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1

Innovative nondestructive measurements of water activity and the content of salts in low-salt hake minces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impedance spectroscopy (IS), low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF (1)H NMR), chloride titration, ion chromatography, and an ion selective electrode were used to investigate the physicochemical parameters and measure sodium and potassium contents in low-salt brines and fish. Salt solutions (0-3 w/w, %) and model products of minced hake with added NaCl (0.5-3.0 w/w, %), or a mixture of NaCl and KCl (50/50 w/w, %), were analyzed. Good correlation was observed between the sodium content determined by using the ion selective electrode method and ion chromatography (R(2) = 0.97). In both salt solutions and fish minces, the impedance spectroscopy measurements could detect the difference in salt contents in mince with salt contents down to 0.5%. The NMR transversal relaxation time T2 measurements clearly distinguished samples with 0, 0.5, and 1.0-3.0% salt, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, LF (1)H NMR seems to be a suitable technique for studies of low-salt products. PMID:24617416

Greiff, Kirsti; Fuentes, Ana; Aursand, Ida G; Erikson, Ulf; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Barat, Jose M

2014-03-26

2

Laboratory investigation of water content within rock salt and its behavior in a temperature field of disposed high-level waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of rock salt from different North German salt mines showed that at least three components of water exist within the rock salt. The majority of the water is from water of hydration of the minor minerals in the salt and from intergranular water adsorbed to the crystal boundaries. The amount of water from fluid inclusions in the salt of North German mines is comparatively low. In order to investigate the thermal liberation of the different water components within the rock salt, the loss of weight as a function of time at different constant temperatures between 90 and 6300C was measured. Salt samples from the Asse salt mines from different depths and stratigraphic layers were analyzed for their water content. Water content was not constant but depended on the amount of minor minerals present containing water of hydration. As the majority of the water within the rock salt is associated with the minerals polyhalite and kieserite, the thermal behavior and the liberation of the hydration water from these minerals were analyzed. The liberation temperature of water was found to be dependent on the humidity of the air above the sample. The diffusivity of rock salt samples from the Asse salt mines was measured and was found to decrease with increasing temperature, which meant that it is inversely proportional to the water vapor within the intergranular spaces

3

Modification of cadaverine content by NO in salt-stressed maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

NO has an important role in the control of plant development, growth, and the response to abiotic stress. In our recent paper it was demonstrated that NO affected the salt-induced changes in free amino acid levels in maize. (1) Since polyamines are synthesized from lysine and arginine, it was supposed that their concentrations are also influenced by NO. Cadaverine levels were increased by a NO donor and decreased by an inhibitor of NO synthesis in salt-stressed maize. These findings indicate that NO participates in the mediation of the effect of salt on cadaverine content. The coordinated changes in the NO and cadaverine levels may be involved in regulating of the response to salt stress in maize. PMID:24398894

Simon-Sarkadi, Livia; Ludidi, Ndiko; Kocsy, Gábor

2014-01-01

4

Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance  

Science.gov (United States)

From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

1987-01-01

5

Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m3 and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository

6

Synthesis, crystallization and characterization of diastereomeric salts formed by ephedrine and malic acid in water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A screening of crystallization conditions for the diastereomeric salts formed by L/D-malic acid and a common resolving agent, L-Ephedrine, in water is reported. So far, 7 different forms of salts with 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were successfully crystallized, including one previously reported 1:1 LL salt. All new salts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state NMR and powder XRD. 1:1 stoichiometry fav...

Wu, H.; West, A. R.; Vickers, M.; Apperley, D. C.; Jones, A. G.

2012-01-01

7

Effect of water phase salt content and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes survival in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe and caviar (ikura).  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmon caviar, or ikura, is a ready-to-eat food prepared by curing the salmon roe in a brine solution. Other seasonings or flavorants may be added, depending upon the characteristics of the product desired. Listeria monocytogenes growth is a potential risk, since it can grow at high salt concentrations (>10%) and in some products at temperatures as low as 3 degrees C. Ikura was prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe by adding food-grade NaCl to yield water phase salt contents (WPS) of 0.22% (no added salt), 2.39%+/- 0.18%, 3.50%+/- 0.19%, and 4.36%+/- 0.36%. A cocktail containing L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113) was incorporated into the ikura at 2 inoculum levels (log 2.4 and 4.2 CFU/g), and stored at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 30 d. L. monocytogenes was recovered by plating onto modified Oxford media. Aerobic microflora were analyzed on plate count agar. Samples were tested at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d. L. monocytogenes did not grow in chum salmon ikura held at 3 degrees C during 30 d at any salt level tested; however, the addition of salt at these levels did little to inhibit Listeria growth at 7 degrees C and counts reached 5 to 6 logs CFU/g. Components in the salmon egg intracellular fluid appear to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. Total aerobic microflora levels were slightly lower in products with higher salt contents. These results indicate that temperature control is critical for ikura and similar products, but that products with lower salt contents can be safe, as long as good refrigeration is maintained. PMID:17995738

Shin, Joong-Han; Rasco, Barbara A

2007-06-01

8

Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

MØller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.

2012-01-01

9

Silicon alleviates the deleterious salt effect on tomato plant growth by improving plant water status.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to investigate the role of Si in alleviating the deleterious effects of salinity on tomato plant growth, the tomato cultivar Moneymaker was grown with 0 or 80mM NaCl combined with 0 and 2.5mM Si. Plant growth parameters, salt accumulation in plant tissues and plant water relations were analysed. Si treatment did not alter salt input into the plant or salt distribution between plant organs. There were non-significant differences in plant water uptake, but plant water content in salinised plants supplied with Si was 40% higher than in salinised plants that were not supplied with Si. Plants treated with NaCl alone showed a reduction in plant dry weight and total plant leaf area of 55% and 58%, respectively, while the reduction in plants treated with NaCl plus Si was only 31% and 22%, respectively. Leaf turgor potential and net photosynthesis rates were 42% and 20% higher in salinised plants supplied with Si than in salinised plants that were not supplied with Si. Water use efficiency calculated from instantaneous gas exchange parameters and as the ratio between plant dry matter and plant water uptake were, respectively, 17% and 16% higher in salinised plants supplied with Si. It can be concluded that Si improves the water storage within plant tissues, which allows a higher growth rate that, in turn, contributes to salt dilution into the plant, mitigating salt toxicity effects. PMID:16777532

Romero-Aranda, Mercedes R; Jurado, Oliva; Cuartero, Jesús

2006-07-01

10

Weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep is attributed to the influence of trace amounts of brine. Experiments carried out on dry dilated salt show more or less conventional dislocation creep behaviour, but brine-bearing samples show marked weakening at low strain rates. This is associated with dynamic recrystallization and a change of deformation mechanism to solution transfer creep. Because natural rock salt always contains some brine, these results are relevant to the long-term evolution of salt-based radioactive waste repositories and strategic storage caverns. (U.K.)

11

Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective

12

Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ?2.4 g/cm3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

13

Adsorption of water vapor by poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt: isothermal and isobaric adsorption equilibria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air conditioning and dehumidifying systems based on sorption on solids are of great interest, especially in humid climates, because they allow reduction of thermal loads and use of chlorofluorocarbons. Previous studies have shown that hydrophilic polymers such as sulfonic polymers can have very high performance in water adsorption from air. The aim of this study was to characterize the water vapor adsorption properties of fully sulfonated and monosulfonated poly(styrenesulfonic acid), sodium salt, and to elucidate the mechanism of adsorption on these materials. Adsorption isotherms have been determined by TGA between 298 and 317 K for pressures ranging from 0.1 to 45 hPa. They have type II of the IUPAC classification and a small hysteresis loop between adsorption and desorption processes was observed only for the monosulfonated sample. Water content is up to 80% weight at 80% relative humidity. Adsorption isotherms have been well fitted with the FHH model. Adsorption-desorption isobars have been determined by TGA under 37 hPa in the temperature range 298-373 K. They show that these polymers can be completely regenerated by heating at 313 K under humidified air. No degradation of the adsorption properties has been observed after several regenerations. Adsorption enthalpies and entropies have been deduced from the Clapeyron equation and from DSC measurements. A good agreement was found. A mechanism of adsorption is proposed considering two kinds of adsorbate: bounded water in electrostatic interaction with functional groups and free water resulting from condensation. PMID:15533403

Toribio, F; Bellat, J P; Nguyen, P H; Dupont, M

2004-12-15

14

Biological treatment of waste waters of high salt content; Depuracion biologica de efluentes con alto contenido salino  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fish canning industry, a national industrial sector of economical significance, generates high volumes of wastewater containing a high organic load and salt concentration. In addition to other problems presented for the aerobic biological treatment of these effluents, the presence of a high chloride concentration produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. In this work the inhibitory effect of chloride has been analyzed by means of a biokinetic study carried out using the electrolytic respirometry techniques and tuna boiling water as wastewater. This kind of study is highly appropriated for the search of solutions to specific problems created during the treatment of different industrial sectors wastewater. (Author) 10 refs.

Perez, A.I.; Goytia, M.; Muguruza, I.; Blanco, F. [GAIKER, Zamudio (Spain)

1996-09-01

15

Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

2014-06-28

16

Neutron moderation for measuring the MgCl2 content in crude potassium salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mineral carnallite (KCl . MgCl2 . 6 H2O) contained in crude potassium salts has a stoichiometric crystal water content. Using the effect of neutron moderation by hydrogen this permits the measurement of the MgCl2 content in potassium crude salts, which is important for optimizing technological processes in potassium salt production. Information is given on measuring arrangement as well as research and testing of a continuously working measuring procedure for the potash industry. (author)

17

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

18

Determination of water content of plant leaves by beta attenuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of determination of absolute water content of a plant leaf, based upon the measured relative intensities and the mass attenuation coefficient of ?-particles from 204T1 through the fresh and dry leaves of the plant, is described. Moisture content of plant leaves of Cotton, Sunflower, Mung and Spinach as estimated by this method agrees with the direct weighing measurements within ±4%. (Author)

19

Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered ? ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

20

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

2015-01-01

22

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-01-01

23

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-02-01

24

Electromotive Force Generation with Hydrogen Release by Salt Water Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

By considering an electrolyte solution in motion in a duct under a transverse magnetic field, we notice that a so called Faraday voltage arises because of the Lorentz force acting on anions and cations in the fluid. When salt water is considered, hydrogen production takes place at one of the electrodes if an electric current, generated by Faraday voltage, flows in an external circuit. The maximum amount of hydrogen production rate is calculated by basic electrochemical concepts.

Roberto De Luca

2011-01-01

25

Electromotive Force Generation with Hydrogen Release by Salt Water Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By considering an electrolyte solution in motion in a duct under a transverse magnetic field, we notice that a so called Faraday voltage arises because of the Lorentz force acting on anions and cations in the fluid. When salt water is considered, hydrogen production takes place at one of the electrodes if an electric current, generated by Faraday voltage, flows in an external circuit. The maximum amount of hydrogen production rate is calculated by basic electrochemical concepts.

Roberto De Luca

2011-10-01

26

Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ? 0,92 and pH ? 4,4 or pH ? 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

Daskalov Hristo

2013-09-01

27

Exceptionally Fast Water Desalination at Complete Salt Rejection by Pristine Graphyne Monolayers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise to solve the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics si...

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-01-01

28

Water release and mechanical failure in heated geologic salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The rate of water release and the acoustic emission rate were measured in heated specimens of geologic salt. These measurements show that changes in thermal power applied to the salt cause increased acoustic emission from the salt. The acoustic emission is caused by the salt's cracking. The salt's cracking enhances its prompt release of water

29

Evaluating Soil Water Content Sensors by Simulating High Clay Content Soils with Varied Relaxation - and Electrically Conductive-Dielectric Liquids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water content is an important parameter of soil impacting the physical, chemical and biological properties and processes within. Presently, most of the soil water content sensors on the market are based on electromagnetic (EM) field and dielectric permittivity theory. Water content is essentially determined by soil dielectric properties yielding accurate determinations in most cases because of the high permittivity of water (80) relative to other soil constituents. When it comes to soil textu...

Wang, Congying; Jones, Scott

2009-01-01

30

Soil water management: evaluation of infiltration in furrow irrigarion systems, assessing water and salt content spatially and temporally in the Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat area.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainability of irrigated agriculture is a growing concern in the Baix Llobregat area. Although irrigated land accounts for a substantial proportion of food supply to the local market, it has been, and still is increasingly degraded by poor agricultural management. This dissertation focuses on ways to evaluate furrow irrigation and to assess soil water content and soil salinity (temporally and spatially) under usual farmers's management practices. This dissertation meets these goals thr...

Aljoumani, Basem

2012-01-01

31

[Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content. PMID:17193977

Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

2006-01-01

32

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb showed a decrease towards the surface (206Pb/207Pb = 1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature (206Pb/207Pb = 1.172 ± 0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 ?g g-1 in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 ?g g-1 in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowgr points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments (206Pb/207Pb = 1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83 ± 4% for S. fruticosa and 74 ± 8% for S. maritima)

33

Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report contains the results of computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on Jockwer's experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of this work was to select a water transport model that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse salt mine. The main result is that an evaporation model with Knudsen type vapour transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non-evaporated zone showed the best agreement with experimental evidence. An extrapolatory calculation for a borehole in a high-level waste repository showed that the water vapour inflow during the time of convergence of the initial gap between canister and borehole will not exceed 200 g per meter

34

Solubility of inorganic salts in water under high pressures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Solubility of inorganic salts (including SrSO4, CdI2, CsBr, KI) in water at pressures up to 1000 MPa and 273-373 K temperatures was considered. A series of qualitative regularities, dictating change of solubility in particular water-salt systems, depending on electrolyte type, concentration of saturated solution, crystallization water content in solid phase, was revealed. It is shown for salts, moderately and highly soluble in water, that increase of pressure up to 600-1000 MPa leads to decrease of solubility for 19 of 21 experimentally studied salt-water systems

35

Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

Nuding, Danielle L.

36

Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2010-02-15

37

DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN INTERSTITIAL WATER OF FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS BY IE-HPLC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english An ionic exchange high resolution liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method for determination of cations and anions in interstitial water of sediments, affluent and effluent of dams is proposed in this paper. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, CO3(2-), NO3- and SO4(2-) were analyzing by [...] IE-HPLC method. Optimized analytical conditions were validated in terms of accuracy, recovery and detection limit. The method of flame spray atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used as an additional method for the determination of Ca and Mg. It must be indicated that cations may be analyzed by several analytical methods such as AAS, ICP, etc., but there are not enough methods to analyze anions; IE-HPLC methods are good alternative to determine these ions. The aim of this study was to determine ions in interstitial water in the affluent and effluent of the Chilean dams Cogotí, Corrales, La Paloma, Rapel and Recoleta in order to determine if the water is suitable for irrigation or human consumption and estimate the effect of dams on water quality. The results indicate that the highest concentrations observed were for the cations: Ca2+ (mean 43.5 mgL-1), Na+ (mean 16.4 mgL-1), Mg2+ (mean 12.6 mgL-1), and K+ (mean 2.3 mgL-1). The highest concentration of anions was found for CO3(2-) (mean 55.9 mgL-1); the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3- reached 59.3 mgL-1, 12.8 mgL-1 and 27.0 mgL-1, respectively. The results indicate that although the origin of soluble salts is lithogenic, the high concentrations of these salts found in some places indicate anthropogenic effect, either by direct or indirect discharges or by diffuse pollution. These high concentrations may be significant, considering that these waters are used mainly for irrigation, which would affect the quality of agricultural soils irrigated with this moderately saline water.

SYLVIA. V, COPAJA; VESNA, NÚÑEZ S; DAVID, VÉLIZ.

2366-23-01

38

Determination of copper in salt cooling water by anodic stripping voltammetry to optimise condenser performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful management of the ferrous chloride dosing system and the Taprogge ball condenser tube cleaning system at Eraring Power Station (EPS), NSW, Australia, relies on measurements of copper in the salt cooling water prior to and after each condenser pass. However, obtaining an accurate copper measurement in the challenging matrix of salt water used has proven difficult. EPS conducted trials of two methods for the measurement of copper in natural waters, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and graphite furnace (electrothermal) atomic absorption spectroscopy. This paper discusses the results of copper measurements from the various trials undertaken on the condenser systems. Based on the trials of this instrument, DPASV was chosen as the preferred method of analysis for the purposes of optimising condenser performance and efficiency, minimising ferrous chloride chemical dosing and tube corrosion, and maximising heat transfer. (orig.)

Cudmore, Natasha

2010-10-15

39

Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper ‘Papri new-E-red’ by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascor...

Rahman, M. J.; Inden, H.

2012-01-01

40

Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 ?m diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars today via water uptake.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

42

Analysis of Rn-222 Water Contents of the Environmental Waters by UsingLiquid Scintillation Counter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rn-222 water contents of drinking water, well water, river water andground water samples has been analyzed. This investigation has been carriedout for monitoring radioactivity level of environment water, besides it isuseful for controlling the possible internal radiation hazards to the peopleand the environment. The measurement of the soluble Rn-222 in the toluene hasbeen done after equilibrium state about 21 days using Packard TR- 2700/TRLiquid Scintillation Counter respectively. The detection limit of this methodis 1.35 Bq/L with 80.21 efficiency. From measurement and calculation, theRn-222 concentration in well water samples are various below the detectionlimit until 8.03 Bq/L, ground water below the detection limit until 4.11Bq/L, all of river water samples are below the detection limit and thedrinking water is 8.26 - 11.5 Bq/L. (author)

43

Water content in human intervertebral discs. Part I. Measurement by magnetic resonance imaging.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tension-relaxation experiments were performed on human disc lamellae specimens. The water content was found to affect the viscoelastic behavior and a master relaxation curve was constructed from the experimental data. The water content of disc phantoms is measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. MRI was used to compare the discs of patients of different ages. The possibility of obtaining cross-sectional water distribution in human intervertebral disc material using MRI techniques and its relation to the disc's mechanical properties was explored, with the goal of constructing a realistic mathematical model of the disc which takes into account the water content of the disc. PMID:3441837

Panagiotacopulos, N D; Pope, M H; Krag, M H; Block, R

1987-11-01

44

Analysis of the HDO content in heavy water by ATR-FTIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of ATR-FTIR for the determination of the HDO content in heavy water (D2O) was investigated. Two groups of calibration standard solutions, of low contents (0-1 n% H2O in heavy water) and of higher contents (0-10 n% H2O in heavy water) were prepared by adding properly calculated amount of H2O to D2O by weight. The absorbances at 3400 cm-1 (?, O-H) against the calibration standards were measured five times using two kinds of interchangeable IREs (1 bound and 9 bound reflections). And four calibration curves were obtained by linear least square fit of the measured absorbances for the four different measurement conditions, which are (1) for low contents group using 1 bound reflection, (2) for low contents group using 9 bound reflections, (3) for higher contents group using 1 bound reflection, (4) for higher contents group using 9 bound reflections. Determined contents (c0) of each calibration standards for the four measurement conditions were obtained by the calibration curves and compared to the calculated contents (ccal). The uncertainty sources were considered when the HDO in heavy water is determined according to the procedure of this work. The uncertainties u(c0) of the determined contents (c0) for the four different measurement conditions were calculated. (author)

45

Ionic size and behavior of diclofenac salts in water and ethanol/water mixtures by conductivity at 25 degrees C.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the size of the diclofenac ion and the electrical behavior of diclofenac salts (DM; M = Li, Na, or K) in ethanol/water mixtures. The molar conductance of DM in aqueous solution was measured in a dilute concentration range of Fedors method and the apparent ionization constant (pKa) of sodium diclofenac in ethanol/water mixture. The Walden products of DM increased up to 20% (w/w) ethanol, but above this concentration of ethanol they decreased. Specific interactions between the ions and solvent are discussed. PMID:8308704

Maitani, Y; Kugo, M; Nakagaki, M; Nagai, T

1993-12-01

46

Thermal properties of ration components as affected by moisture content and water activity during freezing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beef roast with vegetables is an example of a meal, ready-to-eat (MRE) ration entrée. It is a mixture of meat, potato, mushroom, and carrot with a gravy sauce. The thermal properties of each component were characterized in terms of freezing point, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy during freezing using differential scanning calorimetry. Freezing and thawing curves and the effect of freezing and thawing cycles on thermal properties were also evaluated. The freezing points of beef, potato, mushroom, and sauce were all in the range of -5.1 to -5.6 degrees C, but moisture content, water activity, latent heat, freezable and unfreezable water contents, and enthalpy varied among these components. Freezing temperature greatly affected the unfrozen water fraction. The unfreezable water content (unfrozen water fraction at -50 degrees C) of ration components was in the range of 8.2% to 9.7%. The freezing and thawing curves of vegetables with sauce differed from those of beef but took similar time to freeze or thaw. Freezing and thawing cycles did not greatly affect the thermal properties of each component. Freezing point and latent heat were reduced by decreasing moisture content and water activity of each component. Water activity was proportionally linear to freezing point at a(w) > 0.88, and moisture content was proportionally linear to freezable water content in all ration components. Water was not available for freezing when moisture content was reduced to 28.8% or less. This study indicates that moisture content and water activity are critical factors affecting thermal behavior of ration components during freezing. PMID:19021797

Li, J; Chinachoti, P; Wang, D; Hallberg, L M; Sun, X S

2008-11-01

47

Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers. PMID:22486327

Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

2012-05-01

48

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

49

Novel ordered structures in the mixture of water/organic solvent/salts investigated by neutron scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of an antagonistic salt on the phase behavior and nanoscale structure of a mixture of water/organic solvent was investigated by visual inspection, optical microscope, and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). The addition of the antagonistic salt, namely sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4), induces the shrinking of the two-phase region in contrast to the case in which a normal (hydrophilic) salt is added. Below the phase separation point, the SANS profiles cannot be described by the Ornstein-Zernike function owing to the existence of a long-range periodic structure. With increasing salt concentration, the critical exponents change from the values of 3D-Ising and approach those of 2D-Ising. Furthermore, an ordered phase with multilamellar (onion) structures was confirmed in an off-critical mixture of D2O and 3-methylpyridine containing 85 mM of a NaBPh4 although no surfactants or polymers are contained. (author)

50

Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining half cubes were cast and cured with salt water. The concrete cubes were cured for 7,14 and 28 days respectively. The result of the average compressive strength of concrete obtained using fresh water ranges from 27.12 - 39.12N/mm2 and using salt water ranges from 28.45 – 41.34N/mm2

Preeti Tiwari

2014-04-01

51

[Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

52

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution from groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentration of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution from the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66 % to the total salt load and only about 15 % to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameter sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

P. G. B. de Louw

2011-07-01

53

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of low-lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties about the contribution of groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentrations of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution of the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and the uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66% to the total salt load and only about 15% to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to the reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

P. G. B. de Louw

2011-01-01

54

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

Church, P.E.; Armstrong, D.S.; Granato, G.E.; Stone, V.J.; Smith, K.P.; Provencher, P.L.

