WorldWideScience

Sample records for water by salt content

  1. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Karlsdóttir, Magnea Gudrún; Arason, Sigurjón

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  2. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  3. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  4. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Flasi?ski

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  5. Intracranial infection by Vibrio alginolyticus following injury in salt water.

    OpenAIRE

    Opal, S M; Saxon, J R

    1986-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented with an epidural abscess 3 months after a seawater diving accident. Cultures of the abscess cavity obtained by surgical drainage revealed a pure culture of Vibrio alginolyticus. Marine vibrios may produce serious intracranial infection after head injury in salt water.

  6. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future.

  7. Synthesis, crystallization and characterization of diastereomeric salts formed by ephedrine and malic acid in water

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, H.; West, A. R.; Vickers, M.; Apperley, D. C.; Jones, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    A screening of crystallization conditions for the diastereomeric salts formed by L/D-malic acid and a common resolving agent, L-Ephedrine, in water is reported. So far, 7 different forms of salts with 1:1 and 2:1 stoichiometries were successfully crystallized, including one previously reported 1:1 LL salt. All new salts were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric and elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, solid-state NMR and powder XRD. 1:1 stoichiometry fav...

  8. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m3 and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository

  9. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  10. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. PMID:19774655

  11. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MØller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.

    2012-01-01

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

  12. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  13. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excreti...

  14. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.)

  15. Removal of sea salt hydrate water from seawater-derived samples by dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossard, Amanda A; Russell, Lynn M

    2012-12-18

    Aerosol particles produced from bubble bursting of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water, particularly if large particles or thick layers of salts undergo drying that is nonuniform and incomplete. The water bound in these salt hydrates interferes with measuring organic hydroxyl and amine functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared wavelengths. Here, a method for separating the hydrate water in sea salt hydrates using freezing and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral subtraction. Laboratory-generated sea salt analogs show an efficient removal of 89% of the hydrate water absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied to bubbled submicrometer (Sea Sweep), generated bulk (Bubbler), and atomized seawater samples, with efficient removal of 5, 22, and 39 ?g of hydrate water from samples of initial masses of 11, 30, 58 ?g, respectively. The strong spectral similarity between the difference of the initial and dehydrated spectra and the laboratory-generated sea salt hydrate spectrum provided verification of the removal of hydrate water. In contrast, samples of submicrometer atmospheric particles from marine air masses did not have detectable signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings provided higher surface area to volume ratios and allowed faster and more complete drying. PMID:23181806

  16. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective

  17. Biological treatment of waste waters of high salt content; Depuracion biologica de efluentes con alto contenido salino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.I.; Goytia, M.; Muguruza, I.; Blanco, F. [GAIKER, Zamudio (Spain)

    1996-09-01

    The fish canning industry, a national industrial sector of economical significance, generates high volumes of wastewater containing a high organic load and salt concentration. In addition to other problems presented for the aerobic biological treatment of these effluents, the presence of a high chloride concentration produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. In this work the inhibitory effect of chloride has been analyzed by means of a biokinetic study carried out using the electrolytic respirometry techniques and tuna boiling water as wastewater. This kind of study is highly appropriated for the search of solutions to specific problems created during the treatment of different industrial sectors wastewater. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. [Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

  19. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few types of nuclear probes that measure the soil water content. The aim of this study is to develop a new nuclear probe, optimise its geometry using the code MCNP4C and calibrate it. This nuclear probe is constituted by a 60 keV gamma radiation source, a soil sample and a plastic scintillator. A beam of radiation coming from the source reaches the sample and is scattered by Compton effect. The scintillator then detects this scattered radiation. Its optimization is made using the MCNP4C adjusting the three parameters: distance between the source and the scintillator, dimensions of soil sample and source's energy. After choosing the optimized system, small amount of water is progressively added into the soil sample until its saturation, what permits correlate counts with water content. The results showed the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. (author)

  20. ASU testing of water in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stable isotope measurements have been used to determine the origin of water leaking into salt mines in the Gulf Coast salt domes. Water ''pockets'' are found around the periphery of the domes and in association with sediment inclusions. Isotopic data indicate that these waters are formation waters that have been mechanically wrapped into the domes during diapiric rise of the salt. Meteoric waters are actively leaking into the Avery Island salt mine. These leaks represent penetration of the salt by external waters. The mechanism of brine movement is unknown. A third water type in domal salt appears to be connate brines evaporated to potash facies. These brines are so concentrated that they turn to a gel at liquid nitrogen temperatures; they will not freeze. Isotopic analyses of fluid inclusions in the bedded salts of the Palo Duro Basin indicate that the trapped water is mainly connate evaporate water dating back to the time of salt deposition. In the Avery Island salt dome, observations include ghost grain boundaries defined by curviplanar arrays of fluid inclusions within coarse halite crystals. These are either former grain boundaries or fracture surfaces. Parallel planes of intracrystalline fluid inclusions clearly indicate natural fracturing of salt with consequent movement of brine. Water appears to have migrated upwards of 50 meters from localized water ''pockets'' via these mechanisms

  1. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  2. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  3. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered ? ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

  4. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

  5. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

  6. [Determination of the sulfate ion content in antibiotic sulfate salts by a complexometric titration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartseva, V D; Lokshin, G B; Libinson, G S; Kruzhkova, N G

    1980-12-01

    A possibility of assaying antibiotic sulfates, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, monomycin, neomycin, ristomycin, streptomycin, florimycin and polymyxin M sulfates for sulfate ions by titration with barium chloride in the presence of chlorphosphonaso-III, a metal indicator immediately in the salt solutions or after elimination of the cation by means of ion exchange (sulfocation exchange resins in H+-form) was tested. The procedure was shown to be adequate to the classical weight method. PMID:7469396

  7. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ? 0,92 and pH ? 4,4 or pH ? 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  8. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  9. Exceptionally Fast Water Desalination at Complete Salt Rejection by Pristine Graphyne Monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-01-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise to solve the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics si...

  10. Predicting the effects of landuse change on water and salt balance—a case study of a catchment affected by dryland salinity in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Vaze, Jai; Murphy, Brian; Barnett, Paul; Rancic, Aleksandra; Evans, Ray; Geeves, Guy; Rassam, Daud W.; Miller, Michelle

    2003-12-01

    An integrated and comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments is presented. The framework is applied to the Mandagery Creek catchment (1688 km 2), located in the south-eastern part of Australia. The catchment is affected by dryland salinity and the effects of landuse, climate, topography, soils and geology on water and salt balance are examined. Landuse change scenarios designed to: (a) increase the perennial content of the pastures and crop rotations and (b) increase the current remnant native woody vegetation with additional tree cover are investigated to determine the level of intervention required to develop ameliorative strategies. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in water flow and salt export are also estimated.

  11. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  12. Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report contains the results of computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on Jockwer's experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of this work was to select a water transport model that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse salt mine. The main result is that an evaporation model with Knudsen type vapour transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non-evaporated zone showed the best agreement with experimental evidence. An extrapolatory calculation for a borehole in a high-level waste repository showed that the water vapour inflow during the time of convergence of the initial gap between canister and borehole will not exceed 200 g per meter

  13. Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the ion of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

  14. Plastification of water-coal suspensions by the salts of humic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khilko, S.L.; Titov, E.V. [National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

    1995-11-01

    It was shown that the salts of humic acids are effective plasticizers of water-coal suspensions. The plasticizer prepared on the basis of the salts of sulfonated humic acids is suitable for use in water-coal fuel. The ability of the plasticisers for water-coal fuel to cause viscoplastic flow (close to Newtonian flow) of suspensions within a wide range of deformation rates (epsilon = 1.8-437.4) s{sup -1} was suggested as a criterion for plasticiser efficiency. It was established that the plasticizing effect of the salts of humic acids is due to their adsorption on the surface of the particles of coal dispersions, and is dependent on the acid-base properties of a plasticizer solution.

  15. Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb showed a decrease towards the surface (206Pb/207Pb = 1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature (206Pb/207Pb = 1.172 ± 0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 ?g g-1 in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 ?g g-1 in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowgr points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments (206Pb/207Pb = 1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83 ± 4% for S. fruticosa and 74 ± 8% for S. maritima)

  16. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN INTERSTITIAL WATER OF FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS BY IE-HPLC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SYLVIA. V, COPAJA; VESNA, NÚÑEZ S; DAVID, VÉLIZ.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An ionic exchange high resolution liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method for determination of cations and anions in interstitial water of sediments, affluent and effluent of dams is proposed in this paper. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, CO3(2-), NO3- and SO4(2-) were analyzing by [...] IE-HPLC method. Optimized analytical conditions were validated in terms of accuracy, recovery and detection limit. The method of flame spray atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used as an additional method for the determination of Ca and Mg. It must be indicated that cations may be analyzed by several analytical methods such as AAS, ICP, etc., but there are not enough methods to analyze anions; IE-HPLC methods are good alternative to determine these ions. The aim of this study was to determine ions in interstitial water in the affluent and effluent of the Chilean dams Cogotí, Corrales, La Paloma, Rapel and Recoleta in order to determine if the water is suitable for irrigation or human consumption and estimate the effect of dams on water quality. The results indicate that the highest concentrations observed were for the cations: Ca2+ (mean 43.5 mgL-1), Na+ (mean 16.4 mgL-1), Mg2+ (mean 12.6 mgL-1), and K+ (mean 2.3 mgL-1). The highest concentration of anions was found for CO3(2-) (mean 55.9 mgL-1); the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3- reached 59.3 mgL-1, 12.8 mgL-1 and 27.0 mgL-1, respectively. The results indicate that although the origin of soluble salts is lithogenic, the high concentrations of these salts found in some places indicate anthropogenic effect, either by direct or indirect discharges or by diffuse pollution. These high concentrations may be significant, considering that these waters are used mainly for irrigation, which would affect the quality of agricultural soils irrigated with this moderately saline water.

  18. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium Carbonates and Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayed, A M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid alcohol was studied to enhance the sorption efficiency. Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X ? Ray Fluorescence, Inductive Coupled Plasma, Pour Point and Thermostatic Water Bath instruments. Determination of the amount of crude oil in water was done by extracting the crude oil in tricholorotrifluoroethane and measuring absorbance by FTIR spectrometer. @JASEM

  19. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

  20. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  1. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA as electron donor and eosin Y (EY as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON reached 148 (H2/Co in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene.

  2. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  3. Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. J. Rahman; H. Inden

    2012-01-01

    Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper ‘Papri new-E-red’ by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, frui...

  4. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  5. Neutronics study on hybrid reactor cooled by helium, water and molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no serious magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem when helium,water or molten salt of Flibe flows in high magnetic field. Thus helium, water and Flibe were proposed as candidate of coolant for fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on magnetic confinement. The effect on neutronics of hybrid reactor due to coolant was investigated. The analyses of neutron spectra and fuel breeding of blanket with different coolants were performed. Variations of tritium breeding ratio (TBR), blanket energy multiplication (M) and keff with operating time were also studied. MCNP code was used for neutron transport simulation. It is shown that spectra change greatly with different coolants. The blanket with helium exhibits very hard spectrum and good tritium breeding ability. And fission reactions are mainly from fast neutron. The blanket with water has soft spectrum and high energy multiplication factor. However, it needs to improve TBR. The blanket with Flibe has hard spectrum and less energy release. (authors)

  6. Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA?

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery...

  7. Hot water, fresh beer, and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

  8. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  9. Simulation of detection of total content of N, P in water using PGNAA by MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total content of N, P is an important index of water quality detection. The content of a special element in a water sample could be determined by prompt ? rays neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) quickly. The process, ? rays were emitted while the water sample was irradiated by neutron beam, was simulated by a model set up MCNP code and a pulse neutron generator as neutron source. The total content of N, P of class ?-? water demanded by the surface water environment quality standard were used as basis. So that detection limit of N, P using PGNAA could be gained. If the total content of N, P in the water sample were small, the detection precision could be improved by increasing the neutron flux or concentrating the water sample. For contaminated water, the total content of N, P can be obtained quickly by PGNAA so that related departments could take measures to deal with polluted water in time when emergency of water pollution takes place. (authors)

  10. Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (?b) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ?b as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (?b and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

  11. Modelling the effects of land-use change on water and salt delivery from a catchment affected by dryland salinity in south-east Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Jai; Barnett, Paul; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray; Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Murphy, Brian; Geeves, Guy; Miller, Michelle

    2004-06-01

    A comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments affected by dryland salinity is applied to the Boorowa River catchment (1550 km2), located in south-eastern Australia. The framework comprised two models, each focusing on a different aspect and operating on a different scale. A quasi-physical semi-distributed model CATSALT was used to estimate runoff and salt fluxes from different source areas within the catchment. The effects of land use, climate, topography, soils and geology are included. A groundwater model FLOWTUBE was used to estimate the long-term effects of land-use change on groundwater discharge. Unlike conventional salinity studies that focus on groundwater alone, this study makes use of a new approach to explore surface and groundwater interactions with salt stores and the stream.Land-use change scenarios based on increased perennial pasture and tree-cover content of the vegetation, aimed at high leakage and saline discharge areas, are investigated. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in flow and salt export are estimated.The water balance model was able to simulate both the daily observed stream flow and salt load at the catchment outlet for high and low flow conditions satisfactorily. Mean leakage rate of about 23.2 mm year-1 under current land use for the Boorowa catchment was estimated. The corresponding mean runoff and salt export from the catchment were 89 382 ML year-1 and 38 938 t year-1, respectively. Investigation of various land-use change scenarios indicates that changing annual pastures and cropping areas to perennial pastures is not likely to result in substantial improvement of water quality in the Boorowa River. A land-use change of about 20% tree-cover, specifically targeting high recharge and the saline discharge areas, would be needed to decrease stream salinity by 150 ?S cm-1 from its current level. Stream salinity reductions of about 20 ?S cm-1 in the main Lachlan River downstream of the confluence of the Boorowa River is predicted. The FLOWTUBE modelling within the Boorowa River catchment indicated that discharge areas under increased recharge conditions could re-equilibrate in around 20 years for the catchment, and around 15 years for individual hillslopes.

  12. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

  13. Studies of soil water drawdowns by single radish roots at decreasing soil water content using computer-assisted tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of computer-assisted tomography to the attenuation of X-rays has been used to compare the drawdowns in soil water content associated with radish roots at starting soil water contents (?v) of 0.3 cm3/cm3 and 0.1 cm3/cm3, respectively. Decreasing soil water content results in an increase in the appearance of 'beam hardening'. Decreasing soil water content from 0.3 to 0.1 cm3/cm3 caused the transpiration rate to decrease by 6-10 times. This was presumably due to a reduction in the water potential gradient across the root membrane. The transpiration rate decreased less rapidly than did the water content at the soil-root interface, suggesting some osmotic adjustment by the leaves. This osmotic adjustment would allow the plant to maintain transpiration rate even at relatively low soil water content. The drawdown distances associated with roots growing at the lower soil water content were 8 times smaller than those at the high soil water content and the value of ?v at the soil-root interface at the end of the transpiration period was 2.5 times lower. The radish roots exhibited a temporary slight decrease in diameter after the transpiration commenced followed by a significant temporary increase. However, root diameter stabilised around its original value when the plant attained an almost steady water uptake rate. Despite the complexity arising from 'beam hardening', CAT scannarising from 'beam hardening', CAT scanning can provide valuable information on processes at the root-soil interface. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

  14. Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters thanvalues of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  15. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

  16. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  17. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilma Mota da, Silva; Luciana Almeida, Silva; Jailson B. de, Andrade; Márcia C. da Cunha, Veloso; Gislaine Vieira, Santos.

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by ther [...] mogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  18. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  19. Influence of mono- and divalent salts on water loss and properties of dry salted cod fillets

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Alvarez, Oscar; Gómez Guillén, M. C.

    2013-01-01

    Salted cod is a product highly appreciated by consumers, especially in Southern Europe and Latin America. In recent years there has been increasing consumer demand for products with low sodium content, and this has led the salting industry to seek new salt mixtures to help to reduce Na+ levels without producing alterations in the properties of the final product. In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was initially brined with various mixtures of salts based on NaCl, at various pH levels a...

  20. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    OpenAIRE

    Gyura Julianna F.; Šereš Zita I.; Ber Adrian M.

    2002-01-01

    In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar...

  1. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Sisse Fagt; Pia Knuthsen; Erling Saxholt; Lone Banke Rasmussen; Anne Dahl Lassen; Kirsten Hansen

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly se...

  2. Nitration by nitronium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitration has been studied of aliphtic and aromatic secondary amines with nitronium tetrafluoroborate or hexafluorosilicate in acetonitrile, alcohol, acetates, ethers, and chloroalkanes. It has been established that the nature of the solvent affects only slightly the yield of N-nitroamines. In case of aromatic amines, the rearrangement N-nitro? C-nitro can be controlled by the choice of the solvent and nitronium salt

  3. Advanced supercritical water and molten salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The super-critical water coolant enables a thermal efficiency about one-third higher than current light-water reactors, as well as simplification in the balance of plant. The balance of plant is considerably simplified because the coolant does not change phase in the reactor and is directly coupled to the energy conversion equipment. The reference system for SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor) is 1500 MWe with an operating pressure of 25 MPa, and a reactor outlet temperature of 500 C or more, possibly ranging up to 625 C. The fuel is uranium dioxide, MOX or possibly thorium dioxide. Passive safety features shall be incorporated similar to those of simplified boiling water reactors. Two design options - pressure vessel and pressure tube design - are considered for SCWR. In the MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) system, the fuel is dissolved in a fluoride salt liquid mixture also playing the role of primary coolant. For both systems, SCWR and MSR, extensive research work is being carried out, in view of the great promises if a successful development can be achieved. Indeed, both systems face big challenges due to the technical difficulties associated to the reactor system on the one hand, and to the fuel cycle, for what concerns the MSR. The international support exists and System Agreements are signed by three partners (Canada, Japan, EURATOM) for the SCWR (Project Arrangements are in preparation), whereas MSR is at an earlier status, with confirmed interest from France, EURATOith confirmed interest from France, EURATOM and Usa

  4. Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Xavier

    1939-01-01

    Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  5. Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio / Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto, Xavier.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Kraw [...] kow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  6. Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 ?g/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations 95%)

  7. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyura Julianna F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

  8. Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Valde?s, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus Astiz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading.

  9. HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrabanian M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Mehran Mehrabanian1, Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani21Member of Young Researchers Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60% for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 µm, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.Keywords: scaffold, nanohydroxyapatite, nylon 6,6, salt-leaching/solvent casting, bioactivity

  10. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions. PMID:25900571

  11. Effect of Pre-Dried History and Initial Water Content on Soil Slaking and Desalinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abul Hasnat Md.; Akae, Takeo

    An efficient and low cost method is required to improve the saline soils. Soil slaking has long been studied from the stand point of stability of aggregates. However, it has not been studied from that of salt removal. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of slaking to desalinization of soil accompanied by land drying practice. A slaking test was carried out for evaluating the efficiency of slaking and their impacts on salt removal of salinized soil under various water contents. We prepared natural/virgin and air-dried soils to give different intensity of pre-drying. Those soils were resaturated (for air-dry soil) and well-mixed, then dried to different moisture contents (60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% by weight). After 24 hours immersion in water, the soils never slaked at 60 and 50% moisture contents in natural soil whereas 88-89% of the specimens were slaked in air-dry soil under the same moisture contents. The slaking rate was highest under 30% moisture contents in natural soil. In air-dry soil 30 and 20% showed the higher slaking rate in compared to other water contents. The proportion of salt released into equilibrated water after 24 hours immersion was also high at the same water contents. Since the natural soil did not slake until 40%, drying below 30% moisture content will be effective for the removal of salt from these soils.

  12. Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Shokoofeh Hajihashemi; Khadijeh Kiarostami

    2007-01-01

    The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reducti...

  13. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    OpenAIRE

    Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragiši?-Maksimovi? Jelena J.; Maksimovi? V.M.; Živanovi? Branka D.

    2012-01-01

    Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrom...

  14. Recovery of ZrO2 by leaching from LiF-BeF2-ZrO2 molten salt in distilled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LiF-BeF2-ZrF4 (63-30-7 mol%) molten salt was dissolved up to 0.02 g in 1 ml of distilled water at room temperature. ZrO2 oxide made from ZrF4 through pyrohydrolysis was recovered by leaching in distilled water with LiF-BeF2ZrF4 molten salt including it at room temperature. The crystalline sharpness of recovered ZrO2 oxide was not damaged. (author)

  15. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  16. Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (sg cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

  17. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  18. Synthesis of a-aminonitriles catalyzed by montmorillonite K10 in the presence of dicationic phosphonium salt in water under ultrasonic effect

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, Çi?dem; YOLAÇAN, Çi?dem; AYDO?AN, Feray

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a-aminonitriles was successfully accomplished by the 1-pot 3-component reaction of several aldehydes with (S)-a-phenylethylamine and sodium cyanide in water in the presence of montmorillonite K10 and dicationic phosphonium salt under ultrasonic effect with good yields and moderate diastereoselectivities.

  19. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazán; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodríguez; L. A., Caicedo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  20. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Gil

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  1. METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard.The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision.The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

  2. Water and Salt Metabolism Disorders Following Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Cakir

    2011-01-01

    Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is frequently complicated with mild to severe water and electrolyte disturbances in the postoperative period. These disorders are: transient diabetes insipidus, early or delayed hyponatremia, diabetes insipidus followed by hyponatremia (biphasic pattern), diabetes insipidus-hyponatremia-diabetes insipidus (triphasic pattern), permanent diabetes insipidus, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Close monitoring of water intake, urine output, thirst, volume status...

  3. Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

  4. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  5. Measuring the content by volume of deuterium in heavy water with carbon dioxide dissolved in it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From data on the density of solutions of CO2-D2O and experimental data on the solubility of CO2 in D2 in a CO-D2O system, the authors calculated the volume content of deuterium in heavy water saturated with carbon dioxide then compared it with the volume content of deuterium in heavy water alone at the same parameters. It is shown that the volume content of deuterium in heavy water with carbon dioxide dissolved in it is markedly lower. This reduction becomes more pronounced with an increase in pressure. At increased pressures, the volume content of deuterium is reduced, both for heavy water and for a saturated solution of carbon dioxide in heavy water

  6. Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pytka

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

  7. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of tudies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

  8. Determination of water content in snow, soil and air by the cosmic ray neutron attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Principles resume of measuring water content in natural materials based on the attenuation of cosmic ray neutron component. Measurement accuracies, calibration aspects, instrumentation features, in particular concerning the distant-type snow gauge system DSS-2 tested on the interdepartamental basis are discussed. Results of measuring for several years water content in snow in a mountain river basin are presented. Experimental determination of soil moisture is performed. Relationship between neutron flux and precipitation intensity is analyzed

  9. The Significance of Interfacial Water Structure in Soluble Salt Flotation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancer, M.; Celik, M. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2001-03-01

    Flotation of soluble salts with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) collectors has demonstrated that the interfacial water structure and hydration states of soluble salt surfaces together with the precipitation tendency of the corresponding collector salts are of considerable importance in explaining their flotation behavior. In particular, the high concentration of ions in these soluble salt brines and their hydration appear to modify the bulk and interfacial structure of water as revealed by contact angle measurements and this effect is shown to be an important feature in the flotation chemistry of soluble salt minerals including alkali halide and alkali oxyanion salts. Depending on characteristic chemical features (salt type), the salt can serve either as a structure maker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is facilitated, or as a structure breaker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is disrupted. For structure making salts the brine completely wets the salt surface and no contact angle can be measured. For structure breaking salts the brine does not completely wet the salt surface and a finite contact angle is measured. In this regard it has been found that soluble salt flotation either with the cationic DAH or anionic SDS collector is possible only if the salt is a structure breaker. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11237454

  10. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P

    1999-01-01

    The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May

  11. Impact after 1 year of compulsory iodisation on the iodine content of table salt at retailer level in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, P L; Weight, M J; Locatelli-Rossi, L; Lombard, C J

    1999-01-01

    The short-term effectiveness of introducing compulsory iodisation through revised health legislation, evaluated in terms of the iodine content of iodised table salt, was investigated in three of the nine provinces in South Africa. Shortly before the introduction of compulsory iodisation of table salt in December 1995, iodised at a higher level than before, 187 iodised salt samples were purchased at retailers in 48 magisterial districts situated in the three provinces of Western and Eastern Cape and Mpumalanga for analysis of the iodine content using the titration method. In a follow-up 1 year later 287 iodised salt samples were obtained from the same retailers for iodine determination. The mean iodine content of iodised salt increased significantly from 14 to 33 ppm. However, large variation in the iodine content of iodised table salt among and within salt brands existed at follow-up, and the mean iodine content was lower than the legal specification of 40 to 60 ppm. Only 24% of the samples were found within the range required by the law at follow-up compared to 42% before revising the salt legislation. Despite the introduction of compulsory salt iodisation, the mean retail price of iodised salt remained the same between 1995 and 1996 for a 500 g package of salt. Further refinement of the iodisation process is necessary to improve the accuracy of iodisation and decrease the variation in iodine content. This study nevertheless showed that the introduction of compulsory iodisation and elevating the legally specified iodine level of table salt resulted in a significantly elevated mean iodine level of iodised salt within 1 year, without any additional cost to the consumer. PMID:10435116

  12. Numerical Simulation of Soil Water Content in the Unsaturated Zone Using Constraints Provided by Geophysical Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z.; Rubin, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

    2002-12-01

    Soil moisture distribution and variation in the vadose zone is important for agricultural, engineering and contaminant studies. Conventional sampling techniques for estimating soil water moisture content are costly, time consuming, invasive, and typically recover information at a single point in space and time only. Geophysical techniques have the potential to provide dense and accurate information about subsurface soil moisture. However, these data still provide information about water content at the time of measurement only, and geophysical data acquisition is sometimes hindered by cultural or site conditions. For example, although both surface and crosshole GPR techniques have been successfully applied for providing soil moisture information over space and time, the penetration distance of the GPR signal is limited in soils having high electrical conductivity, sometimes inhibiting moisture profiling through the entire vadose zone. In this study, we investigate the potential of coupling geophysical measurements with numerical modeling to provide information about soil moisture variations in space and over time. Such an approach was undertaken to permit estimation of soil moisture throughout the root zone even under difficult GPR data acquisition conditions, and also to yield insight into the dynamics of soil water distribution, including both state variables and fluxes. In this study, surface and crosshole geophysical measurements provide initial and boundary soil moisture conditions to a numerical simulator (TOUGH2-EOS9) based on Richard­_s Equation. Simulations were run using information available from various geophysical techniques collected at a naturally heterogeneous agricultural field site, including surface GPR, crosshole GPR, neutron probe, and TDR measurements. Information about soil heterogeneity was obtained using borehole soil textural information, and meteorological water flux boundary conditions were obtained using rain gauges, sap flow meters and also from a nearby CIMIS weather station. Hydraulic conductivity, one of the most difficult field variables to measure, can be satisfactorily estimated using a stochastic inverse modeling approach. Comparison of soil moisture measurements (collected throughout a year at a field site near Napa, CA) with the various simulations suggested that the approach was able to capture the natural evolution of the vadose zone soil moisture profile at several locations throughout the heterogeneous site. These results illustrate that improvement in the understanding of water cycling and its interaction with ecosystems can be obtained by coupling hydrological theory and measurements available from geophysical and meteorological techniques.

  13. Model selection for salt water intrusion in delta areas:

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, M.; Van Overloop, P.J.; Giessen, N.C., van der

    2011-01-01

    Due to land subsidence and sea level rise, salt intrusion in delta areas increases. This is a potential thread for agriculture in these areas. To investigate this thread and measures that can counteract on it, numerical models are developed to mimic the behavior of the water system under different strategies and scenarios. This behavior is characterized by a complex interaction among flows, water levels and salinity concentrations, distributed in time and space. On top of this, controllable s...

  14. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  15. Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure

  16. Filling and sealing of shafts in salt mines necessitated by an inrush of water or brine into a shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the investigations for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany also the possibilities of sealing a flooded shaft have been studied. If it seems not practical to safe the mine by pumping from the shaft sump or by closing the shaft with a large valve, the shaft has to be filled and sealed. For this purpose several layers of different materials are placed in the shaft. Tests have been started to find out the most suitable binder for plugs in rock salt strata. Some results of laboratory tests with three kinds of cement are published

  17. Statistical performance analysis of salt water cooled pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressurized water reactors (PWRs) using salt or brackish cooling water are found to have significant long-term decreases in capacity factors and increases in forced outage rates (FORs) due to equipment failures and maintenance needs. Larger units have significantly lower capacity factors and higher FORs. The significance and magnitude of this correlation increases with unit age. Post-Three Mile Island effects are controlled for

  18. Cross-contamination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 is inhibited by electrolyzed water combined with salt under dynamic conditions of increasing organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-López, Vicente M; Gil, María I; Pupunat, Laurent; Allende, Ana

    2015-04-01

    Water can be a vector for foodborne pathogen cross-contamination during washing of vegetables if an efficient method of water disinfection is not used. Chlorination is the disinfection method most widely used, but it generates disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs). Therefore, alternative disinfection methods are sought. In this study, a dynamic system was used to simulate the commercial conditions of a washing tank. Organic matter and the inoculum of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were progressively added to the wash water in the washing tank. We evaluated the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water (EW) when combining with the addition of salt (1, 0.5 and 0.15 g/L NaCl) on the pathogenic inactivation, organic matter depletion and THM generation. Results indicated that electrolysis of vegetable wash water with addition of salt (0.5 g/L NaCl) was able to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 population build-up and decrease COD accumulation while low levels of THMs were produced. PMID:25475317

  19. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  20. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97?g/100?g; p?salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45?g/100?g while sauces had 2.16?g/100?g (p?salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1?g/100?g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  1. Protection against flashback by backfilling with rock salt gruss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If wastes are disposed of in deep geological formations, e.g. in salt domes, radiolytically produced hydrogen may escape from the waste forms into the boreholes, forming an inflammable mixture with air. Complementary to part I (Report Juel-Spez--573), here the protection against flashback by salt gruss backfillings, the volume and form of the flammability range are examined. It was found out that salt gruss backfillings, under certain conditions, can prevent flashbacks in hydrogen-air mixtures, the most important condition being that the backfillings contain trickling material of the finest particle size of between 0 and 2 mm. Unfractional backfillings drilled in the domes of rock salt formations meet this requirement in their dry state. Their water content must not exceed 2 mass per cent. For flashback, the flammability point referred to as 'near' is more critical than the one referred to as 'far'. The length-diameter ratio of the hollow space where the mixture is ignited only has a secondary influence on the flashback. It hardly plays a role either whether the surfaces of the flammability ranges are rough or smooth. (orig./BBR)

  2. HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

  3. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in Kenya.The chemical composition of waters from rivers entering the Konya Basin is different from the composition of those from rivers in Kenya. The initial composition of these rivers determines the ...

