, within, and above thermally insulating layers of buried hydrated salts and gas hydrates could have triggered and sustained hydrologic processes on Mars, producing or modifying chaotic terrains, debris flows, gullies, and ice-creep features. These simulations and geologic examples suggest that thick hydrate deposits may sustain such geothermal anomalies, shallow ground-water tables, and hydrogeologic activi...

  13. An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content

    Shi, Jianchu; Li, Sen; Zuo, Qiang; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-03-01

    Governed by atmospheric demand, soil water conditions and plant characteristics, plant water status is dynamic, complex, and fundamental to efficient agricultural water management. To explore a centralized signal for the evaluation of plant water status based on soil water status, two greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots on wheat and rice were conducted. Due to the significant offset between the distributions of soil water and roots, wheat receiving subsurface irrigation suffered more from drought than wheat under surface irrigation, even when the arithmetic averaged soil water content (SWC) in the root zone was higher. A significant relationship was found between the plant water deficit index (PWDI) and the root-weighted (rather than the arithmetic) average SWC over root zone. The traditional soil-based approach for the estimation of PWDI was improved by replacing the arithmetic averaged SWC with the root-weighted SWC to take the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots into consideration. These results should be beneficial for scheduling irrigation, as well as for evaluating plant water consumption and root density profile.

  14. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol  %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

  15. Effects of salinity variations on pore water flow in salt marshes

    Shen, Chengji; Jin, Guangqiu; Xin, Pei; Kong, Jun; Li, Ling

    2015-06-01

    Spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore water commonly exist in salt marshes under the combined influence of tidal inundation, precipitation, evapotranspiration, and inland freshwater input. Laboratory experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to investigate how density gradients associated with salinity variations affect pore water flow in the salt marsh system. The results showed that upward salinity (density) gradients could lead to flow instability and the formation of salt fingers. These fingers, varying in size with the distance from the creek, modified significantly the pore water flow field, especially in the marsh interior. While the flow instability enhanced local salt transport and mixing considerably, the net effect was small, causing only a slight increase in the overall mass exchange across the marsh surface. In contrast, downward salinity gradients exerted less influence on the pore water flow in the marsh soil and slightly weakened the surface water and groundwater exchange across the marsh surface. Numerical simulations revealed similar density effects on pore water flow at the field scale under realistic conditions. These findings have important implications for studies of marsh soil conditions concerning plant growth as well as nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal marine system.

  16. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    The use of uncollimated (undirected) neutron moisture meters is common in the biological and geophysical sciences. A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable measurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: (i) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts, (ii) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts, (iii) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator, and (iv) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The distance and the angular dimensions of the volume of influence were defined as the horizontal distance of neutron penetration from the edge of the probe, the vertical distance above and below the center of the effective measurement of the probe, and the angle from the center of the probe, which would allow the determination of relative water content to within 95%. The vertical distance was approximately 0.5 m, the horizontal distance was approximately 0.2 m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was approximately 120 degrees. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less

  17. Effect of gypsum content on soil water retention

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Herrero, J.

    2015-09-01

    Many gypsiferous soils occur in arid lands, where the water retention capacity of the soil is vital to plant life and crop production. This study investigated the effect of gypsum content on the gravimetric soil water retention curve (WRC). We analyzed calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), equivalent gypsum content (EG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), and electrical conductivity of 43 samples collected from various horizons in soils in the Ebro Valley, NE Spain. The WRC of the fine earth was determined using the pressure-plate method (pressure heads = 0, -33, -100, -200, -500, and -1500 kPa), and the gravimetric water retention curves were fitted to the unimodal van Genuchten function. Soil gypsum content had a significant effect on water retention. Soils that had high gypsum content made WRC with higher water retention at near saturation conditions, and steeper WRC slopes. The EG threshold at which gypsum content had an effect on WRC was about 40%, and EG was positively and negatively correlated with the α and n parameters of the WRC, respectively.

  18. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil water content of the upper 1 meter soil layer up to 53 mm at the end of vegetation period in comparison to the afforested area. Finally, soil water content profiles of stony soil differ from homogeneous ones and contain less water comparing to soil without stones.

  19. Potassium influence on the sorption of 134Cs and 83Rb by AMP in fresh and salty waters

    Samples of fresh or simulated ocean waters were used to study ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) pre-concentration for cesium and rubidium in the presence and in the absence of natural rubidium and potassium salts using radioactive tracers (134Cs and 83Rb). Measurements were done using high resolution gamma spectrometry. The results suggest that for fresh waters both Cs and Rb ions precipitate with AMP, whereas for salty waters Rb precipitation is affected by potassium content. Cesium is always adsorbed almost quantitatively. (author)

  20. Sugar and water contents of honey with dielectrc property sensing

    The dielectric properties of pure yellow locust, jujube and rape flower honey and their water-adulterated products with water content from 18% to 42.6% were measured with open-ended coaxial-line probe technology and a network analyzer from 10 to 4500 MHz at 25oC. Dielectric constants of pure honeys ...