1996-01-01

55

Water content determination by the ?-backscatter method for high-ash hardcoal  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of ? backscattering in determining the external water content is discussed. The fundamentals and influencing parameters of the method are discussed. Investigations have been carried out on a laboratory scale. Coal dust and raw coal samples have been investigated. The measuring accuracy to be achieved is +-1.75% by weight of water. (orig.)

56

Water content determination of superdisintegrants by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water contents of superdisintegrant pharmaceutical excipients were determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using simple linear regression. Water contents of the investigated three common superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate) varied over a wide range (0-24%, w/w). In the case of crospovidone three different samples from two manufacturers were examined in order to study the effects of different grades on the calibration curves. Water content determinations were based on strong absorption of water between 3700 and 2800 cm?¹, other spectral changes associated with the different compaction of samples on the ATR crystal using the same pressure were followed by the infrared region between 1510 and 1050 cm?¹. The calibration curves were constructed using the ratio of absorbance intensities in the two investigated regions. Using appropriate baseline correction the linearity of the calibration curves was maintained over the entire investigated water content regions and the effect of particle size on the calibration was not significant in the case of crospovidones from the same manufacturer. The described method enables the water content determination of powdered hygroscopic materials containing homogeneously distributed water. PMID:22361662

Szakonyi, G; Zelkó, R

2012-04-01

57

Utilization of stainless steels in salt water heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stainless steels are relatively little used in exchangers cooled by salt water. It is shown, that providing certain precautions are taken in the choice of grade of steel, the design of the appliances and the operation of the facilities, stainless steels can be quite valid solutions, economically and technically, to the problems posed by salt water exchangers

58

Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20-100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to concrete. A 4.36 mCi 137Cs(662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick Nal scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary concretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method.

Raghunath, V. M.; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

1983-02-01

59

Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to conrete. A 4.36 mCi 137Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary conretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method. (orig.)

60

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchasedted with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

 
 
 
 
61

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters thanvalues of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

62

Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining ha...

Preeti Tiwari; Rajiv Chandak

2014-01-01

63

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly se...

Sisse Fagt; Pia Knuthsen; Erling Saxholt; Lone Banke Rasmussen; Anne Dahl Lassen; Kirsten Hansen

2010-01-01

64

Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment  

Science.gov (United States)

Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed sandy loam sample exhibited drop of the flow rates between the first and second infiltration run and a gradual recovery of flow rates and water contents during the third run. This supports the assumption that air that was trapped in the flow pathways when water infiltrated in wet soil was dissolved in degassed water during the third run. The TDR probes show the dynamics of the quasi-saturated water content changes. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

2012-04-01

65

The annual dose of population radiation in Yugoslavia by the investigation of salt-water fish  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

After the investigations of the radioactivity level found in sea water and sea water fishes along the Adriatic coast, the annual doses were calculated received by the population from fish consumation. Two groups were considered, fishermen and local population. The doses for the most common fish species such as merlucius vulgaris, scomber scomber, clupea pilichardus, fresh and canned and dicentractus labractus were calculated. For natural radioactivity Ra-226 and U-238 were evaluated for fission products Sr-90 and Cs-137. (Author)

66

Graphite and pyrocarbon corrosion in water and salt brines  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The proposed solution for HTR spent fuel management is their storage in deep geological repository, for example salt domes. The long term safety of repository depends on the integrity of fuel element consisting of coated particles embedded into a graphite matrix. As an accident scenario the water ingress into repository, accompanied with the highly concentrated salt brines formation, and its interaction with the protective barriers graphite and the pyrocarbon coatings should be taken into account. In this scope, the behaviour of graphite and pyrocarbon in repository relevant conditions is important. The objective of this work was to determine the corrosion rates and investigate the behaviour of graphite and pyrocarbon in different aquatic phases. In the present work the graphite powder from graphite pebbles without fuel and pyrocarbon coatings from unirradiated BISO coated particles were used for investigations. As aqueous media deionised water, MgCl2-rich (brine-2) and NaCl-rich (brine-3) solutions were used. All experiments were performed in sealed glass tubes under argon or oxygen atmosphere at 90 C. Some experiments were performed under ?-irradiation in AVR cooling pool to investigate the influence of water radiolysis process on carbonaceous material corrosion. The integral ?-dose over the period of 2 months amounts to approximately 2.2 MGy. Gas phase of vessels was analysed by gas chromatography. The CO2 content measured was used for the csub> content measured was used for the corrosion rate calculation. All experiments were corrected to blanks. (orig.)

67

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

2008-11-15

68

Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

2014-04-01

69

Zirconium recovery process for spent zircaloy components from light water reactor (LWR) by electrorefining in molten salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The simulated channel boxes were electrolyzed in molten salts in order to fix the electrorefining conditions. The decontamination effects were investigated by using the samples of the actual spent channel boxes, which were obtained, at Hamaoka nuclear power station by Chubu Electric Power Inc. This paper outlined zircaloy wastes treatment and zirconium recovery process by electrorefining in molten salts. (author)

70

Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

2005-11-01

71

Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio / Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Kraw [...] kow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

Antonio Augusto, Xavier.

72

Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

Antonio Augusto Xavier

1939-01-01

73

Advanced supercritical water and molten salt reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The super-critical water coolant enables a thermal efficiency about one-third higher than current light-water reactors, as well as simplification in the balance of plant. The balance of plant is considerably simplified because the coolant does not change phase in the reactor and is directly coupled to the energy conversion equipment. The reference system for SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor) is 1500 MWe with an operating pressure of 25 MPa, and a reactor outlet temperature of 500 C or more, possibly ranging up to 625 C. The fuel is uranium dioxide, MOX or possibly thorium dioxide. Passive safety features shall be incorporated similar to those of simplified boiling water reactors. Two design options - pressure vessel and pressure tube design - are considered for SCWR. In the MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) system, the fuel is dissolved in a fluoride salt liquid mixture also playing the role of primary coolant. For both systems, SCWR and MSR, extensive research work is being carried out, in view of the great promises if a successful development can be achieved. Indeed, both systems face big challenges due to the technical difficulties associated to the reactor system on the one hand, and to the fuel cycle, for what concerns the MSR. The international support exists and System Agreements are signed by three partners (Canada, Japan, EURATOM) for the SCWR (Project Arrangements are in preparation), whereas MSR is at an earlier status, with confirmed interest from France, EURATOith confirmed interest from France, EURATOM and Usa

74

Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

Gyura Julianna F.

2002-01-01

75

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mehran Mehrabanian1, Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani21Member of Young Researchers Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60% for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 µm, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.Keywords: scaffold, nanohydroxyapatite, nylon 6,6, salt-leaching/solvent casting, bioactivity

Mehrabanian M

2011-08-01

76

Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Computed tomography (CT) is a promising tool that may help provide measurements needed to obtain finer resolution in soil-water content and bulk density for water uptake studies or detailed investigation of root-soil interactions. Research was conducted on soil collected from the A horizon of Mexico silt loam (Udollic Ochraqualfs) and the B2t horizon of Crider silt loam (Typic Paleudalfs) to evaluate the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids and water. Air-dry soil (3 and CT slices or tomographs were taken before and after water was added. The relationship between attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids was linear for both of the soils evaluated. Parameter values for the Mexico soil compared favorably with those determined on previous data collected from Metea fine sandy loam (Arenic Hapludalfs). Differences in the parameter values for the Mexico and Crider soils were attributed to differences in Fe content. An experiment with Fe added to the Mexico soil was conducted that verified the effect of Fe content on the attenuation coefficients. Approximately 98% of the variation between the attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil water was accounted for by using linear regression relationships after correction for swelling. Results from this study indicate that it may be possible to develop a uate that it may be possible to develop a universal relationship for computed tomography data vs. soil bulk density and water content; however, more research is needed to characterize the influence of sample size on the calibration relationship

77

Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3?, and NO2?) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

78

Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper ‘Papri new-E-red’ by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit quality attributes, and fruit mineral compositions were evaluated at five different ages of fruits at 25 Days after fruit set (DFS, 35 DFS, 45 DFS, 55 DFS, and 65 DFS. Results revealed that capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit quality, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper increased with increasing rate of nigari compared to the control. Furthermore, capsaicin, and ?-carotene increased linearly with the advancement of fruit ages, but not ascorbic acid. Exceptionally, ascorbic acid increased until the turning of fruit maturity at 45 DFS and after that decreased drastically. Total soluble solid (oBrix and titratable acidity (TA were higher at 45 DFS, although an increasing trend was found for most of the mineral contents with maturing fruits. We concluded that a higher amount of antioxidant and improved fruit quality with higher yield and moderate mineral contents in fruits could be achieved by application of 2 mL L-1 nigari to sweet pepper in soilless culture. We can also suggest harvesting sweet pepper fruits between 45 to 55 DFS.

M. J. Rahman

2012-08-01

79

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

80

Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion  

Science.gov (United States)

freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

2014-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

2012-10-15

82

Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrom...

Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragiši?-Maksimovi? Jelena J.; Maksimovi? V.M.; Živanovi? Branka D.

2012-01-01

83

METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard.The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision.The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib

2012-07-01

84

Soil Profile Water Content in Pepper Crop Production as Affected by Different Weed Infestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the soil water status and pepper water use efficiency under irrigated and rainfed conditions as affected by different weed infestation in a semiarid environment. The experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Southern Italy. Two water regimes were imposed to compare water competitive effects under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Weeds were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a pepper field, where a rainfed treatment was compared to a full irrigated one corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration. Leaf water potential, soil water content, water use efficiency, maximum Leaf Area Index, dry matter and pepper yield were measured. Results revealed that all parameters differed significantly due to irrigated and rainfed treatments. Weed infestation reduced the pepper yield and interaction between irrigation regime with weed interference was highly significant. In 2008 weed-free pepper yield of irrigated treatment was equal to 36.5 t ha-1, while it was 43.4 t ha-1 in 2009. Lower yield was obtained in rainfed weedy treatment in both years, 0.2 and 0.5 t ha-1, respectively. In semiarid environment, different weed population had a great impact on pepper growth and yield, both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. Results showed that a weed-free agrosystem, especially in a drought condition, is necessary to maximize production and water use efficiency.

S. Lovelli

2013-01-01

85

A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the common characteristics of planets Earth and Mars is that both host water (H2O) and large accumulations of salt. Whereas Earth’s surface-environment can be regarded as ‘water-friendly’ and ‘salt hostile’, the reverse can be said for the surface of Mars. This is because liquid water is stable on Earth, and the atmosphere transports humidity around the globe, whereas on planet Mars, liquid water is unstable, rendering the atmosphere dry and, therefore, ‘salt-friendly’. The riddle as to how the salt accumulated in various locations on those two planets, is one of long-lasting and great debate. The salt accumulations on Earth are traditionally termed ‘evaporites’, meaning that they formed as a consequence of the evaporation of large masses of seawater. How the accumulations on Mars formed is much harder to explain, as an ocean only existed briefly. Although water molecules and OH-groups may exist in abundance in bound form (crystal water, adsorbed water, etc.), the only place where free water is expected to be stable on Mars is within underground faults, fractures, and crevices. Here it likely occurs as brine or in the form of ice. Based on these conditions, a key to understanding the accumulation of large deposits of salt on both planets is linked to how brines behave in the subsurface when pressurized and heated beyond their supercritical point. At depths greater than about 3 km (P>300 bars) water will no longer boil in a steam phase. Rather, it becomes supercritical and will attain the phase of supercritical water vapor (SCRIW) with a specific gravity of typically 0.3 g/cm3. An important characteristic of SCRIW is its inability to dissolve the common sea salts. The salt dissolved in the brines will therefore precipitate as solid particles when brines (seawater on the Earth) move into the supercritical P&T-domain (T>400°C, P>300 bars). Numerical modeling of a hydrothermal system in the Atlantis II Deep of the Red Sea indicates that a shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

2010-12-01

86

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D. Gil

2008-03-01

87

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazán; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodríguez; L. A., Caicedo.

2008-03-01

88

Determination of Deuterium Content of Deuterium Depleted Water by Gas Chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An applicable deuterium analysis method of deuterium depleted water was experimentally studied by used H2 carrier and the chromatogram calumniation with 5A molecular sieve at natural temperature after decompounding the deuterium depleted water by magnesium at 500 degree C. Decompounding the water using the magnesium instead of uranium can avoid the radioactive danger and the isotope effect was smaller than zinc. Determination by chromatograph at natural temperature can overcome the operation complexity at liquid nitrogen and the difficulty of determining the emend factor of the H2, HD, D2. The results showed that standard curved using standard sample of super low heavy water can reversely extend to below the natural deuterium abundance, deuterium content of deuterium depleted water can be calculated. The relative standard deviation of the method<5%, recovery rate with added specimen with three addition level was 96.6%-99.9%, the combined relative uncertainty was 0.166. It can meet the need of quantitative analysis during the deuterium depleted water manufacturing. (authors)

89

Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

2013-11-01

90

Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (sg cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

91

An analysis and measurement system of percentage of water and gas content in petroleum by radiation isotope  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An on-line analysis and measurement system of percentage of water and gas contents in petroleum by using radiation isotope is described. A radiation source that emits two different ?-rays energies and a scintillation detector are used in the system. The computer reads the transmission counts of ?-rays that pass through petroleum for analyzing oil, water and gas contents. The system also measures the temperature, pressure and flow, so the amounts of liquid, oil, gas and water cna be calculated conveniently

92

Determination of water content in snow, soil and air by the cosmic ray neutron attenuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principles resume of measuring water content in natural materials based on the attenuation of cosmic ray neutron component. Measurement accuracies, calibration aspects, instrumentation features, in particular concerning the distant-type snow gauge system DSS-2 tested on the interdepartamental basis are discussed. Results of measuring for several years water content in snow in a mountain river basin are presented. Experimental determination of soil moisture is performed. Relationship between neutron flux and precipitation intensity is analyzed

93

[Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the interface of shifting sand burial were much lower than that of shifting sand surface. 35 cm was the critical sand burial thickness for water-saving and salt restraint. In summary, sand burial had obvious inhibition effects on soil evaporation and salt accumulation, so maybe it could be used to save water and reduce salt accumulation in arid shifting desert areas. PMID:25129944

Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

2014-05-01

94

Isotope geochemistry of water in Gulf Coast Salt Domes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water found as active leaks and isolated pools in the Weeks Island, Jefferson Island, and Belle Isle salt mines of south Louisiana has delta18O values ranging from -4 to +11.5%0 and deltaD values from -2.3 to -53%0. One sample from Weeks Island and one from Jefferson Island are isotopically similar to local surface waters and are clearly of meteoric origin. All other samples are too enriched in 18O to be meteoric waters. In the Weeks Island mine the isotopic data define a linear array given by deltaD=3.0delta18O-40.1. Active leaks define the positive end of this array. Isolated pools are interpreted as inactive leaks with initial delta18O and deltaD values of +9.1 +- 0.5%0 and -11%0 +- 7%0, which have subsequently exchanged with water vapor in the mine air to produce the linear array of delta values. The water derived from active leaks in these three mines is too enriched in 18O and too depleted in D to be connate ocean water or evaporite connate water trapped in the salt. Isotopic composition of water derived from the dehydration of gypsum is probably dissimilar to that of the active leaks. It is unlikely that the water has originated from the dehydration of gypsum. It is also unlikely that isotopic exchange with anhydrite is responsible for observed 18O enrichments. Nonmeteroric water from the active leaks displays the type of 18O enric displays the type of 18O enrichments characteristic of saline formation waters, where water exchanges isotopically with calcite and clay minerals. It is concluded that the nonmeteoric waters are formation waters which have become incorporated in the salt. From the observed 18O enrichment it is calculated that formation waters were incorporated during diapiric rise of the salt at a depth of 3--4 km and have been trapped within the salt for 10--13 m.y. Large volumes of salt within salt domes are not naturally penetrated by meteoric groundwaters but can contain limited amounts of trapped formation water

95

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

Villiers, Brian Lindsay

2002-01-01

96

Independent estimation of attenuation and rain water content by passive and active multi-frequency sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Rain water content is an important parameter for the characterization of precipitating clouds, however its estimation might be significantly affected by unknowns on the drop size distribution and attenuation. The latest might be estimated for the rain layer by means of radar polarimetric methods. On the other hand, the passive microwave radiometer ADMIRARI is able to retrieve rain and cloud integrated water content as well as path integrated attenuation simultaneously at three frequencies (10.7, 21.0 and 36.5 GHz). Since last year the Jülich Research Center in Germany has became a test-bed for multi sensor observations, with a X-band polarimetric radar and the radiometer ADMIRARI as a main instrumental suit. This allows to have a synergistic observation of rain events at the radiometer's field of view. In this work, independent methods to estimate attenuation are validated and its corresponding uncertainties will be put into consideration. This study pave the way to develop an optimal estimation theory framework for a foresee passive and active retrieval approach. Its application on rain measurements collected at the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation field campaigns will also be presented.

Saavedra, Pablo; Simmer, Clemens

2014-05-01

97

Experimental measurements of water content in crude oil emulsions by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

We measured the water content (0.01%-0.25% w/w) in crude oil emulsions using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). To improve the precision and range of the measurements, we used 1 and 10 mm thick quartz cells. The experiments were performed at 20 °C and the THz wave was transmitted vertically to the samples and detected on the other side. The experimental results suggest linear relation for the THz absorption coefficient and the water content of the crude oil emulsions in the observed range. The linear dependence facilitates high-precision measurements of the water content of crude oil. This suggests the potential of THz-TDS in determining the water concentration in crude oil and borehole fluid identification.

Jin, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Kun; Yang, Chen; Xu, Chang-Hong; Ni, Hao; Chen, Shao-Hua

2013-12-01

98

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of tudies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

99

Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May

Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P

1999-01-01

100

NASAL SALT EXCRETION AND THE POSSIBLE FUNCTION OF THE CLOACA IN WATER CONSERVATION.  

Science.gov (United States)

Secretion of concentrated salt solutions from the nasal region was observed in several terrestrial birds and reptiles. In the secreted fluid potassium usually exceeded sodium concentrations, with chloride and bicarbonate as the major anions. It is suggested that the extrarenal excretion of salts is related to the reabsorption of water in the cloaca, that it is necessary for the production of urine with a particularly low water content, and perhaps was prerequisite for the evolution of efficient cloacal water conservation. PMID:14074841

SCHMIDT-NIELSON, K; BORUT, A; LEE, P; CRAWFORD, E

1963-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

102

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individ...

Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-kyeong

2013-01-01

103

Determination of salt content in hot takeaway meals in the United Kingdom.  