  4. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  5. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandav, C S; Arora, N K; Krishnan, A; Sankar, R; Pandav, S; Karmarkar, M G

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using data from surveys to assess the availability of iodized salt in two states in India, Madhya Pradesh and the National Capital Territory of Delhi, we tested the suitability of such a kit in field situations. Salt samples from Delhi were collected from 30 schools, chosen using the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) cluster sampling technique. A single observer made the measurement for iodine content using the kit. Salt samples from Madhya Pradesh were from 30 rural and 30 urban clusters, identified by using census data and the EPI cluster sampling technique. In each cluster, salt samples were collected from 10 randomly selected households and all retailers. The 15 investigators performing the survey estimated the iodine content of salt samples in the field using the kit. All the samples were brought to the central laboratory in Delhi, where iodine content was estimated using iodometric titration as a reference method. The agreement between the kit and titration values decreased as the number of observers increased. Although sensitivity was not much affected by the increase in the number of observers (93.3% for a single observer and 93.9% for multiple observers), specificity decreased sharply (90.4% for a single observer and 40.4% for multiple observers). Due to the low specificity and resulting high numbers of false-positives for the kit when used by multiple observers ("real-life situations"), kits were likely to consistently overestimate the availability of iodized salt. This overestimation could result in complacency. Therefore, we conclude that until a valid alternative is available, the titration method should be used for monitoring the iodine content of salt at all levels, from producer to consumer, to ensure effectiveness of the programme. PMID:10994281

  6. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 and NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3-Ca(NO3)2 salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 and NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3-Ca(NO3)2 salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There iust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO3-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture are about NO3:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005)

  7. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

  8. HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabanian M; Nasr-Esfahani M

    2011-01-01

    Mehran Mehrabanian1, Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani21Member of Young Researchers Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different...

  9. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm?3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m?1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation are key factors to sustainable development of arid wetlands.

  10. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

  11. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  12. Soil Profile Water Content in Pepper Crop Production as Affected by Different Weed Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    S. Lovelli; M. Valerio; T. Di Tommaso; M. Perniola

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the soil water status and pepper water use efficiency under irrigated and rainfed conditions as affected by different weed infestation in a semiarid environment. The experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Southern Italy. Two water regimes were imposed to compare water competitive effects under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Weeds were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a pepper field, wh...

  13. Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Di Muro, Andrea; Villemant, Benoit; Montagnac, Gilles; Scaillet, Bruno; Reynard, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1-10 wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at not, vert, similar3550 cm?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO/T. In the studied set of silicic samples, calibrations based on internal normaliza...

  14. Investigation of proline amides and pyridinium salts as catalyst for direct aldol reactions in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catalytic potential of chiral proline amides and pyridinium salts in the aldol condensation in water was investigated. The aldol reactions of acetone with various aromatic aldehydes were carried out in water by using proline amide derivatives and pyridinium salts derived from chiral pyridine derivatives for the first time. The products were obtained in good yields within short reaction times. (author)

  15. Molecular dynamics study of salt-solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Sakka, Tetsuo; Matsuoka, Toshifumi

    2014-04-01

    The NaCl salt-solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt-solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt-solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  16. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules

  17. Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-04-14

    The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

  18. Water vapor content in the polar atmosphere measured by Lyman-alpha/OH fluorescence method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaka, Y.; Saitoh, S.; Ono, A.

    1985-01-01

    The water vapor of the polar stratosphere possibly plays an important role in various aeronomical processes; for example, OH radical formation through photodissociation of H2O, formation of water cluster ions, radiative energy transfer in the lower stratosphere, condensation onto particulate matter, and so on. In addition to these, it has been speculated, from the viewpoint of global transport and/or budget of water vapor, that the polar stratosphere functions as an active sink. STANFORD (1973) emphasized the existence of the stratospheric Cist cloud in the polar stratosphere which brought a large loss rate of stratospheric water vapor through a so-called freeze-out of cloud particles from the stratosphere into the troposphere. However, these geophysically interesting problems unfortunately remain to be solved, owing to the lack of measurements on water vapor distribution and its temporal variation in the polar stratosphere. The water vapor content measured at Syowa Station (69.00 deg S, 39.35 deg E), Antarctica using a balloon-borne hygrometer (Lyman - alpha/OH fluorescence type) is discussed.

  19. Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

  20. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

    2008-02-15

    Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States. PMID:18351111

  1. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  2. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  3. Water structure and its influence on the flotation of carbonate and bicarbonate salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, O; Celik, M S; Nickolov, Z S; Miller, J D

    2007-10-15

    Interfacial water structure is a most important parameter that influences the collector adsorption by salt minerals such as borax, potash and trona. According to previous studies, salts can be classified as water structure makers and water structure breakers. Water structure making and breaking properties of salt minerals in their saturated brine solutions are essential to explain their flotation behavior. In this work, water structure making-breaking studies in solutions of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3), K(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) in 4 wt% D(2)O in H(2)O mixtures have been performed by FTIR analysis of the OD stretching band. This method reveals a microscopic picture of the water structure making/breaking character of the salts in terms of the hydrogen bonding between the water molecules in solution. The results from the vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that carbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) act as strong structure makers, whereas bicarbonate salts (NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) act as weak structure makers. In addition, the changes in the OD band parameters of carbonate and bicarbonate salt solutions are in agreement with the viscosity characteristics of their solutions. PMID:17618642

  4. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L{sup ?1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  5. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

  6. Effect of Salting Duration on Lipid Oxidation and the Fatty Acid Content of Dry-Cured Lacon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Garrido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of salting duration (3, 4 or 5 days on lipid oxidation and the total fatty acid content of muscular fat and subcutaneous fat during the manufacturing of dry-cured lacon, a traditional meat product made in NW Spain from pork foreleg. Two batches of lacon were processed using each salting duration. In each batch, samples were analysed at seven different times throughout the manufacturing process. In each sample, the moisture and NaCl contents, and the peroxide value of the fat and the total fatty acid contents were determined in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat. Increasing the salting duration significantly increased lipid oxidation (as indicated by peroxide values, in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat and at all sampling times throughout the manufacturing process. At the end of the ripening stage, the average peroxide values were 7.69, 17.79 and 21.72 meq. of O2/kg of subcutaneous fat and 10.78, 24.96 and 26.48 meq. of O2/kg of muscular fat, in the batches salted for 3, 4 and 5 days, respectively. Salting duration significantly affected the fatty acid content, particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the linoleic acid within these. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lacon pieces salted for 3 days were significantly higher than those of pieces salted for 4 or 5 days, in both the muscular and subcutaneous fat.

  7. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  8. The Receptacle Model of Salting-In by Tetramethylammonium Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Hribar–lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-01-01

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes....

  9. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  10. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. KOTARBA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical studies were conducted on bitumen and salts saturating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia. This location is noted for the discovery of remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses in 1907, and a nearly completely preserved rhinoceros carcass in 1929. The bitumen (oil and brines (chloride ions were preserving agents for the large Pleistocene mammals. The main mass of organic carbon hosted in the Pleistocene muds is related to bitumen originating from oil migrating from deep accumulations within the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. The highest analysed bitumen content is 9.26 wt%. The chloride ion content, originating from highly concentrated brines ascending from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds, vary from 0 to 4.66 wt% but this usually does not exceed 1 wt%. The natural pathways of underground fluids (oil, gas and water migration within the Quaternary sediments were disturbed by intensive ozokerite mining operations run between the last three decades of the 19th century and 1960. Therefore, the present preservation and conservation conditions of large, extinct mammals' remains can be different from those prevailing during the Pleistocene, when the mammals were buried. Taking into consideration the contents of the remaining preservatives: chloride and bitumen, the most favourable zone for fossils conservation and preservation is located close to boreholes Nos 22, 23, 28 and 36N, where the thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. Generally, the spatial distributions of bitumen and chloride ion contents within the Holocene sediments and salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds are very similar to those in the Pleistocene sediments.

  11. Avaliação da salinização de açudes no semi-árido brasileiro por ICP-AES Evaluation of the salt accumulation process in water resources in the Brazilian semi - arid area by ICP-- AES

    OpenAIRE

    José Soares dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Sérgio Massaro

    2000-01-01

    The salt accumulation process in some reservoirs of regular and irregular use (from 10 to 50 years of constrution), located in the Southeast of Bahia State was evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg in water samples from inside and upstream of the reservoirs. The results showed that for reservoirs of irregular use, the salt accumulation, indicated by the tracer Na, increases with the age of the reservoirs,...

  12. Saltinessenhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    OpenAIRE

    Noort, M. W. J.; Bult, J. H. F.; Stieger, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulatedsalt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulatedsalt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt reduction of up to 50% while maintaining saltiness intensity. The magnitude of the saltinessenhancement depends on the size of the salt encapsulates. Small encapsulates lead to small concentration g...

  13. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  14. Determination of potassium iodide in table salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkovi? Miloš B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

  15. Comments on “Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water contentby Manthilake et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, Shun-ichiro; Dai, Lidong

    2009-05-01

    In a recent paper, Manthilake et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press] presented the results of experimental study on the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and concluded that the influence of water is small at transition zone temperatures and that a high concentration of water (hydrogen) cannot explain the observed conductivity in the transition zone as oppose to the conclusion originally obtained by Huang et al. [Huang, X., Xu, Y., Karato, S., 2005. Water content of the mantle transition zone from the electrical conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 434, 746-749) from a similar experimental study. In this note, we discuss the causes of discrepancies between the results by two groups and show that almost all the differences are due to the experimental artifacts in the studies by Manthilake et al. and Yoshino et al. [Manthilake, M.A.G.M., et al. Electrical conductivity of wadsleyite as a function of temperature and water content. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, in press; Yoshino, T., Manthilake, G., Matsuzaki, T., Katsura, T., 2008a. Dry mantle transition zone inferred from the conductivity of wadsleyite and ringwoodite. Nature 451, 326-329] namely (i) the use of inappropriate method of determining electrical conductivity and (ii) the use of the data from a sample of wadsleyite with a substantial amount of water as a "dry" conductivity. A comparison of electrical conductivity of truly "dry" wadsleyite and olivine shows that the conductivity is similar at the same pressure and temperature. We also show that the use of one frequency method results in systematic errors in the conductivity measurements that explains the discrepancies in the results by two sets of studies. When an appropriate method for determining electrical conductivity (i.e., the impedance spectroscopy) is used and when the results of truly dry sample are used for the background dry conductivity, we find that the influence of water (hydrogen) is large enough to explain a majority of variation of electrical conductivity by the regional variation in water content.

  16. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  17. Integral Quantification of Soil Water Content at the Intermediate Catchment Scale by Ground Albedo Neutron Sensing (GANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera Villarreyes, C. A.; Baroni, G.; Oswald, S. E.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water content at the plot or hill-slope scale is an important link between local vadose zone hydrology and catchment hydrology. However, so far only few methods are on the way to close this gap between point measurements and remote sensing. One new measurement methodology for integral quantifications of mean areal soil water content at the intermediate catchment scale is the aboveground sensing of cosmic-ray neutrons, more precisely ground albedo neutron sensing (GANS). Ground albedo natural neutrons, are generated by collisions of secondary cosmic rays with land surface materials (soil, water, biomass, snow, etc). Neutrons measured at the air/ground interface correlate with soil moisture contained in a footprint of ca. 600 m diameter and a depth ranging down to a few decimeters. This correlation is based on the crucial role of hydrogen as neutron moderator compared to others landscape materials. The present study performed ground albedo neutron sensing in different locations in Germany under different vegetative situations (cropped and bare field) and different seasonal conditions (summer, autumn and winter). Ground albedo neutrons were measured at (i) a farmland close to Potsdam (Brandenburg, Germany) cropped with corn in 2010 and sunflowers in 2011, and (ii) a mountainous farmland catchment (Schaefertal, Harz Mountains, Germany) in 2011. In order to test this method, classical soil moisture devices and meteorological data were used for comparison. Moreover, calibration approach, and transferability of calibration parameters to different times and locations are also evaluated. Our observations suggest that GANS can overcome the lack of data for hydrological processes at the intermediate scale. Soil water content from GANS compared quantitatively with mean water content values derived from a network of classical devices (RMSE = 0.02 m3/m3 and r2 = 0.98) in three calibration periods with cropped-field conditions. Then, same calibration parameters corresponded well under different field conditions. Moreover, GANS approach responded well to precipitation events in both experimental sites through summer and autumn, and soil water content estimations were affected by water stored in snow.

  18. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg++ and K++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na+ and Cl- contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4-- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO-- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4-- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl- content was higher than Na+ content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  19. Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2011-02-01

    Four green microalgae (TRG, KB, SK, and PSU) identified as Botryococcus spp. by morphological criteria were isolated from lakes and freshwater ponds in southern Thailand. In nitrogen-rich medium the strains achieved a lipid content of 25.8%, 17.8%, 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively. A combination of nitrogen deficiency, moderately high light intensity (82.5 ?E m(-2) s(-1)) and high level of iron (0.74 mM) improved lipid accumulation in TRG, KB, SK, and PSU strains up to 35.9%, 30.2%, 28.4% and 14.7%, respectively. The lipid contents and plant oil-like fatty acid composition of the microalgae suggested their potential as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:20980142

  20. Evaluation of salt content in school meals / Avaliação do conteúdo de sal em refeições escolares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço, Viegas; Jorge, Torgal; Pedro, Graça; Maria do Rosário Oliveira, Martins.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando que a pressão arterial elevada constitui um dos maiores fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares e sua associação ao consumo elevado de sal, bem como o fato de as escolas serem considerados ambientes de excelência para fomentar a aquisição de bons hábitos alimentares [...] e promover a saúde, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o conteúdo de sal presente nas refeições escolares e a percepção dos consumidores sobre o sabor salgado. MÉTODOS: Foram recolhidas refeições nas cantinas das escolas, analisando-se todos os seus componentes (pão, sopa e prato principal). A quantificação de sal foi realizada com um medidor de sal portátil. Para a avaliar a percepção dos consumidores foi desenvolvido e aplicado um questionário aos alunos das escolas preparatórias e secundárias. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 798 componentes de refeições. O pão apresentou o valor mais elevado de sal, com média de 1,35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). O conteúdo de sal nas sopas apresentou média de 0,72 g/100 g a 0,80 g/100 g (p=0,05) e, nos pratos principais, de 0,71 g/100 a 0,97 g/100 g (p=0,05). Em média, as refeições escolares disponibilizaram entre 2,83 e 3,82 g de sal por porção servida, o que representa de duas a cinco vezes mais em relação à dose diária recomendada para crianças e jovens. Para a maioria dos estudantes, o sabor das refeições foi percebido como sendo nem salgado nem insosso, o que parece demonstrar adaptação à intensidade/ quantidade de sal consumida. CONCLUSÃO: Escolhas alimentares saudáveis e adequadas só são possíveis se sustentadas por um ambiente que as facilite. Considerando o impacto que o consumo de sal tem na saúde, em particular nas doenças crônicas, a implementação de estratégias de redução de sal - nas indústrias, serviços de catering e restaurantes -, é imperativa, em particular direcionada para o público mais jovem. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals se [...] rved in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05) and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05). The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  1. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  2. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr90, Cs137, and Pu239. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 1500C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

  3. Sorption of hydrophobic pesticides on a Mediterranean soil affected by wastewater, dissolved organic matter and salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Liébana, José A; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Peña, Aránzazu

    2011-03-01

    Irrigation with treated wastewaters as an alternative in countries with severe water shortage may influence the sorption of pesticides and their environmental effects, as wastewater contains higher concentrations of suspended and dissolved organic matter and inorganic compounds than freshwater. We have examined the sorption behaviour of three highly hydrophobic pesticides (the herbicide pendimethalin and the insecticides ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin) on a Mediterranean agricultural soil using the batch equilibration method. We considered wastewater, extracts from urban sewage sludge with different dissolved organic carbon contents, and inorganic salt solutions, using Milli Q water as a control. All pesticides were strongly retained by soil although some sorption occurred on the walls of the laboratory containers, especially when wastewater and inorganic salt solutions were used. The calculation of distribution constants by measuring pesticide concentrations in soil and solution indicated that pendimethalin sorption was not affected whereas ?-cypermethrin and deltamethrin retention were significantly enhanced (ca. 5 and 2 times, respectively) when wastewater or salt solutions were employed. We therefore conclude that the increased sorption of the two pesticides caused by wastewater cannot be only the result of its dissolved organic carbon content, but also of the simultaneous presence of inorganic salts in the solution. PMID:20980092

  4. Determination of D2O contents of water at low levels by mass spectrometry: water-hydrogen isotope equilibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple analytical method for the determination of D2O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Isotope exchange equilibrium is attained within 30 min. Isotopic analysis of the equilibrated hydrogen gas is performed with mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviation is 1 ? 5 % for D2O concentration in the range 0.07 ? 10 mol%. Absolute determination of D2O is possible by making calibration with standard samples of known D2O concentration. (author)

  5. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  6. Salt and fat contents in preparations at commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Kunert

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sodium and fat contents added to preparations of commercialrestaurants in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectionaland descriptive study. It included ‘pay-per-weight’ restaurants with a medium standardmenu and having as daily preparations white rice, beans and grilled chicken. Among theestablishments with these characteristics, three agreed to participate. The production processof the above-mentioned preparations was accompanied for three non-consecutive days ineach establishment. For quantification of sodium and fat added into the preparations, oiland salt were weighed, as well as the finished preparation; the weight of the standard portion and the yield of the preparation expressed in number of portions prepared were settled. From these data, the per capita amount of salt and oil added to cook one portion of each kind of preparation was calculated by dividing the total quantity of salt and oil by the number of prepared portions. Results: The levels of salt (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 g – restaurant A, B and C,respectively and oil (17.0, 11.3, and 11.2 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively added inthe three preparations are superior to the recommendations. Conclusion: The sodium andfat contents in the analyzed restaurants are higher than it is recommended by the Food Guidefor the Brazilian Population. It is essential that commercial restaurants become partners ofpublic policies on health promotion, adopting good nutritional practices, by reducing the sodium and fat contents, to offer healthy meals daily.

  7. Salt and fat contents in preparations at commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Kunert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sodium and fat contents added to preparations of commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. It included ‘pay-per-weight’ restaurants with a medium standard menu and having as daily preparations white rice, beans and grilled chicken. Among the establishments with these characteristics, three agreed to participate. The production process of the above-mentioned preparations was accompanied for three non-consecutive days in each establishment. For quantification of sodium and fat added into the preparations, oil and salt were weighed, as well as the finished preparation; the weight of the standard portion and the yield of the preparation expressed in number of portions prepared were settled. From these data, the per capita amount of salt and oil added to cook one portion of each kind of preparation was calculated by dividing the total quantity of salt and oil by the number of prepared portions. Results: The levels of salt (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively and oil (17.0, 11.3, and 11.2 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively added in the three preparations are superior to the recommendations. Conclusion: The sodium and fat contents in the analyzed restaurants are higher than it is recommended by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. It is essential that commercial restaurants become partners of public policies on health promotion, adopting good nutritional practices, by reducing the sodium and fat contents, to offer healthy meals daily.

  8. Indirect prediction of total body water content in healthy adult Beagles by single-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguiyan-Colliard, Laurence; Daumas, Caroline; Bousbiat, Sana; Jaffrin, Michel; Cardot, Philippe; Grandjean, Dominique; Priymenko, Nathalie; Nguyen, Patrick; Roux, Françoise

    2015-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To develop equations for prediction of total body water (TBW) content in unsedated dogs by combining impedance (resistance and reactance) and morphological variables and to compare the results of those equations with TBW content determined by deuterium dilution (TBWd). ANIMALS 26 healthy adult Beagles. PROCEDURES TBW content was determined directly by deuterium dilution and indirectly with equations developed from measurements obtained by use of a portable bioelectric impedance device and morphological variables including body length, height, weight, and thoracic and abdominal circumferences. RESULTS Impedance and morphological data from 16 of the 26 dogs were used to determine coefficients for the following 2 equations: TBW1 = -0.019 (BL(2)/R) + -0.199 (RC + AC) + 0.996W + 0.081H + 12.31; and TBW2 = 0.048 (BL(2)/R) + -0.144 (RC + AC) + 0.777W + 0.066H + 0.031X + 7.47, where AC is abdominal circumference, H is height, BL is body length, R is resistance, RC is rib cage circumference, W is body weight, and × is reactance. Results for TBW1 (R(2)1 = 0.843) and TBW2 (R(2)2 = 0.816) were highly correlated with the TBWd. When the equations were validated with data from the remaining 10 dogs, the respective mean differences between TBWd and TBW1 and TBW2 were 0.17 and 0.11 L, which equated to a nonsignificant underestimation of TBW content by 2.4% and 1.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that impedance and morphological data can be used to accurately estimate TBW content in adult Beagles. This method of estimating TBW content is less expensive and easier to perform than is measurement of TBWd, making it appealing for daily use in veterinary practice. PMID:26000602

  9. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly

  10. Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Y, Bertram; Krisela, Steyn; Edelweiss, Wentze-Viljoen; Stephen, Tollman; J, Hofman.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravi [...] es). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal CVD events (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal strokes that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. METHODS: Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. RESULTS: Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. CONCLUSION: Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

  11. Fitoextração de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a extração de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sódico sob condições de estresse hídrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e após seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sódico em quatro níveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo, montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições. As altas concentrações de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas à elevada produção de massa seca, caracterizam esta espécie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variáveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases e o carbono orgânico total, permaneceram estáveis entre o início e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sódio trocável diminuíram após o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produção de biomassa e a extração de sais.This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity with a control (soil without plant. The experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. The variables of the exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, sum of bases and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while Na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. The Atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.

  12. Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set-up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content is a main topic both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. The evaluation of gross alpha/beta and individual radionuclides concentrations usually requires specific sample treatments, purification and measuring techniques. In our institute a step by step procedure has been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water by a single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC). LSC was equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device and has been coupled to quick radiochemical procedures. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. A few becquerel per liter alpha and beta activity can be checked in 24 hours in more than one hundred samples. More sensitive gross alpha and beta measurement can be performed on water samples after preconcentration by evaporation under controlled conditions. This procedure allows the determination of the actual gross alpha and beta activity of most drinking waters. Total and isotopic uranium content is measured by selective extraction followed LSC. This procedure is less cumbersome than the traditional one (chemical separation followed by electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry) and allows evaluation of 234U/238U ratio. Then a quick check of depletedup>U ratio. Then a quick check of depleted uranium contamination in a wide number of samples is also possible. 226Ra and 228Ra can be directly measured in a few mBq/l concentrations after specific concentration and purification steps. The procedure has proven to be quick and highly specific. Our emergency screening procedure has been adopted by all district laboratories of Lombardia Environmental Protection Agency to face both accidental and intentional drinking water contaminations. High sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium analytical procedures have been applied to the first extensive monitoring program of natural radioactivity in Lombardia drinking waters, in compliance with the most recent European Council Directives. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique, which can be easily implemented in new laboratories. (author)

  13. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  14. Quantitative analysis of trace metals in lithium molten salt by ICP-AES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative analysis of various trace metals including fission products in lithium molten salts has been performed using a inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The spectral interferences of lithium content, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/L, in the sample solution were investigated using an optimum wavelength for the respective metal species. As a result, the line intensities for Y, Nd, Sr, and La had no influences from the lithium content up to 2000 mg/L, while Mo, Ba, Ru, Pd, Rh, Zr and Ce showed spectral interferences of 10% to 50%. The group separation of metals from lithium in the molten salts solution was carried out by adding ammonia water into the solution. The recovery of Ru, Y, Rh, Zr, Nd,Ce, La and Eu was found to be over 90%, while Mo, Ba, Pd, and Sr provided low recovery percentages. (author)

  15. Water Uptake and Salt-Distribution Patterns in Saline Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is.an interaction between the pattern of water uptake from saline soils and the distribution of salts within the soil profile. To predict the response of a plant to the combined matric and osmotic components of the water potential, integrated over the entire root zone, it is necessary to solve the water-uptake and salt-leaching problems simultaneously. Data in the literature suggest that little saline water will be taken up so long as there is non-saline water at a higher potential within the root zone. The implications of this hypothesis with respect to salinity control in the field are discussed. Tentative conclusions concerning the re-use of saline water are also drawn. (author)

  16. Geoelectrical Monitoring for Observation of Changes in Water Content in the Slope of an Embankment Caused By Heavy Rain Using a Large-Scale Rainfall Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, S.; Yoshioka, M.; Ishizawa, T.; Sakai, N.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring the temporal variation of water content along a slope is important for predicting and preventing slope disasters. We conducted repeated monthly geoelectrical surveys since February 2011 on one slope of an embankment in the large-scale rainfall simulator of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). In order to confirm the relationship between water content and resistivity changes in the slope due to heavy rain, we conducted seven artificial rain experiments at the embankment, controlling the total amount and intensity of rainfall using the mobile rainfall simulator. We observed soil water content and conducted geoelectrical measurements on the slope of the embankment before, during and after the artificial rains. It is difficult to obtain the rapid change of resistivity structure due to the rain because the analysis of resistivity structure requires measurement by much electrode array combination. Therefore, we performed only a continuous measurement using a Wenner array with "a" spacing of 0.5 m and 1 m. The changes in analyzed resistivity took place almost simultaneously with changes in water content. The fall of resistivity accelerates as the intensity of rainfall increases. The resistivity changed significantly with a rapid change in water content. The change in resistivity is slightly earlier than the change in volumetric water content at the same depth. These facts indicate that geoelectrical monitoring is effective for observing changes in the water content of the slope of an embankment caused by heavy rain.

  17. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are a major public health problem, and salt iodization is the most widely practised intervention for their elimination. For the intervention to be successful and sustainable, it is vital to monitor the iodine content of salt regularly. Iodometric titration, the traditional method for measuring iodine content, has problems related to accessibility and cost. The newer spot-testing kits are inexpensive, require minimal training, and provide immediate results. Using da...

  18. Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M.; Larson, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea...

  19. Avaliação da salinização de açudes no semi-árido brasileiro por ICP-AES / Evaluation of the salt accumulation process in water resources in the Brazilian semi - arid area by ICP-- AES

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Soares dos, Santos; Elisabeth de, Oliveira; Sérgio, Massaro.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The salt accumulation process in some reservoirs of regular and irregular use (from 10 to 50 years of constrution), located in the Southeast of Bahia State was evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg in water samp [...] les from inside and upstream of the reservoirs. The results showed that for reservoirs of irregular use, the salt accumulation, indicated by the tracer Na, increases with the age of the reservoirs, however for the reservoirs of regular use the hydraulic retention time is the main parameter.

  20. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the ntent showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  1. Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: set up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, R; Azzellino, A; Bellinzona, S; Forte, M; Gallini, R; Sgorbati, G

    2004-05-01

    In our institute, different procedures have been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. A single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC), has been used. In emergency situations a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. Alpha and beta activities can be measured in more than one hundred samples per day with sensitivities of a few Bq/L. Higher sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium measurements can be performed on water samples after specific sample treatments. The sequential method proposed is designed in such a way that the same water sample can be used in all the stages, with slight modifications. This sequential procedure was applied in a survey of the Lombardia district. At first tap waters of the 13 largest towns were examined, then a more detailed monitoring was carried out in the surroundings of Milano and Lodi towns. The high sensitivity method for the determination of uranium isotopes was used to check the presence of depleted uranium in Lake Garda. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique which can also be applied by laboratories lacking specific radiochemistry facilities and experience. PMID:15042271

  2. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, Stefaan; Delecluyse, Kevin; DeWolf, Peter

    2008-10-01

    SummaryIn the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic borehole measurements (EM39) and by measurements of fresh water heads and temperature using a large number of observation wells. EM39 observations point to aquifer heterogeneity as a determining factor in the movement of the salt infiltration water. It is shown that part of the infiltration water moves further in the dunes instead of towards the sea. On the long term run, possibility exists that salt water enters the extraction's capture zone. This issue needs further monitoring and study. Fresh water head and temperature data illustrate that the main period of infiltration is confined to spring tide when large amounts of salt water enter the tidal inlets.

  3. Anomalous water diffusion in salt solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Y.; A. A. Hassanali; Parrinello, M

    2014-01-01

    Liquid water remains one of the most important environments in which physical, chemical, and biological processes occur. One such process involves the solvation of ions. Understanding the perturbation that ions make on the hydrogen bond network of water remains an open question. Here, using state-of-the-art simulation methods, we show that treating the electronic degrees of freedom explicitly is required to reproduce the experimentally observed water diffusion trends in CsI and NaCl solutions...

  4. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg · m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg · m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices. PMID:25881444

  5. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ? 150 ?g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodlt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ? Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a ?g/kg basis, ? 5 × higher than those of mothers. ? Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ? Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  6. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  7. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the deoxygenation of salt-containing water using hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, hydrazine was added to salt-containing water in order to reduce dissolved oxygen. Hydrazine is known to reduce dissolved oxygen in high-temperature pure water, but its deoxygenation behavior in salt-containing water at ambient temperature in the presence of radiation is unknown. Deoxygenation using hydrazine in salt-containing water was thus investigated using a 60Co gamma-ray source and artificial seawater at room temperature. Water samples containing a small amount of hydrazine were irradiated at dose rates of 100 - 10,000 Gy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water samples was measured before and after irradiation. Notably, a decrease in the dissolved oxygen was only observed after irradiation, and the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with increasing dose rate and irradiation time. The rate of decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen using hydrazine was slow in the presence of salts. Kinetic considerations suggested that the deoxygenation of the salt-containing water exposed to gamma-ray irradiation using hydrazine was suppressed by chloride ions. (author)

  8. Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs, measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m to DOC (mg/ L."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.3±0.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.3±0.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

  9. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and ?-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

  10. PulsArt : IT, Salt and Water for Family Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in considering the domestic household as a new and important domain for interaction design. In this paper we present pulsArt - a physical and digital installation designed for the home to represent different family members’ level of activity by water running down blocks of salt based on a real-time reading of the individual family member’s pulse. We describe how pulsArt explores novel ways of looking at the interaction between the physical, the social and the technological and how it acts as a context-aware artefact, amplifying the domestic setting to provide a new kind of awareness in the family. In doing so, we seek to develop new perspectives on designing interactive and context-aware systems for the home and what values they might support.

  11. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matyš?ák, Ond?ej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice:a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride concentration from up to 420mg/kg to concentration of 140mg/kg, nitrate concentration from 1000mg/kg to concentration of 310mg/kg nearest the cathode and the sulphate concentration from up to 540mg/kg to 30mg/kg nearest the anode in 750–1020g dry matter stone sample.The final concentrations meet the limiting values indicating no risk for salt decay. The placement of the anode related to the original outer surface of the stone showed its importance only in the experiments with the long duration 10–11days. Due to the placement of the anode to the outer surface of the stone segments which was more contaminated, higher concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were measured in the anode clay poultices at the end of experiments. The longer duration might show even more significant role of the electrode placements.The clay poultice successfully neutralized the acid from electrolysis at the anode. During the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect in the stones themselves under the present conditions.

  12. Phase diagram of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE):water system at subzero temperatures and at low water contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, E Y; Steponkus, P L

    1999-07-15

    The phase behavior of partially hydrated 1, 2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction methods together with water sorption isotherms. DOPE liposomes were dehydrated in the H(II) phase at 29 degrees C and in the L(alpha) phase at 0 degrees C by vapor phase equilibration over saturated salt solutions. Other samples were prepared by hydration of dried DOPE by vapor phase equilibration at 29 degrees C and 0 degrees C. Five lipid phases (lamellar liquid crystalline, L(alpha); lamellar gel, L(beta); inverted hexagonal, H(II); inverted ribbon, P(delta); and lamellar crystalline, L(c)) and the ice phase were observed depending on the water content and temperature. The ice phase did not form in DOPE suspensions containing <9 wt% water. The L(c) phase was observed in samples with a water content of 2-6 wt% that were annealed at 0 degrees C for 2 or more days. The L(c) phase melted at 5-20 degrees C producing the H(II) phase. The P(delta) phase was observed at water contents of <0.5 wt%. The phase diagram, which includes five lipid phases and two water phases (ice and liquid water), has been constructed. The freeze-induced dehydration of DOPE has been described with the aid of the phase diagram. PMID:10407074

  13. Comparison of nuclear and capacitance- based soil water measuring techniques in salt- affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field calibration experiment was carried out on salt-affected clayey soil in Syria, to compare the sensitivity to soil electrical conductivity (ECe), and bulk density ( ?) of two instruments for estimating soil moisture: the neutron probe (NP) and the Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (CP). The results showed that the values of the correlation coefficient of the calibration were decreased when the ECe and ? values increased; this decrease was more pronounced for the Diviner 2000, indicating that it was more sensitive to ? and ECe than the NP. When only scaled frequency was used in the fitted equation, the Diviner 2000 in wet soil underestimated soil water content significantly at all depths, but especially in the top layer, by up to 0.09 cm3 cm-3 compared with gravimetric determinations. However, in dry soil, the Diviner 2000 overestimated the volumetric water content by up to 0.05 cm3 cm-3 in the top 15 cm, and by 0.03 cm3 cm-3 at 30-45 cm depth. The performance of the neutron probe was better overall, using a factory calibration curve: no significant differences were observed between NP estimates and the gravimetric values. Including both ? and ECe in the calibration equations improved the fits, although the regression coefficient (R2) for the Diviner 2000 remained low. (author)

  14. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  15. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    OpenAIRE

    Garci?a Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Barraga?n Garci?a, Vicenta Mari?a; Seoane Rodri?guez, Benjamin; Ruiz Bauza?, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with th...

  16. [Vegetation influence on nutrients distribution in pore water of salt marsh sediment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Li, Dao-Ji; Gao, Lei

    2009-11-01

    The variations of nutrients in pore water of salt marsh sediment were surveyed in the middle intertidal zone of Chongming Dongtan during August 2007 to May 2008 to identify plant impact on nutrients distribution. The results show that NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P concentrations are lower in pore water of Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones than in bare flat, and specially, NH4(+) -N concentrations in summer and autumn decrease by one more orders of magnitude. Compared to winter, nutrients concentrations are obviously higher during the period of plant growth, and plant biomass is clearly correlative to nitrogen and phosphorus. Vegetation growth influences nitrogen content intensively. NH4(-) -N concentrations in Spartina alterniflora and Phragmites australis zones are 44.21 and 74.38 micromol x L(-1) respectively, distinctly lower than that in bare flat and Scirpus mariquete zone (340.14 and 291.87 micromol x L(-1) respectively). Moreover, NO(x)(-) -N concentration is one to two order(s) of magnitude lower than NH4(+) -N, and its highest value exists in Phragmites australis zone (5.94 micromol x L(-1)). The results of molecule diffusive flux of nutrients in the surface sediment-overlying water interface indicate that marsh sediment is the source for SiO3(2-) -Si, NH4(+) -N and PO4(3-) -P, and the rank for NO(x)(-) -N (NO3(-) -N + NO2(-) -N), and NO(x)(-) -N flux from overlying water to sediment [16.23 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)] is higher than NH4(+) -N flux from sediment to overlying water [15.53 micromol x (m2 x h)(-1)]. Vegetation growth accommodates nutrient structure of the estuarine ecosystem by affecting sediment-water interface mass flux and nutrient ratios in pore water and overlying water. PMID:20063731

  17. Temporal Variation of Water and Salt Exchange at Xiaoqinghe River Mouth, North of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, T.; Zhang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Estuaries are important components of coastal ecosystem and function as dominant pathways of material exchange at the land-sea interface. The transport of terrestrial input through river inflow is controlled by physical process including tides, waves, and fresh water discharge. This study investigates net water and salt flux within Xiaoqinghe River mouth, a mesotidal shallow estuarine system (water depth budget across the river mouth is also observed. Overall, tidal pumping is the underlying process of salt transport while river discharge dominates its temporal variation. This study will make addition to scientific foundation for management hazardous contamination and best time to release of environmental flows during difference seasons.

  18. Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo Fini; Cristina Cavallari; Francesca Ospitali

    2010-01-01

    Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystalli...

  19. Actual evapotranspiration assessment by means of a coupled energy/hydrologic balance model: Validation over an olive grove by means of scintillometry and measurements of soil water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammalleri, C.; Agnese, C.; Ciraolo, G.; Minacapilli, M.; Provenzano, G.; Rallo, G.

    2010-10-01

    SummaryA coupled energy/hydrologic model was applied to simulate the exchange of energy and water in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (SPA). The model, which uses a "two-source" approach to estimate the energy fluxes, and the "force-restore" approach to represent the water balance, was validated by means of evapotranspiration measurements collected via scintillometry and soil moisture measurements collected via time domain reflectometry (TDR) in a Sicilian olive grove. The comparison between measured and estimated fluxes values at an hourly scale showed good agreement. Additional comparisons on a daily timescale confirmed the model's applicability for quantifying crop water requirements. Also in terms of daily evapotranspiration and soil water content values, the obtained results confirmed the model's applicability for those practical applications aiming to quantify the crop water requirement. Moreover, further studies should be conducted to test the feasibility of using this model for long term simulations over a broad range of conditions.

  20. GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivity inverse model with position around 20-30 m depth. This aquifer is referred to second aquifer. As the final result, a map with the possibility of salt/brackish and fresh water interface can be generated

  1. Inflation Performance Study of Polymer Modified Bentonite in Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Hu1,

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Every year, irrigated agriculture in the north in China requires lots of water. The current irrigation method, Channel irrigation, wasted nearly half of agricultural water each year due to the channel seepage. Bentonite is an excellent waterproof material, with the characteristics of good expansion properties and low permeability, which has been widely used in all kinds of anti-seepage engineering. However, it was found that saline conditions could significantly reduce the ability of bentonite seepage. What’s more, northern areas were mostly salted seriously. Studies found that the salt tolerance of bentonite would be effectively improved when mixed with some kinds of high molecular polymer. The results showed that, when mixed with absorbent organic acid resin and TSPP or absorbent organic acid resin and absorbent fiber resin at the best proportion, the inflation index of bentonite could reach to 15mL/2g in 1% of the salt water, which completely met the requirements of bentonite waterproof material, and could be used for seepage-proofing in complicated or unknown water. In conclusion, this study solved the leakage problem in the process of agricultural irrigation and realized the water-saving irrigation, which improved the production and development of the agriculture.

  2. ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

  3. Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamo Fini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

  4. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-01

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:24751269

  5. Investigation of iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along the coast of Zhejiang, China*

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ying-li; Wang, Ning-jian; Zhu, Lan; Wang, Guo-xing; Wu, Hui; Kuang, Lin; Zhu, Wen-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We aim to describe the environment iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along Zhejiang Province coast in the China foreland. It will be helpful for us to judge whether this area is insufficient in iodine and universal iodized salt is necessary or not. Methods: We collected iodized salt samples, drinking water samples (tap water in the towns, and well water or spring water in the villages), water samples from different sources (ditches, lakes, rivers) and soil samples throug...

  6. Iodine Content of Household Salt and Urinary Iodine of Primary School Pupils in Commercial Towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Maduabuchi, Adimoranma; Ani, Peace N.; Madukwe, Edith U.

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the iodine content of household salt and urinary iodine of primary school pupils in commercial towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two commercial towns (Orba and Ibagwa-aka) in Nsukka senatorial district were purposely selected. Iodine content of salt was measured at household level as well the nutritional iodine status of 200 school aged children (6-12 years) was assessed by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Validated ...

  7. The maintenance of high salt concentrations in interstitial waters above the New Albany Shale of the Illinois Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Vishnu

    1993-11-01

    Much controversy centers on whether groundwater flow velocities in basin-scale circulation are large (tens of centimeters per year or more) or small (a few millimeters per year or less). Resolution of the controversy is particularly important in sedimentary basins in which salt beds are unknown but interstitial brines are pervasive. An example of one such basin is the Illinois Basin. The total dissolved solids (TDS) content of interstitial waters above the Upper Devonian New Albany Shale in the Illinois Basin increases with depth at an average rate of 15 wt% km-1. Mass transport calculations show that if no salt dissolved above the New Albany, upward diffusion alone should have lowered the salinity gradient over a 200 m.y. time span (i.e., since the Mid-Triassic) to between 10 and 30% of the present value. The high salinity gradient found today requires either that halite dissolved slowly in rocks above the New Albany Shale over the past 200 m.y. or that the paleosalinity gradient, say, 200 m.y.B.P., was much greater than the value today. The flushing out of brines by meteoric water was simulated in a rectangular cross section of a generic basin 500 km wide and 1.5 km deep with a freshwater head gradient of 0.06% across the top. Simulations were run using the computer code PORFLOW (Runchal, 1987) which models coupled transport of fluid, heat, and dissolved salt. The simulations of brine flushing suggest that if topography-driven flow occurred for time spans of several million years, then the preservation of brines in rocks above the New Albany shale could only have been possible if macroscopic flow rates (flow rates averaged over large rock volumes) were very small, on the order of 10 -3 m yr-1or less. When the horizontal permeability was 10-13 m2(10-1 darcy) and the vertical permeability 10-14 m2, brines that initially filled the basin were flushed out and replaced by fresh water in less than 5 m.y., despite the fact that the initial concentration gradient assumed was almost twice the present day value. For such high permeabilities, even very high salt dissolution rates equivalent to the removal of 4.7 m of halite column per million years were insufficient to maintain high concentrations. When the permeabilities were lower, 10-15 m2 along the horizontal and 10-16 m2 along the vertical, high dissolved salt concentrations were maintained for longer times. Even so, about half of the dissolved salt initially in the pore waters was removed after 50 m.y.

  8. [Estimation of leaf area index by normalized composite vegetation index fusing the spectral feature of canopy water content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shi; Liu, Xiang-Nan; Liu, Mei-Ling; Cao, Shan; Yao, Shuai

    2011-02-01

    The accurate inversion of leaf area index (LADI) in canopy is very important for guiding crop management and assessing crop yield. Sixty samples belonging to corn in four different areas of Jilin City were scanned by ASD field pro3 and LAI-2000 for optical data and LAI. A new vegetation index, the normalized composite Vegetation index (NCVI), containing the factor of canopy water content, is proposed in the present paper for a better quantitative estimation of LAI than with the remotely sensed normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), especially in the arid and semi-arid areas. A model was built for inversion of LAI with NCVI, and experience validation. The results showed that there was a good linear correlation between the simulation LAI inversed from NCVI model and the real LAI values. The model breaking the limitations of the traditional empirical models for LAI inversion has a good result for estimating LAI of the dense canopy whose LAI value was greater than 3. In addition, NCVI model was very sensitive to the water environment of soil, and the inversion result in the arid and semi-arid areas was superior to the general area. PMID:21510408

  9. Water content in the anodization electrolyte affects the electrochemical and electronic transport properties of TiO2 nanotubes: a study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TiO2 nanotube system has attracted much interest for applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting. Optimization of their photoelectrochemical properties may be carried out by modifying the water content of the anodization electrolyte, but a rigorous understanding of the underlying electronic and electrochemical properties responsible for the differences in the photocurrent efficiency remain elusive. In this paper, we used electrochemical impedance methods to determine that while TiO2 nanotubes formed in low (2 vol%) and high (11 vol%) water content electrolytes have similar electrical conductivity and charge transfer resistances, the presence of a lower density of deep level defect states contributes to increase the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 nanotubes formed from high water content electrolytes. Passivation of these defect states may lead to an improved photoelectrochemical performance

  10. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency : Studies of water-substrate interactions at low and high dry matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance decreases. However, the addition of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the water mobility, leading to higher water availability, and ultimately higher glucose production. More specifically, the higher water availability boosts the activity of processive cellulases. Thus, water availability is vital for efficient hydrolysis, especially at high dry matter content where water availability is low. At high dry matter content, cellulase activity changes water interactions with biomass, affecting the water mobility. While swelling and fiber loosening also take place during hydrolysis, the cellulase hydrolytic activity changes the substrate to give a unique relaxation time profile. In extreme conditions where water is only present as bound water, cellulases are still able to utilize bound water for hydrolysis.

  11. Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

    2014-09-01

    The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth. PMID:25121460

  12. A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Flors, Víctor; Paradís, Mercedes; García-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; González-Bosch, Carmen; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accu...

  13. Calibration equations for two capacitance water content probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevas, C.; Georgiou, P.; Ilias, A.; Panoras, A.; Babajimopoulos, C.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the calibration equations of two capacitance probes for monitoring the soil water content in a lysimeter field. Capacitance probes provide readings at desired depths and time intervals. The calibration equations are derived by regression analysis between measurements of scaled frequency and volumetric soil water content. The calibration equations are compared with the manufacturer default equations to estimate the irrigation water depth. The accuracy of capacitance probes in monitoring soil water content increased by using the site-specific calibration equations rather than the manufacturer default equation.

  14. Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

  15. Excess Salt Increases Infarct Size Produced by Photothrombotic Distal Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Hiroshi; Nabika, Toru

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral circulation is known to be vulnerable to high salt loading. However, no study has investigated the effects of excess salt on focal ischemic brain injury. After 14 days of salt loading (0.9% saline) or water, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were subjected to photothrombotic middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), and infarct volume was determined at 48 h after MCAO: albumin and hemoglobin contents in discrete brain regions were also dete...

  16. Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

  17. Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Sánchez-García

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200 peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased with the water content, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 8 ? 10-4 ?cm, for films deposited at 450? from a starting solution with a water content of 10 ml per 100 ml of solution; further increase in water content increased the corresponding resistivity. Optical transmittances of SnO2:F films were high, in the order of 75%, and the band gap values oscillated around 3.9 eV. SEM analysis showed uniform surface morphologies with different geometries depending on the deposition conditions. Composition analysis showed a stoichiometric compound with a [Sn/O] ratio around 1:2 in all samples. The presence of F into the SnO2 lattice was detected, within 2 at % respect to Sn.

  18. Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

    2014-07-01

    The presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

  19. 17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

    2014-09-01

    17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

  20. Temporal Partitioning by Animals Visiting Salt Licks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Temporal partitioning of resources according to feeding period occurs in situation of food type specialization, such as for the use of salt licks by ecologically similar animal species. Camera traps placed at salt licks can be used to determine animal activity patterns. This study was carried in a logging concession area in central Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Sampling was carried from September 2010 to January 2011, and May to September 2011. Activity data at salt lick sites showed that sambar deer Rusa unicolor was mostly nocturnal, with high number of records occurring after dark from 20:00hrs onwards, peaking after midnight before slowly decreasing until early morning at 08:00hrs. Bornean yellow muntjac’s Muntiacus antherodes activity was restricted to during the day, which peaked at 11:00 to 12:00hrs. There was no clear pattern observable in mousedeer Tragulus spp. and bearded pig Sus barbatus activity data. Significant differences between the proportion of daily activity were observed between Bornean yellow muntjac and bearded pig (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, W=165.5, p=0.004, followed by sambar deer (W=195.5, p=0.053 and mousedeer (W=213, p=0.074. Human presence and hunting pressure may affect the behaviour of some game species, such as the Bornean yellow muntjac which showed peak activity periods during the earlier part of the day, and over a much shorter time span in more human accessible salt lick sites.

  1. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  2. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

  3. To cut upkeep on salt-water intake structure consider nickel-coated rebars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel coating at least 1 mil thick applied to concrete reinforing bars is recommended as protection to concrete structures of utilities and industrial plants taking salt cooling water from the ocean or bays. Reduction of subsurface damage to concrete and reinforcement is indicated by 20 years testing. Seabrook nuclear station will apply the idea to cooling-tower beams as well as to circulating-water inlet heads

  4. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  5. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Matijevi?

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  6. Water content and structure in malignant and benign skin tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gniadecka, M.; Nielsen, O. F.; Wulf, H. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of the low frequency region of Raman spectra enables determination of water structure. It has been previously demonstrated by various techniques that water content and possibly also the water structure is altered in some malignant tumours. To further elucidate possible change in water structure in tumours we performed NIR FT Raman spectroscopy on biopsies from selected benign and malignant skin tumours (benign: seborrheic keratosis, pigmented nevi; malignant: malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma). We did not observe any differences in water content between malignant and benign skin tumours with an exception of seborrheic keratosis, in which the water content was decreased. Increase in the tetrahedral (free) water was found in malignant skin tumours and sun-damaged skin relative to normal young skin and benign skin tumours. This finding may add to the understanding of molecular alterations in cancer.

  7. Determination of ice content in hardened concrete by low-temperature calorimetry : Influence of baseline calculation and heat of fusion of confined water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature calorimetry has been used to determine the ice content in concrete at different temperatures when exposed to low-temperature environments. However, the analysis of the ice content from the measured data of heat flow is not straightforward. In this study, two important factors influencing the ice content calculation are discussed. The importance of the baseline determination for the calculation of the ice content is realized. Two different methods of generating the baseline are discussed. First, the ‘J-baseline’ is discussed which is a recently proposed extrapolation method based on the accumulated heat curves measured in the freezing and the melting process. Second, the ‘C-baseline’ is discussed in which a calculated baseline is used where the heat capacity of both water and ice and the phase changing behaviour under different testing temperatures are considered. It turns out that both the ‘J-baseline’ method and the ‘C-baseline’ method can be used to calculate the approximate baseline. The heat of fusion of the water confined in small pores is another important parameter to be considered in ice content calculation. This property must be carefully analyzed in order to accurately calculate the ice contents at different temperatures in the freezing and melting process. It should be noted that there is no general agreement on how to obtain the important temperature dependence of the heat of fusion of water confined in small pores. By performing comparison studies, the present study shows the influence of the different values of the heat of fusion commonly adopted on the calculated ice content for the studied concrete samples. The importance and necessity to use an accurate value of the heat of fusion is emphasized. Based on the calculation of the baseline proposed in this work and by carefully selecting the values for the heat of fusion, the ice content in a hardened concrete sample is expected to be estimated with an acceptable accuracy.

  8. Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

  9. Evaluation of Trace Metal Content by ICP-MS Using Closed Vessel Microwave Digestion in Fresh Water Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Sreenivasa Rao Jarapala; Bhaskarachary Kandlakunta; Longvah Thingnganing

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate trace metal levels of different varieties of fresh water fish using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrophotometer after microwave digestion (MD-ICPMS). Fish samples were collected from the outlets of twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad. The trace metal content in different varieties of analyzed fish were ranged from 0.24 to 1.68?mg/kg for Chromium in Cyprinus carpio and Masto symbollon, 0.20 to 7.52?mg/kg for Manganese in Lab...

  10. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  11. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  12. LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

    1969-06-01

    Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

  13. LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images PMID:16591764

  14. Predicción de los contenidos de agua y sal durante el salado de bagre usando diferentes mezclas salinas / Prediction of moisture and salt contents of catfish slices during salting using different salting mixtures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otoniel, Corzo; Nelson, Bracho; Jaime, Rodríguez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la aplicabilidad del modelo de Weibull para predecir los contenidos de humedad y sal y sus coeficientes de difusión, durante el salado de trozos de bagre utilizando mezclas de NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 y MgCl2. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión (De) de agua y s [...] al fueron determinados usando el modelo normalizado de Weibull. Los altos valores de los coeficientes de determinación (R² > 0,99) y los bajos errores relativos medios (MRE Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the Weibull model to predict the moisture and salt contents and their diffusion coefficients, during the salting of catfish slices using mixtures of NaCl, KCl, CaCl² and MgCl². The effective water and salt diffusion coefficients (De) [...] were determined using the normalized Weibull model. The high coefficients of determination (R² > 0.99) and low mean relative error (MRE

  15. The Initial Water Content Dependent Swelling Behavior of Clayey Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet Öngen, Ali; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal

    2015-04-01

    The variation in water content is known as a main controlling parameter for many physical and mechanical behaviors of clayey soils, particularly soils found in arid and semi-arid regions. Expansive soils found in such regions are naturally subjected to many volume increase and decrease cycles within unsaturated zone during rainy and dry periods, and thus these soils constitute severe hazard to low-rise light buildings and infrastructures constructed in shallow unsaturated depths. Although the relationships between swelling parameters (swelling pressure and swelling percent) and soils' physical - index properties have been investigated in details in previous researches, the continuous effect of water content on swelling mechanisms of soils is not yet sufficiently studied. The water content of unsaturated zone naturally fluctuates with changes in both seasonal climatic conditions and increasing in depths, and therefore, swelling parameters of a soil within unsaturated soils should not be represented with only one single value. For achieving accurate understanding of swelling behavior at field condition, soils should be subjected to swelling tests by considering different initial water content conditions. Considering requirement for further understanding in water content dependent swelling behavior of soils, a research program was aimed to investigate the effect of initial water content on swelling behavior of soil materials. For this purpose, soils having wide range of physical properties such as grain size distributions, mineralogical composition and consistency limits were collected from different locations in Turkey. To minimize the effect of dry unit weight on swelling behavior of soils, samples prepared at same dry unit weight (14.6 kN/m3) with various initial water contents ranging from 0% to approximately 37% were subjected to swelling tests by using convenient odometer device. Beside these tests, grain size distribution, Atterberg limits and mineralogical composition of samples were also determined. The swelling pressure of selected samples reached up to 250 kPa at zero water content. In addition, swelling parameters of collected clayey soils considerably decrease with increasing initial water content to somewhere between 30% and 37%. For finding the most important physical, index and mineralogical properties to constitute predictive models for swelling parameters of soils and understand the effect of initial water content, simple and multiple regression analyses were performed among appropriate variables. As a result of all analyses, statistically significant linear relationships were obtained between swelling parameters and initial water content values. Furthermore, it can be concluded that initial water content is a crucial controlling parameter for understanding swelling behavior of soils.

  16. Reducing the content of alloying elements in high-speed steel during heating in salt baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barium chloride salt baths are primarily used for the high-temperature quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed steels. If the barium chloride melt should have a decarbonizing effect on the surface components that are heated in it, the authors maintain that it may also affect the content of alloying elements in the surface layers of high-speed-steel components that are heated in it. Commercial salt baths with a rectifier -- chemically pure magnesium fluoride -was used for the investigation. Cooling was accomplished in a caustic melt. Analysis of the results of investigation of the molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt distributions in steel R9M4K8 as well as the tungsten and cobalt distributions in steel R9K5 indicated that the cobalt content does not diminish on heating to 12300C. A decrease in molybdenum content occurs in the surface layers during the quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel in a barium chloride salt bath after the required heating time, while a decrease in the tungsten content takes place with more prolonged hold times. It is shown to be possible to reduce or completely eliminate loss of alloying elements in the surface layers of a high-speedsteel tool during heat treatment when magnesium fluoride in combination with silicon carbide additives is used as a rectifier

  17. A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind; Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ATETV project delivers web-based videos to connect students to careers in advanced technology. This episode of ATETV follows a non-traditional adult student as he returns to school to study wind energy technology, and examines water treatment technology for desalination. The video can be viewed whole or in two segments: "A Grandfather Studies the Power of the Wind" and "Turning Salt Water into Drinking Water." The running time for the full episode is 9:59.

  18. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

  19. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  20. Dry matter accumulation and foliar K, Ca and Na contents in salt-stressed cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Diego

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment aimed at determining the effect of five NaCl
    concentrations (namely 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM, determining
    respective EC values of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 on cape
    gooseberry plants was set up at Humboldt University’s greenhouse
    in Berlin, Germany. Dry weight (DW of roots, stems
    and leaves, as well as foliar content of ions K+, Ca2+ and Na+ and
    the relationship they hold with one another, were determined
    over a 75-day period. DW of all plant organs was observed
    to decrease with increasing salinity. The lowest values of this
    variable, which were recorded from the 120 mM NaCl plants,
    were found to be significantly smaller than those recorded at
    60 mM and lower salt concentrations. Salt stress effects on dry
    matter (DM accumulat ion were observed to increase with
    plant age. Leaf K+ content increased with salinity and peaked
    at 90 mM NaCl, where the value was significantly higher than
    that observed at 120 mM. Foliar Ca2+ content remained unchanged
    at the different salt concentrations, whilst Na+ content
    increased together with salt stress. The relationship among ion
    concentrations was significantly influenced only by 90 mM or
    higher NaCl concentrations, which determined a progressive
    increase of the Na+/Ca2+ ratio and a similar decrease of the K+/
    Na+ ratio. According to the results, cape gooseberry can be
    considered as moderately tolerant to salt, as shown by the 30
    mM NaCl treatment, which did not affect DM accumulation in
    plant organs. This tolerance is also supported by steady leaf Ca2+
    contents at all levels of salinity, indicating that cape gooseberry
    uses K+ as an osmoprotectant, at least up to 90 mM NaCl.

  1. Query by Image Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Bharamagoudar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of images or the pictorial data is growing day by day with the expansion of internet services. As the network and development of multimedia technologies are becoming more popular, users are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques. So nowadays the content based image retrieval are becoming a source of exact and fast retrieval. . It is very difficult for the users to retrieve the required images using a operative and efficient mechanism. There are many techniques which are used to retrieve the images depending upon the requirement of different applications. This paper provides an extensive review of various latest research work and methodologies applied in the field of CBIR. Images are retrieved on the basis of automatically derived features such as, texture, shape and color which is generally referred to as Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. Content based image retrieval is an important research area in image processing, with a vast domain of applications like recognition systems i.e. finger, face, biometrics, medical sciences etc. However, the technology still lacks maturity, and is not yet being used on a significant scale. In the absence of hard evidence on the effectiveness of CBIR techniques in practice, opinion is still sharply divided about their usefulness in handling real-life queries in large and diverse image collections. The concepts which are presently used for CBIR system are all under research.

  2. Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.

    2010-12-01

    Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484.19*(Fe3+/Fetot) and ppm H2Oopx=193.14+3.18*P-6.22*T-178.78*(Fe3+/Fetot).The derived linear equations suggest a strong influence of the Fe3+/Fetot in the water dissolution mechanism in agreement with recent work.

  3. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one possible option to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The assessment of the risks related to CO2 storage is an important task. Events such as CO2 leakage and brine displacement and infiltration could result in hazards for human health and the environment and therefore have to be investigated in detail. In this work numerical simulations are performed to estimate the risk related to the displacement of brine. The injected CO2 will displace the brine that is initially present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters aredetermined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical uncertainty is investigated for three parameters: the well distance, the water production rate, and the permeability of the aquifer. One possible way of estimating statistical uncertainties and providing probabilities is performing numerical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The MC approach is computationally very demanding because many simulations runs are needed to get an appropriate statistical accuracy. A possible way to handle the complexity and uncertainties with acceptable computational costs is by running MC simulations with a reduced model using a model reduction technique called arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing. Depending on the applied grid the numerical dispersion strongly influence the results as well. The distance of the well is a key parameter that influences the salt concentration at the well, thus the time that the salt has for mixing until reaching the well is relevant. References [1] Oladyshkin, S. und W. Nowak: Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 106 (2012) 179–190.