Science.gov (United States)

High sodium intake is associated with negative health outcomes, including an independent correlation with high blood pressure which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. A high proportion of sodium intake in the UK is from processed and out of the home food; this includes takeaway food which is increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate salt levels in popular hot takeaway meals. A total of 411 samples of 23 different types of takeaway meals were analysed. Obtained results show the salt content in these kinds of foods is alarmingly high. Comparing medians (interquartile range) for different meal categories, Pizzas contained the highest salt content per portion (9.45 g (6.97-12.83)), followed by Chinese meals (8.07 g (5.47-10.99 g)), Kebabs (6.21 g (4.01-8.35)) and Indian meals (4.73 g (3.61-6.10)). In addition, significant differences in the salt content between meals within the same category were reported. To enable the consumer to meet the UK's target salt intake, a significant reduction in the salt content of hot takeaway meals should be considered. PMID:22772043

Jaworowska, Agnieszka; Blackham, Toni; Stevenson, Leonard; Davies, Ian G

2012-10-01

104

Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars

2007-01-01

105

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventionntion

106

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-07

107

A role for nongovernmental organizations in monitoring the iodine content of salt in northern India.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The feasibility of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to monitor the iodine content of salt was studied in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, where iodine-deficiency disorders (IDDs) are endemic. Three NGOs already involved in health and development activities in the Gorakhpur, Varanasi, and Dehradun regions collected salt samples monthly from households and shops in selected villages over a 6-month period. A total of 4001 samples were analysed at regional laboratories by trained personne...

Pandav, C. S.; Pandav, S.; Anand, K.; Wajih, S. A.; Prakash, S.; Singh, J.; Karmarkar, M. G.

1995-01-01

108

HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

109

Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit i...

Karaba, A.; Dixit, S. A.; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, A.; Trijatmiko, K. R.; Marsch-martinez, N.; Krishnan, A.; Nataraja, K. N.; Udayakumar, M.; Pereira, A. B.

2007-01-01

110

Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

2010-06-01

111

Differences in the effects of simulated sea aerosol on water relations, salt content, and leaf ultrastructure of rock-rose plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

White-leaf rock-rose (Cistus albidus L.) and Montpellier rock-rose (C. monspeliensis L.) plants were sprayed 2 to 3 min per day over a 7-d period, in an unheated plastic greenhouse, with different aqueous solutions containing deionized water alone (control); an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate 82.5%, 50 mg L(-1)) (S1); a solution simulating the composition of sea aerosol (S2); and a solution simulating sea aerosol with anionic surfactant (S3). White-leaf rock-rose was more sensitive to sea aerosol, showing greater leaf damage and markedly decreased growth, and the presence of surfactant enhanced the phytotoxic effect leading to greater increases in mortality. Montpellier rock-rose did not appear to be more adversely affected when surfactant was used in combination with sea aerosol, and manifested slight or less severe symptoms than white-leaf rock-rose. There was a significant increase in leaf turgor potential in the plants treated with both sea aerosol treatments by osmotic adjustment effect. The decrease in photosynthesis level seems to be due to both stomatal and nonstomatal factors. The results of microscopical analysis of Montpellier rock-rose plants show that sea aerosol treatment caused alterations in the chloroplast structure, reducing the starch grain and swelling the thylakoid membranes. The results of this study indicated that Montpellier rock-rose was more tolerant to sea aerosol than white-leaf rock-rose, showing a lower reduction in plant growth and less leaf damage, probably because of its ability to compartmentalize the toxic ions at the intracellular level. PMID:15254119

Sánchez-Blanco, M J; Rodríguez, P; Olmos, E; Morales, M A; Torrecillas, A

2004-01-01

112

Bicarbonate concentration as affected by soil water content controls iron nutrition of peanut plants in a calcareous soil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strategy I peanut plants are frequently subjected to iron deficiency when growing in calcareous soils, which contain high concentrations of bicarbonate. In calcareous soils under field conditions, it has been noted that chlorosis increases in severity after excessive rainfall or irrigation, but the chlorosis symptoms of peanuts are alleviated after waterlogged soils dry. A pot experiment was conducted simulating the chlorosis symptom observed in the field when peanut plants are exposed to fluctuating soil water content induced from rainfall or irrigation. We investigated the bicarbonate fluctuations resulting from adjustable soil water content (SWC) that could lead to bicarbonate-induced iron chlorosis of peanuts growing in calcareous soil. The experiments included three treatments of SWC (50% of water holding capacity (WHC), 80% of WHC, and 100% of WHC) under two levels of CaCO(3) concentrations (at 8.67% and 18.67%.) The results showed that the iron nutrition of peanuts could be regulated by different SWC at both CaCO(3) levels. Our observations indicate that iron deficiency chlorosis symptoms in peanuts grown in high soil water content were more severe, compared to those of peanuts in lower soil water content. A shift from high soil water content to lower soil water content could improve or eliminate the iron deficiency chlorosis symptom of peanuts. The HCO(3)(-) concentration in the peanut rhizosphere increased with increasing SWC and CaCO(3) content and it correlated with the level of soil water content. We suggest that variations in the soil water content could induce HCO(3)(-) concentration variation in the rhizosphere of peanuts. Consequently, the high HCO(3)(-) concentration, which is induced by a high water content in calcareous soil and a high CaCO(3) level, could inhibit the physiological response to iron deficiency of peanuts, resulting in iron deficiency chlorosis. The study indicates that a reasonable agricultural practice of irrigation and drainage should be considered to improve and prevent iron deficiency chlorosis of strategy I plants in calcareous soil. PMID:17468004

Zuo, Y; Ren, L; Zhang, F; Jiang, R-F

2007-05-01

113

Filling and sealing of shafts in salt mines necessitated by an inrush of water or brine into a shaft  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the investigations for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany also the possibilities of sealing a flooded shaft have been studied. If it seems not practical to safe the mine by pumping from the shaft sump or by closing the shaft with a large valve, the shaft has to be filled and sealed. For this purpose several layers of different materials are placed in the shaft. Tests have been started to find out the most suitable binder for plugs in rock salt strata. Some results of laboratory tests with three kinds of cement are published

114

Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

Giannakoula Anastasia

2012-01-01

115

Mobilization of osmotically inactive Na+ by growth and by dietary salt restriction in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The idea that an osmotically inactive Na(+) storage pool exists that can be varied to accommodate states of Na(+) retention and/or Na(+) loss is controversial. We speculated that considerable amounts of osmotically inactive Na(+) are lost with growth and that additional dietary salt excess or salt deficit alters the polyanionic character of extracellular glycosaminoglycans in osmotically inactive Na(+) reservoirs. Six-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed low-salt (0.1%; LS) or high-salt (8%; HS) diets for 1 or 4 wk. At their death, we separated the tissues and determined their Na(+), K(+), and water content. Three weeks of growth reduced the total body Na(+) content relative to dry weight (rTBNa(+)) by 23%. This "growth-programmed" Na(+) loss originated from the bone and the completely skinned and bone-removed carcasses. The Na(+) loss was osmotically inactive (45-50%) or osmotically active (50-55%). In rats aged 10 wk, compared with HS, 4 wk of LS reduced rTBNa(+) by 9%. This dietary-induced Na(+) loss was osmotically inactive ( approximately 50%) and originated largely from the skin, while approximately 50% was osmotically active. LS for 1 wk did not reduce skin Na(+) content. The mobilization of osmotically inactive skin Na(+) with long-term salt deprivation was associated with decreased negatively charged skin glycosaminoglycan content and thereby a decreased water-free Na(+) binding capacity in the extracellular matrix. Our data not only serve to explain discrepant results in salt balance studies but also show that glycosaminoglycans may provide an actively regulated interstitial cation exchange mechanism that participates in volume and blood pressure homeostasis. PMID:17244896

Schafflhuber, Markus; Volpi, Nicola; Dahlmann, Anke; Hilgers, Karl F; Maccari, Francesca; Dietsch, Peter; Wagner, Hubertus; Luft, Friedrich C; Eckardt, Kai-Uwe; Titze, Jens

2007-05-01

116

Cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is inhibited by electrolyzed water combined with salt under dynamic conditions of increasing organic matter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced. PMID:25475317

Gómez-López, Vicente M; Gil, María I; Pupunat, Laurent; Allende, Ana

2015-04-01

117

Comparison of intracellular water content measurements by dark-field imaging and EELS in medium voltage TEM  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge of the water content at the subcellular level is important to evaluate the intracellular concentration of either diffusible or non-diffusible elements in the physiological state measured by the electron microprobe methods. Water content variations in subcellular compartments are directly related to secretion phenomena and to transmembrane exchange processes, which could be attributed to pathophysiological states. In this paper we will describe in details and compare two local water measurement methods using analytical electron microscopy. The first one is based on darkfield imaging. It is applied on freeze-dried biological cryosections; it allows indirect measurement of the water content at the subcellular level from recorded maps of darkfield intensity. The second method uses electron energy loss spectroscopy. It is applied to hydrated biological cryosections. It is based on the differences that appear in the electron energy loss spectra of macromolecular assemblies and vitrified ice in the 0-30 eV range. By a multiple least squares (MLS) fit between an experimental energy loss spectrum and reference spectra of both frozen-hydrated ice and macromolecular assemblies we can deduce directly the local water concentration in biological cryosections at the subcellular level. These two methods are applied to two test specimens: human erythrocytes in plasma, and baker's yeast (Saccharomyses Cerevisiae) cryosections. We compare the water content measurements obtained by these two methods and discuss their advantages and drawbacks.

Terryn, C.; Michel, J.; Kilian, L.; Bonhomme, P.; Balossier, G.

2000-09-01

118

Soil Profile Water Content in Pepper Crop Production as Affected by Different Weed Infestation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Experiments were conducted to evaluate the soil water status and pepper water use efficiency under irrigated and rainfed conditions as affected by different weed infestation in a semiarid environment. The experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Southern Italy. Two water regimes were imposed to compare water competitive effects under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Weeds were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a pepper field, wh...

Lovelli, S.; Valerio, M.; Di Tommaso, T.; Perniola, M.

2013-01-01

119

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

120

Determination of pressure underground water rise rate in a break zone by time variations of 226Ra content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility is discussed of the determination of the rate of the rise of fault waters by correlating the time of the appearance of anomalous values of radioisotopic parameters in the water of sources. There have been determined time changes of the content of 4He, 222Rn, 226Ra, U, 234U/238U, 222Rn/226Ra, 226Ra/238U in the waters of natural thermal sources and wells situated in the zone of the fractionation of Paleozoic granites and granodirites and draining out the same fault waters. It has been found out that in the process of the natural rise of waters from the depth of 500 m they loose up to 70 per cent of He; the 222Rn and U content significantly increases; the 222Rn/226Ra and 226Ra/238U ratios change while the 226Ra content and the 234U/238U ratio remain stable. The 234U/238U ratio does not change in time but depends on the enrichment of waters with U on their movement to the surface. Among all the parameters observed only the 226Ra content in waters can be used to solve the above-mentioned problem for it significantly changes in time and does not depend on the activity of enclosing rocks. The rate of the rise of thermal waters in the Alamedin gorge calculated by this method averages 13 m/h. The data obtained prove the possibility of the applictained prove the possibility of the application of this method for the determination of the rate of the rise of waters to the ground surface

 
 
 
 
121

Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

122

Measurements of Iodine Contents in Some Iodized Salts (Consumer Level) in (Myanmar)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of iodine contents in iodized salt (consumer level) of six brands in Myanmar were measured by means of volumetric method (WHO recommended) and vibrational spectroscopic technique. The results optained from both methods were in good agreement within the statistical error

123

[A preliminary study on salt contents of soil in root-canopy area of halophytes].  

Science.gov (United States)

The results showed that among the 27 sampling sites, the salt content in rhizosphere of herbaceous halophytes increased at 7 sites and decreased at 20 sites. The variation of soil salt content in the RUE micro-area of shrubby halophytes was related to the growth status of the plants. The salt content in rhizosphere decreased a little at the early stage of plant development, but that in RUE micro-area tended to increase and accumulated most quickly at the site of the canopy edge soil. An obvious variation of salt components was found in the RUE micro-area of different types of halophytes. The Na+/K+ ratio tended to decrease in succulent halophytes and salt secrete halophytes. Among 53 sampling sites, only 14 sampling sites had a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in rhizosphere soil than in background soil, and only 10 sampling sites had a higher ratio of Na+/K+ in canopy-under soil than in background soil. However, the Na+/K+ ratio in the canopy edge soil of Tamarix and Nitraria tended to increase when they grew weakly. By contraries, the Na+/K+ ratio in the rhizosphere was higher than that in background soil at 3 of 4 sampling sites of Phragmites australia, which indicated that the Na+/K+ ratio in the rhizosphere of exclude halophytes tended to increase. The variation of SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio in the RUE micro-area was different in the 3 types of halophytes. For salt secrete halophytes, it decreased obviously in rhizosphere soil, canopy-under soil and canopy-edge soil; for succulent herbaceous halophytes, it tended to increase in rhizosphere soil; and for succulent shrubby halophytes, it tended to decrease in rhizosphere and in canopy-under soil, and tended to increase in canopy-edge soil. The SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio had no big change for exclude-halophytes. The reduction of the salts in rhizosphere of herbaceous halophytes was mainly because of their plant uptake, and the accumulation of salts in the RUE micro-area of shrubby halophytes was because the salt absorbed from the around soil returned to the RUE micro-area again. Because of the selective uptake by plant, the salt component varied with different types of halophytes. Most halophytes except Phragmites australia take more Na+, and hence the Na+/K+ ratio in the rhizosphere tends to decrease. The SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio in the RUE micro-area of salt secrete halophytes trended reduce, mainly because this type of halophyte can secrete more Cl- with its growth. PMID:15139187

Xi, Jinbiao; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Yang; Mao, Daru; Yin, Chuanhua; Tian, Changyan

2004-01-01

124

Matrix-elimination with steam distillation for determination of short-chain fatty acids in hypersaline waters from pre-salt layer by ion-exclusion chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for determination of formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids in hypersaline waters by ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC), using steam distillation to eliminate matrix-interference, was developed. The steam distillation variables such as type of solution to collect the distillate, distillation time and volume of the 50% v/v H?SO? solution were optimized. The effect of the addition of NaCl different concentrations to the calibration standards on the carboxylic acid recovery was also investigated. Detection limits of 0.2, 0.5, 0.3 and 1.5 mg L?¹ were obtained for formic, acetic, propionic and butyric acids, respectively. Produced waters from petroleum reservoirs in the Brazilian pre-salt layer containing about 19% m/v of NaCl were analyzed. Good recoveries (99-108%) were obtained for all acids in spiked produced water samples. PMID:22226459

Ferreira, Fernanda N; Carneiro, Manuel C; Vaitsman, Delmo S; Pontes, Fernanda V M; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Silva, Lílian Irene D da; Neto, Arnaldo Alcover

2012-02-01

125

Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of ?40 to ?80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, so...

Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

2009-01-01

126

Water and Salt Metabolism Disorders Following Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is frequently complicated with mild to severe water and electrolyte disturbances in the postoperative period. These disorders are: transient diabetes insipidus, early or delayed hyponatremia, diabetes insipidus followed by hyponatremia (biphasic pattern, diabetes insipidus-hyponatremia-diabetes insipidus (triphasic pattern, permanent diabetes insipidus, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Close monitoring of water intake, urine output, thirst, volume status and serum electrolytes is imperative, and a dynamic treatment plan according to the changing status of the patient is mandatory. This review will focus on the types, course and treatment of water and electrolyte disturbances observed after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 28-32

Mehtap Cakir

2011-06-01

127

Service (salt) water system life-cycle management evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document provides a description of how the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging required by 10 CFR Part 54 was tailored at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant to a system which had known reliability and availability concerns. This customizing of the requirements of the License Renewal Rule allowed many short term benefits to be gained from the implementation of a regulation normally associated only with extended plant operation. The Important to License Renewal Screening of the Salt Water Cooling System at Calvert Cliffs identified four important to license renewal functions performed by the system. The next step in the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging would normally be to evaluate whether existing practices at the plant were effectively managing the age-related degradation of the components of the system so that these components could continue to perform the important functions through a license renewal term. In the case of the CCNPP Salt Water System, it was recognized early on that portions of the existing system needed to be replaced with an alternate design due to reliability, availability and maintainability concerns. Therefore, instead of evaluating the existing components for aging as part of the IPA process, it made more sense to determine the most beneficial replacement option for these components and design the new system components with aging management programs in mind. This report describes how the Salt Water System Life Cycle Management Evalua Water System Life Cycle Management Evaluation was conducted, from its inception to the planning stages of implementing its results

128

The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, 1H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics

129

The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, {sup 1}H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics.

Jaffel, H. [ICSM - UMR CNRS 5257 - CEA Marcoule (France); DEN/DTCD - CEA Marcoule (France); Guillermo, A. [SPrAM - UMR CNRS 5819 - CEA Grenoble (France); Diat, O. [ICSM - UMR CNRS 5257 - CEA Marcoule (France); Ledieu, A.; Poulesquen, A. [DEN/DTCD - CEA Marcoule (France)

2008-07-01

130

Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

131

Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients’ content at each time and the nutrients’ accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukey’s test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants’ macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plant’s shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

Cristiaini Kano

2013-09-01

132

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

133

Investigation of proline amides and pyridinium salts as catalyst for direct aldol reactions in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The catalytic potential of chiral proline amides and pyridinium salts in the aldol condensation in water was investigated. The aldol reactions of acetone with various aromatic aldehydes were carried out in water by using proline amide derivatives and pyridinium salts derived from chiral pyridine derivatives for the first time. The products were obtained in good yields within short reaction times. (author)

134

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and Turbidity. For the COD tests, wastewater was tes...

Hashad, Mostafa F.; Sharma, Surabhi; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.

2006-01-01

135

The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

2014-12-01

136

Study on specific water contents and thermal properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels prepared by ?-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The specific water contents and thermal behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel were examined as a function of gamma-irradiation dose and PVA content to develop an advanced wound dressing. A simple crosslinking method was introduced to prepare the PVA hydrogels with the use of gamma-irradiation. The specific water contents decreased with increasing glycerol content and the melting temperature of PVA slightly decreased with increasing the dose rate of gamma-ray and amount of glycerol

137

Study on specific water contents and thermal properties of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels prepared by {gamma}-irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The specific water contents and thermal behavior of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogel were examined as a function of gamma-irradiation dose and PVA content to develop an advanced wound dressing. A simple crosslinking method was introduced to prepare the PVA hydrogels with the use of gamma-irradiation. The specific water contents decreased with increasing glycerol content and the melting temperature of PVA slightly decreased with increasing the dose rate of gamma-ray and amount of glycerol.

Kim, Woo Jin; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Lim, Youn Mook; Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Bo Ram; Jo, Sun Young; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2009-09-15

138

Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

139

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

140

Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

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Full Text Available Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94 with a seasonal cycle of ~1–2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December–January-February, DJF. Studying the A-Train CALIPSO cirrus and MLS water vapor measurements, we find that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=?0.9 anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during DJF. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the high anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone. The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=?0.91 and our results support the hypothesis that the total water is roughly constant in the TTL at 100 hPa. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

T. Flury

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
141

Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

142

Simulation of Exterior Conditions in Permanently Closed Soil Chambers by Controlling Air Flow, Soil Water Content, and Temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile substances and gases resulting e.g. from degradation processes of chemicals in soils emit into the atmosphere and no chemical mass balance is complete without considering this path. Closed soil chambers allow the evaluation of this transfer to the atmosphere. This study deals with the influence of soil chambers with a glass plate cover on physical soil conditions in the chambers and the possibility to simulate the exterior conditions within the chambers. The water content immediately at the soil surface is an important factor for the microbial activity and the transfer of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere as well. It is monitored by specially designed water content sensors in 1 cm depth in the chamber and as control outside. Funnels with a cross section equal to the soil surface area of the chamber collect the rain water and channel it into the soil chamber. This results in soil water content in the chambers very similar to that outside. For the purpose of analysing 14CO2 and volatile 14C-compounds, air is permanently pumped through the chamber. In order to simulate natural conditions, the wind speed is measured 1 cm above the soil surface outside the chambers. A control circuit adjusts the air flow through the chamber to a value corresponding to the wind speed outside. Temperature measurements in 1 cm depth verify that there is no significant difference between the soil chamber and the control outsidethe control outside

143

Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium content in water samples by nuclear physical methods using XRFA and the MT-25 microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of element contents in the samples have been determined by nuclear physical methods (XRFA, GAA and NAA). The possibility of determining Al, Si and Mg content in water samples has been studied. The detection limits of 0.03 mg/1 for Al, 0.3 mg/1 for Si and 0.1 mg/1 for Mg in water samples have been obtained. Monitoring of the aluminium and silicon content in water is important because the high concentration of aluminium or the low content of silicon in drinking water may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

144

Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

2010-11-01

145

Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O) through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were appl...

Cristiaini Kano; Quirino Augusto Camargo Carmello; José Antonio Frizzone; Silvana da Silva Cardoso

2013-01-01

146

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

147

Determination of D2O contents of water at low levels by mass spectrometry: water-hydrogen isotope equilibration method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple analytical method for the determination of D2O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Isotope exchange equilibrium is attained within 30 min. Isotopic analysis of the equilibrated hydrogen gas is performed with mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviation is 1 ? 5 % for D2O concentration in the range 0.07 ? 10 mol%. Absolute determination of D2O is possible by making calibration with standard samples of known D2O concentration. (author)

148

Increasing corrosion-fatigue strength of steels in salt water by using the protective silicazinc-2 paint  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The possibility to increase the corrosion fatigue strength of steels in sea water due to protective paint ''Silicazink'' was investigated. Fatigue test was carried out by console bending of flat painted steel specimens (st.3 and 45 G17Yu3). The study has shown that the protective paint essentially increases workability of steel. The fatigue strength of specimens painted according to the scheme using ''Silicazink'' is 19% greater than the one of specimens painted according to a regular scheme. Inhibited oxidation of zink filler in ''Silicazink'' results in increase of protective sub-layer life-time and corrosion fatigue strength of steel specimens protected by combined coatings

149

Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg++ and K++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na+ and Cl- contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4-- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO-- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4-- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl- content was higher than Na+ content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

150

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

151

Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts  

Science.gov (United States)

A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

1978-01-01

152

Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metal fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements is purified and reused. For this purpose, a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A is under development. For obtaining the basic data of salt treatment process by using 'column type method' in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt through the columns was measured by using columns of 1 cm in inner diameter and 10 cm or 30 cm in length. The average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. The relationship between velocity and gas pressure was close to that of obtained by using water, whose kinematic viscosity is similar to that of molten LiCl-KCl salt. Additionally, the absorption behaviour of cesium, which was used as a representative of univalent FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the effluent molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. It was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and the value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility oen salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent salt was confirmed. (author)

153

Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract N(w), the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on N(w). However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in N(w), in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference N(w) - n(w), where n(w) is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, n(w)/N(w), was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by N(w). A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of n(w) in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of n(w)/N(w). Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can produce large amplifications and depletions of macromolecule concentration. These effects may be exploited in self-assembly and adsorption processes. PMID:25245596

McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

2014-10-21

154

Attachment of Escherichia coli to Soil Aggregates as Affected by Aggregate Water Content and Presence of Manure Constituents  

Science.gov (United States)

Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and Echerichia coli is widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Echerichia coli attachment to soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, aggregate water content, and presence of suspended manure colloids and dissolved organic compounds. Three aggregate fractions of 3.4-4.8 mm, 4.8-7.9 mm and 7.9-9.5 mm diameters were obtained by dry sieving of a loam soil. Air-dry and water-saturated aggregates were submerged in bacteria-water and bacteria-manure suspensions at four E. coli concentrations for 24 h. Amounts of attached E. coli were calculated from the difference between the amount applied and the amount remained in the suspension. Significant differences in E. coli attachment to air-dry and saturated aggregates were found. Both increase in water content and the presence of manure significantly decreased the Echerichia coli attachment to all aggregate fractions regardless of the aggregate size. Because E. coli transport in soil generally occurs through large pores between structural units when rainfall follows manure application, the decrease in bacteria attachment as a result of soil saturation and presence of suspended or dissolved manure components can enhance bacterial mobility and increase risk of ground water contamination.

Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D. R.; Yu, O.

2006-12-01

155

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

156

Water Status and Protein Pattern Changes Towards Salt Stress in Cotton  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate performance of four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, Deir-Ezzor22 (DE22), Niab78 (N78), Aleppo118 (A118) and Deltapine50 (DP50) grown under non-saline conditions (control) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) for 7 weeks. During the course of the experiment, potential osmotic (?), leaf relative water content (RWC) , water saturation deficit (WSD), membrane stability index (MSI), and salt tolerance index (STI) were measured. Moreover, prote...

Saleh, Basel

2013-01-01

157

PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method  

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Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

Wisnu Cahyadi1

2004-04-01

158

Determination of potassium iodide in table salt  

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Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

Rajkovi? Miloš B.

2009-01-01

159

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of < 1 ppm in urKREEP. Using these data, predict that the bulk water content of the magma ocean would have <10 ppm. In contrast, estimate water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

160

Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr90, Cs137, and Pu239. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 1500C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

 
 
 
 
161

Monitoring the water content evolution of dikes  

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The water content evolution of model dikes is monitored with geophysical methods. Water content changes are successfully quantified using electrical resistivity tomography. Numerical simulation of water flow in a dike model is used to estimate the variability of water content. Modeling of synthetic data sets is used to evaluate the quality of resistivity quantification using ERT. An ensemble approach is proposed to improve the interpretation of ERT inversions.

Rings, Jo?rg

2009-01-01

162

Monitoring the water content evolution of dikes  

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The water content evolution of model dikes is monitored with geophysical methods. Water content changes are successfully quantified using electrical resistivity tomography. Numerical simulation of water flow in a dike model is used to estimate the variability of water content. Modeling of synthetic data sets is used to evaluate the quality of resistivity quantification using ERT. An ensemble approach is proposed to improve the interpretation of ERT inversions.

Rings, Jo?rg

2008-01-01

163

Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

2011-03-01

164

Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2  

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Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2 on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl–, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

Youcef Daoud

2006-09-01

165

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

166

Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.  

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Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

2010-05-18

167

Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk  

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Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

Primo Mariani

2010-01-01

168

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1  

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The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ?) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ? values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ? expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ? values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture data include NaCl, NaNO 3, Na 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, and CaCl 2 so that the cations and anions considered include Na +, NH 4+, and Ca 2+, and Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-, respectively. The method predicts the UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for all datasets with an average error of ˜20%. In an application of the method, ? values are predicted in an aerosol PM phase containing four oxidation products (from ?-pinene/O 3) and water, without and with 1 and 2 mol kg -1 dissolved (NH 4) 2SO 4. The presence of the dissolved salt can cause significant increases in the ? values of the oxidation products considered, reflecting a potential "salting-out" effect for (NH 4) 2SO 4 on the oxidation products considered. Results indicate an important role played by dissolved salts in affecting the thermodynamic properties of atmospheric organic PM and the utility of X-UNIFAC.1 as a tool for evaluating those effects.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

169

Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.  

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The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (? neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface further indicate that the surface charge and potential influence the surfactant diffusion and kinetic rates of adsorption at the silica-water interface. PMID:23947412

Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven

2013-08-29

170

Ternary systems of rare earth salt-butylamine salt-water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase equilibrium in ternary systems, containing water, samarium and dysprosium chlorides, neodymium and gadolinium nitrates and hydrochlorides or nitrates of n-, s-, t-butylamines, were studied at 20(25) and 40(50) def C. The system of gadolinium nitrate-t-butylamine nitrate-water is referred to the systems with chemical interaction of salt components; a new solid phase of the composition 1:2 was detected. The rest systems are referred to the simple eutonic type, their solubility isotherms consist of two non-interlinking branches, charcterizing solubility lines of the initial salt components

171

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

172

Absolute determination of deuterium content of heavy water standards by distillation and mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An absolute method for heavy water standardization is described which is based on linear extrapolation to 100% D2O. The method uses a reflux column attached to a boiler containing the sample to be standardized. With the column operating at equilibrium under total reflux, samples from both the top and bottom of the column are converted to hydrogen and mass analyzed by use of an arbitrary D2O scale. To minimize mass spectrometer errors, the difference between top and bottom HD/total ion current is measured at the sample concentration and at several other slightly higher HD concentrations. The difference values vary linearly with the HDO concentration in the boiler. The linear relationship is extrapolated to zero HD difference as would be observed if 100% D2O were used. The extrapolated value on the arbitrary D2O scale is compared with 100% and any discrepancy represents an adjustment required to establish an absolute scale. The method has been tested at both the D2O and H2O ends of the range and has shown that the accuracy of the method is within the precision of 0.0006 mass % D2O. 8 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

173

Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

174

Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

1976-01-01

175

Determination of uranium contents in water, blood and toothpastes by the fission track method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of uranium in water, blood, urine and toothpaste samples with the fission track method was described. The stability of tracks and the feasibility of the method were discussed. The results were compared with those reported. The method has the advantages of high sensitivity, less sample needed, steadiness and economy. It is also applicable to analysis of plutonium and radon

176

Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs, measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m to DOC (mg/ L."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.3±0.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.3±0.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

2009-08-01

177

A Non-Destructive Method for Determining the Distribution of Soil Water Content by Measuring Fast Neutron Transmission Using an NE-213 Organic Scintillator  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of measuring the water content distribution in a soil layer packed in a column, using fast neutron transmission, has been developed. The calibration curve of the water content was obtained from the rate of decrease of fast neutrons per unit of water content. An NE-213 organic scintillator (2'' in diameter × 2'' in length) and Cf-252(273 ?Ci) were used as the fast neutron detector and neutron source respectively. The distribution curve of soil water content obtained by the present method was consistent with that obtained by the destructive drying method. The NE-213 scintillator was superior to other conventional detectors (3He, BF3 counter) in measurement accuracy, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity. The relative error and sensitivity of the present method are discussed in detail in this report.

Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Tadatoshi; Wadachi, Yoshiki

1984-08-01

178

Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

Bijelovi? Sanja

2010-01-01

179

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

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Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200) peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased wi...

Sa?nchez-garci?a, Mario A.; Arturo Maldonado; Luis Castañeda; Rutilo Silva-González; María de la Luz Olvera

2012-01-01

180

Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Water Content of a Red-Yellow Argissol Cultivated With Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Irrigated by Center Pivot  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the water content in a red-yellow argissol cultived with bean, irrigated by central pivot. The samplings were made at a depth of 30 cm, in systematic grid of 10.0 by 10.0 m with 108 and 54 sampling points in conventional tillage (CT and no tillage (NT, respectively, sampled at four stages of crop development: V3 (1st trifoliated leaf, R6 (flowering, R8 (filling of string beans and R9 (physiological maturity. The water content of the soil was determined by the greenhouse standard method and the analysis of spatial dependence was obtained with the GS+ Program. The semivariograms presented dependence spatial in conventional tillage, adjusting to the spherical model with ranges of 68.5, 78.3, 73.3 and 75.4 m, and in no-tillage system with ranges of 172.3, 210.9, 193.7 and 100.0 m for the steps V3, R6, R8 and R9, respectively. The relationship between the nugget effect and sill indicated that the spatial dependence was strong, lower than 25%. Using the graphical representation of the surface, the area studied presented higher water content at the low elevation and lower water content at the part of high elevation. Overall, the soil water content in CT showed a narrower range of spatial dependence on the scale, compared to soil water content in NT. The spatial distribution mapping of water content in the soil showed that there is a stability of the time variability for water content in the two cultivating systems.

Elder Sânzio Aguiar Cerqueira

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea...

Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M.; Larson, Magnus

2008-01-01

182

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2011-02-01

183

Effect of photons collimation of 241 Am source in soil water content measurement by gamma radiation transmission system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experiments to study the effect of collimators of 1,2,3,4 and 5 mm of diameter on the water attenuation mass coefficient gamma were carried out to improve the performance of a ? transmission system using a 241 Am source and a proportional gas filled detector. A simulated soil core, built in aluminium and water, has permitted to simulate water content from 0.17 to 0.50. A linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor (I/Io) and the simulated soil moisture shown in all systems (5 collimators and peaks of 30,60 and total spectra) a good correlation coefficient, R2, near the unity. Then, it is recommended to use the collimator of 5 cm and total spectra, because this system drastically increase the rate of counting and improves the precision on water content measurements. (author)

184

Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resng enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

185

Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

2009-04-01

186

Baric dependence of solubility of salts in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental material on baric dependence of solubility of salts (CdCl2xH2O; CdSO4xH2O; CdBi2x4H2O; CdCl2x2.5H2O; CdCl2x4H2O; CdBr2) in water up to 1000 MPa was collected and systematized. Four types of solubility polybars were marked out. Using available experimental data, as well as thermodynamic calculations baric factors of solubility (BFS) were determined for more than 40 water-salt systems at different pressures. It is shown, that BFS and its change with pressure have different signs in solutions of low concentrations and in water melts or highly concentrated solutions. BFS differences of salts were interpreted using the structural model of water solution composition. The sign of BFS change with pressure in different structural, concentration regions of solutions was predicted. Classification of salt BFS in water on molecular base is given

187

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determinat...

PANKAJSHUKLA; Sood, Y. R.; Jarial, R. K.

2013-01-01

188

Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results ...

Vincenzi, S.; Santangelo, R.; Pugnaghi, S.; Rivasi, M. R.; Menziani, M.

1996-01-01

189

Actual evapotranspiration assessment by means of a coupled energy/hydrologic balance model: Validation over an olive grove by means of scintillometry and measurements of soil water contents  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryA coupled energy/hydrologic model was applied to simulate the exchange of energy and water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPA). The model, which uses a "two-source" approach to estimate the energy fluxes, and the "force-restore" approach to represent the water balance, was validated by means of evapotranspiration measurements collected via scintillometry and soil moisture measurements collected via time domain reflectometry (TDR) in a Sicilian olive grove. The comparison between measured and estimated fluxes values at an hourly scale showed good agreement. Additional comparisons on a daily timescale confirmed the model's applicability for quantifying crop water requirements. Also in terms of daily evapotranspiration and soil water content values, the obtained results confirmed the model's applicability for those practical applications aiming to quantify the crop water requirement. Moreover, further studies should be conducted to test the feasibility of using this model for long term simulations over a broad range of conditions.

Cammalleri, C.; Agnese, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.

2010-10-01

190

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

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Full Text Available Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone + salts (NaCl and KCl at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. The salting-out effect was investigated by using inorganic salts NaCl or KCl at two concentrations of each salt within their solubility limits. The results obtained in these experiments showed that the salts NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents, as well as the distribution coefficients and separation factors for PA by changing their equilibrium composition and the selectivity of the solvents while the region of heterogeneity increases as compared to the same system of without salt. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-line data was ascertained by Othmer-Tobias plots as well as by Hand plots.

Bhupesh C. Roy

2007-01-01

191

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determination. Test setup and procedure for verification and calibration of moisture sensor with specific-oil solubility parameters is described then tested and evaluated. This allows greater accuracy of online water content monitoring in the operating transformers under the changing temperature conditions.

PANKAJSHUKLA

2013-01-01

192

PulsArt : IT, Salt and Water for Family Awareness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in considering the domestic household as a new and important domain for interaction design. In this paper we present pulsArt - a physical and digital installation designed for the home to represent different family members’ level of activity by water running down blocks of salt based on a real-time reading of the individual family member’s pulse. We describe how pulsArt explores novel ways of looking at the interaction between the physical, the social and the technological and how it acts as a context-aware artefact, amplifying the domestic setting to provide a new kind of awareness in the family. In doing so, we seek to develop new perspectives on designing interactive and context-aware systems for the home and what values they might support.

Fritsch, Jonas; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup

2005-01-01

193

Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the ntent showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

194

Reduction of salt in pork sausages by the addition of carrot fibre or potato starch and high pressure treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The combined effect of high pressure processing (HPP) (400, 600 and 800 MPa) and carrot fibre (CF) and potato starch (PS) on low salt (1.2%) pork sausages was investigated and compared with high (1.8%) salt sausages. Sausages had a marked increase in whitening with increasing content of fibre or starch, pressure level, and process temperature. The degree of redness was mainly affected by pressure level and heat treatment. An important finding regarding salt reduction was that the use of starch or fibre had more impact on textural properties than the level of salt since Young's modulus and strain at fracture were mainly affected by formulation and HPP. Water binding capacity of low salt sausages was improved to the same level as high salt sausages with HPP and addition of CF or PS particularly by the addition of PS which produced sausages with better sensory properties than CF. The sensory analysis showed that this approach is promising for producing low salt sausages. PMID:22682686

Grossi, Alberto; Søltoft-Jensen, Jakob; Knudsen, Jes Christian; Christensen, Mette; Orlien, Vibeke

2012-12-01

195

Comparison of nuclear and capacitance- based soil water measuring techniques in salt- affected soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field calibration experiment was carried out on salt-affected clayey soil in Syria, to compare the sensitivity to soil electrical conductivity (ECe), and bulk density ( ?) of two instruments for estimating soil moisture: the neutron probe (NP) and the Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (CP). The results showed that the values of the correlation coefficient of the calibration were decreased when the ECe and ? values increased; this decrease was more pronounced for the Diviner 2000, indicating that it was more sensitive to ? and ECe than the NP. When only scaled frequency was used in the fitted equation, the Diviner 2000 in wet soil underestimated soil water content significantly at all depths, but especially in the top layer, by up to 0.09 cm3 cm-3 compared with gravimetric determinations. However, in dry soil, the Diviner 2000 overestimated the volumetric water content by up to 0.05 cm3 cm-3 in the top 15 cm, and by 0.03 cm3 cm-3 at 30-45 cm depth. The performance of the neutron probe was better overall, using a factory calibration curve: no significant differences were observed between NP estimates and the gravimetric values. Including both ? and ECe in the calibration equations improved the fits, although the regression coefficient (R2) for the Diviner 2000 remained low. (author)

196

Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice:a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride concentration from up to 420mg/kg to concentration of 140mg/kg, nitrate concentration from 1000mg/kg to concentration of 310mg/kg nearest the cathode and the sulphate concentration from up to 540mg/kg to 30mg/kg nearest the anode in 750–1020g dry matter stone sample.The final concentrations meet the limiting values indicating no risk for salt decay. The placement of the anode related to the original outer surface of the stone showed its importance only in the experiments with the long duration 10–11days. Due to the placement of the anode to the outer surface of the stone segments which was more contaminated, higher concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were measured in the anode clay poultices at the end of experiments. The longer duration might show even more significant role of the electrode placements.The clay poultice successfully neutralized the acid from electrolysis at the anode. During the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect in the stones themselves under the present conditions.

Matyš?ák, Ond?ej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2014-01-01

197

Effect of methanol and water contents on production of biodiesel fuel from plant oil catalyzed by various lipases in a solvent-free system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methyl esters synthesized from plant oil and methanol by the methanolysis reaction are potentially important as a biodiesel fuel. The methanolysis of soybean oil by lipases from various microorganisms was investigated. Several of the lipases were found to catalyze methanolysis in a water-containing system without an organic solvent. The lipases from Candida rugosa, Pseudomonas cepacia, and Pseudomonas fluorescens displayed particularly high catalytic ability. The reaction rates of methanolysis catalyzed by the C. rugosa and P. fluorescens lipases decreased significantly when the water content was low, showing that water prevents the inactivation of these lipases by methanol. On the other hand, the methanolysis reaction rate catalyzed by the P. cepacia lipase remained high even under a low water content. In addition, the P. cepacia lipase gave high methyl ester contents in the reaction mixture up to 2 or 3 molar equivalents of methanol to oil, which is attributed to the P. cepacia lipase having substantial methanol resistance. For the same methanol content, the reaction rates of methanolysis catalyzed by the P. cepacia lipase increased with decreasing water content, and hence lipases strongly resistant to high methanol, such as that from P. cepacia, are desirable for use in methanolysis reaction processes. PMID:16232938

Kaieda, M; Samukawa, T; Kondo, A; Fukuda, H

2001-01-01

198

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

C. Comina

2014-05-01

199

Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers  

Science.gov (United States)

Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles River as part of a broad channel complex. Salt water migrates up the Gaspur channel and into the underlying Gage aquifer that is comprised mostly of shallow marine and tidal sands, silts, and clays. Beneath the Gage, the Pleistocene San Pedro Formation consists of an aggradational set of marine-deltaic sands that thicken offshore and develop clinoform beds infilling the Palos Verdes basin. How these units are connected hydraulically controls the flow of salt water. We are incorporating the offshore seismic and onshore core data in a regional groundwater flow simulation model for the Los Angeles basin and in a transport model emphasizing salt-water intrusion.

Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

2002-12-01

200

[Vegetation influence on nutrients distribution in pore water of salt marsh sediment].  