  4. Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Jr De Luca

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is also elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide, in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

  5. Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A. Jr, De Luca; R.C., Vendramini; D.T.B., Pereira; D.A.S., Colombari; R.B., David; P.M., Paula; J.V., Menani.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is a [...] lso elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus) or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide), in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

  6. In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

  7. Imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization response by sunflower subjected to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses in arid and semi-arid regions that substantially reduce the germination, growth and average yield of major crops. The study was mainly aimed to select the most salt tolerant cultivar of sunflower. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of four different salinity levels having electrical conductivity viz., 1.19, 9.54, 16.48 and 22.38 mS/cm on the imbibition (water uptake), germination and lipid mobilization of seedlings of 4 varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) i.e., DO-728, DO-730, Hysun-33 and Suncross-843. Salinity levels were prepared by dissolving calculated amount of NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, CaCl/sub 2/ and MgCl/sub 2/ (4:10:5:1) in half strength Hoagland culture solution. Imbibition was studied using plastic glasses at an interval of 12 and 24 hours. While germination studies were separately carried out in plastic pots and noted after every 12 hours till 20 days. Whereas, lipid contents of the salt stress germinating seeds were determined at three time intervals viz., 48, 96 and 144 hours of germination. Results showed that there was a linear decrease in imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization as the level of salinity progressively intensifies. Maximum significant reduction in imbibition (12.88%), germination (31.03%) and lipid mobilization (38.62%) is recorded in highest dose of applied salts (22.38 mS/cm). Results further exhibited that maximum significant reduction in imbibition (17.95%) and germination (43.05%) is recorded for variety Suncross-843. While minimum for the same attributes is recorded for variety DO-728. Therefore, in term of imbibitions and germination, DO-728 could be ranked as salt tolerant. Similarly maximum reduction (14.85%) in mobilized lipids is noted for DO-728 and minimum (40.89%) for DO-730. Therefore, in term of lipid mobilization, variety DO-730 could be ranked as salt tolerant and DO-728 as salt sensitive. While remaining 2 varieties i.e., Hysun-33 and Suncross-843 is rated as salt intermediate in response, respectively. (author)

  8. Effects of Salts of the Hofmeister Series on the Hydrogen Bond Network of Water

    OpenAIRE

    Nucci, Nathaniel V.; Vanderkooi, Jane M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of salts on water behavior has been a topic of interest for many years; however, some recent reports have suggested that ions do not influence the hydrogen bonding behavior of water. Using an effective two-state hydrogen bonding model to interpret the temperature excursion infrared response of the O-H stretch of aqueous salt solutions, we show a strong correlation between salt effects on water hydrogen bonding and the Hofmeister order. These data clearly show that salts do have a m...

  9. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  10. Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data

    OpenAIRE

    J. G. P. W. Clevers; Kooistra, L; Schaepman, M E

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative...

  11. Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content

    OpenAIRE

    J. G. P. W. Clevers

    2010-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative at the right s...

  12. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0-3 and Day 4-7 (p = 0.034) and decreased from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). Water content at Day 4-7 was significantly higher than in controls (p < or = 0.05). At the same time intervals, mean rCBF (SD) was 76 (23); 94 (31); 106 (35); and 64 (26)%, respectively. There was a significant increase in rCBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard in stroke patients.

  13. Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Oad, F. C.; Abro, Z. A.; Siyal, A. G.; Oad, N. L.; Siyal, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk...

  14. Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

  15. Efficient partical removal during the treatment of water from Lake Constance by dosing of small amounts of ferric salts; Effiziente Partikelentfernung bei der Aufbereitung von Bodenseewasser mit geringen Mengen an Fe(III)-Salzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winzenbacher, R.; Faisst, M.; Schick, R.; Stabel, H.H. [ZV Bodensee-Wasserversorgung, Betriebs- und Forschungslabor, Sipplingen (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    Ferric salt was used as coagulant in treatment experiments aiming on the enhancement of the removal efficiency of particles suspended in raw water from Lake Constance. The tests were performed in the laboratory scale, by use of a pilot plant, and in the drinking water treatment plant. As revealed by a particle counter high removal rates (>99% reduction of particle numbers) were obtained by application of very small coagulant doses (i.e. ca. 0.1 mg/l) in a combined process, where the iron salt solution was injected following microstraining and ozonation (0.8 to 1.0 mg/l) of the raw water and before rapid sandfiltration. Compared to other treatment processes combining coagulation, precipitation, and filtration as described in the literature, such low dosages are uncommon and the experimental results cannot be explained by well known theories. The interactions between ferric species, natural organic matter and filter media seem to be responsible for the observed high removal rates. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Versuchsaufbereitung von Bodenseewasser wurde Eisen(III)-Salz als Flockungsmittel vor einer nachfolgenden Sandfiltration eingesetzt, um eine weitergehende Partikelentfernung zu erreichen. Versuche im Labormassstab, an einer Technikumsanlage und an einer Grossanlage im Wasserwerk nach Mikrosiebung und Ozonung (Dosierung: 0,8-1,0 mg/l) zeigten, dass bereits sehr geringe Fe-Zugabemengen (ca. 0,1 mg/l) zur Entfernung von ueber 99% der nach Mikrosiebung noch vorhandenen Partikel ausreichten. Da die niedrigen Flockungsmittelkonzentrationen deutlich unterhalb der bei bestehenden Flockungsfiltrationsprozessen angewendeten Dosiermengen liegen, koennen die bei diesem Aufbereitungsprozess ablaufenden Mechanismen nicht mit den bekannten theoretischen Ansaetzen erklaert werden. Es wird diskutiert, dass Wechselwirkungen zwischen dem Filtermaterial, den Fe(III)-Spezies und natuerlichen organischen Substanzen die hohe Partikelrueckhalterate bewirken. (orig.)

  16. Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the poly(propylene glycol)400 (PPG400)-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG400-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 ?g L-1, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 ?g L-1.

  17. Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Non-Destructive System for Measurements of Water and Salt Levels in Food Products Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Fuentes, Ana; Campos, Franciny; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Labrador, Roberto H.; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2009-05-01

    The IQMA and the DTA have developed a low-cost system to determinate the contents of water and salt in food products as cured ham or pork loin using non-destructive methods. The system includes an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of impedance spectroscopy and an electrode. The electrode is a concentric needle which allows carrying out tests in a non-destructive way. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between the water and salt contents and the module and phase of the impedance of the food sample in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

  18. EARTHQUAKE HAZARDS TO DOMESTIC WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS IN SALT LAKE COUNTY, UTAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highland, Lynn M.

    1985-01-01

    A magnitude-7. 5 earthquake occurring along the central portion of the Wasatch Fault, Utah, may cause significant damage to Salt Lake County's domestic water system. This system is composed of water treatment plants, aqueducts, distribution mains, and other facilities that are vulnerable to ground shaking, liquefaction, fault movement, and slope failures. Recent investigations into surface faulting, landslide potential, and earthquake intensity provide basic data for evaluating the potential earthquake hazards to water-distribution systems in the event of a large earthquake. Water supply system components may be vulnerable to one or more earthquake-related effects, depending on site geology and topography. Case studies of water-system damage by recent large earthquakes in Utah and in other regions of the United States offer valuable insights in evaluating water system vulnerability to earthquakes.

  19. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    1998-01-01

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  20. Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS

    OpenAIRE

    T. Flury; D. L. Wu; Read, W. G.

    2011-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94) with a seasonal cycle of ~1–2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December–January-February, DJF). Studying the A-T...

  1. Calibrating a Salt Water Intrusion Model with Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  2. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  3. Sugar Accumulation and its Regulation by Jasmonic Acid in Brassica napus L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on sugar accumulation and protein content in 12-days old Brassica napus L. seedlings were studied. The seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of jasmonic acid were germinated in Petriplates supplied with various concentrations of salt stress (NaCl. The contents of total chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total carbohydrates and total protein content of 12-days old seedlings were analysed. It was observed that JA reduced the toxicity of salt stress on seedling growth by influencing the chlorophyll content and protein content. Pre-treatment of jasmonic acid was found to be significantly effective in increasing the contents of sugars.

  4. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

  5. Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2?, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C

  6. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  7. Ecological dyeing of cellulosic fibers with less salt, less water consumption and less colour left in the effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Jaime Rocha; Sampaio, Sandra; Martins, César

    2011-01-01

    Dyeing cellulosic fibres with reactive dyes wastes great quantities of salt and water. The objective of this work is to dye cellulosic fibers using coloured nanoparticles (CNPs) as an alternative to dyeing with reactive dyes, without salt and with only a short washing-off procedure at the end of dyeing. Samples of cotton were dyed by exhaustion with CNPs at light to medium colours. Washfastness results are given. Complete Washing-off sequence after dyeing was not necessary for the red a...

  8. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  9. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; M.T Díaz; López, O; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  10. Parameter sensitivity to climate and landscape variability of a simple, lumped salt and water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M. A.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2005-08-01

    A salt and water balance model is developed to represent salinity generation following land use changes in Western Australia. The model consists of five interconnecting stores: (i) Dry, Wet and Subsurface unsaturated Stores, (ii) a transient Stream zone Store and (iii) a saturated Groundwater Store. The salinity generation process in Western Australia is highly dependent on annual rainfall, potential energy for evaporation, salt fall and land use history of a catchment. We selected six experimental catchments with different land use histories across a climatic gradient to test the model and assess parameter sensitivity. The model was successful in representing the streamflow and salinity generation processes of all catchments. In the process of application, we classified the model parameters into three sets: (i) "known", (ii) "fixed" and (iii) "variable". The "known" parameter set is calculated a priori from catchment attributes. The "fixed" set comprises regionalised parameters that remain unchanged across all catchments once calibrated in one catchment. The "variable" set of seven physically meaningful parameters were calibrated at one catchment, estimated a priori for other catchments and then subsequently adjusted for best fit. The "variable" set represents: (i) the depth (d), spatial distribution (b, c), relationship of the lateral hydraulic conductivity with moisture content (ia) and vertical conductivity (Kuv) of the top soil, (ii) lateral conductivity (Kll) of the groundwater system, and (iii) salt release (Cu) from top soil. Sensitivity analyses of key model parameters show that the relationship of the top soil lateral hydraulic conductivity with soil moisture content (ia) is the most sensitive parameter. Other sensitive parameters include the depth of the top soil and its spatial distribution (d, b, c).

  11. Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Oad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD and adequate (50 percent SMD levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.

  12. Fast and simple method for determination of iodide in human urine, serum, sea water, and cooking salt by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pant??ková, Pavla; K?ivánková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Ro?. 25, 7-8 (2004), s. 1102-1110. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ?R GA203/02/0023; GA ?R GA203/01/0401; GA AV ?R IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * cooking salt * human serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  13. [Estimating canopy water content in wheat based on new vegetation water index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Yang, Gui-jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Li, Zhen-hai; Feng, Hai-kuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-01

    Moisture content is an important indicator for crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring crop water content is of great significance for evaluate crop water deficit balance and guide agriculture irrigation. In order to improve the saturated problems of different forms of typical NDWI (Normalized Different Water Index), we tried to introduce EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to build new vegetation water indices (NDWI#) to estimate crop water content. Firstly, PROSAIL model was used to study the saturation sensitivity of NDWI, and NDWI# to canopy water content and LAI (Leaf Area Index). Then, the estimated model and verified model were estimated using the spectral data and moisture data in the field. The result showed that the new indices have significant relationships with canopy water content. In particular, by implementing modified standardized for NDWI1450, NDWI1940, NDWI2500. The result indicated that newly developed indices with visible-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral feature may have greater advantage for estimation winter canopy water content. PMID:25881445

  14. Changes in rock damage parameters due to chemical effects of salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the effect of the chemical degradation on the mechanical behavior, the rock samples preserved in the 10% salt water and distilled water for 90 days are subjected to the unconfined compression test. The rock samples were obtained from Aespoe HRL in Sweden. The damage parameters were identified from the unconfined compression tests for two types of rock samples. By investigating the change in the damage parameters of the chemically degraded rock, the effect of the chemical degradation was tried to infer. Moreover, the 3-D finite element simulation was carried out using the damage parameters. (author)

  15. Adsorption behavior of radionuclide in water containing sea salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste water caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor accident contains high level radioactive material with impurities of sea water origin, such as chloride, sodium and magnesium. These impurities have the potential to inhibit the adsorption reaction of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents. We have studied adsorption behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents to measure distribution coefficients (Kd) in the condition of different sea water concentrations. For cesium adsorption, the dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration was affected by the adsorption mechanism of adsorbent; the adsorbents which adsorbed cesium by intercalation showed less dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration, while those adsorbed cesium by ion exchange had smaller Kd with increasing the sea water concentration. For strontium adsorption, Kd decreased as the sea water concentration increased for both adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The inhibition of intercalation and ion exchange reaction of strontium by calcium ion, that exists high concentration in sea water (400 ppm) and similar hydrated ionic radius with strontium, will cause the decrease of Kd for strontium in the sea water with higher concentration. (author)

  16. Development of integrated aquaculture : agriculture with brackish and salt water, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, P.G.M., van der; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Sadek, S.; Elsamadony, E.; Eweas, M.; El-Dib, H.; Sabry, M

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the development of an integrated saltwater aquaculture – agriculture farming system at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt. During the first two years of the project promising salt-tolerant plant species were identified, the methods for seed germination and growing of three salt-tolerant plant species with potential for human consumption and animal fodder were developed, and the culture of red tilapia in a so-called biofloc system with salt water was tested. Report number CDI-13-004

  17. Resistance of Liposomal Sunscreen Formulations against Plain Water as well as Salt Water Exposure and Perspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Korting, Hans Christian; Schöllmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present in vivo investigation using a total of 30 healthy adult volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin type II examines the persistent efficacy of sunscreens using liposomal suspensions as the vehicle. Based on the COLIPA guidelines, the protective effect of a single application of 4 different liposomal sunscreen formulations (sun protection factors, SPFs: 50+, 30,25 and 15) against sunburn at the recommended amount of 2 mg/cm(2) was determined after exposure of the skin to plain water and salt...

  18. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  19. Enhanced salt tolerance in maize plants induced by H2O2 leaf spraying is associated with improved gas exchange rather than with non-enzymatic antioxidant system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franklin Aragão, Gondim; Rafael de Souza, Miranda; Enéas, Gomes-Filho; José Tarquinio, Prisco.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates plant responses against several biotic and abiotic stresses. H2O2 pretreatment has emerged as a signaling way, inducing salt stress acclimation in plants. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 leaf pretreatment on the non-enzy [...] matic defense system (ascorbate and glutathione), plant growth, relative water content (RWC), relative chlorophyll content, H2O2 content, and gas exchange in maize plants under NaCl stress. The results showed that salinity reduced the leaf area and shoot and root dry mass as compared to control, and the leaf spraying with H2O2 significantly improved the growth of salt stressed plants. Photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were strongly decreased by salinity after 7 and 14 days of salt exposure; however, the decrease was lower in plants sprayed with H2O2. The improved gas exchange in H2O2-sprayed stressed plants correlated positively with higher RWC and relative chlorophyll content and lower leaf H2O2 accumulation under NaCl stress conditions. Ascorbate and glutathione did not play any obvious effects as non-enzymatic antioxidants in the ROS scavenging. In conclusion, the salt tolerance induced by H2O2 leaf pretreatment is attributed to a reduction in the H2O2 content and maintenance of RWC and chlorophyll in maize leaves. These characteristics allow maize plants to maintain high rates of photosynthesis under salt stress and improve the growth.

  20. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

  1. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  2. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  3. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  4. Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of decay and associated weathering types under different environmental conditions can be obtained.Las sales de sulfato magnésico a menudo se producen a partir de la combinación de materiales de construcción incompatibles, tales como piedra o mortero con un alto contenido en magnesio y sulfatos procedentes de morteros adyacentes o del aire contaminado. Cuando estos materiales se combinan con una fuente de humedad, reaccionan para formar sales solubles que con frecuencia dan lugar a un importante deterioro por laminaciones de la piedra, ya que el sulfato magnésico responde a las fluctuaciones de las condiciones ambientales. Varios experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo para reproducir laminaciones superficiales en diferentes tipos de calizas procedentes de España y Reino Unido, para evaluar los efectos de ciclos de humedad en el deterioro de la piedra por cristalización de sales. Una única sal de sulfato magnésico y una mezcla de sulfato magnésico, sulfato cálcico y cloruro sódico, típica mezcla de sales encontrada en la piedra deteriorada de Howden Minster (UK, fueron las dos soluciones salinas utilizadas para realizar los experimentos. Se utilizó una cámara climática con control preciso de programación de temperatura y humedad para probar la hipótesis de que el deterioro por sales en la piedra puede ser fácilmente causada por fluctuaciones de humedad. El deterioro se monitorizó utilizando un Transformador Diferencial de Variable Lineal (TDVL, que mide el desplazamiento de transductores por cambios dimensionales en el orden de micras. Además, también se realizaron análisis de Cromatografía de Iones, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido Ambiental con energía dispersiva de rayos-X (MEBA-EDX y Difracción de rayos-X (DRX para analizar el comportamiento de las sales. El deterioro por laminaciones se produjo en dos tipos de calizas magnésicas impregnadas con la mezcla salina, procedentes de las canteras de Cadeby y de York Min

  5. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential pitfalls.

  6. Numerical modeling of water flow and salt transport in bare saline soil subjected to evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to evaporation, which was simulated using the bulk aerodynamic formulation. As evaporation was assumed to depend on the pore moisture, the evaporation flux evolved gradually causing a gradual increase in the pore salinity. This is in contrast to prior studies where the high salinity was imposed instantaneously on the ground surface. Key factors likely affecting subsurface hydrodynamics were investigated, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, relative humidity in the air, and surrounding groundwater replenishment. The simulations showed two temporal regimes where the first consists of rapid evaporation for a duration of hours followed by slow evaporation, until evaporation ceases. In the absence of surrounding groundwater replenishment, evaporation-induced density gradient generated an upward water flow initially, and then the flow decreased at which time a high density salt "finger" formed and propagated downwards. Capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. The results also suggested that the presence of subsurface water replenishment to the evaporation zone tended to produce a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface.

  7. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; MØller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

  8. [Solubility and phase transitions in the water-protein-salt system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, S P

    2006-01-01

    The previously derived formulas for the curves corresponding to sol-gel, liquid-liquid, and liquid-solid phase transitions, which correlate the critical molar composition of the water-protein-salt system with individual characteristic features of its component (protein charge z, the number of ions adsorbed v, the function of electrolyte activity A) are presented as curves in ordinary coordinates of protein solubility logS against salt concentration m3. Tendencies in changes in phase transition lines versus the v, z, and v/z ratio have been determined. Correlations of the salting-out curve and the salting-out coefficient with phase transitions are discussed. PMID:17131819

  9. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2013-02-01

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments. PMID:23085953

  10. Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch ia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m-1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m-1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

  11. Effects of stomatal density and leaf water content on the ¹?O enrichment of leaf water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Leticia; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko; Sternberg, Leonel

    2015-04-01

    Leaf water isotopic composition is imprinted in several biomarkers of interest and it is imperative that we understand the isotopic enrichment of leaf water. Here, we test the effect of stomatal density and leaf water content on the oxygen isotopic composition of leaf water in transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing different stomatal densities, and several other species showing a range of stomatal density. We grew Arabidopsis plants hydroponically and collected other species in the field. Stomatal density and leaf water content were determined for each plant. We measured transpiration and extracted leaf water for isotopic determination. Using these measurements and the current leaf water isotope model, we calculated several of the parameters related to leaf water isotopic enrichment. High stomatal density promoted leaf water isotope enrichment. No conclusion, however, can be drawn regarding the effect of leaf water content on leaf water isotope enrichment. Factors such as transpiration might mask the effect of stomatal density on leaf water isotopic enrichment. We propose a method by which stomatal density can be incorporated in the current Peclet model of leaf water isotope enrichment. These findings have important applications in the use of plant-based metabolic proxies in paleoclimate studies. PMID:25408145

  12. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. Thion and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  13. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  14. Global water and salt budget of the Aral Sea from 1960 to 1991.

    OpenAIRE

    Sirjacobs, Damien; Grégoire, Marilaure; Delhez, Eric; Nihoul, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Focusing on the global water and salt budget of the Aral sea from 1960 till 1991, a compilation of data available in the litterature is analysed with simple models and compared to the measured evolution of the sea.

  15. Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2

    OpenAIRE

    Youcef Daoud; Bouzid Nedjimi; Mustapha Touati

    2006-01-01

    Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2) on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in sali...

  16. Resistance to fresh and salt water in intertidal mites (Acari: Oribatida): implications for ecology and hydrochorous dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Pfingstl, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The resistance to fresh water and seawater in three intertidal oribatid mite species from Bermuda, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, was tested in laboratory experiments. Larvae are more sensitive to fresh and salt water, nymphs and adults showed equal tolerances. Fortuynia atlantica and A. inexpectatus were more resistant to salt water whereas C. bermudensis survived longer in fresh water. Differences in the resistance to fresh and salt water among th...

  17. Water and Salt Stress in the Germination of Anadenanthera colubrina (Veloso Brenan Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify levels of tolerance in Anadenanthera colubrina seeds to water and saltstress simulated for polyethyleneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000, manitol and KCl. The seeds was collected from nine treesand stored in cold chamber at 5 ºC. For the evaluation of the germination under it water stress was used PEG 6000solutions and manitol, and under salt stress solutions of KCl in different osmotic potentials: 0.0 Mpa (control, -0.6MPa, -0.8 MPa, -1.0 MPa, -1.2 MPa and -1.4 Mpa. The seeds were made use in gerbox and placed in germinationchambers, under constant light to the temperature of 25 ºC. The percentage and the germination speed index (GSIwere evaluated. The seeds of Anadenanthera colubrina showed moderate tolerance to the water stress simulated byPEG 6000. The percentage of germination was affected from -1.0 MPa, and the GSI from -0.6 Mpa. Manitol did notreveal efficient in the simulation of water stress, therefore it did not reduce the percentage of germination. Under itsalt stress, simulated for KCl, the germination percentage was affected from the potential -1.2 MPa, characterizinga high limit of tolerance to this salt.

  18. A multi-residue method for the determination of 90 pesticides in matrices with a high water content by LC-MS/MS without clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, Fernando Diniz; da Silva Oliveira, Fabiano Aurélio; de Souza, Wesley Robert; Pontelo, Ana Paula; de Oliveira, Mauro Lúcio Gonçalves; Silva, Gilsara

    2012-01-01

    A method using QuEChERS extraction and LC-MS/MS in electrospray positive ionisation mode was developed and validated for the analysis of 90 pesticides in a high water content matrix (tomato) in a single chromatographic run. To assess the intra-laboratory reproducibility of the method, validation was conducted on four different days by two different analysts. The validation data was treated using a spreadsheet developed in-house, which sets the most appropriate model for linear fit by determining whether the residuals of the calibration curves are homocedastic or heterocedastic. A statistical test for the significance of regression was also carried out. Calibration was always matrix-matched and the curves were obtained over the range 0.0075-0.10 or 0.020-0.125 mg kg(-1). Identification of analytes was based on retention times and MRM ratios. Recoveries were assessed at four different levels for each analyte and were between 73 and 106%, with relative standard deviations under reproducibility conditions of pesticide analysed were below 50%. Previous validation of the same method, applied to papaya samples and satisfactory results obtained in various proficiency tests with different high water content matrices, demonstrated the applicability of the method to these classes of commodities, without clean-up. The validated method will be applied routinely in the pesticide residues monitoring programme that constitutes the National Residue and Contaminant Control Plan of Brazil. PMID:22059454

  19. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-04-21

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  20. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Misun [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-lin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  1. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media

  2. Salt tectonics on Venus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (4700C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus

  3. ENDOR in water. Nitrogen-14 ENDOR spectra of Fremy's salt in water pools of inverse micelles in toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzen, Edward G.; Kotake, Yashige; Coulter, Gregory A.; Oehler, Uwe M.

    1986-05-01

    Nitrogen-14 ENDOR spectra of Fremy's salt in inverse micelles of dodecylammonium propionate (DAP) and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate (AOT) in toluene at room temperature are obtained for the first time. Fremy's salt experiences a more polar and viscous environment in these micelle water pools than in bulk water. The optimum temperature for the ENDOR enhancement factor is found to increase in the order: H 2O (bulk) < H 2O (DAP) < H 2O (AOT).

  4. Effect of gamma radiolysis on pit initiation of zircaloy-2 in water containing sea salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), seawater was injected for cooling purposes after the tsunami disaster in March 2011. It is well known that the chloride in the seawater has the potential to cause localized corrosion (e.g., pitting corrosion) in metals. In this study, we evaluated the pitting potentials of zircaloy-2, the material used in the fuel cladding tubes in 1F, as a function of chloride concentration. To accomplish this, we used artificial seawater under gamma-ray irradiation and investigated the effect of radiolysis on pit initiation of zircaloy-2 in water containing sea salt. Changes in the composition of water containing sea salt were analyzed as well, both before and after gamma-ray irradiation. The characteristics of the resultant oxide films formed on zircaloy-2 were evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the pitting potential under irradiation was slightly higher than that under conditions in which no radiation was present, and that the pitting potential decreased with increasing chloride concentration in the presence as well as the absence of radiation. Solution analyses for water containing sea salt showed that hydrogen peroxide was generated by irradiation. The oxide film was composed of zirconium oxide and was made thicker during the irradiation. The higher pitting potential could thus be explained by the capacity of hydrogen peroxide to oxidize the surface and enhance oxide film formation. Under gamma-ray irradiation, the zircaloy-2 surface with an oxide film formed by radiolysis products was found to be resistant to pitting in the presence of chloride. (author)

  5. Water Uptake of Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions on Mars Using Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. The salt analog contained magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, sulfate, and carbonate ions. The salt analog was developed to fully encompass the correct anion and cation concentration and is referred to as 'Instant Mars.' Using Raman microscopy, we have studied phase transitions of the analogs in an environmental cell. Phase transitions were monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy while samples were in a controlled water vapor and temperature environment. Salt analog solutions were nebulized to generate 20 ?m particles (on average) that were deposited onto a quartz wafer. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of aqueous phase salts is confirmed by Raman spectra. Perhaps even more interesting is a liquid water phase particle can persist at lower RH values than the humidity at which the aqueous phase first appeared. This hysteresis effect is due to kinetic inhibition of salt nucleation and can result in metastable, supersaturated salt solutions existing at RH values as low as 10%. With measured humidity values at the Phoenix Lander site varying from 0-100% in a diurnal cycle, it seems likely that aqueous, briny solutions can form in Martian environmental conditions. Microscope images illustrating water uptake at 243K of an 'Instant Mars' particle. As the RH increases, a visual change (size and darkness) is apparent.

  6. Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA tecease in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made available to participating farmers. Yields obtained by farmers with these varieties at both Noakhali and Satkhira ranged from 1 to 3 tons per hectare. Such a harvested yield, compared with nothing if land were left fallow, would provide a substantial increase in food crop production and a significant economic benefit to resource-poor farmers. The soil moisture neutron probe (SMNP) was used to measure the soil content in order to ensure optimal irrigation scheduling. The soil salinity observed after the harvest of the crops in March/April averaged 1.5 ppt with drip irrigation, compared to 6.9 ppt on fallow land, hence showing that there is no adverse effect on soil salinity associated with the sustainable and productive use of these fallow lands for additional food production and income generation.

  7. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  8. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ?P rather than sigma ?P2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ?P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

  9. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water coght of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that treat classes of measurement systems, or individual sensors/methods if they do not belong to one of the major classes, which include neutron moisture meters, capacitance sensors that work from within a plastic access tube, time domain reflectometry systems that employ waveform capture and analysis, tensiometers, and direct sampling methods. Obviously, not all sensor systems could be included in the studies that led up to this manual. Much of the work supported by the IAEA involves determination of the soil water balance to determine crop water use and water use efficiency. Thus, many of the systems studied were those that work in access tubes so that measures could be made to well below the crop root zone. However, a few other widely used systems employing probes that are inserted into the soil were also studied

  10. Comment on the paper: "Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete- the possibility of NDE". Ultrasonic 38(2000) 546-552 by Etsuzo Ohdaira and Nobuyoshi Masuzawa

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Manuel Rodriguez; Caceres, Rolando Bonal

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental application of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method (UPV) in the study of concrete, consist in the analysis and estimation of the mechanical properties (compressive strength). The precission of the estimation may be dependent on the incidence of various factors, one of which is the water content acquired by the sample of concrete. In [Etsuzo] a lineal dependence of the UPV in terms of the water content for different dosifications of concrete is proposed. This...

  11. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L-1 to 1,2 mg.L-1. Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na2SO4) > TR(CaCl2) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and harge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parameters?and Ps respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution.