Science.gov (United States)

The variations of nutrients in pore water of salt marsh sediment were surveyed in the middle intertidal zone of Chongming Dongtan during August 2007 to May 2008 to identify plant impact on nutrients distribution. The results show that NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P concentrations are lower in pore water of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones than in bare flat, and specially, NH4(+) -N concentrations in summer and autumn decrease by one more orders of magnitude. Compared to winter, nutrients concentrations are obviously higher during the period of plant growth, and plant biomass is clearly correlative to nitrogen and phosphorus. Vegetation growth influences nitrogen content intensively. NH4(-) -N concentrations in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones are 44.21 and 74.38 micromol x L(-1) respectively, distinctly lower than that in bare flat and Scirpus mariquete zone (340.14 and 291.87 micromol x L(-1) respectively). Moreover, NO(x)(-) -N concentration is one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than NH4(+) -N, and its highest value exists in Phragmites australis zone (5.94 micromol x L(-1)). The results of molecule diffusive flux of nutrients in the surface sediment-overlying water interface indicate that marsh sediment is the source for SiO3(2-) -Si, NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P, and the rank for NO(x)(-) -N (NO3(-) -N + NO2(-) -N), and NO(x)(-) -N flux from overlying water to sediment [16.23 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)] is higher than NH4(+) -N flux from sediment to overlying water [15.53 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)]. Vegetation growth accommodates nutrient structure of the estuarine ecosystem by affecting sediment-water interface mass flux and nutrient ratios in pore water and overlying water. PMID:20063731

Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dao-Ji; Gao, Lei

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
201

INAA of elemental contents in the waters of 13 springs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The elemental contents in the waters of 13 spring were determined by INAA(Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis). The analytical method was checked with the standard water of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the results agreed within experimental errors. The INAA shows that the springs contain many healthy trace elements and the contents of some harmful trace elements are within hygienic standard for drinking water. So far as elemental contents are concerned, all the spring waters are soft water of high quality

202

Salt rejection and water flux through a tubular pervaporative polymer membrane designed for irrigation applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a hydrophilic polyester tubular pervaporative membrane in treating high-salinity water for irrigation was investigated. The membrane was filled with contaminated water and placed in air, soil or sand media. When this occurs water diffuses through the tube, trapping salts within the tube. Sorption and permeation tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to assess salt rejection and permeate flux through the tubular membrane when surrounded by deionized water, air, top soil or silver sand. Mean water uptake by the membrane was 0.5 L x m(-2) at room temperature and the water diffusion coefficient was 3.8 x 10(-4) cm2 x s(-1). The permeate flux across the membrane was 7.9 x 10(-3) L(m(-2) x h(-1)) in sand and 5.6 x 10(-2) in air. The rejection of sodium chloride by the tubular membrane in sand was 99.8% or above under all tested conditions. However, when the tube was filled with sodium chloride solution and placed in deionized water, salt was observed to permeate the membrane. SEM images confirmed that variable amounts of sodium chloride crystals were retained inside the membrane walls. These results support the potential application of such a tubular pervaporative membrane for irrigation applications using saline waters; however there may be reduced salt rejection under waterlogged soil conditions. PMID:24191465

Sule, May; Jiang, Jing; Templeton, Michael; Huth, Emily; Brant, Jonathan; Bond, Tom

2013-01-01

203

GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivity inverse model with position around 20-30 m depth. This aquifer is referred to second aquifer. As the final result, a map with the possibility of salt/brackish and fresh water interface can be generated

Nur Islami

2011-02-01

204

Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. PMID:24980670

Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

205

Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

2012-03-01

206

Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure 180 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO2, followed by the determination of the 180 content of the CO27 and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H20 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO2 produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same 180 content as that of the original H20 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of [180] H20 was placed in a PCl5 reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl5 was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N2, and diluting with CHCl3. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated 180 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurvity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl5 introduces four oxygens from water into the H3P04, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H3P04 should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl5 hydrolysis. 2 tables

207

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Adamo Fini

2010-04-01

208

Calibration equations for two capacitance water content probes  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the calibration equations of two capacitance probes for monitoring the soil water content in a lysimeter field. Capacitance probes provide readings at desired depths and time intervals. The calibration equations are derived by regression analysis between measurements of scaled frequency and volumetric soil water content. The calibration equations are compared with the manufacturer default equations to estimate the irrigation water depth. The accuracy of capacitance probes in monitoring soil water content increased by using the site-specific calibration equations rather than the manufacturer default equation.

Paraskevas, C.; Georgiou, P.; Ilias, A.; Panoras, A.; Babajimopoulos, C.

2012-07-01

209

Radio requestable passive SAW water content sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new passive sensor for remote measurement of water content in sandy soil was designed, using a surface acoustic wave (SAW) reflective delay line. Information from this sensor can be obtained by an interrogation device via a radio link operating in the European 434-MHz industrial-scientific-medical band. The SAW device, manufactured on the YZ cut of LiNbO3, is mounted and sealed in a standard dual inline 16 package and contains four electroacoustic transducers. One transducer is connected to...

Reindl, L.; Ruppel, C. C. W.; Kirmayr, A.; Stockhausen, N.; Hilhorst, M. A.; Balendonk, J.

2001-01-01

210

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200 peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased with the water content, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 8 × 10-4 ?cm, for films deposited at 450? from a starting solution with a water content of 10 ml per 100 ml of solution; further increase in water content increased the corresponding resistivity. Optical transmittances of SnO2:F films were high, in the order of 75%, and the band gap values oscillated around 3.9 eV. SEM analysis showed uniform surface morphologies with different geometries depending on the deposition conditions. Composition analysis showed a stoichiometric compound with a [Sn/O] ratio around 1:2 in all samples. The presence of F into the SnO2 lattice was detected, within 2 at % respect to Sn.

Mario A. Sánchez-García

2012-10-01

211

Iodine Content of Household Salt and Urinary Iodine of Primary School Pupils in Commercial Towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study was designed to determine the iodine content of household salt and urinary iodine of primary school pupils in commercial towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two commercial towns (Orba and Ibagwa-aka) in Nsukka senatorial district were purposely selected. Iodine content of salt was measured at household level as well the nutritional iodine status of 200 school aged children (6-12 years) was assessed by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Validated ...

Maduabuchi, Adimoranma; Ani, Peace N.; Madukwe, Edith U.

2013-01-01

212

Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

2014-07-01

213

An in-situ electropolymerization based sensor for measuring salt content in crude oil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining salt content is a vital procedure in the petroleum industry during the process of crude oil transportation, refining and production. Monitoring the salinity value using a fast and direct technique can substantially lower the cost of crude oil in its processing and its production stages. In the present work, a novel analytical method was developed to detect the amount of salt present in crude oil in a quick and reliable manner. The measurement is based on the rate of in-situ electropolymerization of a monomer such as aniline in association with the salt content in the crude oil. The salt dispersed in the hydrocarbon matrix is used as an electrolyte in the electrolytic system to induce an electropolymerization reaction upon the induction of voltages, in which the salt content is measured corresponding to the polymeric film formation on the working electrode surface. Acetonitrile and N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) were used in the electrochemical cell as solvents, and cyclic voltammetry tests were performed for Arabian crude oil solutions in the presence of aniline. The method has shown an excellent detection response for very low concentrations of salt. Four Arabian crude oils with salt concentrations of 34.2, 28.5, 14.3 and 5.71mgL(-1) have produced current intensity of 180.1, 172.6, 148.1 and 134.2µA at an applied current potential of 1.75V (vs. Ag/AgCl), respectively. A Calibration curve was obtained in the range of 5-35mgL(-1), giving limits of detection and quantitation at 1.98 and 5.95mgL(-1), respectively. The in-situ electropolymerization based sensor has significant advantages over the existing techniques of salt monitoring in crude oil such as fast response, temperature independency, electrode stability, and minimum sample preparation. PMID:25476303

Aleisa, Rashed M; Akmal, Naim

2015-01-15

214

Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency : Studies of water-substrate interactions at low and high dry matter content  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance decreases. However, the addition of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the water mobility, leading to higher water availability, and ultimately higher glucose production. More specifically, the higher water availability boosts the activity of processive cellulases. Thus, water availability is vital for efficient hydrolysis, especially at high dry matter content where water availability is low. At high dry matter content, cellulase activity changes water interactions with biomass, affecting the water mobility. While swelling and fiber loosening also take place during hydrolysis, the cellulase hydrolytic activity changes the substrate to give a unique relaxation time profile. In extreme conditions where water is only present as bound water, cellulases are still able to utilize bound water for hydrolysis.

Hsieh, Chia-Wen

2014-01-01

215

Evaluation of trace metal content by ICP-MS using closed vessel microwave digestion in fresh water fish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Labeo rohita and Masto symbollon, 0.006 to 0.07?mg/kg for Cobalt in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, 0.31 to 2.24?mg/kg for Copper in Labeo rohita and Penaeus monodon, 3.25 to 14.56?mg/kg for Zinc in Cyprinus carpio and Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 0.01 to 2.05?mg/kg for Selenium in Rastrelliger kanagurta and Pampus argenteus, respectively. Proximate composition data for the different fishes were also tabulated. Since the available data for different trace elements for fish is scanty, here an effort is made to present a precise data for the same as estimated on ICP-MS. Results were in accordance with recommended daily intake allowance by WHO/FAO. PMID:24744789

Jarapala, Sreenivasa Rao; Kandlakunta, Bhaskarachary; Thingnganing, Longvah

2014-01-01

216

[Virtual water content of livestock products in China].  

Science.gov (United States)

The paper expatiated the virtual water content concept of livestock products and the study meaning on developing virtual water trade of livestock products in China, then summarized the calculation methods on virtual water and virtual water trade of livestock products. Based on these, the paper analyzed and researched every province virtual water content of livestock products in details, then elicited various situation of every province virtual water content of livestock products in China by year. Moreover, it compared virtual water content of livestock products with local water resources. The study indicated the following results: (1) The virtual water content of livestock products is increasing rapidly in China recently, especially poultry eggs and pork. (2) The distribution of virtual water content of livestock products is not balanced, mainly lies in North China, East China and so on; (3) The increasing production of livestock in Beijing City, Tianjin City, Hebei, Nei Monggol, Liaononing, Jilin, Shandong, Henan and Ningxia province and autonom ous region will bring pressure to local water shortage. PMID:16767973

Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Jun-hong

2006-04-01

217

Investigation of iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along the coast of Zhejiang, China*  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: We aim to describe the environment iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along Zhejiang Province coast in the China foreland. It will be helpful for us to judge whether this area is insufficient in iodine and universal iodized salt is necessary or not. Methods: We collected iodized salt samples, drinking water samples (tap water in the towns, and well water or spring water in the villages), water samples from different sources (ditches, lakes, rivers) and soil samples throug...

Lu, Ying-li; Wang, Ning-jian; Zhu, Lan; Wang, Guo-xing; Wu, Hui; Kuang, Lin; Zhu, Wen-ming

2005-01-01

218

High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 2×7 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P2 peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

2015-04-01

219

Inhibition of palmito polyphenoloxidase by halide salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inhibitory properties of halide salts on palmito polyphenoloxidase (PPO) are described. Halide salts have the same inhibitory effect on the two forms of palmito PPO separated by hydrophobic chromatography. Fluoride and chloride ions showed a non-competitive, mixed type inhibition while bromide and iodide ions were found to be non-competitive inhibitors. A study of the Ki for the different halide salts showed that the smaller F- ion is a stronger inhibitor than I- and Br- and that Cl- has the highest Ki value. This suggests that the active site of the palmito PPO is not easily accessible. The inhibition by chloride and fluoride ion was found to be pH-dependent. The inhibitory effects of these ions increased with a decrease in pH. It is suggested that halide ions (X) could bind to either the protonated enzyme (EH) or the protonated substrate-enzyme complex (EHS) to yield inactive forms EHX and EHSX, respectively. PMID:9795866

Robert, C; Rouch, C; Cadet, F

1998-07-01

220

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Feldspar  

Science.gov (United States)

A report of the first estimate of lunar water from alkali feldspar, which is ~2–3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. We estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+bulk Moon) of 100–1000 ppm.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Hauri, E. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.

2014-09-01

 
 
 
 
221

Advances in understanding damage by salt crystallization.  

Science.gov (United States)

The single most important cause of the deterioration of monuments in the Mediterranean basin, and elsewhere around the world, is the crystallization of salt within the pores of the stone. Considerable advances have been made in recent years in elucidating the fundamental mechanisms responsible for salt damage. As a result, new methods of treatment are being proposed that offer the possibility of attacking the cause of the problem, rather than simply treating the symptoms. In this Account, we review the thermodynamics and kinetics of crystallization, then examine how a range of technological innovations have been applied experimentally to further the current understanding of in-pore crystallization. We close with a discussion of how computer modeling now provides particularly valuable insight, including quantitative estimates of both the interaction forces between the mineral and the crystal and the stresses induced in the material. Analyzing the kinetics and thermodynamics of crystal growth within the pores of a stone requires sensitive tools used in combination. For example, calorimetry quantifies the amount of salt that precipitates in the pores of a stone during cooling, and dilatometric measurements on a companion sample reveal the stress exerted by the salt. Synchrotron X-rays can penetrate the stone and identify the metastable phases that often appear in the first stages of crystallization. Atomic force microscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy permit study of the nanometric liquid film that typically lies between salt and stone; this film controls the magnitude of the pressure exerted and the kinetics of relaxation of the stress. These experimental advances provide validation for increasingly advanced simulations, using continuum models of reactive transport on a macroscopic scale and molecular dynamics on the atomic scale. Because of the fundamental understanding of the damage mechanisms that is beginning to emerge, it is possible to devise methods for protecting monuments and sculptures. For example, chemical modification of the stone can alter the repulsive forces that stabilize the liquid film between the salt and mineral surfaces, thereby reducing the stress that the salt can generate. Alternatively, molecules can be introduced into the pores of the stone that inhibit the nucleation or growth of salt crystals. Many challenges remain, however, particularly in understanding the complex interactions between salts, the role of metastable phases, the mechanism of crack initiation and growth, and the role of biofilms. PMID:20214404

Espinosa-Marzal, Rosa M; Scherer, George W

2010-06-15

222

Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, thved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

223

Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth. PMID:25121460

Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

2014-09-01

224

Wind effects on water and salt loss in playa lakes  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory behind wind stress induced setup of water surface slope on a playa lake is reviewed. Due to the low gradient of the bottom in most playa lakes (1-20 cm km -1), the advance and retreat of lake waters due to wind stress can expose or cover many square kilometers. It is even possible for the surface slope to exceed the bottom slope and thereby create a "roving" lake. Such water movements can transport lake water over undersaturated "shore" sediments and water can therefore infiltrate and be lost without an increase in lake salinity. This case is demonstrated with data from Lake George, New South Wales, Australia. Such wind effects need to be examined for their relation to the diagenesis of sediments, the composition of the bitterns, and the salt budget of playa lakes.

Torgersen, T.

1984-10-01

225

Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

226

Brine Shrimp Predation by an Invertebrate Predator in Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake, Utah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farmington Bay is a hypereutrophic embayment of the Great Salt Lake. Monitoring of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana Kellogg) populations had indicated that brine shrimp densities in Farmington Bay are only 61% of those in the Great Salt Lake. Lower densities may be due to water quality issues or to predation by an invertebrate predator, the water boatman (Trichocorixa verticalis) that thrives in the lower salinity water of Farmington Bay. To determine the impacts of water boatman predation o...

Marcarelli, Amy M.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.

2004-01-01

227

A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accu...

Flors, Vi?ctor; Paradi?s, Mercedes; Garci?a-andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; Gonza?lez-bosch, Carmen; Garci?a-agusti?n, Pilar

2007-01-01

228

Dynamics of Resident and Infiltrating Water in Porous Media: Effect of Grain Size, Initial Water Content and Flow Rate  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics between resident ("old") water and incoming ("new") water in an homogeneous, partially saturated sand column undergoing infiltration or precipitation events are examined in a series of laboratory column experiments. In such events, the old water may affect the flow pattern of the infiltrating, new water, and should be considered as an initial condition. Furthermore, infiltrating water may carry different (or similar) chemicals than the old water, which can be in chemical equilibrium with the subsurface environment. This old-new water interplay can therefore have important environmental consequences on the fate and transport of nutrients and/or pollutants toward the groundwater via the vadose zone. Previous efforts to quantify flow and transport in partially saturated media encompass a variety of soils and experimental techniques, but mostly under steady state water flow at a given unsaturated water content. Moreover, each study usually focuses on a single soil, and comparison among studies using different soils is difficult because of differences in the experimental methods. In this study, we employed sands with three different particle size distributions and four initial water contents, established by mixing a salt-free water with sand. The upper end of each soil column was irrigated with water containing a conservative tracer, at three different flow rates, while free-drainage conditions were employed at the lower end. Based on mass balance considerations, two regimes may be identified: an initial piston-like mechanism that displaces old water, followed by slow mixing/entrainment of the remaining old water. The relative contributions of these regimes appear to depend on the initial water content, grain size distribution and hydraulic conductivity. In some cases, up to one-third of the old water can remain in the system after introduction of five pore volumes of new water. A Principal Components Analysis further confirms this conclusion. If the porous medium is initially saturated, the first regime dominates, and none of the old water remains in the system. Under initial partially saturated conditions, both regimes are significant, depending on the pore-scale distribution of the initial old water. Finally, the advection-dispersion and mobile-immobile models are employed for transient water-flow conditions and tested against the measurements; the models reproduce some of the global trends but generally fail to reproduce closely the experimental results. The mechanism of preferential flow appears to explain most of the features observed.

Gouet-Kaplan, Maxime; Arye, Gilboa; Berkowitz, Brian

2010-05-01

229

Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

2010-05-01

230

The salting out action of alkali metal nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a polythermal study of the salting out action of alkali metal (Na, K, and Cs) nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system characterized by stratification with a lower critical solution point (LCSP) were comparatively analyzed. Alkali metal nitrates experiencing homoselective solvation in aqueousorganic solvents were found to decrease the LCSP of this binary system, that is, have a salting out action. A decrease in the radius of the cation in the series CsNO3-KNO3-NaNO3 decreased the temperature of critical tie line formation in the monotectic state of salt-water-diethylamine ternary systems (69.3, 48.1, and 22.9°C, respectively). In all ternary systems, first and foremost in the system with potassium nitrate, the effect of diethylamine salting out from aqueous solutions grew stronger as the temperature increased. The conclusion was drawn that, among the salts studied, sodium nitrate had the strongest salting out effect at 22.9-88.4°C, and potassium nitrate, at 88.4-150.0°C.

Il'in, K. K.; Cherkasov, D. G.; Kurskii, V. F.

2011-01-01

231

Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Lab...

Sreenivasa Rao Jarapala; Bhaskarachary Kandlakunta; Longvah Thingnganing

2014-01-01

232

Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate a general non--Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

Samin, Sela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

2014-01-01

233

Determination of ice content in hardened concrete by low-temperature calorimetry : Influence of baseline calculation and heat of fusion of confined water  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low-temperature calorimetry has been used to determine the ice content in concrete at different temperatures when exposed to low-temperature environments. However, the analysis of the ice content from the measured data of heat flow is not straightforward. In this study, two important factors influencing the ice content calculation are discussed. The importance of the baseline determination for the calculation of the ice content is realized. Two different methods of generating the baseline are discussed. First, the ‘J-baseline’ is discussed which is a recently proposed extrapolation method based on the accumulated heat curves measured in the freezing and the melting process. Second, the ‘C-baseline’ is discussed in which a calculated baseline is used where the heat capacity of both water and ice and the phase changing behaviour under different testing temperatures are considered. It turns out that both the ‘J-baseline’ method and the ‘C-baseline’ method can be used to calculate the approximate baseline. The heat of fusion of the water confined in small pores is another important parameter to be considered in ice content calculation. This property must be carefully analyzed in order to accurately calculate the ice contents at different temperatures in the freezing and melting process. It should be noted that there is no general agreement on how to obtain the important temperature dependence of the heat of fusion of water confined in small pores. By performing comparison studies, the present study shows the influence of the different values of the heat of fusion commonly adopted on the calculated ice content for the studied concrete samples. The importance and necessity to use an accurate value of the heat of fusion is emphasized. Based on the calculation of the baseline proposed in this work and by carefully selecting the values for the heat of fusion, the ice content in a hardened concrete sample is expected to be estimated with an acceptable accuracy.

Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn

2014-01-01

234

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts  

Science.gov (United States)

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-09-01

235

Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

2003-12-01

236

Temporal Partitioning by Animals Visiting Salt Licks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temporal partitioning of resources according to feeding period occurs in situation of food type specialization, such as for the use of salt licks by ecologically similar animal species. Camera traps placed at salt licks can be used to determine animal activity patterns. This study was carried in a logging concession area in central Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Sampling was carried from September 2010 to January 2011, and May to September 2011. Activity data at salt lick sites showed that sambar deer Rusa unicolor was mostly nocturnal, with high number of records occurring after dark from 20:00hrs onwards, peaking after midnight before slowly decreasing until early morning at 08:00hrs. Bornean yellow muntjac’s Muntiacus antherodes activity was restricted to during the day, which peaked at 11:00 to 12:00hrs. There was no clear pattern observable in mousedeer Tragulus spp. and bearded pig Sus barbatus activity data. Significant differences between the proportion of daily activity were observed between Bornean yellow muntjac and bearded pig (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, W=165.5, p=0.004, followed by sambar deer (W=195.5, p=0.053 and mousedeer (W=213, p=0.074. Human presence and hunting pressure may affect the behaviour of some game species, such as the Bornean yellow muntjac which showed peak activity periods during the earlier part of the day, and over a much shorter time span in more human accessible salt lick sites.

Jason Hon

2013-02-01

237

Effects of salt secretion on psychrometric determinations of water potential of cotton leaves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thermocouple psychrometers gave lower estimates of water potential of cotton leaves than did a pressure chamber. This difference was considerable for turgid leaves, but progressively decreased for leaves with lower water potentials and fell to zero at water potentials below about -10 bars. The conductivity of washings from cotton leaves removed from the psychrometric equilibration chambers was related to the magnitude of this discrepancy in water potential, indicating that the discrepancy is due to salts on the leaf surface which make the psychrometric estimates too low. This error, which may be as great as 400 to 500%, cannot be eliminated by washing the leaves because salts may be secreted during the equilibration period. Therefore, a thermocouple psychrometer is not suitable for measuring the water potential of cotton leaves when it is above about -10 bars. PMID:16656895

Klepper, B; Barrs, H D

1968-07-01

238

First data on the uranium content in water of the Yenisei River basin in the area affected by the operation of Rosatom plants  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is devoted to investigating the content of uranium isotopes in water of the Yenisei River and its tributaries within the territories affected by the operation of Rosatom plants (mining chemical combine, and electrochemical plant). Long-term monitoring of the 238U content by mass spectrometry carried out in two institutes of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences first revealed the multiple excess of 238U over the background content in different areas of the Yenisei River basin, such as the region of the Yenisei River near the effluents of the mining and chemical combine (MCC), and the territories of the Bol'shaya Tel' and Kan rivers. In these regions, the 238U content in water reaches 2.1-4.0 ?g/l, which exceeds its content upstream from the MCC (0.3-0.6 ?g/l) by almost an order of magnitude. The studies of the isotopic composition of uranium in water samples, which were carried out at the Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, showed the presence of a technogenic isotope of uranium 236U in the samples from the Bolshaya Tel' River and revealed the deviation of the isotope ratio 238U/235U (167 ± 3 and 177 ± 3) from the equilibrium natural ratio (238U/235U = 138). These facts attest to the technogenic origin of part of the uranium in water of the Bol'shaya Tel' River connected with the activity of MCC. The excess uranium content in the Kan River requires additional studies to ascertain the fraction of uranium of technogenic origin connected with the activity of the electrochemical plant (ECP) (Fig. 1, Table 4).

Bolsunovskii, A. Ya.; Zhizhaev, A. M.; Saprykin, A. I.; Degermendzhi, A. G.; Rubailo, A. I.

2011-07-01

239

Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

S. Vincenzi

1996-06-01

240

Query by Image Content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amount of images or the pictorial data is growing day by day with the expansion of internet services. As the network and development of multimedia technologies are becoming more popular, users are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques. So nowadays the content based image retrieval are becoming a source of exact and fast retrieval. . It is very difficult for the users to retrieve the required images using a operative and efficient mechanism. There are many techniques which are used to retrieve the images depending upon the requirement of different applications. This paper provides an extensive review of various latest research work and methodologies applied in the field of CBIR. Images are retrieved on the basis of automatically derived features such as, texture, shape and color which is generally referred to as Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. Content based image retrieval is an important research area in image processing, with a vast domain of applications like recognition systems i.e. finger, face, biometrics, medical sciences etc. However, the technology still lacks maturity, and is not yet being used on a significant scale. In the absence of hard evidence on the effectiveness of CBIR techniques in practice, opinion is still sharply divided about their usefulness in handling real-life queries in large and diverse image collections. The concepts which are presently used for CBIR system are all under research.

S. R. Bharamagoudar

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-08-01

242

Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

243

Salt Tracer and Area-Velocity Water Discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

Students spend a 50-minute class (or longer) measuring water discharge of a local stream. They use two different techniques: the traditional area-velocity method and a salt-tracer method. In the classroom, each student using Excel or Kaleidagraph to calculate discharge from field measurements. They summarize their results in an essay, and assess differences between the two techniques and potential sources of error. Designed for a geomorphology course Designed for an introductory geology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Catherine Riihimaki

244

Modeling of Dense Water Production and Salt Transport from Alaskan Coastal Polynyas  

Science.gov (United States)

The main significance of this paper is that a realistic, three-dimensional, high-resolution primitive equation model has been developed to study the effects of dense water formation in Arctic coastal polynyas. The model includes realistic ambient stratification, realistic bottom topography, and is forced by time-variant surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and time-dependent coastal flow. The salt and heat fluxes, and the surface ice drift, are derived from satellite observations (SSM/I and NSCAT sensors). The model is used to study the stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon during the 1996/97 winter season. The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model using the wind-transport regression. The results show that for the 1996/97 winter the northeastward coastal current exports 13% to 26% of the salt produced by coastal polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon in 20 to 30 days. The salt export occurs more rapidly during less persistent polynyas. The inclusion of ice-water stress in the model makes the coastal current slightly weaker and much wider due to the combined effects of surface drag and offshore Ekman transport.

Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2000-01-01

245

Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2005-07-01

246

Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called “salting-out” effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong

2013-01-01

247

Salts drive controllable multilayered upright assembly of amyloid-like peptides at mica/water interface.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface-assisted self-assembly of amyloid-like peptides has received considerable interest in both amyloidosis research and nanotechnology in recent years. Despite extensive studies, some controlling factors, such as salts, are still not well understood, even though it is known that some salts can promote peptide self-assemblies through the so-called "salting-out" effect. However, they are usually noncontrollable, disordered, amorphous aggregates. Here, we show via a combined experimental and theoretical approach that a conserved consensus peptide NH2-VGGAVVAGV-CONH2 (GAV-9) (from representative amyloidogenic proteins) can self-assemble into highly ordered, multilayered nanofilaments, with surprising all-upright conformations, under high-salt concentrations. Our atomic force microscopy images also demonstrate that the vertical stacking of multiple layers is highly controllable by tuning the ionic strength, such as from 0 mM (monolayer) to 100 mM (mainly double layer), and to 250 mM MgCl2 (double, triple, quadruple, and quintuple layers). Our atomistic molecular dynamics simulations then reveal that these individual layers have very different internal nanostructures, with parallel ?-sheets in the first monolayer but antiparallel ?-sheets in the subsequent upper layers due to their different microenvironment. Further studies show that the growth of multilayered, all-upright nanostructures is a common phenomenon for GAV-9 at the mica/water interface, under a variety of salt types and a wide range of salt concentrations. PMID:23650355

Dai, Bin; Kang, Seung-gu; Huynh, Tien; Lei, Haozhi; Castelli, Matteo; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Ruhong

2013-05-21

248

Bile Salt Degradation by Nonfermentative Clostridia  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight strains of nonfermentative clostridia were characterized on the basis of their intracellular nicotine adenine dinucleotide- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-dependent hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSDH) content, ability to deconjugate taurocholate, growth characteristics, and metabolic products, including utilization of lactate and pyruvate. Two cultures of Clostridium sporosphaeroides (representing one strain obtained from two different sources), one strain of Clostridium irregularis, four strains of an unnamed species (Clostridium group SPH-1), and one strain of an unnamed species (Clostridium group P) were studied. Both cultures of C. sporosphaeroides contained low amounts of 7?-HSDH; C. irregularis contained only a low amount of 3?-HSDH. All four strains of Clostridium SPH-1 contained both 12?- and 7?-HSDH in the ratio of approximately 10:1. The strain of Clostridium group P contained only 12?-HSDH and was devoid of any other bile salt oxidoreductases. The enzyme preparation from Clostridium group P was useful in spectrophotometric quantitative studies of 12?-OH groups. Correlation of bile salt degradative activities with other phenotypic tests for characterization of and differentiation among such organisms is discussed. Images PMID:921266

Mahony, David E.; Meier, C. Elizabeth; Macdonald, Ian A.; Holdeman, Lillian V.

1977-01-01

249

Enhancing Rice Salt Stress Tolerance by Priming with Validamycin A  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress. Application of validamycin A, a potent inhibitor of trehalase as seed soaking prior to sowing in saline soil with salinity level (EC 10.06 dS m-1 to Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars (cv. salt sensitive Sakha 103 and salt tolerance Agami M5 was investigated. Salinity stress decreased starch and total soluble protein contents concomitantly with increasing total soluble sugars, proline and free amino acids in both cultivars. Validamycin A decreased the activity of trehalase which leads to the accumulation of trehalose in both cultivars of rice plants. Raising trehalose level in the plant tissues was accompanied by increasing the starch and protein content and appearance of new protein pattern of both cultivars. The results indicated that application of validamycin A increased grain yield, 1000 grain weight and filled-grain percentage for both rice cultivars under saline field conditions. Soaking rice seeds with 30 ?M of validamycin A could alleviate the harmful effects of salinity stress.

T.A. Hathout

2014-01-01

250

Caspase-like enzymatic activity and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle participate in salt stress tolerance of maize conferred by exogenously applied nitric oxide.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salinity stress causes ionic stress (mainly from high Na? and Cl? levels) and osmotic stress (as a result of inhibition of water uptake by roots and amplified water loss from plant tissue), resulting in cell death and inhibition of growth and ultimately adversely reducing crop productivity. In this report, changes in root nitric oxide content, shoot and root biomass, root H?O? content, root lipid peroxidation, root cell death, root caspase-like enzymatic activity, root antioxidant enzymatic activity and root ascorbate and glutathione contents/redox states were investigated in maize (Zea mays L. cv Silverking) after long-term (21 d) salt stress (150 mM NaCl) with or without exogenously applied nitric oxide generated from the nitric oxide donor 2,2'-(Hydroxynitrosohydrazano)bis-ethane. In addition to reduced shoot and root biomass, salt stress increased the nitric oxide and H?O? contents in the maize roots and resulted in elevated lipid peroxidation, caspase-like activity and cell death in the roots. Altered antioxidant enzymatic activities, along with changes in ascorbate and glutathione contents/redox status were observed in the roots in response to salt stress. The detrimental effects of salt stress in the roots were reversed by exogenously applied nitric oxide. These results demonstrate that exogenously applied nitric oxide confers salt stress tolerance in maize by reducing salt stress-induced oxidative stress and caspase-like activity through a process that limits accumulation of reactive oxygen species via enhanced antioxidant enzymatic activity. PMID:22476534

Keyster, Marshall; Klein, Ashwil; Ludidi, Ndiko

2012-03-01

251

Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

252

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

1969-01-01

253

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

1969-06-01

254

Water swellable clay composition and method to maintain stability in salt contaminated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method is described of drilling comprising contacting an earthen formation with a rotary drilling bit to form a salt contaminated drill hole and circulating a drilling fluid in the drill hole to cool and lubricate the drill bit during rotation and to lift drill cuttings of the drill hole. The drilling fluid becomes contaminated with salt contaminated water. The improvement described here comprises adding a water swellable montmorillonite clay composition to the drilling fluid. The composition comprises a water swellable montmorillonite clay, xanthan gum in an amount of 0.1% to 20% based on the weight of water swellable montmorillonite clay, and at least one other, water soluble gum selected from the group consisting of guar gum, dextran gum, locust bean gum, and mixtures thereof in an amount of 4.0% to 10% based on the weight of water swellable clay.

Alexander, W.

1987-01-06

255

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides ({sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226,228}Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L{sup -1} over the salinity range of 100-370 g L{sup -1}; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of {sup 226,228}Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb along with their activity ratios ({sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes.

Yadav, D.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Back-End Technology Development Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: dny@barc.gov.in; Sarin, M.M. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

2009-01-15

256

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L-1 over the salinity range of 100-370 g L-1; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waterdly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes

257

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 10 mBq L (-1) [corrected] over the salinity range of 100-370gL(-1); attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes. PMID:19019503

Yadav, D N; Sarin, M M

2009-01-01

258

A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind; Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. This episode of ATETV follows a non-traditional adult student as he returns to school to study wind energy technology, and examines water treatment technology for desalination. The video can be viewed whole or in two segments: "A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind" and "Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water." The running time for the full episode is 9:59.

259

Dry matter accumulation and foliar K, Ca and Na contents in salt-stressed cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment aimed at determining the effect of five NaCl
concentrations (namely 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM, determining
respective EC values of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 on cape
gooseberry plants was set up at Humboldt University’s greenhouse
in Berlin, Germany. Dry weight (DW of roots, stems
and leaves, as well as foliar content of ions K+, Ca2+ and Na+ and
the relationship they hold with one another, were determined
over a 75-day period. DW of all plant organs was observed
to decrease with increasing salinity. The lowest values of this
variable, which were recorded from the 120 mM NaCl plants,
were found to be significantly smaller than those recorded at
60 mM and lower salt concentrations. Salt stress effects on dry
matter (DM accumulat ion were observed to increase with
plant age. Leaf K+ content increased with salinity and peaked
at 90 mM NaCl, where the value was significantly higher than
that observed at 120 mM. Foliar Ca2+ content remained unchanged
at the different salt concentrations, whilst Na+ content
increased together with salt stress. The relationship among ion
concentrations was significantly influenced only by 90 mM or
higher NaCl concentrations, which determined a progressive
increase of the Na+/Ca2+ ratio and a similar decrease of the K+/
Na+ ratio. According to the results, cape gooseberry can be
considered as moderately tolerant to salt, as shown by the 30
mM NaCl treatment, which did not affect DM accumulation in
plant organs. This tolerance is also supported by steady leaf Ca2+
contents at all levels of salinity, indicating that cape gooseberry
uses K+ as an osmoprotectant, at least up to 90 mM NaCl.

Miranda Diego

2010-08-01

260

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

 
 
 
 
261

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

262

Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative at the right s...

Clevers, J. G. P. W.

2010-01-01

263

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

264

Varietal differences in growth vigor, water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of two wheat varieties grown under seawater stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seawater salinity (10% and 25% on growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of two wheat cultivars (Salt sensitive var., Gemmieza-9 and salt resistant var., Sids-1 during grain-filling was investigated. In general, seawater at 10% and 25% caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations (RWC & SWD , protein and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content of both varieties during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by seawater stress in both wheat cultivars. The magnitude of reduction was more obvious at higher salinity levels than the lower one particularly in Gemmieza-9.

Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

2012-04-01

265

Influence of salts, including amino acids, on the rate and outcome of the in-water prebiotic reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

Most prebiotic reactions are hypothesized to have occurred in water. However, organic compounds in general are not water-soluble. This has created a great problem for prebiotic chemistry. However, it has been shown recently that many organic materials which are not soluble in water are still capable of reacting in water, often at faster rates than in the organic solvents. This has provided a new era in the study of the prebiotic reactions. Simulated prebiotic reactions are typically performed in water. However, presence of inorganic salts and the amino acids was ubiquitous in the aqueous media on the prebiotic Earth. We thus address the influence of common salts and selected water-soluble amino acids on the rate and outcome of selected prebiotic reactions in water. We focus on Diels-Alder (DA) reaction and multicomponent Passerini reaction (PR), as models for other prebiotic reactions. Some of the results came from our laboratory, and others are from the literature. DA reaction is influenced by salts and by selected water-soluble amino acids, but generally not to a large extent. The PR is also influenced by salts, but not dramatically. However, concentrations of salts and amino acids could have been extremely high in various local niches on the early Earth, and the influence of such concentrations on these prebiotic reactions awaits further study.

Kolb, Vera M.

2013-09-01

266

Salt stress effect on epinasty in relation to ethylene production and water relations in tomato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pool of genetic variability is a prerequisite for any practical approach to improving crop salt tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine how epinasty, a morphological response of tomato to salt stress, can be used as a measure of salt tolerance and how it is related to ethylene production and water relations in tomato. Three Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (Edkawy, Ramy, and Vemar) and one Lycopersicon sheesmanii accession were subjected to four levels of salt stress at the...

El-iklil, Youssef; Karrou, Mohammed; Benichou, Mohamed

2000-01-01

267

Complexation and extraction of halogenoacetates in ternary systems salt-water-extractant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to results of investigations into uranyl halogenacetates, acetat and nitrate in ternary systems salt-water-extractant (diethyl ether or tributyl phosphate) at 25 deg C. Reciprocal solubility diagrams for uranyl salt systems are presented. Relationship between the character of phase diagram and anion properties at the fixed cation and extractant was revealed. Tendency to formation of the closed binodal curve correlates with hydration number and is connected with electron-donor ability. Deviations are explained satisfactorily by the difference in solvation numbers, which seems to be connected with steric effects. The data obtained show that relationship between anion characteristics and salt extraction ability is ambiguous. Edwards parameter should be used to obtain more accurate evaluations

268

Effects of porosity, strength and water content on attenuation of stresses generated by subsurface explosions in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the calculational and experimental study on the effects of subsurface explosions (ESSEX), a calculational parameter study was performed to determine the effects of various soil parameters on the ground motion resulting from high explosive (HE) and/or nuclear detonations. Rapid attenuation of stress and particle velocity levels with distance from an underground explosion can significantly affect the range where failure of the material will occur. The effect of various parameters such as available air filled porosity, strength, water content, and initial bulk modulus of the material was studied via the one-dimensional finite difference computer code, SOC. A porous material model was developed in order to vary these parameters consistently. The model agreed well with laboratory test-generated compression and strength data for the types of solids found at the Ft. Polk, LA, test site. Air filled porosity and material strength were found to have large effects on the resulting ground motion. Ten percent air filled porosity leads to an order of magnitude reduction in peak stress, compared to that generated in fully saturated soil, at a distance of 10 meters from a 10-ton high-explosive detonation. The predicted stress and particle velocity levels compare favorably with measurements obtained on HE experiments conducted at the site

269

Effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature (T(g)') during lyophilization of ganciclovir salt forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This manuscript deals with the effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature for lyophilization of ganciclovir salts. Salt forms of ganciclovir, namely, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts, were prepared by an in situ technique and analyzed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) for the determination of the critical process parameter for lyophilization. Nonionized ganciclovir and its salt forms showed a glass transition (T(g)') in the reversing MDSC signal, confirming their amorphous nature. T(g)' of the nonionized ganciclovir and ganciclovir sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts followed the order: sodium salt (-34.94°C) > nonionized ganciclovir (-40.15°C) > potassium salt (-46.23°C) > rubidium salt (-49.95°C) > cesium salt (-53.62°C). The analysis of the freezable water content for ganciclovir and its salts showed the trend: pure water > nonionized ganciclovir > potassium salt ? sodium salt > rubidium salt > cesium salt. This showed that a majority of water in the salts is present as an unfrozen fraction, thus leading to a lowering of T(g)' because of the plasticizing effect of unfrozen water. Density functional theory (DFT) further suggested a positive contribution of the strength of intra- and intermolecular force of interactions to the T(g)' value, with a higher intramolecular and intermolecular force of interaction leading to a higher T(g)'. PMID:21133416

Kumar, Lokesh; Baheti, Ankit; Bansal, Arvind K

2011-02-01

270

Direct solvation of glycoproteins by salts in spider silk glues enhances adhesion and helps to explain the evolution of modern spider orb webs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, recruitment of multiple glue droplets, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. Viscid silk's extensibility is permitted by the glue's high water content, so that organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue droplets play an essential role in contributing to adhesion by sequestering the atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also cause adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and allowing the glue droplets to establish good contact. This "dual role" of salts, plasticizing the axial silk indirectly through water sequestration and directly solvating the glycoproteins, provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism for adhering even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. PMID:24588057

Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

2014-04-14

271

Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one possible option to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The assessment of the risks related to CO2 storage is an important task. Events such as CO2 leakage and brine displacement and infiltration could result in hazards for human health and the environment and therefore have to be investigated in detail. In this work numerical simulations are performed to estimate the risk related to the displacement of brine. The injected CO2 will displace the brine that is initially present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters aredetermined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical uncertainty is investigated for three parameters: the well distance, the water production rate, and the permeability of the aquifer. One possible way of estimating statistical uncertainties and providing probabilities is performing numerical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The MC approach is computationally very demanding because many simulations runs are needed to get an appropriate statistical accuracy. A possible way to handle the complexity and uncertainties with acceptable computational costs is by running MC simulations with a reduced model using a model reduction technique called arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing. Depending on the applied grid the numerical dispersion strongly influence the results as well. The distance of the well is a key parameter that influences the salt concentration at the well, thus the time that the salt has for mixing until reaching the well is relevant. References [1] Oladyshkin, S. und W. Nowak: Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 106 (2012) 179–190.