  12. The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, proline and nutrient accumulation, and k/na ratio in walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irrigation water salinity on growth, chlorophyll contents, proline and nutrients accumulation and K/Na ratio in three walnut cultivars was investigated. Three irrigation water salinity levels with electrical conductivities of 1,5, 3, and 5.0 dS/m and tap water as a control treatment were used in a randomized design with four replications. Irrigation practices were realized by considering the weight of each pot. Sodium, clor, proline, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of leaf were increased under salinity conditions. But growth of plant and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content were decreased under saline condition. There were significant differences between in irrigation water salinity levels in proline and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Na content. But there were not any significant differences in LRWC (%). Results showed that, regarding fresh shoot weight, dry shoot and root weight, there were significant differences between cultivars, but chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline accumulation and leaf relative water content (LRWC) there weren't any significant differences between cultivars. Kaman 1 and Bilecik walnut cultivars showed higher accumulation of proline than Kaman 5 but was not observed significant difference between them. (author)

  13. A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, F; Schmidt, J; Hillier, J; Kempf, S; Srama, R

    2011-06-30

    The discovery of a plume of water vapour and ice particles emerging from warm fractures ('tiger stripes') in Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus raised the question of whether the plume emerges from a subsurface liquid source or from the decomposition of ice. Previous compositional analyses of particles injected by the plume into Saturn's diffuse E ring have already indicated the presence of liquid water, but the mechanisms driving the plume emission are still debated. Here we report an analysis of the composition of freshly ejected particles close to the sources. Salt-rich ice particles are found to dominate the total mass flux of ejected solids (more than 99 per cent) but they are depleted in the population escaping into Saturn's E ring. Ice grains containing organic compounds are found to be more abundant in dense parts of the plume. Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume. PMID:21697830

  14. Salt Marsh Sediment Biogeochemical Response to the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill (Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, Marsh Point, and Salt Pan Island, MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, C. L.; McNeal, K. S.; Mishra, D. R.; Blakeney, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale impact of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill on biological communities can be better predicted by developing an understanding of how carbon loading from the spill is affecting the microbial and biological communities of salt marshes along the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. Sediment biogeochemical processes that degrade enriched carbon pools through sulfate reduction are primarily responsible for the biological breakdown of spilled hydrocarbons (Shin et al., 2000). Determination of sulfide concentration in contaminated areas, therefore, allows for an assessment of the oil spill impact on salt marsh at Skiff Island, LA, and Marsh Point, Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS. As a result of carbon loading, porewater hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentrations are expected to show an increase in the largely anoxic wetland sediment, making the sediment more toxic and inhospitable to marsh vegetation (Alber et al., 2008). High sulfide levels due to carbon loading in hydrocarbon contaminated salt marshes cause microbial activity to increase at the plant rhizospere, leading to plant browning and die back (Eldridge and Morse 2000). Preliminary analysis of the Marsh Point study area was conducted in Fall 2010. Sediment cores indicated that sulfate reducing bacteria are significantly more active in contaminated sediments, producing sulfide concentrations 20x higher than in non-contaminated sediments. The difference in the sediment biogeochemistry between the contaminated site and non-contaminated site at Marsh Point, MS indicated that the effects of hydrocarbon contamination on sulfur cycling in salt marshes should be more spatially explored. In Fall 2011, the study was expanded to include Skiff Island, LA, and Cat Island, and Salt Pan Island, MS in addition to Marsh Point, MS. Sediment electrode profiles (H2S, O2, pH, and Eh), degree of hydrocarbon contamination (GC), grain size analysis, microbial community substrate level carbon utilization profiles, and total organic carbon results will be presented on these four locations in order to explore the potential sedimentary geochemical processes impacting salt marsh dieback, which may be enhanced as a result of the Deep Water Horizon BP Oil Spill.

  15. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    OpenAIRE

    Azam Borzouei; Mohammad Kafi; Elahe Akbari-Ghogdi; MirAhmad Mousavi-Shalmani

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Therefore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan') and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam') of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under sa...

  16. Effect of post treatments on the corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed duplex stainless steel coating in salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniform composition of a thermally sprayed duplex stainless steel coating is essential to ensure its good corrosion resistance in salt water. Stainless steel coatings made by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) always contain pores and oxides accompanied with chromium-depleted zones which destroy the corrosion resistance of such coatings. To reduce porosity and oxidation of the coatings, several post treatments for the coatings sprayed by APS and by APS with gas shielding around the plasma jet (APS/S) were studied including resin impregnation, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), shot peening and vacuum annealing. Electrochemical corrosion tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the APS coatings could not be improved by any post treatments because oxidation during spraying caused chromium-depleted zones in the coating. The best corrosion resistance was obtained by using the shielding gas shroud with APS. Such coatings had a very low oxide content and primarily ferritic structure. The corrosion resistance of these APS/S coatings can be further improved by shot peening to densify the coating or by post annealing, which balances the austenite/ferrite ratio of the coating as well as reduce porosity

  17. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  18. Study of the multiplication and kinetic effects of salt mixtures and salt blanket micromodels on thermal neutron spectra of heavy water MAKET facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main goal of the Project is to study and evaluate nuclear characteristics of materials and isotopes involved in processes of irradiated nuclear fuel transmutation. This principal task is subdivided into 9 subtasks subject to the neutron or proton source used, the type of the nuclear process under study, isotope collection, characteristics of which are to be investigated, etc. In the presented extract of the Project Activity report the measurements there were used the MAKET zero-power heavy-water reactor in the measurements there was employed a large set of minor actinide samples highly enriched with the main isotope. The samples were obtained with mass-separator SM-2 (VNIIEF). At the heavy-water reactor MAKET (ITEP) there were measured multiplying and kinetic characteristics of salt mixtures basing on the spectra of fast and thermal neutrons. The salt mixtures of zirconium and sodium fluorides were available in salt blanket models (SBM) of cylindrical shape. There were measured the neutron spectra formed by this micro-model as well as the effective fission cross-sections of neptunium, plutonium, americium and curium isotopes caused by SBM neutrons. The neutron spectra in the measurement positions were determined from activation reaction rates. (author)

  19. Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.

    OpenAIRE

    Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and ind...

  20. Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1-1 (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1-1). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1-1), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1-1) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1-1). (author)

  1. Ion contents, relative electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm seedlings in response to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Sodium ions, proline content and the percentage of relative electrolyte leakage in seedlings subjected to salt stress increased, depending on the degree of salt concentrations. Sodium ion accumulation in oil palm seedlings grown under 200 mM NaCl was enriched and positively related to membrane injury or relative electrolyte leakage subsequently correlated with total chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (OEPSII) and quantum efficiency of PSII (qP) in the seedlings under salt stress dropped significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth, especially in 200 mM NaCl. A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including sodium ion, relative electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II, Pn and plant dry weight was found. These data may further be applied to establish criteria for salt tolerance screening in oil palm breeding programs. (author)

  2. Overexpression of a miR393-resistant form of transport inhibitor response protein 1 (mTIR1) enhances salt tolerance by increased osmoregulation and Na+ exclusion in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhehao; Hu, Lingzhi; Han, Ning; Hu, Jiangqin; Yang, Yanjun; Xiang, Taihe; Zhang, Xujia; Wang, Lilin

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a common environmental stress factor that limits agricultural production worldwide. Plants have evolved different strategies to achieve salt tolerance. miR393 has been identified as closely related to biotic and abiotic stresses, and targets F-box genes that encode auxin receptors. The miR393-TIR1/AFB2/AFB3 regulatory module was discovered to have multiple functions that manipulate the auxin response. This study focused on miR393 and one of its targets, TIR1, and found that they played potential roles in response to salt stress. Our results showed that overexpression of a miR393-resistant TIR1 gene (mTIR1) in Arabidopsis clearly enhanced salt stress tolerance, which led to a higher germination rate, less water loss, reduced inhibition of root elongation, delayed senescence, decreased death rate and stabilized Chl content. These plants accumulated more proline and anthocyanin, and displayed enhanced osmotic stress tolerance. The expression of some salt stress-related genes was altered, and sodium content can be reduced in these plants under salt stress. We proposed that highly increased auxin signaling by overexpression of mTIR1 may trigger auxin-mediated downstream pathways to enhance plant salt stress resistance by osmoregulation and increased Na(+) exclusion. PMID:25336111

  3. Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.)

  4. Regulation No. 100/2006 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic dated as of February 6, 2006 laying down the requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water, Balneology details of the report, distribution, extent of monitoring and content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products and requirements for entry to the list of accredited laboratories maintained by the State Commission bathroom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Regulation provides: (a) requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water; (b) requirements for the recognition of natural mineral water; (c) details of balneology report; (d) distribution of natural healing waters and natural mineral water; (e) the extent of tracking of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (f) content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (g) registration requirements for accredited laboratories in the list maintained by the State Commission bathroom. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

  5. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  6. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  7. Increasing the collected energy and reducing the water requirements in salt-gradient solar ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, F. I.; Ruskowitz, J. A.; Tyler, S. W.; Childress, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    Salt-gradient solar ponds are low-cost, large-scale solar collectors with integrated storage that can be used as an energy source in many thermal systems. For instance, solar ponds have proven to be a promising solution to drive thermal desalination in arid zones. However, in zones with limited water availability, where evaporation constrains the use of solar ponds in areas with the greatest potential for solar energy development, evaporation losses at the surface of the pond constrain their use. Therefore, evaporation represents a significant challenge for development of these low-cost solar systems in arid settings. In this investigation, different transparent floating elements were tested to suppress evaporation: flat discs, hemispheres, and a continuous cover. Flat discs were the most effective evaporation suppression element. Evaporation decreased from 4.8 to 2.5 mm/day when 88% of the pond was covered with the flat discs. In addition, the highest temperature increased from 34 to 43°C and the heat content increased from 179 to 220 MJ (a 22% increase). Reduced evaporative losses at the surface of the pond resulted in lower conductive losses from the storage zone and increased the collected energy. The magnitude of evaporation reduction observed in this work is important as it allows solar pond operation in locations with limited water supply for replenishment. The increase in stored heat allows more energy to be withdrawn from the pond for use in external applications, which significantly improves the thermal efficiencies of solar ponds.

  8. [Fluoride content in well water in rural areas in Morocco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jaoudi, R; El Cadi, M Ait; Bouslimane, Y; Fekhaoui, M; Bouklouze, A; Cherrah, Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine fluorides (F-) content in the well water consumed as drinking water by some Moroccan populations in rural areas. All samples were collected between April and October 2011. Measurements were performed by an ion selective electrode. Thirty wells spread to cover most of the country and locally chosen based on the number of inhabitants who consume its water. All wells were in rural areas. The mean (+/- SD) of F- was 1.84 +/- 1.6 mg/L with a range from 0.42 to 8.95 mg/L Concentrations of F- in phosphate regions were higher than those found in other regions. More than half of the samples exceeded the current standard. Our study showed that water of some Moroccan regions is naturally rich in F-exposing people who consume it at high risk of fluorosis. PMID:25223146

  9. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under changing land uses.

  10. Involvement of a glucosinolate (sinigrin) in the regulation of water transport in Brassica oleracea grown under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ballesta, Maria del Carmen; Muries, Beatriz; Moreno, Diego Ángel; Dominguez-Perles, Raúl; García-Viguera, Cristina; Carvajal, Micaela

    2014-02-01

    Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolates. The concentrations of these chemopreventive compounds (glucosinolate-degradation products, the bioactive isothiocyanates) may be modified under salinity. In this work, the effect of the aliphatic glucosinolate sinigrin (2-propenyl-glucosinolate) on plant water balance, involving aquaporins, was explored under salt stress. For this purpose, water uptake and its transport through the plasma membrane were determined in plants after NaCl addition, when sinigrin was also supplied. We found higher hydraulic conductance (L0 ) and water permeability (Pf ) and increased abundance of PIP2 aquaporins after the direct administration of sinigrin, showing the ability of the roots to promote cellular water transport across the plasma membrane in spite of the stress conditions imposed. The higher content of the allyl-isothiocyanate and the absence of sinigrin in the plant tissues suggest that the isothiocyanate is related to water balance; in fact, a direct effect of this nitro-sulphate compound on water uptake is proposed. This work provides the first evidence that the addition of a glucosinolate can regulate aquaporins and water transport: this effect and the mechanism(s) involved merit further investigation. PMID:23837634

  11. Parameter sensitivity to climate and landscape variability of a simple, lumped salt and water balance model

    OpenAIRE

    BARI, M. A.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2005-01-01

    A salt and water balance model is developed to represent salinity generation following land use changes in Western Australia. The model consists of five interconnecting stores: (i) Dry, Wet and Subsurface unsaturated Stores, (ii) a transient Stream zone Store and (iii) a saturated Groundwater Store. The salinity generation process in Western Australia is highly dependent on annual rainfall, potential energy for evaporation, salt fall and land use history of a catchment. We selected six experi...

  12. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type of simulation studies can be applied to Hot Dry Rock systems to investigate the effects of dissolution/precipitation of solid salt, if present in the system, on the feasibility of the project.

  13. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

  14. Experimental Study on Hydrothermal Plume Dynamics in a Stratified Salt Water Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; He, Z.; Jiang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrothermal plumes are generated by high temperature hydrothermal venting systems occurred at many places along the mid-ocean ridges. The understanding of interaction between plumes and surrounding seawater are important since plumes transport significant heat and chemicals from the lithosphere to the ocean. This paper presents an experimental study on plume generation, mixing, entrainment and rising in a stratified salt water tank. The two-tank method is first improved to produce a stable linear stratification in the tank. A series of plume experiments using different orifice diameters and fluxes are then carried out to evaluate the characteristics of plumes. The stratification of salt water is measured and buoyancy frequency is calculated to provide the background information. The plume shape, flow field, rise height, and buoyancy flux are analyzed using image processing methods. The results show that the established experimental system is capable of providing stable linear stratifications for laboratory studies of hydrothermal plumes. The measured plume shapes and rise heights are in good agreement with available empirical formulae in the literature.

  15. Active microwave measurement of soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Cihlar, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of radar backscatter from bare soil at 4.7, 5.9, and 7.1 GHz for incident angles of 0-70 deg have been analyzed to determine sensitivity to soil moisture. Because the effective depth of penetration of the radar signal is only about one skin depth, the observed signals were correlated with the moisture in a skin depth as characterized by the attenuation coefficient (reciprocal of skin depth). Since the attenuation coefficient is a monotonically increasing function of moisture density, it may also be used as a measure of moisture content over the distance involved, which varies with frequency and moisture content. The measurements show an approximately linear increase in scattering with attenuation coefficient of the soil at angles within 10 deg of vertical and all frequencies. At 4.7 GHz this increase continues relatively large out to 70 deg incidence, but by 7.1 GHz the sensitivity is much less even at 20 deg and practically gone at 50 deg.

  16. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water contentwater potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

  17. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  18. Cement slurries, unaffected by salts of magnesium, for cementing wells traversing salt formations, and related cementing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberste-Padtberg, R.; Garnier, A.

    1990-08-07

    A cement slurry composition is provided for the cementing of wells, particularly oil wells, drilled through formations containing soluble salts of magnesium. The composition of the invention contains a cement, mixing water, at least 18% NaCl by weight of water, sodium silicate in a proportion of between 35 and ca 150 liters per metric ton of slurry, and an admixture of compatibility with magnesium. This admixture consists of more than 0.5% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} by weight of cement and more than 0.25% of hydroxyethylenediphosphonate by weight of cement. The cement slurry of the invention remains liquid, and thus pumpable, whether or not it has been contaminated by soluble magnesium mineral products such as carnallite, bischofite, and/or tachyhydrite, even in very large quantities. The setting time of the slurry is substantially constant, irrespective of magnesium contamination or noncontamination, even in very large quantities. The cement's compressive strength is not significantly deteriorated even if the slurry has been highly contaminated by a soluble salt of magnesium. 1 tab.

  19. Phase equilibria and salting-out effects in a cesium nitrate-triethylamine-water system at 5-25°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, K. K.; Cherkasov, D. G.

    2013-04-01

    Phase equilibria and critical phenomena in a cesium nitrate-water-triethylamine system in which the constituent binary liquid system is stratified at the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) is studied in a range of 5-25°C by the visual polythermal method. It is found that introducing cesium nitrate into the water-triethylamine system leads to a slight reduction in the LCST (from 18.3 to 16.3°C) and to a decrease in the mutual solubility of the components. The distribution coefficients of triethylamine between aqueous and the organic phases of the monotectic state at different temperatures are calculated. It is found that the salting-out of triethylamine from aqueous solutions by cesium nitrate increases with rising temperature. The results of the salting-out effect of sodium, potassium, and cesium nitrates on a water-triethylamine binary system are compared.

  20. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

  1. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  2. The contents of radon and radium in the water from large water- works in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation covers 172 large water-works in Sweden. The contents of Rn-222 and Ra-226 in water were analysed. The ave- rage value weighted for the population was 18.6 Bq for Rn and 10.9 mBq for Ra per liter of water. The highest value of Rn was found at Vimmerby: 150 Bq per liter and the highest value of Ra at Hoer: 49.7 mBq per liter. The radon from household water may be added to other sources of radon by less than 30 Bq per m3 of air. (G.B.)

  3. Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez

    1988-06-01

    This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

  4. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4 times higher than in the associated sediments. Data from this study will contribute to a water quality risk assessment to the wetland fish and birds.

  5. The use of airborne electromagnetic for efficient mapping of salt water intrusion and outflow to the sea : Azores island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper

    2010-01-01

    Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater resources in sedimentary environments. AEM delivers a very high data coverage and results in high-resolution electrical images of the subsurface. In particular the time domain methods (TEM) are well suited for mapping o0f not only the salt-fresh water boundary in the coastal zone, but also the mixing of fresh-salt-water on the seaside. Even freshwater layers under several meters of brackish water can be mapped. Sufficient depth of investigation is obtained by time domain methods as they have a significant higher transmitter moment than frequency domain methods (FEM). We discuss the advantages of using airborne systems in coastal area for understanding of saltwater intrusion problems. Examples are shown from surveys at the vest cost of Holland and in Denmark.

  6. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  7. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm3. Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  8. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.

    1997-01-01

    The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical observations of salt-water ingressions. The sediment record of the dated core is marked by seven Mn/Fe-excursions and suggests that major inflows terminating longer stagnation periods have occurred more frequently during the last 250 years. This in turn suggests the more frequent generation of low-pressure areas over the North Atlantic in more recent times. The last three events have also been observed by hydrographic measurements. During the long time stagnation periods, Fe and Mn will be segregated into a particulate phase (iron sulfide) which accumulates at the seafloor and a dissolved phase (Mn2+) accumulating in the deep, anoxic water body. Inflow of oxygenated water causes oxidation of Mn2+ to Mn4+ and precipitation of MnO2, which accumulates in Mn-rich layers at the sediment surface. When the bottom water becomes anoxic again, MnO2 degradation release Mn2+ into the pore water, and alkalinity increases as well during organic matter mineralization. Subsequently, Ca-rich rhodochrosite forms close to the sediment-water interface where pore waters are supersaturated with respect to rhodochrosite. This mineral is stable under anoxic conditions and indirectly records redox Variations in the deep water body. Mn/Fe-ratios in longer sediment cores thus have a potential to reconstruct chemical regimes of the deep water of the Baltic Sea in the past and indirectly trace variability in the strength and frequency of storms over the North Sea and the North Atlantic during the Holocene. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  9. The geochemistry of uranium and thorium isotopes in the salt lakes and adjacent ground waters of Rajasthan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 238U, 234Th and (234U/238U) activity ratios and major ion chemistry of several water samples from the salt lakes and their adjacent ground waters in Rajasthan have been measured. 234Th concentration in all the samples, except in one high alkalinity water from the Sambhar Lake, are quite deficient relative to its parent 238U, the average (234Th/238U) activity ratio being 0.12. This deficiency corresponds to a mean residence time of ?5 days for 234Th in these waters. In the high alkalinity water, 234Th concentration is at near equilibrium with 238U, yielding a residence time much longer than radioactive mean life. The long residence time of Th in high alkalinity waters may result from the complexing of 234Th by (CO3)-2 ion. 238U concentration in some of the ground waters near the salt lakes are high, the highest being in a Didwana sample, 565 dpm/l. The Didwana samples also have the highest (234U/238U) activity ratios observed for Indian waters. The high uranium concentration in the Didwana ground water is suggestive of uranium rich aquifer solids. (author)

  10. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  11. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels. PMID:21497025

  12. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-K? radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water sample collected in A5 is strongly influenced by a tailing dump, and showed high trace element contents. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH.The DRX results of evaporate water showed that halite, hexahydrite and gypsum are present: halite corroborates the sea influence and gypsum and hexahydrite the importance of soluble sulphates. A9 water showed acid pH and high trace elements content; is influenced by the tailing dump and also by waters from El Beal gully watercourse, transporting materials from Sierra Minera Waters affected by secondary contamination are influenced by mining wastes, the sea water and also are affected by agricultural activities (nitrate content). These waters have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The DRX analysis in the evaporate if A14 showed that halite and gypsum are present: halite confirms the seawater influence and gypsum the relationship between calcium and sulphates A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed: acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The evaporate of B8 and B12 showed the presence of soluble sulphates: gypsum, halite, bianchite, paracoquimbite, halotrichite and siderotil in B8; gypsum, bianchite, paracoquimbite and coquimbite in B12; gypsum, hexahydrite, carnalite, bianchite, copiapite and sideroti in B10 and polihalite, gypsum, bianchite, coquimbite and paracoquimbite in B14. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps and sampling points are located close to them. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had

  13. Control of dermestes Maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Through Combination Treatment of Salt Contents and Gamma Radiation on Dried Swordfish, Lepturacanthus Savala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of combination treatment of salt content and radiation against D. maculatus for the reduction of damage to dried swordfish were investigated. The developmental period of first instar larvae was prolonged with increasing salt content in fish sample. No adults were emerged from the first instar larvae in dried swordfish containing 14.48% salt. Maximum mortality of first and last instar larvae was found in 9.90 to 14.48% salt containing dried fish sample at treated with 1 kGy radiation dose within the two days after treatment.(author)

  14. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Stojanovi?; Milan Radovanovi?; Mirjana Malešev; Vlastimir Radonjanin

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capaci...

  15. Effect of some soil physical properties on water holding capacity, neutron probe calibration and salt movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted in tow areas representing in silty soil in Southern Syria (Draa), loamy and sandy soil in Eastern Syria (Deir Al zour) to compare the soil effect on the calibration of the neutron probe, correlation coefficient, soil characteristics curve, soil solution content of nitrates, potassium and sodium for the estimation of the optimum sampling time of soil solution by porous ceramic cups. Regression analysis results showed that the three soils curves, in which the soil contained the lowest content of clay had a high correlation coefficient and decreased with increasing the clay content. Whereas, the correlation coefficient in sandy soil was 0.96 while decreased to 0.79 in silty soil. The hydraulic head increased with decreasing the water content, which was obvious in the three soils characteristic curves. The NO-3 content decreased due to the plants roots absorption and leaching to deeper layers, while the NO-3 content in the surfaces layer significantly decreased in the sandy soil. Results showed that equilibrium between the soil solution and the NO-3 content in the solution in porous cups occurred within 8 days. (author)

  16. SEQUESTERING AGENTS FOR METAL IMMOBILIZATION APPLICATION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE CAPS IN FRESH AND SALT WATER SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A; Michael Paller, M

    2006-11-17

    This research evaluated the removal of inorganic contaminants by a variety of amendments and mixtures of amendments in fresh and salt water. A series of removal and retention batch experiments was conducted to identify the best treatment for metal removal. Metal removal by the amendments was evaluated by calculating the partition coefficient and percent removal. Retention of metals by the amendments was evaluated in retention (desorption) studies in which residue from the removal studies was extracted with 1 M MgCl{sub 2} solution. The results indicated that phosphate amendments, some organoclays (e.g., OCB-750), and the biopolymer, chitosan, are very effective in removal and retention of metals in both fresh and salt water. These amendments are being evaluated further as components in the development of active caps for sediment remediation.

  17. Efficiency improvement of heat exchangers by the rational choice of the range of frequencies of electromagnetic water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runov, D. M.; Laptev, A. G.

    2015-05-01

    The electromagnetic water treatment is considered as one of the reagentless methods to reduce the scaling and to improve the cooling efficiency of high-temperature gas flows. It is achieved by the rational choice of the frequency range under laboratory conditions. The choice is made by the lowest particle size distribution of the precipitated particles. The time analysis of the content of hardness salts in the treated water is carried out at the input to and output of the heat exchanger.

  18. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and ?18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (?18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower ?18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The ?18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  19. Effect of salt and water stresses on growth, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El?bieta Saca?a

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants exposed to osmotic stress exhibit changes in their physiology and metabolism. In general, osmotic stress reduces water availability and causes nutritional imbalance in plants. In the present study, we compared the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. W?adko F-1 to ionic (100 mmol•dm-3 NaCl and osmotic stress (10% PEG 6000. Both stress factors reduced significantly fresh and dry weight of 7-day-old cucumber seedlings. Under PEG treatment reduction of cucumber dry mass was lesser than in fresh mass, whereas under salt stress decrease in dry weight of cucumber shoots was more pronounced than in fresh mass. Salt stress caused severe decrease in nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase (NR. In cotyledons nitrate content declined to 17% of the control and similar reduction in NR activity was observed. In the roots, observed changes were not so drastic but there was also strong interaction between reduction in nitrate content and NR activity. Under 10% PEG both nitrate concentration and NR activity in cucumber roots were significantly higher in comparison to control plants. In cotyledons NR activity was significantly lower than in control plants, while decrease in nitrate content was not statistically significant. Phosphate concentration did not change significantly in cucumber cotyledons but increased in roots treated both NaCl (32% increase and PEG (53% increase. Similar tendencies were observed in acid phosphatase activity. Obtained results indicated that osmotic and salt stresses evoke differential responses, particularly in growth reduction and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber seedlings.

  20. Salt marsh retreat induced by wind waves: experiments, field and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, L.; Francalanci, S.; Bendoni, M.; Cappietti, L.

    2013-12-01

    Edge erosion of salt marshes due to surface waves and tide forcing is likely the chief mechanism that models marsh boundaries and by which salt marshes in worldwide areas are being lost. To address this problem, an experimental investigation in a laboratory flume and field measurements collected in the lagoon of Venice were conducted to understand the main processes controlling marsh edge retreat with a focus on the erosion mechanisms caused by the impact of wind waves in the case of various tidal levels. A physical model reproducing a salt marsh bank was built inside a long wave current flume where random surface waves have been generated according to a given wave spectrum. The physical model was constructed with the original soil of salt marshes from the Venice Lagoon, while the wave climate was reproduced according to field measurements. In order to reveal the effect of vegetation on bank stability, two identical banks were built but for the inclusion of halophytic plants. A first set of experiments was conducted reproducing only tidal waves, a second set with wind waves superimposed to the tide. A third set o f experiments were aimed to investigate the dynamic impact and transmission of the waves on and within the bank. The following quantities were collected during the experiments: water content and pore water pressure inside the bank, water levels and velocities at various distances from the bank, dynamic pressures on the bank edge surface and internal pressure fluctuations due to wave impact. Bank geometry profile and bottom topography at different times have also been collected to characterize the erosion rate with time and the evolution of bank retreat. Two types of mass failures were observed during the experiments: slides and toppling failures. The latter were most frequently observed failures, consisting in the toppling of blocks and were often the consequence of the presence of deep tension cracks. In most cases the impact of wind waves caused the overturning of the block. In both the unvegetated and vegetated experiments, mass failures occurred in the first part of the experiment whereas the remaining part was characterized by particle by particle erosion. Effect of vegetation lead to a delay in block failures due the presence of roots, although the total eroded volume differed slightly between the two scenarios. The field measurements were aimed at quantifying the erosion characteristics of marsh soil and the wave climate close to the bank edge during a moderate wind event. Several pressure transducers installed 0.15 m above the bed and adequately spaced were used to collect wave height and wave direction with respect to the edge of the marsh. Then, on the base of experimental and field evidence, a new toppling model is proposed and test against laboratory data: a block of cohesive material at incipient failing condition is attached to the underlying layer and identified by the presence of tension crack; it behaves as a dynamical system subjected to several forces, until the tensile strength of the material is exceed. Test of the model showed its capability at reproducing the failure process and it highlighted which are the most crucial conditions in promoting the failure of a bank edge subjected to wave attack and tide forcing.

  1. Quantification of water, salt and nutrient exchange processes at the mouth of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylaios, Georgios K; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Akratos, Christos; Haralambidou, Kiriaki

    2006-08-01

    Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing behavior. Results indicated that although the system is micro-tidal, tidal effects appeared to be the dominant factor for the longitudinal distribution of physical and chemical parameters, while the associated residual flow is also important and serves as a baseline measure of overall circulation. However, analysis of the net longitudinal currents and fluxes of water, salt and nutrients revealed the importance of non-tidal effects (wind effect and precipitation incidents) in the mean tidal transport. It is shown that the Eulerian residual currents transported water and its properties inwards under southern winds, while a seaward transport was induced during precipitation incidents and northern winds. The Stokes drift effect was found an order of magnitude lower than the Eulerian current, directed towards the lagoon, proving the partially-progressive nature of the tide. Nutrients and chlorophyll-alpha loads are exported from the lagoon to the open sea during the ebb phase of the autumn and winter tidal cycles, associated with the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater, seeped through the surrounding drainage canal. The reverse transport occurs in spring and early summer, when nutrients enter the lagoon during the flood tidal phase, from the nutrient-rich upper layer of the stratified adjacent sea. Application of a tidal prism model shows that Vassova lagoon has a mean flushing time of 7.5 days, ranging between 4 to 18 days, affected inversely by the tidal oscillation. PMID:16741822

  2. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V. (Oak Ridge, TN) [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  3. Effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide on water relations and ionic composition of rice (oryza sativa l.) plants under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present experiment was to assess the effect of exogenously applied nitric oxide on water relation attributes and pattern of uptake of inorganic ions in rice plants under salt stress. The experiment comprised four rice cultivars, two coarse (KS-282 and IRRI-6) and two fine (Shaheen Basmati and Basmati PB-95) rice cultivars, two NaCl levels (0 and 80 mM), and three levels (0, 0.1, and 0.2 mM) of nitric oxide. Salt stress caused a significant increase in leaf water and osmotic potentials while decreased leaf turgor potential and relative water content in all four rice cultivars. Of inorganic ions, shoot and root Cl- and Na+ concentrations increased significantly, while in contrast, K+ and Ca/sup 2+/ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio decreased markedly. Pre-sowing seed treatment with nitric oxide significantly decreased leaf osmotic and water potentials and shoot and root Cl- and Na+ concentrations, while it increased leaf relative water content, leaf turgor potential, K+ and Ca/sup 2+/ concentrations and K+/Na+ ratio in both shoots and roots of salt stressed rice plants. Of nitric oxide levels, 0.1 mM was more effective, while of the four rice cultivars, Shaheen basmati and IRRI-6 performed better as compared to the other two cultivars. (author)

  4. [Effects of cations in chlorine salt solution on O-H stretching Raman spectra of water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dan; Xu, Wen-Yi

    2009-10-01

    In order to understand the effects of the common cations in geofluids on the structure of water, the present paper systematically studied the Raman spectra of NaCl-H2O, CaCl2-H2O, MgCl2-H2O, CuCl2-H2O, ZnCl2-H2O and FeCl3-H2O solutions by two methods. (1) The frequency shifts of the peak maximum around 3,400 cm(-1) in O-H stretching Raman spectra of water reveal the destruction effects of these cations on the structure of water: Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+, Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+; (2) Comparing the intensities of the shoulder peak around 3,250 cm(-1) in the O-H stretching Raman spectra of water: (1) all salts concerned destruct the structure of water; (2) with respect to the same chloride, the destruction extent of hydrogen-bond increases with concentration increasing; (3) comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of catnions on the structure of water decrease in the sequences Ca2+ > Mg2+ > Na+ and Fe3+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+. (4) A hydrogen bond-affected mechanism combining cation destruction with complex compound production is supposed for the first time, and is used to explain the effects of the canions on the structure of water: CaCl2 > MgCl2 > FeCl3 > NaCl > ZnCl2 > CuCl2. PMID:20038040

  5. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates From WindSat and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of soil moisture content by microwave remote sensing is important for quantifying the global energy, water and biogeochemical cycles. Vegetation water content (VWC, kg m-2) is one of the important parameters for retrieval of soil moisture using passive microwave radiometers. Liquid w...