Walter, Lena; Class, Holger

2014-01-01

272

Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is also elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide, in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

L.A. Jr De Luca

2007-05-01

273

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

274

Simultaneous measurement of unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil using gamma ray attenuation and TDR  

Science.gov (United States)

freezing temperature of water in soil is not constant but varies over a range determined by soil texture. Consequently, the amounts of unfrozen water and ice change with temperature in frozen soil, which in turn affects hydraulic, thermal, and mechanical properties of frozen soil. In this paper, an Am-241 gamma ray source and time-domain reflectometry (TDR) were combined to measure unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil simultaneously. The gamma ray attenuation was used to determine total water content. The TDR was used to determine the dielectric constant of the frozen soil. Based on a four-phase mixing model, the amount of unfrozen water content in the frozen soil could be determined. The ice content was inferred by the difference between total water content and unfrozen water content. The gamma ray attenuation and the TDR were both calibrated by a gravimetric method. Water contents measured by gamma ray attenuation and TDR in an unfrozen silt column under infiltration were compared and showed that the two methods have the same accuracy and response to changes of water content. Unidirectional column freezing experiments were performed to apply the combined method of gamma ray attenuation and TDR for measuring unfrozen water content and ice content. The measurement error of the gamma ray attenuation and TDR was around 0.02 and 0.01 m3/m3, respectively. The overestimation of unfrozen water in frozen soil by TDR alone was quantified and found to depend on the amount of ice content. The higher the ice content, the larger the overestimation. The study confirmed that the combined method could accurately determine unfrozen water content and ice content in frozen soil. The results of soil column freezing experiments indicate that total water content distribution is affected by available pore space and the freezing front advance rate. It was found that there is similarity between the soil water characteristic and the soil freezing characteristic of variably saturated soil. Unfrozen water content is independent of total water content and affected only by temperature when the freezing point is reached.

Zhou, Xiaohai; Zhou, Jian; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang; Stauffer, Fritz

2014-12-01

275

Determination of salt-transport model parameters for leaching of saturated superficially salted soils  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical solutions were given for the problem of dissolution and leaching of salts in waterlogged regions with deep and shallow water tables under surface salinization and with account for equilibrium sorption (characterized by a linear exchange isotherm) and the problem of nonequilibrium irreversible sorption (characterized by biological transformation in the soil solution, which follows the first-order kinetics). A method was developed for determining the hydrochemical parameters (mixing step and dissolution rate coefficient of solidphase salts) from the average salt contents of water-saturated soils of given thickness before and after leaching determined under laboratory and field conditions.

Mikayilov, F. D.

2007-05-01

276

In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

2012-01-01

277

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

278

Potential Antioxidant Activities Improve Salt Tolerance in Ten Varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of antioxidative enzymes system is affected by salt stress, chlorophyll content (CHL, leaf relative water content (RWC, Na+ and K+ contents, their ratio and some oxidative stress indices were studied in leaves of ten bread wheat cultivarsSehar-06, Lu-26, NARC-09, BARC-09 and Pirsbak-09’(salt-tolerant and Kaghan-94, Rohtas-90, Soughat-90, Shaheen-94 and Zardana-89’(salt-sensitive, grown under salinity treatments carried out in five levels (1 dS·m-1 as control, 2, 4, 8, 16 dS·m-1 via sodium chloride. Under high salt potency significant increase for activities of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guiacol peroxidase (GPX, occured in salt tolerant varieties. Meanwhile, under salinity condition the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and (GPX in sensitive cultivar were lower than control. Regarding (APX activity there was no significant difference between salinity and control situation. Under salt stress membrane stability index (MSI of both cultivars were negatively influenced. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content of salinity sensitive cultivars was higher than control. Salt tolerant varieties had more amounts of K+ content, K+ and Na+ ratio, relative water content, yield and chlorophyll under salt conditions, and sensitive ones recorded higher Na+ content at tillering stage. The mechanism of salt stress might be achieved due to low lipid peroxidation, assumingly lower changes in membrane stability index and evasion of Na+ combination and amplified activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Aurangzeb Rao

2013-06-01

279

Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

2014-01-01

280

Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk...

Oad, F. C.; Abro, Z. A.; Siyal, A. G.; Oad, N. L.; Siyal, A. A.

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Copper ions interfere with the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic activity as a measure of cell viability is frequently determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8), commercially available as CCK-8 reagent. In this study, CCK-8 was investigated with respect to its suitability for investigating nano- and microscale copper oxide (CuO NP and CuO MP) as well as water-soluble copper chloride (CuCl2). The results were compared to cell number and colony forming ability. Our data demonstrate that the CCK-8 assay overestimates the loss of metabolic activity by CuCl2 and CuO NP, because of interference by copper ions with the reduction of the dye. PMID:24380418

Semisch, Annetta; Hartwig, Andrea

2014-02-17

282

Quantum Calculations on Salt Bridges with Water: Potentials, Structure, and Properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salt bridges are electrostatic links between acidic and basic amino acids in a protein; quantum calculations are used here to determine the energetics and other properties of one form of these species, in the presence of water molecules. The acidic groups are carboxylic acids (aspartic and glutamic acids); proteins have two bases with pK above physiological pH: one, arginine, with a guanidinium basic group, the other lysine, which is a primary amine. Only arginine is modeled here, by ethyl guanidinium, while propionic acid is used as a model for either carboxylic acid. The salt bridges are accompanied by 0-12 water molecules; for each of the 13 systems, the energy-bond distance relation, natural bond orbitals (NBO), frequency calculations allowing thermodynamic corrections to room temperature, and dielectric constant dependence, were all calculated. The water molecules were found to arrange themselves in hydrogen bonded rings anchored to the oxygens of the salt bridge components. This was not surprising in itself, but it was found that the rings lead to a periodicity in the energy, and to a 'water addition' rule. The latter shows that the initial rings, with four oxygen atoms, become five member rings when an additional water molecule becomes available, with the additional water filling in at the bond with the lowest Wiberg index, as calculated using NBO. The dielectric constant dependence is the expected hyperbola, and the fit of the energy to the inverse dielectric constant is determined. There is an energy periodicity related to ring formation upon addition of water molecules. When 10 water molecules have been added, all spaces near the salt bridge are filled, completing the first hydration shell, and a second shell starts to form. The potentials associated with salt bridges depend on their hydration, and potentials assigned without regard to local hydration are likely to cause errors as large as or larger than kBT, thus suggesting a serious problem if these potentials are used in Molecular Dynamics simulations.

Liao, Sing; Green, Michael E.

2011-01-01

283

EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.  

Science.gov (United States)

A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

Highland, Lynn M.

1985-01-01

284

Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the poly(propylene glycol)400 (PPG400)-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG400-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 ?g L-1, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 ?g L-1.

285

Photochemical reactions of disulphide radical anions in frozen water-salt matrix  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Photochemical reactions of disulfide radical anions CH3SSCH-3 induced by light with ?=436, 405 and 365 nm in a water-salt matrix of 6M LiCl at 77 K were studied. It was shown that upon excitation disulfide radical anions may enter into electron photodetachment reaction and the S-S bond is cleft. Kinetical nonequivalence of disulfide radical anions in photochemical reactions was shown to manifest itself in different mechanisms of their transformations. (author)

286

Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

287

Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

Brodersen, K.

1992-01-01

288

Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2?, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C

289

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

290

Inland dissolved salt chemistry: statistical evaluation of bivariate and ternary diagram models for surface and subsurface waters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models even if large water bodies were evaluated separate from small water bodies. Atmospheric precipitation effects were identified using ternary diagrams in water with total dissolved salts (TDS) <25 mg l-1 dominated by SO4...

Threlkeld, Stephen T.; Baca, Robert M.

2000-01-01

291

STUDY ON DECANTATION WAYS OF ROCK SALT BRINES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE USE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rock salt from Dhrovjani mine (Delvina is characterized by a very high content of insoluble in water matter (around 20%. Nevertheless, it has been used for more than 20 years in some industrial areas, particularly in soda ash production at the Vlora plant. The use of this kind of salt is accompanied by large amount generation of solid waste, and also by limited decantation rate of raw brines prepared, in particular during the wet seasons (when the salt moisture content exceeds 2.5%. The study was undertaken in relation to this rocky salt, as well as to the possibility of decantation rate increasing of the crude brines.

E. Hodo

2010-12-01

292

Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha?1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

Zhigang Huang

2013-05-01

293

Determination of Soil Water Content From Terrestrial Gamma Radiation Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Natural gamma radiation emitted by the soil and measured at the surface with a gamma ray spectrometer is a function of the radioactive activity of the soil and the linear attenuation coefficient. The dependence of the linear attenuation coefficient on soil water content is explored for selected soil water profiles by numerical integration. These soil water profiles were generalized distributions based on gravimetric measurements over a sandy soil at the Central Experimental Farm in Ottawa. A comprehensive analysis of the measurements showed that inhomogeneous water distribution accounted for a 1.8% error in the count rate compared to a 2.6% error associated with random count rate fluctuation and instrument error. The depth of the soil layer contributing to natural gamma radiation at the surface depends also on the water content; 90% of the total radiation is contributed by a dry soil of depth 0.18 m, compared to 0.14 m for a soil with a fractional water content of 0.2. The total expected error in the measurement over the range of soil water encountered (0.03-0.24) is shown to be 0.033 for the 0.10-m layer and 0.025 for the 0.25-m layer.

Loijens, H. S.

1980-06-01

294

Simultaneous measurement of bulk density and water content in soil columns by use of 169Yb and 137Cs as source materials for gamma-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study is intended to demonstrate the use of 169Yb and 137Cs gamma sources for rapid and non-destructive simultaneous measurement of bulk density and water content in both swelling and non-swelling soils

295

[Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

2012-11-01

296

Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): a dynamic rheological and Raman spectroscopy study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chopping and beating processes were used as meat-cutting methods in preparing kung-wan to produce low-salt products while retaining or improving the emulsion stability, sensory evaluation, and physico-chemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. Increased salt content improved emulsion stability and dynamic rheology. However, 3% salt content decreased the overall acceptance of kung-wan. Compared with the chopping process, beating resulted in higher emulsion stability, overall acceptance, and ?-sheet content (P0.05). Therefore, this process allows reduction of salt content, suggesting that the kung-wan produced in this manner is healthier and has better texture. PMID:24200556

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Zou, Yu-Feng; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2014-02-01

297

Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

2012-07-01

298

Estimation of In Vivo Water Content of the Stratum Corneum from Electrical Measurements  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In vivo water content in the epidermal stratum corneum can be estimated by means of low frequency susceptance measurements. In the in vitro calibration necessary to find the in vivo water content, the stratum corneum will have a uniform distribution of water across its thickness. However, in vivo stratum corneum has an increasing water concentration profile from the outermost towards the innermost parts. This paper will investigate the possibility of estimating the equilibrium water content i...

Johnsen, Gorm Krogh; Martinsen, Ø. G.; Grimnes, S.

2009-01-01

299

Adsorption behavior of radionuclide in water containing sea salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Waste water caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor accident contains high level radioactive material with impurities of sea water origin, such as chloride, sodium and magnesium. These impurities have the potential to inhibit the adsorption reaction of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents. We have studied adsorption behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents to measure distribution coefficients (Kd) in the condition of different sea water concentrations. For cesium adsorption, the dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration was affected by the adsorption mechanism of adsorbent; the adsorbents which adsorbed cesium by intercalation showed less dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration, while those adsorbed cesium by ion exchange had smaller Kd with increasing the sea water concentration. For strontium adsorption, Kd decreased as the sea water concentration increased for both adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The inhibition of intercalation and ion exchange reaction of strontium by calcium ion, that exists high concentration in sea water (400 ppm) and similar hydrated ionic radius with strontium, will cause the decrease of Kd for strontium in the sea water with higher concentration. (author)

300

Development of the sediment and water quality management strategies for the Salt-water River, Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Salt-water River watershed is one of the major river watersheds in the Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Water quality and sediment investigation results show that the river water contained high concentrations of organics and ammonia-nitrogen, and sediments contained high concentrations of heavy metals and organic contaminants. The main pollution sources were municipal and industrial wastewaters. Results from the enrichment factor (EF) and geo-accumulation index (Igeo) analyses imply that the sediments can be characterized as heavily polluted in regard to Cd, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu. The water quality analysis simulation program (WASP) model was applied for water quality evaluation and carrying capacity calculation. Modeling results show that the daily pollutant inputs were much higher than the calculated carrying capacity (1050 kg day(-1) for biochemical oxygen demand and 420 kg day(-1) for ammonia-nitrogen). The proposed watershed management strategies included river water dilution, intercepting sewer system construction and sediment dredging. PMID:21392809

Lin, C E; Chen, C T; Kao, C M; Hong, A; Wu, C Y

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 ?g/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 ?g/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 ?g/day). (author)

302

Uranium metal production by molten salt electrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a promising uranium enrichment technology in the next generation. Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides into uranium metal is proposed for the preparation of uranium metal as a feed material for AVLIS plant. Considering economical performance, continuos process concept and minimizing the amount of radioactive waste, an electrolytic process for producing uranium metal directly from uranium oxides will offer potential advantages over the existing commercial process. Studies of uranium metal by electrolysis in fluoride salts (BaF2-LiF-UF4(74-11-15 w/o) at 1150-1200degC, using both a laboratory scale apparatus and an engineering scale one, and continuous casting of uranium metal were carried out in order to decide the optimum operating conditions and the design of the industrial electrolytic cells. (author)

303

The reaction kinetics of lithium salt with water vapor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The interaction of lithium salt (LiH and/or LiD) with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10-5-2657 Pa has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with LiH cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiH surface temperature, suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to 0.007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product approached full coverage. As the film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from 0 deg. C to 20 deg. C and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit (?10-4). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion-limited process in this regime. For micrometer thick hydroxide films grown in high moisture concentration environment on LiD and LiH, the reaction probability reduced to ?4x10-7 and was independent of exposure time. In this regime of thick hydroxide films (LiOH and/or LiOD), microcracks generated in the films to release stress provided easier pathways for moisture to reach the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, was also employed to investigate the surface morphology of hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH · H2O and/or LiOD · H2O) grown ond/or LiOD · H2O) grown on hydroxide at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth

304

Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Liu, Zhi; MØller, Flemming

2011-01-01

305

Model studies on salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area, Andhra Pradesh, India  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The salt and water balances at Konanki pilot area in Nagarjunasagar project right canal command in Andhra Pradesh State of India were analysed using SALTMOD. The model was calibrated by using two-year data collected in the pilot area. From the calibration, the leaching efficiencies of the root and transition zone were estimated as 65% and the out going natural sub-surface drainage was determined as 50 mm per year. The model predicts that the root zone soil water salinity will be reduced to 4,...

Srinivasulu, A.; Sujani Rao, C.; Lakshmi, G. V.; Satyanarayana, T. V.; Boonstra, J.

2004-01-01

306

GRAVIMETRIC AND VOLUMETRIC DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF SOIL WATER CONTENT  

Science.gov (United States)

Accurate soil water content measurements to considerable depth are required for investigations of crop water use, water use efficiency, irrigation efficiency, and the hydraulic properties of soils. Many indirect methods have been proposed for sensing soil water content with minimal soil disturbance....

307

Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate

308

Effect of salt on the hybridization of DNA by sequential immobilization of oligonucleotides at the air-water interface in the presence of ODA/DOTAP monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of low ionic strength on the binding of preformed DNA duplexes and the hybridization of single-stranded oligonucleotides at the air-water interface in the presence of cationic Langmuir monolayers of octadecylamine (ODA), as well as 1,2-dioleoyloxytrimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), is investigated. The complexation of the single-stranded DNA molecules and preformed duplexes with NaCl in solution with ODA/DOTAP Langmuir monolayers was followed in time by monitoring the pressure-area isotherms, wherein a very large and rapid expansion of the ODA/DOTAP monolayer was observed. In the case of sequential immobilization of complementary oligonucleotides, after addition of the complementary strand and intercalator, there was not much expansion, indicative of the fact that equilibrium had been rapidly achieved. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of the ODA/DOTAP-DNA complex were formed on different substrates and characterized using quartz-crystal microgravimetry (QCM), fluorescence spectroscopy, and thermal melting studies. These measurements clearly showed that the preformed duplexes retained their native form as double helices and further, hybridization of the complementary single-stranded DNA molecules had occurred at the air-water interface, leading to the characteristic double-helical structure. PMID:15219432

Ramakrishnan, Vidya; D'Costa, Moneesha; Ganesh, Krishna N; Sastry, Murali

2004-08-01

309

Effects of stomatal density and leaf water content on the (18) O enrichment of leaf water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf water isotopic composition is imprinted in several biomarkers of interest and it is imperative that we understand the isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Here, we test the effect of stomatal density and leaf water content on the oxygen isotopic composition of leaf water in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different stomatal densities, and several other species showing a range of stomatal density. We grew Arabidopsis plants hydroponically and collected other species in the field. Stomatal density and leaf water content were determined for each plant. We measured transpiration and extracted leaf water for isotopic determination. Using these measurements and the current leaf water isotope model, we calculated several of the parameters related to leaf water isotopic enrichment. High stomatal density promoted leaf water isotope enrichment. No conclusion, however, can be drawn regarding the effect of leaf water content on leaf water isotope enrichment. Factors such as transpiration might mask the effect of stomatal density on leaf water isotopic enrichment. We propose a method by which stomatal density can be incorporated in the current Peclet model of leaf water isotope enrichment. These findings have important applications in the use of plant-based metabolic proxies in paleoclimate studies. PMID:25408145

Larcher, Leticia; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Sternberg, Leonel

2014-11-18

310

Influence of Water Stress on Proline Accumulation, Lipid Peroxidation and Water Content of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of water stress on Triticum aestivum L. was investigated before and during a period of stress at the seedling stage. For this purpose Turkish bread wheat cultivar Gönen 98 was used in this research. Changing of proline and lipid peroxidation content (malonyl dialdehyde, MDA at five different harvesting times (7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after sowing during early vegetative stage was determined in relation to dry matter production and relative water content of leaves. After onset of stress treatment (14 days after sowing decline of dry matter production by water stress was observed. The decreasing of relative water content and increasing of proline concentration of stressed plants harvested 28 days after sowing was markedly more than at other harvesting times. Water stress caused an increase of MDA content in leaves of plants. It reached highest level 28 days after sowing. The data showed that proline accumulation increased after lipid peroxidation content became higher and relative water content of leaves became lower. Therefore proline appeared to be mainly involved in protection against oxidative stress than osmotic adjustment during initial steps of water stress.

Ozgur Tatar

2008-01-01

311

From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

2010-03-15

312

From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

2010-03-15

313

From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

314

From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

315

Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

316

Salting-out of triethylphosphate by inorganic electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salting-out of triethylphosphate (TEP) from water was measured at 25 degrees C for twelve inorganic electrolytes. If salting out is taken as an additive property of ions, then the effectiveness for salting TEP out of water is I- - - 42- 32- for anions and 1/3La3+ + approximately NH4+ + 2+ + 2+ for cations. The results were fitted to three theories. The distribution theory of Conway, Desnoyers, and Smith predicts the order of magnitude of the experimental results, but does not discriminate well between salts of the same valence type. The electrostriction theory of McDevit and Long discriminates well between ions but gives results three or five times larger than those observed. Scaled particle theory predicts the results reasonably well, but the predictions depend critically on the choice of ionic and molecular parameters. Thus, none of these theories is entirely satisfactory

317

The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

Prabhakar A

2008-03-01

318

Iodine Content of Household Salt and Urinary Iodine of Primary School Pupils in Commercial Towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the iodine content of household salt and urinary iodine of primary school pupils in commercial towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two commercial towns (Orba and Ibagwa-aka in Nsukka senatorial district were purposely selected. Iodine content of salt was measured at household level as well the nutritional iodine status of 200 school aged children (6-12 years was assessed by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Validated questionnaire was used to test the Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Behaviour (KAPB of 40 household salt consumers and 15 salt retailers in the two communities. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data into frequencies, percentages and mean. More than half (58.3% of the household salt at Orba and 70% at Ibagwa-aka were iodized to an adequate level of > 15 ppm, while 12.5% at Orba and 3.7% at Ibagwa-aka, had no iodine (0 ppm. The proportions of the primary school children that were mildly iodine deficient at Orba and Ibagwa-aka were 43.3 and 56.2%, respectively. The factors that affect the iodine status of school children in the study areas include poor use of salt, unhygienic method of handling and storage of salt and cultural practices. There is need to increase awareness of both the retailers and consumers in Orba and Ibagwa-aka regarding the consequences of poor use, unhygienic handling and storage of salt.

Maduabuchi, Adimoranma

2013-01-01

319

UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

320

Enhanced salt tolerance in maize plants induced by H2O2 leaf spraying is associated with improved gas exchange rather than with non-enzymatic antioxidant system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates plant responses against several biotic and abiotic stresses. H2O2 pretreatment has emerged as a signaling way, inducing salt stress acclimation in plants. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 leaf pretreatment on the non-enzy [...] matic defense system (ascorbate and glutathione), plant growth, relative water content (RWC), relative chlorophyll content, H2O2 content, and gas exchange in maize plants under NaCl stress. The results showed that salinity reduced the leaf area and shoot and root dry mass as compared to control, and the leaf spraying with H2O2 significantly improved the growth of salt stressed plants. Photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were strongly decreased by salinity after 7 and 14 days of salt exposure; however, the decrease was lower in plants sprayed with H2O2. The improved gas exchange in H2O2-sprayed stressed plants correlated positively with higher RWC and relative chlorophyll content and lower leaf H2O2 accumulation under NaCl stress conditions. Ascorbate and glutathione did not play any obvious effects as non-enzymatic antioxidants in the ROS scavenging. In conclusion, the salt tolerance induced by H2O2 leaf pretreatment is attributed to a reduction in the H2O2 content and maintenance of RWC and chlorophyll in maize leaves. These characteristics allow maize plants to maintain high rates of photosynthesis under salt stress and improve the growth.