  6. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been studied some equilibria H+ + B ? HB+ in salt-water mixtures and found a relation between the pKA value, the solubility of the base and water activity. The reaction HO- + H+ ? H2O has been investigated and a relation been found between pKi values, water activity and the molar concentration of the salt in the mixture. This relation is the same for every mixture. Then the same reactions have been studied in organic solvent-water mixtures and a relation found in the first part of the work have been used with success. So it has been possible to explain easily some properties of organic water-mixture as the shape of the curves of the Hammett acidity function Ho. (authors)

  7. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  8. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, SØren G.

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams correlated well (r2=0.94) to the CT value of a 10 mm section located at the center of femur bone, perpendicular to the length axis of the hams. In the same position, significant correlations between the CT values before (r2=0.71) and after (r2=0.80) the ageing period and actual chemical analysis of the same section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non-invasively, while hams are still in production. Computed tomography combined with appropriate image analysis offers advantages as a non-invasive tool in both research and product development.

  9. Kinetics of oil saponification by lead salts in ancient preparations of pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotte, M; Checroun, E; Susini, J; Dumas, P; Tchoreloff, P; Besnard, M; Walter, Ph

    2006-12-15

    Lead soaps can be found in archaeological cosmetics as well as in oil paintings, as product of interactions of lead salts with oil. In this context, a better understanding of the formation of lead soaps allows a follow-up of the historical evolution of preparation recipes and provides new insights into conservation conditions. First, ancient recipes of both pharmaceutical lead plasters and painting lead mediums, mixtures of oil and lead salts, were reconstructed. The ester saponification by lead salts is determined by the preparation parameters which were quantified by FT-IR spectrometry. In particular, ATR/FT-IR spectrometer was calibrated by the standard addition method to quantitatively follow the kinetics of this reaction. The influence of different parameters such as temperature, presence of water and choice of lead salts was assessed: the saponification is clearly accelerated by water and heating. This analysis provides chemical explanations to the historical evolution of cosmetic and painting preparation recipes. PMID:18970891

  10. An index for plant water deficit based on root-weighted soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianchu; Li, Sen; Zuo, Qiang; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-03-01

    Governed by atmospheric demand, soil water conditions and plant characteristics, plant water status is dynamic, complex, and fundamental to efficient agricultural water management. To explore a centralized signal for the evaluation of plant water status based on soil water status, two greenhouse experiments investigating the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots on wheat and rice were conducted. Due to the significant offset between the distributions of soil water and roots, wheat receiving subsurface irrigation suffered more from drought than wheat under surface irrigation, even when the arithmetic averaged soil water content (SWC) in the root zone was higher. A significant relationship was found between the plant water deficit index (PWDI) and the root-weighted (rather than the arithmetic) average SWC over root zone. The traditional soil-based approach for the estimation of PWDI was improved by replacing the arithmetic averaged SWC with the root-weighted SWC to take the effect of the relative distribution between soil water and roots into consideration. These results should be beneficial for scheduling irrigation, as well as for evaluating plant water consumption and root density profile.

  11. Large enhancement of canine taste responses to sugars by salts

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    The effects of changed ionic environments on the canine taste responses to sugars were examined by recording the activity of the chorda tympani nerve. a) The responses to various sugars were greatly enhanced by the presence of salts having monovalent cations such as Na+, K+, choline+, or Tris+. The responses to sugars were suppressed by high concentrations of salts. (b) The presence of 100 mM NaCl in fructose solution did not affect the maximal response and changed the Hill constant for the c...

  12. Nuclear magnetic resonance in water solutions of inorganic salts in vitreous and liquid states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, A. G., E-mail: arlund@mail.ru; Koryavko, N. A.; Chichikov, S. A. [Siberian State Technological University (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Peculiarities of the behavior of water solutions of inorganic salts at temperatures of {approx}(120-150) K are examined. At these temperatures the solutions are in the vitreous state. At higher temperatures (up to 240 K) the solutions may be in metastable liquid, crystalline, or usual liquid states.

  13. Salt Affected Soils Their Identification and Reclamation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Siyal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Salt affected soils are found throughout the world especially in arid and semi arid regions. Soil salinization is mainly due to the use of saline water for irrigation, seepage from the canals, an arid climate evaporation of salty soil waters from the soil surface over shallow water tables and poor drainage. Salt effected soils are grouped into saline, alkali and saline-alkali soils. Three different ways viz. scrapping, surface flushing and leaching are normally used for reclamation of these soils. Reclamation of salt affected soils by leaching is the best way of reclamation. Continuous and intermittent leaching are two techniques of water application during the leaching process. Continuous leaching is quicker but it consumes more water than intermittent leaching. Soil amendments (gypsum, sulphur or sulphuric acid are usually needed for the reclamation of soils with high sodium content. By planting trees in soils with high water table and no drainage, soil reclamation process can be accomplished. Soil salinization can be prevented by using good quality water and by managing water table below root zone by providing surface of subsurface drainage.

  14. Assessment of soil electromagnetic parameters and their variation with soil water, salts: a comparison among EMI and TDR measuring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaali, Nesrine; Coppola, Antonio; Comegna, Alessandro; Dragonetti, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    Numerous studies have analyzed the possibility of the extension of Electromagnetic Induction EMI calibration coefficients determined at field scale, to predict the depth distribution of bulk electrical conductivity ECb within unmonitored sites and/or times, in order to appraise the effect of salts dynamics on soils and plants. However, in the literature, it has been determined that the extension of those EMI calibration coefficients can be awkward since the calibration parameters are highly site-specific because of changes in water content, temperature, root development, soil physical properties, etc... So they can only be used in sites having similar characteristics in terms of EMI. Furthermore there is a difference in the observation windows of EMI sensors and of sensors (Time Domain Reflectometry TDR, Electrical Resistance Tomography ERT, ect...) used for measuring the ECb to be then used for the calibration and validation of the EMI. By consequence the actual variability of the soil salinity will be hidden due to the fact that data coming from EMI and other sensors have different variability patterns and structure, and are then influenced by different noises. The main objectives of this work were: 1) develop a practical and cost-effective technique that uses TDR data as ground-truth data for calibrating and validating of the EMI larger scale sensor, 2) using a Fourier transform FT analysis by applying a specific noise filter to the original data, to find the correlations between the TDR and the EMI data. An experiment was designed by irrigating three transects of green beans, 30 m long each, with three irrigation salinity inputs (1dSm-1, 3dSm-1, 6dSm-1). The irrigation volumes were estimated by measuring soil water content at different depths by using a Diviner 2000. During the experiment, the EM in both the vertical (EMV) and horizontal (EMH) configurations were regularly measured by a Geonics EM38 device. TDR probes were inserted vertically at the soil surface in 24 sites, each corresponding to the central point of an EM38 reading. EM38 and TDR probes were used to measure ECb along 24 m in the central line of each transect during the whole growth season. Soil samples were taken at 1 m distance along each transect for laboratory analyses. The FT analyses allowed separating the original EMI and TDR data signals from noise at different salinity levels, and thus finding better information about the existing correlation.

  15. Rhenium foil fabrication by electrolysis of molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology of rhenium foil fabrication by electrolysis is worked out. Production process is based on electrolysis of molten salt bath containing %: 41.0-42.0 NaCl; 45-46 KCl; 12-13 K2ReCl6; at the temperature of 800-900 deg C in the inert atmosphere and at current density up to 0.2 A/cm2. Rhenium foil is fabricated in the form of 70-150 cm2 rectangular sheets. By changing the temperature and composition of the salt bath, current density and other parameters of the process rhenium foil of definite physico-chemical properties may be fabricated

  16. Thermodynamic aspects of the development of inhibitory methods of protecting steel from corrosion in salt water environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?.?. ??????????

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available  The thermodynamics aspects of steel in water-salt solutions spontaneous corrosion and ways of purposeful creation of inhibition methods for its slow-down were considered. For the system Fe-H2O on the basis of diagram Pourbe analysis were determined definite ranges of potentials of metal and pH of the solutions for which corrosive destruction speed reduction were achieved. It is shown that the effective corrosion protection of steel can be achieved by means of measures which include application of inhibitors with simultaneous medium pH modification, as a result there takes place a transition of metal into a stable passivated state. Potentiostatic research of steel in water-salt solutions corrosion had confirmed efficiency of the method offered.

  17. Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

  18. Effect of potasium on salt tolerance plants irrigated with saline waters

    OpenAIRE

    Eleizalde, María Benigna; Larsen, S

    1983-01-01

    Under greenhouse conditions, the effect of potassium on the salt tolerance of tomato and pepper plants, irrigated with saline waters was studied. these plants grown on sansy and calcareous soils, which have received 0.200 and 400 ppm of K previosly and an appropiate addition of 400 ppm P as monocalcium phosphate. Duiring this trial, these crops were irrigated weekly at 60 % field holding capacity with two different types of saline waters and a suitable supply of a complete nutrient solu...

  19. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  20. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the...

  1. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in...

  2. The characterisation, improvement and modelling aspects of Frost Salt Scaling of Cement-Based Materials with a High Slag Content:

    OpenAIRE

    Copuroglu, O.

    2006-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement concrete is used extensively in a number of countries. In comparison with OPC, it is particularly well known for its excellent performance in marine environments. One dis-advantage of slag cement is its vulnerability to scaling under the combined load of freezing-thawing and de-icing salts. The current investigation was triggered by positive observations regard-ing certain grinding agents used in slag cement production to improve frost salt scaling resistance. The in...

  3. Application of acoustical methods to the measurement of water content in sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of laboratory experiments on the propagation of high-frequency acoustic waves (f = 100 kHz) in a glass tube, filled with river sand are presented. Several sand samples have been used with different water content: dry, unsaturated and completely water saturated. It is shown that the dissipative coefficient of acoustic waves decreases with increasing wave amplitude. This 'self-brightening' phenomenon takes place over the whole range of moisture content, from zero to 100%, but its degree of manifestation depends on the moisture content. The exponent of the dissipative nonlinearity ?, is found to be the most sensitive parameter to the moisture content and is determined on the basis of measurements. It is considered to be a good indicator of water content in porous media and provides an opportunity to measure water content in such materials indirectly by means of an acoustic method. A simple phenomenological model is presented to explain the experimental results

  4. Salt Tolerance in Soybean (Glycine max L.: Effect on Growth and Water Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Shereen

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A water culture experiment was conducted to study salt tolerance of four cultivars of soybean (Glycine max L., cv. AGS-160, Loppa, Egyptian, ICAL-132 over a range of salinity (10-40 mM NaCl at different stages of development. Salinity reduced growth, water balance and ion uptake mechanism of plant were affected adversely. The adverse effect of salinity became pronounced with passage of time and increase in salinity level. Water consumption, decreased with increase in salinity. This reduction was more in a tolerant (ICAL-132 than the sensitive (Loppa and AGS-160 cultivars. A quantitative relationship has been observed between ions and water uptake.

  5. DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation has emerged as an economically viable alternative technology for the dehydration of organic solvents, removal of organic compounds from water and organic/organic separations. Development of a membrane system with suitable flux and selectivity characteristics plays a...

  6. Evaluation of a gamma-attenuation soil water meter and a neutron-scattering meter for measuring topsoil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil water content in a maize field was measured by means of gamma-attenuation meter as well as a neutron-scattering meter over a period of eight weeks. Comparison of the results with values obtained by means of the sampling, weighing and drying method shows that the water content of the topsoil layer can be obtained with slightly better accuracy and with far less calibration by using the gamma meter than by using the neutron meter

  7. Consolidating and water repellent treatments applied to wet and salt contaminated granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, B.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A comparison was made of the efficacy of two consolidants and two water repellents applied to samples of granite under optimum conditions, with the efficacy of the same products applied to the granite in the presence of soluble salts or water. The amount of product absorbed and the amount of dry polymer remaining after treatment were compared. The results show that the presence of water and soluble salts in the stone significantly modifies the consumption of the products (in particular the water repellents and also the level of dry polymer retained. The water repellents were found to be much less effective when the substrate contained salts, whereas the presence of water did not appear to influence their efficacy. The lack of correlation between uptake, active dry polymer, and efficacy led to the conclusion that the presence of salts or water markedly changes the kinetics of the polymerization of the products.

    Se analiza la eficacia de dos consolidantes y dos hidrofugantes aplicados a rocas graníticas en condiciones óptimas comparativamente a la eficacia de los mismos productos aplicados sobre los mismos sustratos conteniendo cierta cantidad de sales solubles o de agua. Se compara la cantidad de producto absorbido y la cantidad de materia seca presente tras el curado. Los resultados indican que la presencia de agua y de sales solubles en la piedra modifica significativamente el consumo de los productos, sobre todo el de los hidrofugantes, así como la cantidad de materia seca. Se observa, asimismo, un fuerte detrimento en la eficacia de los hidrofugantes cuando el sustrato contiene sales mientras que, al contrario, la presencia de agua no parece infiuir en dicha eficacia. La falta de correlación entre el consumo, materia seca activa y eficacia lleva a concluir que la presencia de sales o agua modifica sensiblemente la cinética de la polimeración de los productos.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Water Flow and Salt Transport in Bare Saline Soil Subjected to Transient Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, X.; Boufadel, M.; Saleh, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    It has been found that evaporation over bare soil plays an important role in subsurface solute transport processes. A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to transient evaporation. The bulk aerodynamic formulation was adopted to simulate transient evaporation rate at ground surface. Subsurface flow pattern, moisture distribution, and salt migration were quantified. Key factors likely affecting this process, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, air humidity, and surrounding water supply, were examined. The results showed that evaporation induced an upward flow pattern, which led to a high saline plume formed beneath the evaporation zone. In absence of surrounding water supply, as the humidity between the ground surface and air tended to equilibrium, evaporation-induced density gradient generated pore water circulations around the plume edge and caused the salt to migrate downwards with "finger" shapes. It was found that capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. Larger capillary fringe and/or lower air humidity would allow evaporation to extract more water from the ground. It would induce a larger and denser saline plume formed beneath the evaporation zone. The results also suggested that the presence of the surrounding water supply (represented as a constant water table herein) could provide a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface; meanwhile, in response to the evaporation, a hydraulic gradient was formed from the water supply boundary, which induced an inclined upper saline plume with greater density far from the supply boundary.

  9. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content / Correção da resistência à penetração usando uma umidade do solo de referência e pedofunções

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moacir Tuzzin de, Moraes; Henrique, Debiasi; Julio Cezar, Franchini; Vanderlei Rodrigues da, Silva.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistência do solo à penetração (SPR) é um dos principais indicadores do estado de compactação do solo; contudo, a SPR é altamente influenciada pelo conteúdo de água no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver modelos matemáticos para a correção da SPR para um valor de umidade gravimétrica [...] (U) de referência. Para isso, a SPR foi determinada, por meio de um penetrômetro de impacto, em um experimento instalado sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, usando seis níveis de compactação do solo, obtidos por meio da escarificação mecânica e da compactação adicional, pelo tráfego de uma colhedora de grãos autopropelida (quatro, oito, 10 e 20 passadas), além de uma testemunha, a qual foi mantida sob sistema plantio direto sem escarificação ou compactação adicional. A fim de obter ampla variação nos valores de U, as avaliações da SPR foram realizadas em diferentes épocas. Amostras de solo com estrutura preservada foram coletadas para determinar a densidade do solo (BD). Foram geradas funções de pedotransferência relacionando os valores de SPR, de U e de BD. Usando essas funções, a correção da SPR foi satisfatória para todas as amplitudes de U e BD. O método requer apenas SPR e U como variáveis de entrada dos modelos. No entanto, são necessárias diferentes equações, em função da camada de solo avaliada. A aplicação das funções de pedotransferência, obtidas neste trabalho, permite observar diferenças no estado de compactação do solo entre os tratamentos, que antes não eram detectadas, em função de variações na U. Abstract in english The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR), using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U). [...] For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox), at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes); in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD). Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  10. Electrochemical and physicochemical properties of small phosphonium cation ionic liquid electrolytes with high lithium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, G M A; Hilder, M; Zhu, H; Nucciarone, D; Whitbread, K; Zavorine, S; Moser, M; Forsyth, M; MacFarlane, D R; Howlett, P C

    2015-04-14

    Electrolytes of a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), trimethyl(isobutyl)phosphonium (P111i4) bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (FSI) with a wide range of lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) salt concentrations (up to 3.8 mol kg(-1) of salt in the RTIL) were characterised using a combination of techniques including viscosity, conductivity, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). We show that the FSI-based electrolyte containing a high salt concentration (e.g. 1?:?1 salt to IL molar ratio, equivalent to 3.2 mol kg(-1) of LiFSI) displays unusual transport behavior with respect to lithium ion mobility and promising electrochemical behavior, despite an increase in viscosity. These electrolytes could compete with the more traditionally studied nitrogen-based ionic liquids (ILs) in lithium battery applications. PMID:25820549

  11. A Simple Beta-Function Model for Soil-Water Repellency as a Function of Water and Organic Carbon Contents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunarathna, Anurudda Kumara; Kawamoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Soil-water content (?) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are key factors controlling the occurrence and magnitude of soil-water repellency (WR). Although expressions have recently been proposed to describe the nonlinear variation of WR with ?, the inclusion of easily measurable parameters in predictive WR(?) models is still lacking. In this study, a simple empirical beta function was suggested to describe the effect of changing soil-water content on the change of WR given as apparent contact angle (?) measured by the molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) method. The beta function for predicting ?(?) is based on measurement of WR on air-dry soil and three additional model parameters: the water contents at which the maximum WR (highest ?) occurs and where WR ceases (? = 90 degrees), and the maximum ? value. The MED data for three data sets from literature comprising WR measurements across moisture conditions for 19 soils were used to test the model. The beta function successfully reproduced all the measured soil-water repellency characteristic, ?(?), curves. Significant correlations were found between model parameters and SOC content (1%-14%). The model was independently tested against data for further three soils and performed accurately for all three. Consequently, we suggest that the ?(?) model represents a useful strategy to predict the entire soil-water repellency characteristic curve, and thus potential risks for enhanced runoff and preferential (fingered) soil-water flow at given initial soil-water contents, from measurements of only air-dry soil-water repellency and SOC content.

  12. Electrochemical approach for the influences of salt and cathodic protection on rebar corrosion(I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on an electrochemical approach for the influences of salt and cathodic protection on rebar corrosion. Concrete specimens with/without salt were made and exposed in air and in salt water by upper-dam or immersion. Polarization resistance on rebar in concrete specimens was measured and anodic polarization test in concrete pore solution was conducted. Salt in concrete increased corrosion rate of rebar, and external salt water added to concrete largely facilitated corrosion of rebar. Rebar corrosion was also increased by even low permeation rate of salt water through the concrete. However, rebar corrosion by high salt content in concrete and from external salt water could be protected using an electrochemical cathodic protection. In the case of alkaline pH environment in concrete pore solution, rebar showed good passivity regardless of chloride ion addition. When the pH of concrete pore solution was lowered to neutral level, However, small amount of chloride ion did corrode rebar and then pitting corrosion was occurred

  13. Salt-enhanced removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions by adsorption on activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ganggang; Bao, Zongbi; Zhang, Zhiguo; Xing, Huabin; Su, Baogen; Yang, Yiwen; Ren, Qilong

    2013-12-15

    2-Ethyl-1-hexanol has extensive industrial applications in solvent extraction, however, in view of its potential pollution to environment, the removal and recovery of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is considered an essential step toward its sustainable use in the future. In this work, we report the removal of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol from aqueous solutions containing salts in high concentrations by adsorption on a coal-based activated carbon. Adsorption thermodynamics showed that the experimental isotherms were conformed well to the Langmuir equation. Also it was found that inorganic salts, i.e. MgCl2 and CaCl2 in high concentration significantly enhanced the adsorption capacity from 223 mg/g in the deionized water to 277 mg/g in a saline water. This phenomenon of adsorption enhancement could be ascribed to the salt-out effect. Kinetic analysis indicated that adsorption kinetics follows the pseudo-second-order equation and the adsorption rate constants increase with the salt concentration. The dynamic breakthrough volume and adsorbed amount of 2-ethyl-1-hexanol were significantly elevated when the salt is present in the water. The dynamic saturated adsorption amount increased from 218.3mg/g in the deionized water to 309.5mg/g in a salt lake brine. The Tomas model was well applied to predict the breakthrough curves and determine the characteristics parameters of the adsorption column. PMID:24144367

  14. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of uncollimated (undirected) neutron moisture meters is common in the biological and geophysical sciences. A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable measurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: (i) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts, (ii) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts, (iii) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator, and (iv) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The distance and the angular dimensions of the volume of influence were defined as the horizontal distance of neutron penetration from the edge of the probe, the vertical distance above and below the center of the effective measurement of the probe, and the angle from the center of the probe, which would allow the determination of relative water content to within 95%. The vertical distance was approximately 0.5 m, the horizontal distance was approximately 0.2 m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was approximately 120 degrees. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less

  15. Measuring water content in soil using TDR: A state-of-the-art in 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade or so, the development and continuing refinement of the time-domain reflectometry (TDR) technique for in-situ, nondestructive measurement of water content has revolutionized the study and management of the transfer and storage of water within the soil profile. The principles for the application of TDR to water content are now well accepted and straight forward. For many mineral soils, the calibration for water content has a linear relationship with the square root of the relative permittivity measured by TDR. This allows a two-point calibration. TDR-measured water content has been applied successfully to water balance studies ranging from the km scale of small watersheds to the nun scale of the root-soil interface. Soil probes can be designed to meet many and varied requirements. The performance of a number of probe geometries is presented, including some of their strengths and weaknesses. Although coated soil probes allow measurement in more conductive soils, the probe coatings alter the water-content calibration both in sensitivity and linearity. Three general options are available for determining profiles of soil water content from the soil surface to a depth of 1 m. Soil probes of differing total depths extending to the surface are the most accessible. Soil probes buried at selected depths provide easily repeatable values. The vertically installed single probe, Aith depth segments separated by diodes, allows repeated measurement in a single vertical slice. The portability of TDR instrumentation coupled with the simplicity and flexibility of probes has allowed the mapping of spatial patterns of water content and field-based spatial and temporal soil water content distributions. The usefulness and power of the TDR technique for characterizing soil water content is increasing rapidly through continuing improvements in instrument operating range, probe design, multiplexing and automated data collection. (author)

  16. Salt repository project site study plan for water resources: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Study Plan for Water Resources describes a field program consisting of surface-water and ground-water characterization. The surface-water studies will determine the drainage basin characteristics (i.e., topography, soils, land use), hydrometeorology, runoff to streams and playas, and surface-water quality (i.e., offsite pollution sources in playa lakes and in streams). The environmental ground-water studies will focus on ground-water quality characterization. The site study plan describes for each study the need for the study, study design, data management and use, schedule of proposed activities, and quality assurance. These studies will provide data needed to satisfy requirements contained in, or derived from, the Salt Repository Projects Requirements Document. 78 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Response of Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Cultivars to MS, Water Agar and Salt Stress in in vitro Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Amini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of MS and water agar medium, containing NaCl and sucrose on germination percentage, seedling growth, chlorophyll content, acid phosphates activity and soluble proteins were studied in different cultivars of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (Cv. Isfahani, Shirazy, Khozestani and Khorasani. Seeds were germinated under various mediums, MS with and without sucrose, water agar with and without sucrose with different concentration of NaCl (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 mM. Increasing of salinity decreased the germination percentage and seedling dry weight. The highest germination percentage was found in Cv. Isfahani and the lowest in Cv. Shirazy. Chlorophyll content (Chl a, Chl b and total Chl were decreased with increasing of salinity in both Cv. Isfahani and Shirazy. In Cv. Shirazy. Acid phosphates (Apase activity was decreased in stem-leaf while it was increased in roots. Soluble protein was changed in different salt concentration. Enzyme activity was decreased in stem-leaf in Cv. Shirazy but was increased in Cv. Isfahani. Soluble proteins in roots of both Cv. showed variation. Finally, Water Agar (WA medium in comparison with MS medium resulted in higher tomato seed germination in different NaCl concentration.

  18. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the spray were measured in the chamber for a stable flame. The experimental results indicate significant preferential vaporization of ethanol over water. Modeling results support this observation and indicate that the vaporization process is best described as the distillation limit mode with enhanced mass transfer by convection. Further, the influence of preferential vaporization on flame stability was investigated. A procedure was developed to evaluate the extent of preferential vaporization and subsequent flame stability of a fuel in aqueous solution. Various water soluble fuels were analyzed via this procedure in order to identify a chemical fuel showing strong preferential vaporization. t-Butanol was identified as having excellent physical and chemical properties, indicating stronger preferential vaporization than ethanol. Flame stability tests were run for aqueous solutions of both t-butanol and ethanol under identical flow conditions. Flame stability was characterized by the blow-off limit. In each comparison, the energy contents in the two solutions were kept the same. For the experiments under high swirl flow conditions (100% swirl flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has slightly lower blow-off limits than 15 wt% ethanol, and 8.3 wt% t-butanol has much lower blow-off limits than 10 wt% ethanol. For the experiments under a low swirl flow condition (50% swirl/50% axial flow), 12.5 wt% t-butanol has a much lower blow-off limit than 15 wt% ethanol. The time to release the fuel from a droplet was also calculated for both ethanol and t-butanol. For the same size droplet, the time to release t-butanol is much shorter than that of ethanol under the same conditions. Faster release of the fuel from water enhances flame stability, which is consistent with the experimental results. For the oxy-combustion characteristics of low-volatility fuel with high water content, glycerol was chosen as the fuel to study. It is found that self-sustained flame can be obtained for glycerol solution with concentration as high as 60 wt%, when burned in pure O2. However, the flame is lifted far away f

  19. Postharvest peach weight loss, water content, and outer layer firmness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Puchalski

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of a fruit is the beginning of loss in weight and firmness. Measuring changes in weight require maintaining identity of the fruit and current methods used to measure firmness are usually destructive. Alternative methods are needed which can rapidly and nondestructively sense fruit quality. Three cultivars of peaches were measured during 9 days of storage to obtain fruit having varying weight loss and firmness. The average daily whole fruit weight losses were 1.72, 2.19, and 2.22% for 'Garnet', 'Red Haven', and 'Sentinal', respectively. After 9 days of storage, the water content of the outer layers of a peach were less than at the center. Firmness, slope of the force-deformation curve obtained during 1 mm compression, decreased significantly during the first 3 days of storage and continued to decrease but by a smaller amount thereafter. By eliminating the time variable, firmness exponentially decreased with weight loss with an r of 0.79-0.88. Changes in water content and firmness of the outer layers appear to be good predictors of subsequent changes in the whole fruit.

  20. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water vapour sorption, which can be measured within a shorter period of time, have recently been developed. Such models are often based on single-point measurements of water adsorption and do not account for sorption hysteresis or organic matter content. The present study introduces regression relationships for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser within a RH range from 3 to 93%. The clay contents, which ranged between 1 and 56%, were measured with a combination of sieving and sedimentation methods. Two regression models were developed for both adsorption and desorption at 10 RH levels (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90%). While the first model encompasses all 150 soils regardless of organic carbon (OC) content, the second model considers only soils with OC<2.4%. Independent validation of the proposed regression models at 50, 60 and 90% RH using literature data for water vapour adsorption showed reasonably accurate (average RMSE=5.0%, ME=2.4%) prediction of clay contents. However, the model for soils with small OC contents showed only minor improvement when compared with recently published models. Three main sources of prediction errors, namely large OC and silt contents, and a prevalence of 1:1 clay minerals were identified for both the proposed and published models. To compensate for large OC content, an OC-corrected model was developed and comparedwith the other models. The corrected modelmarkedly improved clay prediction accuracy for OC-rich soils when compared with all other models considered.

  1. Interaction of salt-fresh water using airbone TEM methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Joana Alves

    2010-01-01

    O tema das alterações climáticas é hoje de preocupação geral. Em 2008 foi iniciado um projecto Europeu CLIWAT (CLImate change and Ground WATer) com o objectivo de estudar possíveis cenários do impacto das alterações climáticas sobre os sistemas de águas subterrâneas e da forma como este poderá afectar o abastecimento de água nas regiões vizinhas do Mar do Norte. Este é um projecto multi-disciplinar e conta com a participação de um vasto grupo de geo-cientistas cujo principal objectivo é a cri...

  2. Salt Tolerance of Wheat According to Soil and Drainage Water Salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Feizi; Abbas Aghakhani; Behrouz MostafaZadeh-Fard; Manochehr Heidarpour

    2007-01-01

    To determine salt tolerance of spring wheat genotype (On_Farm 9 ) to soil salinity (ECe) and drainage water salinity (ECd), a pot experiment containing three irrigation water salinities of 4, 9 and 12 dS m-1 and four leaching levels of 3, 20, 29 and 37% was conducted in a completely randomized design arranged as factorial with 7 replications on a silty clay loam soil during 2005. The results showed that decrease of leaching water quality and quantity significantly increased soil and drainage ...

  3. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  4. Pb and Cd accumulation and phyto-excretion by salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadukova, Jana; Manousaki, Eleni; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) by salt cedar (Tamarix smyrnensis Bunge) were investigated in this study. Tamarix smyrnensis plants were exposed to the mixtures of Pb and Cd and high salinity for 10 wk. Subsequently, Pb and Cd uptake was quantified in the shoots and roots of the plants by ICP-AES. In addition, physiological parameters such as biomass production, shoot length, plant appearance, and chlorophyll content were examined. The roots accumulated the highest amount of Pb. Salinity was found to not have an important effect on Pb translocation to the leaves. Cd was translocated into the aerial part in a higher portion than Pb. Cd content in leaves of T. smyrnensis increased with the increasing salinity. The visible toxicity symptoms, if present, were connected only to the high salinity. The excretion of Pb and Cd by salt glands was observed and quantified. T. smyrnensis excreted a significant amount of metals on the leaf surface. This characteristic of salt cedar plants can be viewed as a novel phytoremediation process for the remediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals that we have termed "phyto-excretion." PMID:18709930

  5. Neutron diffraction structures of water in crystalline hydrates of metal salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Graham S; Wajrak, Magdalena; Khan, R Nazim

    2015-06-01

    Neutron diffraction structures of water molecules in crystalline hydrates of metal salts have been collected from the literature up to December 2011. Statistical methods were used to investigate the influence on the water structures of the position and nature of hydrogen bond acceptors and cations coordinated to the water oxygen. For statistical modelling the data were pruned so that only structures with oxygen as hydrogen acceptors, single hydrogen bonds, and no more than two metals or hydrogens coordinated to the water oxygen were included. Multiple linear regression models were fitted with the water OH bond length and bond angle as response variables. Other variables describing the position and nature of the acceptors and ions coordinated to the waters were taken as explanatory variables. These variables were sufficient to give good models for the bond lengths and angles. There were sufficient structures involving coordinated Mg^{2+} or Cu^{2+} for a separate statistical modelling to be done for these cases. PMID:26027003

  6. Water contents of Roberts Victor xenolithic eclogites: primary and metasomatic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin-Xiang; Li, Pei; Griffin, William L.; Xia, Qun-Ke; Gréau, Yoann; Pearson, Norman J.; O'Reilly, Suzanne Y.

    2014-12-01

    A suite of eclogites from the Roberts Victor kimberlite has been extensively characterized in terms of petrology and geochemical compositions (Gréau et al. in Geochim Cosmochim Acta 75(22):6927-6954, 2011; Huang et al. in Lithos 142-143:161-181, 2012a). In the present study, the water contents of eclogitic garnet and omphacite were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Garnet does not contain measureable OH in any sample. The water content of omphacite in the studied eclogites ranges from 211 to 1,496 ppm. Mantle metasomatism has modified the water content of some of the eclogites, while others retain water contents characteristic of their original environment. The OH contents of the metasomatized eclogites may be mainly controlled by the H2O fugacity and mineral compositions. The OH contents of the non-metasomatized samples are interpreted to be more sensitive to their mantle equilibration temperature, pressure, and the local fugacities of H2O and O2. The calculated water content of the metasomatic medium is similar to that of carbonatitic-kimberlitic melts/fluids. Eclogites contain more water than peridotites recorded in the literature (341 ± 161 vs 122 ± 54 ppm) and represent an important water reservoir in the lithospheric mantle wherever they occur. This is an important parameter to be considered in the interpretation of mantle processes and geophysical data such as seismic wave speeds and electrical conductivity, and in geodynamic modeling.

  7. Control of molten salt corrosion of reduced activation steel for fusion applications by metallic beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In 2001 the INL started a research program as a part of the 2. Japan/US Program on Irradiation Tests for Fusion Energy Research (JUPITER-II collaboration) aimed at the characterization of the 2LiF-BeF2 (Flibe) molten salt as a breeder and coolant material for fusion applications. A key objective of the work was to demonstrate chemical compatibility between Flibe and potential fusion structural materials once suitable fluoride potential control methods are established. A series of tests performed at INL demonstrated that this can be achieved by contacting the salt with metallic beryllium, and the results have been published in recent years. A further step was to expose two specimens of low activation ferritic/martensitic steel 9Cr-2W JLF-1 to static corrosion tests that include an active corrosion agent (hydrofluoric gas) and fluoride potential control (metallic Be) at 530 C, and the results of the tests are presented in this paper. The specimen and a beryllium rod were simultaneously immersed in the molten salt through gas tight fittings mounted on risers extending from the top lid of the test vessel; the beryllium rod was extracted after 5 hours, while the sample was left in the salt for 250 hours during which salt samples were withdrawn from the melt at fixed intervals. A diagnostic system based on the measurement of reacting HF through on-line titration was coupled with the analysis of metallic components in the salt samples that wllic components in the salt samples that were dissolved and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Impurity levels of oxygen, nitrogen and carbon were determined from pieces of the solidified melt using Leco analytical systems. The results confirmed the expected correlation of the HF recovery with the concentration of metallic elements dissolved in the salt because of specimen corrosion. The metals concentration falls below the detectable limit when the beryllium rod is inserted and increases when the content of metallic beryllium in the system is being consumed by HF reduction. The analysis is supplemented with surface and cross-sectional SEM and EDS post-analysis of the specimens performed at INL and the University of Tokyo. (authors)

  8. Dynamics of salt playa polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, L.; Fourrière, A.

    2014-12-01

    In natural salt playa or in evaporation pools for the salt extraction industry, one can sometimes see surprising regular structures formed by ridges of salt. These ridges connect together to form a self-organized network of polygons one to two meters in diameter, which we call salt polygons. Here we propose a mechanism based on porous media convection of salty water in soil to explain the formation and the scaling of the salt polygons. Surface evaporation causes a steady upward flow of salty water, which can cause precipitation near the surface. A vertical salt gradient then builds up in the porous soil, with heavy salt-saturated water lying over the less salty source water. This can drive convection when a threshold is reached, given by a critical Rayleigh number of about 7. We suggest that the salt polygons are the surface expression of the porous medium convection, with salt crystallizing along the positions of the convective downwellings. To study this instability directly, we developed a 2D analogue experiment using a Hele-Shaw cell filled with a porous medium saturated with a salt solution and heated from above. We perform a linear stability analysis of this system, and find that it is unstable to convection, with a most unstable wavelength that is set by a balance between salt diffusion and water evaporation. The Rayleigh number in our experiment is controlled by the particle size of our model soil, and the evaporation rate. We obtain results that scale with the observation of natural salt polygons. Using dye, we observe the convective movement of salty water and find downwelling convective plumes underneath the spots where surface salt ridges form, as shown in the attached figure.

  9. Effect of salt stress in the regulation of anthocyanins and color of hibiscus flowers by digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivellini, Alice; Gordillo, Belén; Rodríguez-Pulido, Francisco J; Borghesi, Eva; Ferrante, Antonio; Vernieri, Paolo; Quijada-Morín, Natalia; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    The effect of salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 28 days) on physiological characteristics of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, such as abscisic acid (ABA) content, electrolyte leakage, and photochemical efficiency in leaves, and its influence on biomass production, anthocyanin composition, and color expression of flowers were evaluated. Salinity significantly increased electrolyte leakage and ABA content in leaves and reduced the flower fresh weight. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were lower in salt stress condition, compared to control. Moreover, salt stress negatively affected the content of anthocyanins (mainly cyanidin-3-sophoroside), which resulted in a visually perceptible loss of color. The detailed anthocyanin composition monitored by HPLC-DAD-MS and the color variations by digital image analysis due to salt stress showed that the effect was more noticeable at the basal portion of petals. A forward stepwise multiple regression was performed for predicting the content of anthocyanins from appearance characteristics obtained by image analysis, reaching R-square values up to 0.90. PMID:25005605

  10. The role of prolactin in disorders of water-salt metabolism in hypertensive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between water-salt balance and blood prolactin (Prl) level were examined in 22 male patients with essential hypertension, stages 1B-2A. Blood Prl and urinary potassium and sodium excretion were measured initially. Water-salt status was found to be different in patients with baseline hyperprolactinemia who made 2/3 of the sample. Following parlodel administration, Prl level declined in all patients, with daily electrolyte excretion also decreasing in originally-hyperprolactinemic patients. The rise in electrolyte excretion following lasix administration was accompanied with a fall in Prl in hyperprolactinemic test, all patients showed a tendency to Prl rise while the hyper prolactinemic patients also exhibited sodium retention. Therefore, blood Prl decrease leads to sodium retention in hyperprolactinemic hypertensive patients that may have an adverse pathogenetic significance

  11. Partitioning of cloud water and rainwater content by ground-based observations with the Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identification (ADMIRARI) in synergy with a micro rain radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Pablo; Battaglia, Alessandro; Simmer, Clemens

    2012-03-01

    Cloud and rain liquid water path and total water vapor are retrieved simultaneously from passive microwave observations with the multifrequency dual-polarized Advanced Microwave Radiometer for Rain Identification (ADMIRARI). A data set of linearly polarized brightness temperatures has been collected at 30° elevation angle together with slant radar reflectivity profiles at 24.1 GHz from a micro rain radar (MRR) pointing into the same viewing direction. The slant path integrated values are retrieved via a Bayesian inversion approach, the quality of which is evaluated by a simulation-based retrieval sensitivity study. The algorithm includes a physical constraint by taking into account the rain column structural information from the MRR observations. Measurements and derived path-integrated water component estimates from 23 August to 12 November 2008, obtained in Cabauw, Netherlands, are analyzed. During raining cloud conditions the zenith-normalized root-mean-square error for water vapor, cloud liquid water path, and rain liquid water path are, on average, estimated to 1.54 kg m-2, 144 g m-2, and 52 g m-2, respectively. On the basis of these results, long-term estimated distributions of cloud water-rainwater partitioning for midlatitude precipitating clouds are presented for the first time as obtained by a ground-based radiometer.

  12. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, N.; Scheidegger, Y.; M. S. Brennwald; Fleitmann, D.; S. Figura; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and ?18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield r...

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  14. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, D.; Kautzman, M.; Wojnarowicz, P.; Cutter, J.; Bird, E.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy's Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site

  16. Investigating salt and naphthenic acids interactions in the toxicity of oil sands process water to freshwater invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hot water extraction process used to produce bitumens from oil sands produces a large volume of oil sands process water (OSPW) that contain elevated concentrations of naphthenic acids (NA) and salts. Many oil sands reclamation projects are proposing the use of OSPW as part of reconstructed wetlands projects. This study investigated the toxicity of OSPW to freshwater invertebrates. The toxic interactions between NA and salinity on freshwater invertebrates were assessed. Bioassays with laboratory-cultured Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted to determine the toxicity of OSPW from selected water bodies. The study showed that while the concentrations of NAs and salinity were elevated in OSPW waters that caused toxic responses, the concentrations of salinity ions varied greatly among the OSPW samples. Results of the study suggested that ion composition may be a factor in toxicity. Interactions between NAs and salinity were then assessed by performing bioassays with mixtures representing major ion combinations in OSPW.

  17. Fresh and Salt-Water Transport Observations in the Bay of Bengal from the Aquarius satellite mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhaus, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Bay of Bengal is a unique area of the Indian Ocean due to its relatively low salinity compared to the neighboring Arabian Sea as a result of large freshwater input from rivers and the seasonal monsoons. The NASA and CONAE Aquarius/SAC-D salinity mission was successfully launched on June 10, 2011, providing global maps of surface salinity by measuring the ocean's brightness temperature. We used Aquarius and Soil Moisture-Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite salinity observations and surface current velocities from the Ocean Surface Currents Analyses Real-time (OSCAR) project to estimate near-surface fresh and salt-water transports over a 12-month period from August 2011 to July 2012, in order to understand the variability and distribution of salt in the Bay of Bengal. High-resolution (1/12°) HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) estimates of salinity and current velocity as well as in-situ Argo buoy observations are used to compare results from Aquarius and SMOS. AVISO altimetry observations are also used to observe the seasonal equatorial Kelvin wave and determine its role in fresh and salt-water transport, especially south of Sri Lanka from 5°N to 5°S.

  18. Salt crystal purification by deliquescence/crystallization cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desarnaud, J.; Shahidzadeh-Bonn, N.

    2011-08-01

    In this paper we show how by repetitive humidity cycling high-quality single crystals of salt (NaCl) can be obtained. The drying of droplets of saturated salt solution, leads to many individual microcrystallites that grow close to the contact line due to the "coffee stain effect". Subsequent humidity cycling leads to the growth of a smaller number of crystals by expulsing impurities. This allows us to obtain only one single crystal instead of several dozens of crystallites in as little as three cycles. The reduction in the number of cycles needed to obtain a single crystal can even be improved by the combination of two effects; firstly the deliquescence/recrystallisation cycling and secondly by controlling the wetting properties of the substrate with grafted monolayer treatments.

  19. Salt Water Intrusion Modeling of an Aquifer in the Northwest of Maharlu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghader, Fatemeh; Zaree, Mohammad

    2010-05-01

    Coastal aquifers are important supply sources of fresh water in numerous area of earth. The problem of saltwater intrusion has been widely caused the deterioration of water qulity in these sources. As fresh water flows from the aquifer near the coastline. Eventually dynamic equilibrium is reached between the fresh and saltwater. Intrusion of pumping wells within coastal aquifer has the potential to disturb this equilibrium. Maharloo Lake is a salt lake located 27 km southeast of Shiraz. There are many fresh coastal aquifera around this lake that naturally are recharged by fresh water entering from the landward karstic aquifer. The hydraulic equilibrium could be disturbed due to large extraction rate and consequently dropping in groundwater table. So, the lake saltwater with high salinity (Ec more than 300ms/cm in summer) coukd flow toward the aquifer. This lake salinity is much more than oceans salinity, so aquifer salinity could be changed very much even at low equilibrium disturbance. As a result, the management and maintenance of this aquifer is very important. The object of this research is preparation of an intrusion model of a coastal aquifer at the northwestern of Maharloo Lake, where the coastal aquifer is the single supply source of fresh water and the saltwater intrusion has been widely caused the deterioration of water quality. In this study SEAWAT computer code, a three dimensional finit difference model, used to study the intrusion mechanisms and groundwater systems. After data collection including qualitative and quantitative data and geology and hydrogeology of study area in the field, a conseptual model were prepared. On the basis of collected data, condition of the aquifer in February 2008 were taken as the initial condition and the length of calibration and verification periods consequently take 150 and 121 days after this time. After model calibration and verification, the aquifer conditions for next year predicted on the basis of two following strategies : 1. The present condition for the next year. 2.Raising condition of Lake water level in the next year. However, with the constructed model, other strategies could be tasted base on the real situation.

  20. Remote sensing of atmospheric water content from Bhaskara SAMIR data. [using statistical linear regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohil, B. S.; Hariharan, T. A.; Sharma, A. K.; Pandey, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    The 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz passive microwave radiometers (SAMIR) on board the Indian satellite Bhaskara have provided very useful data. From these data has been demonstrated the feasibility of deriving atmospheric and ocean surface parameters such as water vapor content, liquid water content, rainfall rate and ocean surface winds. Different approaches have been tried for deriving the atmospheric water content. The statistical and empirical methods have been used by others for the analysis of the Nimbus data. A simulation technique has been attempted for the first time for 19.35 GHz and 22.235 GHz radiometer data. The results obtained from three different methods are compared with radiosonde data. A case study of a tropical depression has been undertaken to demonstrate the capability of Bhaskara SAMIR data to show the variation of total water vapor and liquid water contents.

  1. Influence of compressive stress on the water content of perfluorosulphonated membranes: a {mu}-Raman study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutor, A.K.; Huguet, P.; Le, T.S.; Deabate, S. [Institut Europeen des Membranes, UMR 5635, ENSCM, UM2, CNRS, Universite de Montpellier II, CC047, Montpellier (France); Morin, A. [Laboratoire des Composants pour Pile a Combustible, Electrolyseur et Modelisation, CEA Grenoble/DRT/Liten/DEHT/LCPEM, Grenoble (France); Gebel, G. [SPrAM, UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1, INAC, Grenoble (France)

    2012-04-15

    The effect of compressive stress on the local water content of Nafion NRE 212 and Aquivion E79 membranes is studied by confocal {mu}-Raman spectroscopy using a specific tightening device. This device aims to mimic the geometry of the bipolar plate flow field of actual fuel cells, i.e. the sequence of channels and ribs. The membrane water content decreases with increasing stress, under the ribs as well as in the channel. The higher the initial water content, the larger the water content decreases with mechanical stress. The extent of water loss depends on the position of the membrane in the device, the applied stress and the hydration history of the membrane. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, J.M.; Flint, A.L.

    1991-01-01

    A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable mesurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: 1) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts; 2) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts; 3) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator; and 4) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The vertical distance was ~0.5m, the horizontal distance was ~0.2m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was ~120??. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less. -from Authors

  3. Structure and vibrational spectroscopy of salt water/air interfaces: Predictions from classical molecular dynamics simulations.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brown, E. C.; Mucha, Martin; Jungwirth, Pavel; Tobias, D. J.

    2005-01-01

    Ro?. 109, - (2005), s. 7934-7940. ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME 644; GA MŠk(CZ) LC512 Grant ostatní: NSF(US) CHE 0431512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : vibrational spectroscopy * salt water * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.033, year: 2005

  4. An analysis of the effects of deicing salts on water environment and wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lajevec, Domen

    2008-01-01

    The paper focuses on winter road maintenance and its effects on water environment and wastewater treatment. Part one presents deicing products used for winter maintenance of road infrastructure. A lot of data about deicers consumption, particularly sodium chloride, are collected here. An analysis of consumption is made for Slovenia, as well as Europe and the United States. The data regarding Slovenian consumption of deicing salts were gathered from Motorway Company in the Republic of Slovenia...

  5. Remote sensing of vegetation water content from equivalent water thickness using satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is one of the most important parameters for the successful retrieval of soil moisture content from passive and active microwave data. Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) is a widely-used index to remotely sense Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) of leaves and can...

  6. Stability of cement-glass packages containing sodium borate salt generated from pressurized water reactor power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new solidification technique using cement-glass, which is a mixture of sodium silicate and cement, was studied for solidification of sodium borate salt of liquid waste generated from pressurized water reactor plants. When the sodium borate salt was solidified with the cement-glass, the resulting package contained eight times more sodium borate than was found in cement because it did not interact with sodium borate. The leaching ratio of cesium ion from the cement-glass package was one-tenth that of cement. Its low leaching ratio was due to the high cesium adsorption ability of cement-glass. The ratio could be theoretically evaluated by considering the cesium adsorption-desorption equilibrium

  7. Polymer capture by ?-hemolysin pore upon salt concentration gradient

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Byoung-jin; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    2014-01-01

    We have measured the rate of capture of single molecules of sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) by ?-hemolysin protein pore by varying applied voltage, pH, and the salt concentration asymmetry across the pore. We show that electrostatic interaction between the polyelectrolyte and the protein pore significantly affects the polymer capture rate in addition to the enhancement of drift arising from electrolyte concentration gradient. At higher pH values where the electrostatic interaction between the...

  8. Salt and Pepper Noise Removal Algorithm by Novel Morpho Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Priya, K.; D. Pugazhenthi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a new decision based morpho filter is proposed for denoising images that are highly corrupted images by salt and pepper noise. The main problem of de-noising is how to keep the poise between degrading image noise and preserving image edge information. Hence, the main aim is to construct a de-noising algorithm which not only eliminate the noises but also preserves image edge information. The algorithm replaces the noisy pixels by morphological operations. Experiments are carried...

  9. Water content and the conversion of phytochrome regulation of lettuce dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertucci, C. W.; Vertucci, F. A.; Leopold, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    In an effort to determine which biological reactions can occur in relation to the water content of seeds, the regulation of lettuce seed dormancy by red and far red light was determined at various hydration levels. Far red light had an inhibiting effect on germination for seeds at all moisture contents from 4 to 32% water. Germination was progressively stimulated by red light as seed hydration increased from 8 to 15%, and reached a maximum at moisture contents above 18%. Red light was ineffective at moisture contents below 8%. Seeds that had been stimulated by red light and subsequently dried lost the enhanced germinability if stored at moisture contents above 8%. The contrast between the presumed photoconversion of phytochrome far red-absorbing (Pfr) to (Pr) occurring at any moisture content and the reverse reaction occurring only if the seed moisture content is greater than 8% may be explained on the basis of the existence of unstable intermediates in the Pr to Pfr conversion. Our results suggest that the initial photoreaction involved in phytochrome conversion is relatively independent of water content, while the subsequent partial reactions become increasingly facilitated as water content increases from 8 to 18%.

  10. Grouped actinide recycling by molten salt electrorefining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy systems of the future are supposed to provide a sustainable energy generation including a substantial waste minimization. It is evident that the corresponding fuel cycles will play a central role in trying to achieve these goals. A new concept based on a grouped separation of actinides is widely discussed in this context. Achieving this type of separation is of course a real challenge since technologies available today have been developed to separate actinides from each other. Pyro-chemical separation processes for the recovery of uranium and to some extent for plutonium have been investigated since decades. The feasibility to include minor actinides in the separation scheme are studied in the projects PYROREP and EUROPART. In the frame of these projects, reprocessing of EBRII type metallic alloy fuel with 2% of Am and 5% of lanthanides (U60Pu20-Zr10Am2Nd3.5Y0.5Ce0.5Gd0.5) is being carried out by electrorefining at ITU. An excellent grouped separation of actinides from lanthanides (An/Ln mass ratio = 2400) had been obtained. These results represent the first demonstration of an efficient grouped actinide recovery from realistic metallic fuels and are therefore an important step in achieving the sustainability of future reactor systems

  11. An unprecedented constraint on water content in the sunlit lunar exosphere seen by Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang'e-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Wu, C.; Qiu, Y. L.; Meng, X. M.; Cai, H. B.; Cao, L.; Deng, J. S.; Han, X. H.; Wei, J. Y.

    2015-05-01

    The content of OH/H2O molecules in the tenuous exosphere of the Moon is still an open issue at present. We here report an unprecedented upper limit of the content of the OH radicals, which is obtained from the in situ measurements carried out by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope, a payload of Chinese Chang'e-3 mission. By analyzing the diffuse background in the images taken by the telescope, the column density and surface concentration of the OH radicals are inferred to be <1011cm-2 and <104cm-3 (by assuming a hydrostatic equilibrium with a scale height of 100 km), respectively, by assuming that the recorded background is fully contributed by their resonance fluorescence emission. The resulted concentration is lower than the previously reported value by about two orders of magnitude, and is close to the prediction of the sputtering model. In addition, the same measurements and method allow us to derive a surface concentration of <102cm-3 for the neutral magnesium, which is lower than the previously reported upper limit by about two orders of magnitude. These results are the best known of the OH (MgI) content in the lunar exosphere to date.

  12. Rational Utilization of Salt Affected Soils and Saline Waters for Crop Production and the Protection of Soil and Water in Agricultural Catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainable management of land and water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is of concern as a result of increased population pressure and the need for more food and fibre. Soil and water salinity is widespread across the arid and semiarid regions of Australia, the Arabian Peninsula, Central Asia, North Africa, North America and South Asia, where it is a major constraint for agricultural productivity and the livelihoods of the rural population. Globally, salinity spreads across at least 75 countries and about 20% of irrigated land is affected by salinity. Recent estimates suggest that up to 50% of irrigated land has become saline in some of these regions. While both natural processes (primary) and anthropogenic activities (secondary) cause soil and water salinity, the latter contributes more to loss of agricultural productivity in these regions. In addition to anthropogenic activities global climate change also accelerates soil and water salinity through the following processes: - Unpredictable evaporation and transpiration: Climate change alters the evapotranspiration and water balance at the land surface, and changes the groundwater recharge. In shallow aquifers, the groundwater responds to these changes quickly and moves towards the surface bringing salt with it and accelerating soil salinization (Yu et al., 2002). - Reduction in rainfall: Current best estimates suggest that in arid and semi-arid catchments, a reduction in rainfall due to climate change will rn in rainfall due to climate change will result in up to double the reduction in run-off from catchments and river flow. Under such conditions, river salinity will increase as a result of reduced river dilution (CSIRO, 2008). - Influence of tidal waves: In coastal areas, the risk of soil and water salinization under climate change is even higher because the increased sea level and frequency of tidal waves brings salt water into inland freshwaters and is lost then to groundwater, making it saline. In low-lying areas, salty river water moves to the land surface causing soil salinization (Nicolls et al., 2007). - Disconnection between floodplains and rivers: Continuous drought in some arid and semi-arid regions accumulates salt in floodplains. At the end of the drought cycle the accumulated salt is mobilized and released to the river making the water saline. This process may continue for years and affect environmental assets downstream of irrigated landscapes (Junk and Wantzen, 2003)

  13. Measuring Soil-Water Content with Gas-Phase Partitioning Tracers: Mass Transfer Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2002-05-01

    Soil-water content is an important parameter for soil scientists, hydrologists, and engineers studying the movement of water, gas, and pollutants in the vadose zone. Traditionally, soil-water content is characterized with point measurements, which include gravimetric analysis of core samples, time domain reflectrometry, and neutron moderation. More recently, the gas-phase partitioning tracer method has been suggested as an in situ tool for obtaining soil water content over large measurement volumes. Here, two tracers move through the gas phase, one that is non-reactive and one that partitions into the bulk water. Chromatographic separation of the tracers occurs that can be related to the soil-water content in the volume traversed by the tracers. Gas-phase partitioning tracers were previously tested under controlled laboratory conditions in homogeneous porous media with reasonably homogeneous distributions of soil-water content. In natural systems, though, soil-water is often heterogeneously distributed and sometimes moving. In this study, we investigated the utility of gas-phase partitioning tracers for these conditions. Laboratory columns were constructed with homogeneous and heterogeneous distributions of sand, which resulted in homogeneous or heterogeneous distributions of soil-water after water addition. In some experiments, the water infiltrated at a steady rate. Carbon dioxide and difluoromethane were selected as bulk-water partitioning tracers, which are tracers whose predominant mechanism of retention is partitioning into water; helium was the conservative tracer. These tracers were flushed through the experimental systems, varying the tracer slug size and gas-phase velocity. Measured soil water contents where compared with known values to infer the conditions under which mass transfer limitations influence gas-phase tracer measurements.

  14. Crystallization of hydrated and anhydrous salts in porous limestone resolved by synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In-pore salt crystallization in Savonnières limestone studied by synchrotron X-ray ?CT. • Simultaneous phase-and-amplitude retrieval to segment solution and hydrated phases. • Confined and unconfined crystallization in multiple pore systems of Savonnières. • Salt solution and salt crystals are located in mechanically weak zones. • Pore scale observations corroborate salt weathering damage patterns in Savonnières. - Abstract: The crystallization processes of two anhydrous salts (NaCl and Na2SO4) and one hydrated (sodium sulfate) salt in the pore space of a natural building stone, Savonnières limestone, are studied. We imaged the salt solution distribution before and after crystallization and the solid crystal distribution in between repeated crystallization cycles using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. This technique proves to be very useful to study salt crystallization processes at the pore scale. The use of simultaneous phase-and-amplitude retrieval during X-ray tomographic reconstruction allows a clear segmentation of sodium sulfate solution and hydrated sodium sulfate crystals without the need for a dopant. Salt crystals can precipitate under unconfined as well as confined conditions in the multiple pore systems of Savonnières limestone, depending on their interconnection. Salt solution and salt crystals are located in mechanically weak zones of the limestone, which can be linked to damage patterns observed in this stone after repeated salt weathering cycles. The distribution and the process of pore filling by salt crystals that are revealed here advance the understanding of salt damage in porous media and may open ways to perform remediation

  15. Bayesian methods for predicting LAI and soil water content

    OpenAIRE

    Mansouri, Majdi; Dumont, Benjamin; Leemans, Vincent; Destain, Marie-France

    2014-01-01

    LAI of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and soil water content of the topsoil (200 mm) and of the subsoil (500 mm) were considered as state variables of a dynamic soil-crop system. This system was assumed to progress according to a Bayesian probabilistic state space model, in which real values of LAI and soil water content were daily introduced in order to correct the model trajectory and reach better future evolution. The chosen crop model was mini STICS which can reduce the computing and...

  16. Certified reference material to water content determination in bioethanol fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína M. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol is a strategic biofuel in Brazil. Thus, a strong metrological basis for its measurements is required to ensure the quality and promote its exportation. Recently, Inmetro certified a reference material for water content in bioethanol. This paper presents the results of these studies. The characterization, homogeneity, short-term stability and long-term stability uncertainty contributions values were 0.00500, 0.0166, 0.0355 and 0.0391 mg g-1, respectively. The certificated value for water content of bioethanol fuel was (3.65 ± 0.11 mg g-1. This CRM is the first and up to now the unique in the world.