Franklin Aragão, Gondim; Rafael de Souza, Miranda; Enéas, Gomes-Filho; José Tarquinio, Prisco.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of decay and associated weathering types under different environmental conditions can be obtained.Las sales de sulfato magnésico a menudo se producen a partir de la combinación de materiales de construcción incompatibles, tales como piedra o mortero con un alto contenido en magnesio y sulfatos procedentes de morteros adyacentes o del aire contaminado. Cuando estos materiales se combinan con una fuente de humedad, reaccionan para formar sales solubles que con frecuencia dan lugar a un importante deterioro por laminaciones de la piedra, ya que el sulfato magnésico responde a las fluctuaciones de las condiciones ambientales. Varios experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo para reproducir laminaciones superficiales en diferentes tipos de calizas procedentes de España y Reino Unido, para evaluar los efectos de ciclos de humedad en el deterioro de la piedra por cristalización de sales. Una única sal de sulfato magnésico y una mezcla de sulfato magnésico, sulfato cálcico y cloruro sódico, típica mezcla de sales encontrada en la piedra deteriorada de Howden Minster (UK, fueron las dos soluciones salinas utilizadas para realizar los experimentos. Se utilizó una cámara climática con control preciso de programación de temperatura y humedad para probar la hipótesis de que el deterioro por sales en la piedra puede ser fácilmente causada por fluctuaciones de humedad. El deterioro se monitorizó utilizando un Transformador Diferencial de Variable Lineal (TDVL, que mide el desplazamiento de transductores por cambios dimensionales en el orden de micras. Además, también se realizaron análisis de Cromatografía de Iones, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido Ambiental con energía dispersiva de rayos-X (MEBA-EDX y Difracción de rayos-X (DRX para analizar el comportamiento de las sales. El deterioro por laminaciones se produjo en dos tipos de calizas magnésicas impregnadas con la mezcla salina, procedentes de las canteras de Cadeby y de York Min

Pinchin, S.

2008-06-01

322

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2013-04-21

323

Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

2013-01-01

324

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

2013-04-01

325

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media

326

Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2? is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, ?, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

327

Activity of the bile salt export pump (ABCB11) is critically dependent on canalicular membrane cholesterol content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mutations in ATP8B1 cause severe inherited liver disease. The disease is characterized by impaired biliary bile salt excretion (cholestasis), but the mechanism whereby impaired ATP8B1 function results in cholestasis is poorly understood. ATP8B1 is a type 4 P-type ATPase and is a flippase for phosphatidylserine. Atp8b1-deficient mice display a dramatic increase in the biliary extraction of cholesterol from the canalicular (apical) membrane of the hepatocyte. Here we studied the hypothesis that disproportionate cholesterol extraction from the canalicular membrane impairs the activity of the bile salt transporter, ABCB11, and as a consequence causes cholestasis. Using single pass liver perfusions, we show that not only ABCB11-mediated transport but also Abcc2-mediated transport were reduced at least 4-fold in Atp8b1 deficiency. We show that canalicular membranes of cholestatic Atp8b1-deficient mice have a dramatically reduced cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, i.e. 0.75 +/- 0.24 versus 2.03 +/- 0.71 for wild type. In vitro depletion of cholesterol from mouse liver plasma membranes using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin demonstrated a near linear relation between cholesterol content of the membranes and ATP-dependent taurocholate transport. Abcc2-mediated transport activity was not affected up to 30% of membrane cholesterol depletion but declined to negligible levels at 70% of membrane cholesterol depletion. These effects were reversible as cholesterol repletion of the liver membranes completely restored Abcb11- and Abcc2-mediated transport. Our data demonstrate that membrane cholesterol content is a critical determinant of ABCB11/ABCC2 transport activity, provide an explanation for the etiology of ATP8B1 disease, and suggest a novel mechanism protecting the canalicular membrane against luminal bile salt overload. PMID:19228692

Paulusma, Coen C; de Waart, D Rudi; Kunne, Cindy; Mok, Kam S; Elferink, Ronald P J Oude

2009-04-10

328

Trace metals behaviour during salt and fresh water mixing in the Venice Lagoon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preliminary results of an investigation on trace metals behaviour in the estuarine system of the Dese River (Venice Lagoon) are described. Hydrodynamical and water chemical-physical measurements and PIXE concentrations analysis on size-fractionated samples emphasize the complexity of the processes occurring in the area of salt and fresh water mixing. Suspended load variations in the bottom layer of the water column, which may be mostly ascribed to resuspension, regulate the trace metal concentrations and seem to play a fundamental role in the transport of pollutants in shallow water areas of the estuary. The behaviour of dissolved metals is masked by the presence of suspended matter, but some relationships with chemical-physical variables are distinguishable, furnishing information on the processes affecting their concentration in the system. (orig.)

329

Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil colonization by plants affected spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals. - The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the same variations. Soils not colonized by plants had the highest pH and lowest heavy metal concentrations in the summer. These results support the idea that higher temperatures lead to an increase in the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which in turn leads to an increase in alkalinity and concentration of sulfides in the water. Trace metals tend to precipitate with sulfides under these conditions and are removed from the interstitial water. In contrast, in the soils colonized by Spartina maritima, the oxidation of metal sulfides during the summer led to a decrease in pH and an increase in the metal concentrations in the interstitial water. The results obtained concur with those found for seasonal variations in metal sulfides in soils from the same salt marsh

330

The heat of solution and solvation number of lithium salts in water-alcohol mixtures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The solvation numbers of LiCl and LiI, and of KI for comparison, in water-MeOH mixtures and water-i-PrOH mixtures were determined at an infinite dilution at 250C from the adiabatic compressibility. The heats of solution of these salts were also determined. In general, with an increase in the concentration of alcohol the solvation number increases initially to reach a maximum at 10-30 mol% alcohol, then it decreases to a minimum and increases again from about 75 mol% alcohol. The maximum solvation numbers of the salts determined are as follows: LiCl 11.2 mol/mol at 30 mol% MeOH; LiCl 11.5 mol/mol at 15 mol% i-PrOH;LiI 8.2 mol/mol at 12 mol% i-PrOH and KI 14.0 mol/mol at 10 mol% i-PrOH. The larger the cation, the larger the solvation number. Also, the composition of the solvant where the salt containing larger ions has a maximum solvation number has a lower concentration of alcohol. The maximum solvation number of LiI containing a larger anion is smaller than that of LiCl because an iodide ion has a much larger structure-breaking effect than a chloride ion. By the way, there seems to be difference in the structure of the mixed solvent before and after the maximum solvation number. (auth.)

331

Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Koch ia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m-1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m-1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

332

Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kochia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m{sup -}1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m{sup -}1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

Salehi, M.; Kafi, M.

2011-07-01

333

Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water coght of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that treat classes of measurement systems, or individual sensors/methods if they do not belong to one of the major classes, which include neutron moisture meters, capacitance sensors that work from within a plastic access tube, time domain reflectometry systems that employ waveform capture and analysis, tensiometers, and direct sampling methods. Obviously, not all sensor systems could be included in the studies that led up to this manual. Much of the work supported by the IAEA involves determination of the soil water balance to determine crop water use and water use efficiency. Thus, many of the systems studied were those that work in access tubes so that measures could be made to well below the crop root zone. However, a few other widely used systems employing probes that are inserted into the soil were also studied

334

Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-08-04

335

Comment on the paper: "Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete- the possibility of NDE". Ultrasonic 38(2000) 546-552 by Etsuzo Ohdaira and Nobuyoshi Masuzawa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fundamental application of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method (UPV) in the study of concrete, consist in the analysis and estimation of the mechanical properties (compressive strength). The precission of the estimation may be dependent on the incidence of various factors, one of which is the water content acquired by the sample of concrete. In [Etsuzo] a lineal dependence of the UPV in terms of the water content for different dosifications of concrete is proposed. This...

Gonzalez, Manuel Rodriguez; Caceres, Rolando Bonal

2002-01-01

336

Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

2014-06-01

337

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

Science.gov (United States)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

338

IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION  

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Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

Fercha Azzedine

2011-03-01

339

Estimation of the volumetric water content in chrysanthemum tissues  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of estimating water in a neutron image was developed for cold neutron radiography, where the scanning method was applied to the plant sample at a beam port. The spectrum of the cold neutron beam as well as the effective cross section of water was determined to estimate the water thickness in chrysanthemum tissues. The resolution and contrast of the cold neutron radiography were sufficient for the estimation of the water thickness of fine veins in the chrysanthemum leaves. However, volumetric water content was overestimated when the sample shapes were cylindrical. This phenomenon can be explained by the reduction of the effect of neutron scattering from the sample when it is cylindrical. (author)

340

Resistance to fresh and salt water in intertidal mites (Acari: Oribatida): implications for ecology and hydrochorous dispersal  

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The resistance to fresh water and seawater in three intertidal oribatid mite species from Bermuda, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, was tested in laboratory experiments. Larvae are more sensitive to fresh and salt water, nymphs and adults showed equal tolerances. Fortuynia atlantica and A. inexpectatus were more resistant to salt water whereas C. bermudensis survived longer in fresh water. Differences in the resistance to fresh and salt water among th...

Pfingstl, Tobias

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Altered secretome of Burkholderia pseudomallei induced by salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophyte found in soil and water. It is a difficult microorganism to kill and can survive in these environments for many years. Mechanisms for its adaptive response to environmental changes remain largely unknown. We performed a proteomics study to examine alterations in secreted proteins (secretome) under a salt stress (with 150 mM NaCl) compared to the normal cultured condition in LB broth. The culture supernatants were filtrated and precipitated with 50% ethanol. The isolated proteins were recovered, separated with 2-D PAGE, and visualized with SYPRO Ruby stain (n=5 gels for each group). Differentially expressed protein spots were identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. A total of 42 protein spots representing 37 unique proteins were identified as the altered proteins during the salt stress, including metabolic enzymes, transcription/translation regulators, potential virulence factors, chaperones, phage capsid proteins, drug resistance protein, solute transport regulator, and hypothetical proteins. The presence of secreted GroEL only after NaCl exposure was confirmed by Western blot analysis. The increased level (19-fold) of a beta-lactamase-like protein suggested that the NaCl-exposed bacterium might resist to beta-lactam antibiotics. Functional analysis revealed that the NaCl-exposed bacterium had significantly greater survival rate after a treatment with ceftazidime. Our study provided the first dataset of the secretome of B. pseudomallei and its alterations, which may lead to novel insights into adaptive response of B. pseudomallei during the salt stress. PMID:19336033

Pumirat, Pornpan; Saetun, Putita; Sinchaikul, Supachok; Chen, Shui-Tein; Korbsrisate, Sunee; Thongboonkerd, Visith

2009-06-01

342

Estimation of Areal Soil Water Content through Microwave Remote Sensing  

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In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content are discussed through literature review, laboratory experimental results and results of extensive field experimental work. Even with the large amount of field data being available, no experiment provided a...

Oevelen, P. J.

2000-01-01

343

Gross alpha determination in salt rich water samples using an extraction chromatographic resin and LSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of an extraction chromatographic resin to the determination of the gross alpha activity of drinking water samples with volumes greater than 100 ml and of salt rich aqueous samples, like mineral, waste or sea waters was tested. Alpha-emitters are extracted from the water sample onto the resin, the gross alpha activity is then determined by direct measurement of the dried resin using ?/? discrimination LSC. The resin shows strong affinity for actinides, as well as for radium, out of pH 2 solutions. The extraction is robust against Ca, sulphate and other potential interferents. The method was tested by analyzing reference materials, intercomparison samples and spiked real samples. Results of good precision and accuracy were obtained in counting times notably shorter than routinely used for gas proportional counting. (author)

344

Involvement of ethylene in reversal of salt-inhibited photosynthesis by sulfur in mustard.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfur (S) assimilation results in the synthesis of cysteine (Cys), a common metabolite for the formation of both reduced glutathione (GSH) and ethylene. Thus, ethylene may have regulatory interaction with GSH in the alleviation of salt stress. The involvement of ethylene in the alleviation of salt stress by S application was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan). First, the effects of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0?mM SO4 (2) (-) were studied on photosynthetic and growth parameters to ascertain the S requirement as sufficient-S and excess-S for the plant. In further experiments, the effects of sufficient-S (1?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) and excess-S (2?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) were studied on the alleviation of salt stress-induced by 100?mM NaCl, and ethylene involvement in the alleviation of salt stress by S. Under non-saline condition, excess-S increased ethylene with less content of Cys and GSH and adversely affected photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, excess-S maximally alleviated salt stress due to high demand for S and optimal ethylene formation, which maximally increased GSH and promoted photosynthesis and growth. The involvement of ethylene in S-mediated alleviation of salt stress was further substantiated by the reversal of the effects of excess-S on photosynthesis by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor. The studies suggest that plants respond differentially to the S availability under non-saline and salt stress and excess-S was more potential in the alleviation of salt stress. Further, ethylene regulates plants' response and excess S-induced alleviation of salt stress and promotion of photosynthesis. PMID:24547902

Nazar, Rahat; Khan, Md Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A

2014-10-01

345

Gas migration through salt rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. Thion and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

346

Effect of gamma radiolysis on pit initiation of zircaloy-2 in water containing sea salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), seawater was injected for cooling purposes after the tsunami disaster in March 2011. It is well known that the chloride in the seawater has the potential to cause localized corrosion (e.g., pitting corrosion) in metals. In this study, we evaluated the pitting potentials of zircaloy-2, the material used in the fuel cladding tubes in 1F, as a function of chloride concentration. To accomplish this, we used artificial seawater under gamma-ray irradiation and investigated the effect of radiolysis on pit initiation of zircaloy-2 in water containing sea salt. Changes in the composition of water containing sea salt were analyzed as well, both before and after gamma-ray irradiation. The characteristics of the resultant oxide films formed on zircaloy-2 were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the pitting potential under irradiation was slightly higher than that under conditions in which no radiation was present, and that the pitting potential decreased with increasing chloride concentration in the presence as well as the absence of radiation. Solution analyses for water containing sea salt showed that hydrogen peroxide was generated by irradiation. The oxide film was composed of zirconium oxide and was made thicker during the irradiation. The higher pitting potential could thus be explained by the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the surface and enhance oxide film formation. Under gamma-ray irradiation, the zircaloy-2 surface with an oxide film formed by radiolysis products was found to be resistant to pitting in the presence of chloride. (author)

347

Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L-1 to 1,2 mg.L-1. Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na2SO4) > TR(CaCl2) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and harge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parameters?and Ps respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution.

348

Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

Mythri H

2010-01-01

349

On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000?Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious. PMID:25058808

Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

2014-01-01

350

Dehalogenation of halogenated fumigants by polysulfide salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Halogenated fumigants are among the most heavily used pesticides in agriculture. Because of their high mobility and toxicological characteristics, the contamination of air or groundwater by these compounds has been a great environmental concern. In this study, we investigated dehalogenation of several halogenated fumigants by polysulfides. The reaction of polysulfides and methyl iodide (MeI), 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and chloropicrin (CP) was very rapid. When the initial fumigant and polysulfide concentrations were both 0.2 mM, the observed 50% disappearance time values (DT50) of MeI, cis-1,3-D, and trans-1,3-D were 27.2, 29.6, and 102 h, respectively. When the initial polysulfide concentration was 1.0 mM, the corresponding DT50 values were only 2.2, 1.6, and 3.8 h. Under similar conditions, the reaction with CP was even more rapid than with the other fumigants. In 0.2 mM polysulfide solution, more than 90% of the spiked CP disappeared in 1 h after the initiation of the reaction. The reaction between fumigants and polysulfides also progressed at enhanced rates when the polysulfide solution was initially purged with nitrogen. Analysis of reaction kinetics and initial products suggests that the reaction is SN2 nucleophilic substitution for MeI and 1,3-D but likely reductive dehalogenation for CP. Given the high reactivity of polysulfide salts toward halogenated fumigants, this reaction may be used as a pollution mitigation strategy, such as for disposal of fumigant wastes, treatment of fumigant-containing wastewater, and cleanup of fumigant residues in environmental media. PMID:16848538

Bondarenko, S; Zheng, W; Yates, S R; Gan, J

2006-07-26

351

The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, proline and nutrient accumulation, and k/na ratio in walnut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of irrigation water salinity on growth, chlorophyll contents, proline and nutrients accumulation and K/Na ratio in three walnut cultivars was investigated. Three irrigation water salinity levels with electrical conductivities of 1,5, 3, and 5.0 dS/m and tap water as a control treatment were used in a randomized design with four replications. Irrigation practices were realized by considering the weight of each pot. Sodium, clor, proline, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of leaf were increased under salinity conditions. But growth of plant and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content were decreased under saline condition. There were significant differences between in irrigation water salinity levels in proline and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Na content. But there were not any significant differences in LRWC (%). Results showed that, regarding fresh shoot weight, dry shoot and root weight, there were significant differences between cultivars, but chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline accumulation and leaf relative water content (LRWC) there weren't any significant differences between cultivars. Kaman 1 and Bilecik walnut cultivars showed higher accumulation of proline than Kaman 5 but was not observed significant difference between them. (author)

352

Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

2012-12-01

353

Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery, only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits. PMID:25394799

Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

2014-10-16

354

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ?P rather than sigma ?P2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ?P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

355

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01

356

Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentrations of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the Jordan River about 10 mi to the east has been contaminated by seepage from reservoirs and evaporation ponds associated with mining activities. Groundwater underlying part of the community of South Salt Lake near the Jordan River has been contaminated by leachate from uranium-mill tailings. The major effect of the leachate from the tailings of the Vitro Chemical Co. on the shallow unconfined aquifer downgradient from the tailings was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, and uranium. The concentration of dissolved solids in uncontaminated water was 1,650 mg/L, whereas downgradient from the tailings area, the concentrations range from 2,320-21,000 mg/L. The maximum volume of contaminated water was estimated to be 7,800 acre-ft. The major effect of the leachate from the vitro tailings on the confined aquifer was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and iron. The concentration of dissolved solids upgradient from the tailings was 330 mg/L, and beneath and downgradient from the tailings the concentrations went from the tailings the concentrations were 864 and 1,240 mg/L. The minimum volume of contaminated water in the confined aquifer was estimated to be about 12,000 acre-ft. 13 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

357

Salt tectonics on Venus?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (4700C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus

358

Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

Science.gov (United States)

It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

De Luca, R.

2009-01-01

359

Demand-Side Management of Urban Water Resources in Salt Lake City, Utah  

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Demand-Side Management of Urban Water Resources in Salt Lake City, Utah Eric A. Coleman, Economics Department, Utah State University This study provides an economic evaluation of the effectiveness of demand-side policies on water conservation in Salt Lake City. We use a panel database (time series of cross-sections) of water users with a municipal connection to the city and a simultaneous equations technique to estimate municipal water demand in the years 1999 to 2002. Based on the demand sch...

Coleman, Eric A.

2004-01-01

360

Effects of Ammonium and Non-Ammonium Salt Additions on Methane Oxidation by Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b and Maine Forest Soils†  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Additions of ammonium and non-ammonium salts inhibit atmospheric methane consumption by soil at salt concentrations that do not significantly affect the soil water potential. The response of soils to non-ammonium salts has previously raised questions about the mechanism of ammonium inhibition. Results presented here show that inhibition of methane consumption by non-ammonium salts can be explained in part by ion-exchange reactions: cations desorb ammonium, with the level of desorption varying...

King, G. M.; Schnell, S

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The discovery of a plume of water vapour and ice particles emerging from warm fractures ('tiger stripes') in Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus raised the question of whether the plume emerges from a subsurface liquid source or from the decomposition of ice. Previous compositional analyses of particles injected by the plume into Saturn's diffuse E ring have already indicated the presence of liquid water, but the mechanisms driving the plume emission are still debated. Here we report an analysis of the composition of freshly ejected particles close to the sources. Salt-rich ice particles are found to dominate the total mass flux of ejected solids (more than 99 per cent) but they are depleted in the population escaping into Saturn's E ring. Ice grains containing organic compounds are found to be more abundant in dense parts of the plume. Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume. PMID:21697830

Postberg, F; Schmidt, J; Hillier, J; Kempf, S; Srama, R

2011-06-30

362

Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is a [...] lso elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus) or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide), in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has phy