  17. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchabke-Coussa, O.; Quashie, M.L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results: All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Conclusion: Overall our findings suggest that the ESKIMO1 gene plays a major role in plant response to water shortage and inwhole plant water economy. Further experiments are being undertaken to elucidate the function of the ESKIMO1 protein and the way it modulates plant water uptake.

  18. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Agnes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying potential targets for plant breeding. Drought tolerance in the field was successfully conferred to crops by transferring genes from this model species. While involved in a plant genomics programme, which aims to identify new genes responsible for plant response to abiotic stress, we identified ESKIMO1 as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant's improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE, which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of one mutant line and its wild-type background was carried out. Under control watering conditions a number of genes were differentially expressed between the mutant and the wild type whereas under mild drought stress this list of genes was reduced. Among the genes that were differentially expressed between the wild type and mutant, two functional categories related to the response to stress or biotic and abiotic stimulus were over-represented. Under salt stress conditions, all gene functional categories were represented equally in both the mutant and wild type. Based on this transcriptome analysis we hypothesise that in control conditions the esk1 mutant behaves as if it was exposed to drought stress. Conclusion Overall our findings suggest that the ESKIMO1 gene plays a major role in plant response to water shortage and in whole plant water economy. Further experiments are being undertaken to elucidate the function of the ESKIMO1 protein and the way it modulates plant water uptake.

  19. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin

    2014-01-01

    Accurate information on the dry end (matric potential less than ?1500 kPa) of soil water retention curves (SWRCs) is crucial for studying water vapor transport and evaporation in soils. The objectives of this study were to assess the potential of the Oswin model for describing the water adsorption curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (?RH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model combined with the Kelvin equation (CS-K) produced better fits to dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 2:1 clays but provided poor fits for soils dominated by 1:1 clays. The shape parameter ? of the Oswin model was dependent on clay mineral type, and approximate values of 0.29 and 0.57 were obtained for soils dominated by 2:1 and 1:1 clays, respectively. Comparison of the Oswin model combined with the Kelvin equation, with water potential estimated from ?RH50 (Oswin-KRH50), CS model combined with the Arthur equation (CS-A), and CS-K model, with water potential obtained from ?RH50 (CS-KRH50) indicated that for soils dominated by 2:1 clay minerals, the predictive ability of the Oswin-KRH50 model was comparable to the CS-KRH50 model in which ?RH50 was the input parameter but performed better than the CS-A model where clay content was the input parameter. The Oswin-KRH50 model also has the potential for predicting dry-end SWRCs of soils dominated by 1:1 clays.

  20. Dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The moisture storage characteristic is a basic material property of moisture transport modeling. It is measured under equilibrium conditions for adsorption and desorption. One commonly accepted assumption is that this equilibrium data is also applicable for transient conditions. This paper provides evidence on the limitations of this assumptions obtained during transient adsorption and desorption experiments where moisture content and moisture potential was measured simultaneously at different sample positions versus time.

  1. On OH uptake by sea salt under humid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Ho; Christov, Christomir I.; Ivanov, Andrey V.; Molina, Mario J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated OH uptake by a MgCl2-CaCl2 mixture at 0-29% RH, using a differential bead-filled flow tube coupled to a high-pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer. The results show that the effect of RH on OH uptake by the mixture reproduces quantitatively that of sea salt. This observation is supported by results of our thermodynamic modeling which predicts that the deliquescence relative humidity of MgCl2.6H2O(cr) decreases in the presence of CaCl2.6H2O(cr), leading to higher surface acidification, and therefore, to greater enhancement in OH uptake under humid conditions. This conclusion is further strengthened by our earlier experimental observations which indicate that the enhancement of the OH uptake coefficient under humid conditions for sea salt is a factor of two larger than that for binary MgCl2-H2O solutions in equilibrium with MgCl2.6H2O(cr). Based on these results we conclude that surface composition determines, to a large extent, the heterogeneous reactivity of inorganic salt mixtures.

  2. Effect of agricultural activity in the salt content in soils of Murcia: comparison with other land uses; Efecto de la actividad agricola en los contenidos de sales en suelos de Murcia: comparacion con otros usos de suelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta Aviles, J. A.; Faz Cano, A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.

    2009-07-01

    Salinization is one of the main problems of soil degradation in arid and semiarid areas, causing a reduction of soil quality, declining yield and productivity, and even land abandonment. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different land uses, particularly agricultural use in the salt content in soil. The study area is located in the surroundings of Murcia city (SE Spain), with an surface of 100 km{sup 2}, with high agricultural productivity. In order to determine salt content in soil, E. C. was measured in the 1:5 ratio. The results showed that the study area is saline, being the salinity higher when anthropogenic activity is more severe. Agricultural lands present the widest range of data, probably due to the application of poor quality irrigation water, fertilizers and livestock waste. (Author) 9 refs.

  3. [Desmopressin effect on water-salt homeostasis and orthostatic tolerance during head-down tilting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, I M; Noskov, V B; Nichiporuk, I A; Pastushkova, L Kh; Vasil'eva, G Iu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of desmopressin, a synthetic analog of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), on water-salt metabolism and orthostatic tolerance were evaluated in human subjects during 24-hr HDT (-15 degrees). Consumption of the preparation was found to dampen losses in total body and extracellular liquids and to slow down diuresis as well as establishment of a positive water balance as compared with control series without ADH. In addition, tolerance of the standard standing test improved noticeably. To conclude, desmopressin precluded hypohydration of the tilted subjects and, consequently, prevented loss of orthostatic tolerance. PMID:19462786

  4. Long term salinity stress in relation to lipid peroxidation, super oxide dismutase activity and proline content of salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant wheat cultivars / Estrés salino a largo plazo en relación con peroxidación lipídica, actividad superóxido dismutasa y contenido de prolina de cultivares de trigo sensibles y tolerantes a la salinidad

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Azam, Borzouei; Mohammad, Kafi; Elahe, Akbari-Ghogdi; MirAhmad, Mousavi-Shalmani.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available La salinidad es un problema del medio radical ampliamente distribuido que limita la productividad de los cultivos de cereal en todo el mundo. La capacidad de las plantas para tolerar la sal está determinada por multiples vías bioquímicas que facilitan la retención y/o adquisición de agua, protegen l [...] as funciones del cloroplasto, y mantienen la homeostasis iónica. Por lo tanto, se evaluó la capacidad de dos cultivares de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.), sensible a sal ('Tajan') y tolerante a sal ('Bam'), para adaptarse a un ambiente salino en un grupo de experimentos en invernadero bajo estrés salino durante tres estaciones de crecimiento (encanado, 50% antesis, y 10 d después de antesis). Las plantas se regaron con diferentes aguas salinas con conductividades eléctricas de 1,3; 6; 8; 10; y 12 dS m-1, que se obtuvieron agregando NaCl:CaCl2 en relación molar 10:1 con agua fresca. Las diferencias en parámetros de crecimiento, peroxidación de lípidos, actividad superóxido dismutasa (SOD), y acumulación de prolina fueron evaluadas a fin de determinar la tolerancia o sensibilidad relativas de los cultivares. Los resultados indicaron que ambos parámetros difieren de acuerdo a la capacidad del cultivar para enfrentar el estrés oxidativo causado por la salinidad. Observamos una mayor declinación en los parámetros de crecimiento y producción de grano bajo estrés salino en 'Tajan' que en 'Bam'. El contenido de malondialdehído también fue mayor en 'Tajan'. El mejorado rendimiento de 'Bam' bajo alta salinidad se acompanó por un aumento en actividad SOD (EC 1.15.1.1) y contenido de prolina en todos los estados de crecimiento. Los resultados de los parámetros de crecimiento, peroxidación de lípidos y acumulación de prolina también se correlacionan bien apoyando que este cultivar es relativamente tolerante. Abstract in english Salinity is a widespread root medium problem limiting productivity of cereal crops worldwide. The ability of plants to tolerate salt is determined by multiple biochemical pathways that facilitate retention and/or acquisition of water, protect chloroplast functions, and maintain ion homeostasis. Ther [...] efore, the ability of salt-sensitive ('Tajan') and salt-tolerant cultivar ('Bam') of Triticum aestivum L. to adapt to a saline environment were evaluated in a set of greenhouse experiments under salt stress during three growth stages (tillering, 50% anthesis, and 10 d after anthesis). Plants were irrigated by different saline waters with electrical conductivities of 1.3, 6, 8, 10, and 12 dS m-1, which were obtained by adding NaCl:CaCl2 in 10:1 molar ratio to fresh water. Differences in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and proline accumulation were tested in order to put forward the relative tolerance or sensitivity of cultivars. Results indicated that both parameters differ according to the cultivar's ability in coping oxidative stress caused by salinity. We observed a greater decline in the growth parameters and grain yield under salt stress in 'Tajan' than in 'Bam'. Malondialdehyde content was also higher in 'Tajan'. The improved performance of the 'Bam' under high salinity was accompanied by an increase in SOD (EC 1.15.1.1) activity and proline content at all growth stages. Growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and proline accumulation results are also in good correlation with supporting this cultivar is being relatively tolerant.

  5. Determining water content in human nails with a portable near-infrared spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Mariko; Fukuhara, Tadao; Takahashi, Motoji; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2003-04-01

    The water content of human nail plates was determined using a portable near-infrared (NIR) spectrometer with an InGaAs photodiode array detector. NIR diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra were collected from 108 cut nail plates with different relative humidity and in vivo from fingernails. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression was applied to the NIR spectra in the 1115-1645 nm region to develop calibration models that determine the water content in the cut nail plates and fingernails. A good correlation was obtained between the NIR spectra and the water content measured by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for the NIR measurement of both cut nail plates and fingernails. The results indicate that the water content in the nails can be determined very rapidly (1 s) by means of the portable NIR spectrometer and PLS regression. PMID:14658646

  6. Profiling water content in soils with TDR: Comparison with the neutron probe technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In November 1996, at a site on the Grenoble campus a 1.2-m-long neutron access tube, a 0.8-m fibreglass Trime access tube and three sets of 1-m twin-rod TDR probes were installed. Weekly measurements were made over a 9-month period. In addition, soil samples were taken from time to time with an auger, to determine gravimetric water-contents. The soil bulk density profile was initially characterised by gammametry using a CampbellTM probe. A TroxlerTM 4300 was used for the neutron-probe measurements. The TDR signals, for further processing by TDR-SSI, were logged using a Trase 2000 from Soil Moisture Equipment CorporationTM. TDR methods were employed without any special calibration of the permittivity/water-content relationship: standard internal calibrations of the devices or Topp polynomial relation were always applied. The results of all these water-content profiling methods were compared in three ways: (i) the water-content profiles were plotted directly on the same graph for different dates; (ii) all the water contents measured at all dates and all depths were plotted against a corresponding 'reference', namely neutron probe or gravimetry; (iii) water balances were calculated for each method and their respective time-profiles analysed. There was fairly good agreement among the three profiling methods, indicating that TDR is now a viable alternative to nuclear techniques for soil water-content profiling. (author)

  7. Inhibition of hot salt corrosion by metallic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deadmore, D. L.; Lowell, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    The effectiveness of several potential fuel additives in reducing the effects of sodium sulfate-induced hot corrosion was evaluated in a cyclic Mach 0.3 burner rig. The potential inhibitors examined were salts of Al, Si, Cr, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca, and Ba. The alloys tested were IN-100, U-700, IN-738, IN-792, Mar M-509, and 304 stainless steel. Each alloy was exposed for 100 cycles of 1 hour each at 900 C in combustion gases doped with the corrodant and inhibitor salts and the extent of attack was determined by measuring maximum metal thickness loss. The most effective and consistent inhibitor additive was Ba (NO3)2 which reduced the hot corrosion attack to nearly that of simple oxidation.

  8. K-Basins particulate water content, and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis summarizes the state of knowledge of K-basins spent nuclear fuel oxide (film, particulate or sludge) and its chemically bound water in order to estimate the associated multi-canister overpack (MCO) water inventory and to describe particulate dehydration behavior. This information can be used to evaluate the thermal and chemical history of an MCO and its contents during cold vacuum drying (CVD), shipping, and interim storage

  9. Resistance to fresh and salt water in intertidal mites (Acari: Oribatida): implications for ecology and hydrochorous dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfingstl, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    The resistance to fresh water and seawater in three intertidal oribatid mite species from Bermuda, Alismobates inexpectatus, Fortuynia atlantica and Carinozetes bermudensis, was tested in laboratory experiments. Larvae are more sensitive to fresh and salt water, nymphs and adults showed equal tolerances. Fortuynia atlantica and A. inexpectatus were more resistant to salt water whereas C. bermudensis survived longer in fresh water. Differences in the resistance to fresh and salt water among the three species may be related to their different vertical occurrences in the eulittoral zone but also to the ability of single species to dwell in periodically brackish waters. In all three species half of the specimens survived at least 10 days in fresh water and more than 18 days in salt water. Maximal submersion time in fresh and salt water ranged from 40 to 143 days. Based on median lethal times it could be estimated that each species would be able to survive transport in seawater along the Gulf Stream over a distance of 3,000 km, from Central America to Bermuda. Thus hydrochorous dispersal should be assumed as the most likely mode of dispersal in intertidal fortuyniid and selenoribatid mites. PMID:23456607

  10. Soil water content measured by FDR probes and thresholds for drip irrigation management in peach trees / Contenido de agua en el suelo medido con sondas FDR y umbrales para manejo de riego por goteo en durazno

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Oussama, Hussein-Mounzer; José Rodolfo, Mendoza-Hernández; Isabel, Abrisqueta-Villena; Luis Mario, Tapia-Vargas; José María, Abrisqueta-García; Juan, Vera-Muñoz; Mari Carmen, Ruiz-Sánchez.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El contenido de agua en el suelo fue monitoreado en tiempo real con un multisensor de capacitancia, basado en la técnica de reflectometría en el dominio de la frecuencia (FDR), en una huerta joven de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Flordastar) con riego por goteo. El objetivo de este trabajo f [...] ue estudiar efecto de dos tratamientos de riego en el contenido volumétrico de agua del suelo y establecer los umbrales de manejo del agua de almacenamiento del suelo (SWS), bajo monitoreo con sensores FDR durante 2004. Los tratamientos consistieron en restaurar el contenido de agua del suelo a 100% (T1) y 50% (T2) de la evapotranspiración del cultivo (ETc) aplicando diferentes dosis de riego a igual frecuencia. Las medidas continuas del SWS registradas por los sensores FDR refl ejaron el impacto de los diferentes eventos de riego en el contenido de agua del suelo, proporcionaron información del avance del frente de humedad, de la profundidad activa del sistema radicular y del destino del agua de riego. A través del continuo suelo-planta-atmósfera, las variaciones del SWS, fueron usadas para determinar in situ el "nivel superior (fullpoint)" (142 mm 0.5 m-1), la "capacidad de campo" (132 mm 0.5 m-1) y el "nivel inferior (refillpoint)" (124 mm 0.5 m-1) como umbrales prácticos para manejo de riego y ajuste de la dosis y frecuencia de riego con los requerimiento reales de agua de la planta. La determinación gráfica de los umbrales de riego minimizó la importancia de pequeñas fluctuaciones del contenido de agua del suelo. Para el cultivar de durazno "Flordastar" la reducción de aplicación de agua hasta 50% de ETc condujo a una reducción progresiva del contenido de agua del suelo sin producir efecto significativo en el rendimiento de fruto y un incremento de la eficiencia de uso de agua de 2.7 kg m-³ en T1 a 5.0 kg m-3 en T2. Abstract in english Soil water content was monitored continuously with multisensor capacitance probes, based on the frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) technique, in drip irrigated young peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cv. Flordastar in a semiarid region of Murcia, Spain during 2004. The aim of this work was [...] to study the effect of two irrigation treatments on volumetric soil water content and to determine the irrigation management thresholds of the soil water store (SWS) as monitored by FDR probes. The treatments consisted in restoring the soil water content to 100% (T1) and 50% (T2) of the crop evapotranspiration (Etc) by applying different irrigation doses with similar frequency. The continuous measurements of soil water content by the capacitance sensors reflected properly the impact of different irrigation events on the soil water stored and provide useful information upon the advance of the wetted front, the depth of the root system activity and the fate of the applied water. Through the continuum soil-plant-atmosphere, the variations of the soil water content were used to determine the in situ: "fullpoint" (142 mm 0.5 m-1), field capacity (132 mm 0.5 m-1), and "refillpoint" (124 mm 0.5 m-1) as practical thresholds for irrigation management to match the irrigation doses and frequency with the actual plant water requirements. Graphical determination of irrigation thresholds minimized the importance of small fluctuations in soil water content. For the early ripening "Flordastar" peach cultivar the reduction of water application down to 50% ETc has lead to a progressive depletion of the soil water storage without a significant effect on final fruit yield and increased water use efficiency from 2.7 kg m-3 in T1 to 5.0 kg m-3 in T2.

  11. SMEX03 Vegetation Water Content: Oklahoma

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Notice to Data Users: The documentation for this data set was provided solely by the Principal Investigator(s) and was not further developed, thoroughly reviewed,...

  12. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vogel, N., de; Y. Scheidegger; Brennwald, M. S.; Fleitmann, D.; S. Figura; Wieler, R.; Kipfer, R.

    2012-01-01

    In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure for its total water content. The stalagmites' water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (?18Ocalcite&...

  13. On salt marshes retreat: Experiments and modeling toppling failures induced by wind waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendoni, M.; Francalanci, S.; Cappietti, L.; Solari, L.

    2014-03-01

    Salt marshes are delicate ecosystems which are disappearing in many areas of the world, mainly due to increasing rates of sea level rise, subsidence, and anthropic pressure. The lateral erosion of the edge of salt marshes is one of the most important processes in determining changes in morphology, and wind waves have a key role in this retreat. Lateral retreat occurs by means of several types of mass failure processes, typically cantilever, sliding, and toppling. In the literature, no mechanistic models for the description of toppling failure are available. In this study, we performed a set of experiments to quantify the pressure field and the hydrodynamic forcing induced by wind waves during toppling failures of unstable blocks on a salt marsh edge. We propose a model interpreting toppling failure based on the experimental evidence as well as on the physics of the system. We model the system as a dynamic rigid block of cohesive soil, identified by the presence of a tension crack, subjected to hydrodynamic forces caused by impact of waves and resistive forces due to the block's weight and soil cohesion. The failure of the blocks occurs when the soil tensile strength is exceeded along the failure surface located at the base of the block. The model is able to reproduce failure processes observed in the laboratory. Moreover, the model reveals that the most critical conditions for marsh bank instability due to toppling failure are associated to the presence of water inside the tension crack and low water levels in front of the bank.

  14. Adaptive changes in cardiolipin content of Staphylococcus aureus grown in different salt concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takatsu,Tieko

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive changes in cardiolipin content were examined in Staphylococcus aureus 209P using the 32P pulse-labelling method. Cardiolipin synthesis showed increased adaptation when cells grown in normal medium were transferred into high NaCl containing medium. When S. aureus cultured in 10% NaCl medium was transferred back to normal medium, cardiolipin concentration decreased to the normal level within 3 hours. The catabolic rate of cardiolipin in the cells was much slower in the 5% NaCl medium than in normal medium. The cardiolipin synthetase activity was examined by isolated membrane fraction from S. aureus grown both in normal and 10% NaCl medium. The activity was higher by two-fold in membrane fractions from cells cultured in 10% NaCl-containing medium than in membranes from cells cultured in normal medium.

  15. Hydrogen production via water splitting process in a molten-salt fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezisik, Guelsah; Yapici, Hueseyin [Erciyes Ueniversitesi Muehendislik Fakueltesi, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Demir, Nesrin [Erciyes Ueniversitesi Muehendislik Fakueltesi, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT), 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario L1H 7K4 (Canada); Uebeyli, Mustafa [TOBB Ekonomi ve Teknoloji Ueniversitesi, Muehendislik Fakueltesi, 06560 Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-07-15

    This study presents the hydrogen production and fissile breeding potentials of Force-Free Helical Reactor (FFHR) fueled with the molten-salt mixtures. The sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting and high-temperature electrolysis cycles, which are the most promising water-splitting cycles, are selected to produce large-scale and pure hydrogen. The XSDRNPM/SCALE4.4a neutron transport code is used for the neutronic calculations. The analyses have been performed individually for four different molten-salt mixtures, (pure FLiBe, mixture of FLiBe and ThF{sub 4}, mixture of FLiBe and UF{sub 4}, and mixture of FLiBe, ThF{sub 4} and {sup 233}UF{sub 4}). The numerical results bring out that the considered molten-salt fusion breeder reactor has a high neutronic performance and can produce a considerable amount of the hydrogen production (up to 40 kg/s), as well as the fissile fuel (up to 2.5 tons/yr). (author)

  16. Thermodynamic study of protein phases formation and clustering in model water-protein-salt solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Sergey P; Goryunov, Andrey S

    2010-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of the water-protein-salt system, based on the description of the spinodal curve, has been carried out in various coordinate systems: (water chemical potential, protein concentration m(2)); (protein "solubility" log S, salt concentration m(3)); (effective temperature, critical composition of the system m(2)/m(3)). Such presentations explain the existence of diagrams with normal and retrograde protein solubility as a result of straightforward effect of ions present in solution as well as some features of the widely used phase diagram in coordinates (temperature, protein concentration). Analytic expressions for coefficients K and b of the salting out equation log S=-K.m(3)+b as functions of protein charge and protein adsorbed ions have been obtained and identified with the spinodal characteristic points reflecting quasi-equilibrium between protein-lean phase and dense protein-rich phase. Liquid-liquid, liquid-solid phase transitions, dynamic protein clusters and second virial coefficient that characterize interaction between solution components have been thus interrelated. The results of our thermodynamic analysis have been compared with the data reported for lysozyme . PMID:20494508

  17. Radon content in various types of ground water in south-eastern Sweden. A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of investigation has been to study the radon content and its seasonal fluctuations in different types of ground water. The investigation was carried out in an area where the hydrogeological conditions are fairly well known. The geology is dominated by granitic bedrock and till. Water samples were collected from drilled wells in different rocks and from dug wells and springs in till and gravel. The seasonal fluctuations were studied in a small area. All radon measurements were made in the laboratory. The main results are following.(1) The highest radon content (max. 40 nCi/l) was observed in water from wells drilled granite. (2) The radon content in ground water from till never exceeds 8 nCi/l; the highest amount is normally found in springs situated in drumlin terrain with basel till and gravel lenses and beds (3-5 nCi/l) the contents in dug wells are 0.5-3.5 nCi/l.(3) Waters from gravel deposits have constantly low radon contents (0.1-3 nCi/l), and surface water has no radon.(4) The seasonal fluctuations in radon content are rather high and show a similar pattern to that of the fluctuations of the ground-water levels in till in the same area. (author)

  18. Measurement of soil water content with dielectric dispersion frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) is an inexpensive and attractive methodology for repeated measurements of soil water content (SWC). Although there are some known measurement limitations for dry soil and sand, a fixed-frequency method is commonly employed using commercially available FDR probes....

  19. Processo germinativo de sementes de paineira sob estresses hídrico e salino Seed germination of paineira under water and salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cristina Fanti

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente mutável provoca múltiplos estresses, que podem limitar a germinação da semente e a emergência e sobrevivência da plântula. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito dos estresses hídrico e salino na viabilidade e vigor de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. e o limite máximo de tolerância a esses estresses. Para avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico foram utilizadas soluções de manitol e PEG 6000; para o estresse salino, soluções de NaCl, KCl e CaCl2. Após a punção do tegumento, quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento foram submetidas à germinação em substrato de papel-filtro umedecido com as soluções de diferentes potenciais osmóticos e incubadas a 27ºC. As sementes apresentaram menor tolerância ao estresse hídrico simulado com PEG 6000 em relação ao simulado com manitol. O limite máximo de tolerância à seca está situado entre -0,6 e -0,7 MPa de PEG 6000 e entre -1,4 e -1,6 MPa de manitol. Independentemente dos sais utilizados, a porcentagem de germinação decresceu com a diminuição do potencial osmótico do meio. O limite máximo de tolerância ao estresse salino foi o mesmo para todos os sais avaliados e está situado entre -1,0 e -1,2 MPa. A paineira pode ser classificada como glicófita, com moderada tolerância aos sais NaCl, KCl e CaCl2.Multiple stresses promoted by a changeable environment can limit germination process, seedling emergence and survival. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of water and salt stresses on the viability and vigour of "paineira" seeds (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. and the maximal tolerance limits. Water stress was evaluated using mannitol and PEG 6000 solutions. Salt stress was evaluated using NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 solutions. After coat punction, four replicates of 50 seeds for each treatment were submitted to germination on filter paper moistened with test solutions at different osmotic potential and kept at 27ºC. The lowest tolerance limit to water stress was observed when PEG solutions were used. The maximal tolerance limit was between -0,6 and -0.7 MPa for PEG 6000 and between -1.4 and -1.6 MPa for mannitol solutions. The germination percentage decreased with the reduction of the osmotic potential of the environment, independently of the used salts. The same tolerance limits to different salts were observed between -1.0 and -1.2 MPa. Paineira may be considered a glycophyte with moderate tolerance to the salts NaCl, KCl and CaCl2.

  20. Processo germinativo de sementes de paineira sob estresses hídrico e salino / Seed germination of paineira under water and salt stress

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silmara Cristina, Fanti; Sonia Cristina Juliano Gualtieri de Andrade, Perez.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O ambiente mutável provoca múltiplos estresses, que podem limitar a germinação da semente e a emergência e sobrevivência da plântula. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o efeito dos estresses hídrico e salino na viabilidade e vigor de sementes de paineira (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil.) e o l [...] imite máximo de tolerância a esses estresses. Para avaliação do efeito do estresse hídrico foram utilizadas soluções de manitol e PEG 6000; para o estresse salino, soluções de NaCl, KCl e CaCl2. Após a punção do tegumento, quatro repetições de 50 sementes por tratamento foram submetidas à germinação em substrato de papel-filtro umedecido com as soluções de diferentes potenciais osmóticos e incubadas a 27ºC. As sementes apresentaram menor tolerância ao estresse hídrico simulado com PEG 6000 em relação ao simulado com manitol. O limite máximo de tolerância à seca está situado entre -0,6 e -0,7 MPa de PEG 6000 e entre -1,4 e -1,6 MPa de manitol. Independentemente dos sais utilizados, a porcentagem de germinação decresceu com a diminuição do potencial osmótico do meio. O limite máximo de tolerância ao estresse salino foi o mesmo para todos os sais avaliados e está situado entre -1,0 e -1,2 MPa. A paineira pode ser classificada como glicófita, com moderada tolerância aos sais NaCl, KCl e CaCl2. Abstract in english Multiple stresses promoted by a changeable environment can limit germination process, seedling emergence and survival. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of water and salt stresses on the viability and vigour of "paineira" seeds (Chorisia speciosa St. Hil.) and the maximal tolera [...] nce limits. Water stress was evaluated using mannitol and PEG 6000 solutions. Salt stress was evaluated using NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 solutions. After coat punction, four replicates of 50 seeds for each treatment were submitted to germination on filter paper moistened with test solutions at different osmotic potential and kept at 27ºC. The lowest tolerance limit to water stress was observed when PEG solutions were used. The maximal tolerance limit was between -0,6 and -0.7 MPa for PEG 6000 and between -1.4 and -1.6 MPa for mannitol solutions. The germination percentage decreased with the reduction of the osmotic potential of the environment, independently of the used salts. The same tolerance limits to different salts were observed between -1.0 and -1.2 MPa. Paineira may be considered a glycophyte with moderate tolerance to the salts NaCl, KCl and CaCl2.

  1. Effects of soil type and water saturation on growth, nutrient and mineral content of the perennial forage shrub Sesbania sesban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan, Truong Hoang; Brix, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr is a perennial N2-fixing tree with high potential for use in agricultural production systems as a green manure and livestock forage. We studied the interactive effects of soil type and water level on the growth, biomass allocation, nutrient and mineral content of S. sesban. Four-week old seedlings of S. sesban were grown for 49 days (n=5) in a factorial mesocosm set-up with six soil types (sediment, sand, alluvial, acid-sulfate, saline and clay) and three water levels (drained, water-saturated and flooded). The soils tested represent the predominant alluvial soil types of the Mekong delta, Vietnam. Sesbania sesban grew well with relative growth rates (RGR) around 0.08 g g-1 d-1 in all studied soil types, except the saline soil where plants died. In the low-pH (3.9) acid sulfate soil, that constitute more than 40% of the Mekong delta, the RGR of the plants was slightly lower (0.07 g g-1 d-1), foliar concentration of calcium was 3-6 times lower, and concentrations of iron and sodium up to five times higher, than in other soils. The nutrient and mineral contents of the plant tissues differed between the soils and were also affected by the flooding levels. Foliar concentrations of nitrogen (50-74 mg N g-1 dry mass) and phosphorus (5-9 mg P g-1 dry mass) were, however, generally high and only slightly affected by water level. The results show that S. sesban can grow well and with high growth rates on most wet soils in the Mekong delta, except saline soils where the high salt content prevents establishment and growth. The nutrient and mineral contents of the plants, and hence the nutritional value of the plants as e.g. fodder or compost crops, is high. However, soil type and water level interactively affect growth and tissue composition. Hence, optimal growth conditions for S. sesban differ in the different regions of the Mekong delta.

  2. Water/AOT/IPM/alcohol reverse microemulsions: Influence of salts and nonionic surfactants on structure and percolation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Hydrogen bond interactions cause NaSal assist the percolation. • Brij-56 (TX-100) makes Peff decrease and droplets diameter increase, promoting the percolation. • Spans have little effect on percolation due mainly to their small headgroup. • Alcohol can decrease evidently the activation energy by enhancing the interfacial flexibility. - Abstract: Influence of salts (sodium chloride, sodium salicylate and sodium cholate) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-56, TX-100, Span-20, Span-40 and Span-60) on structure and percolation behavior of water/AOT/IPM/propanol (butanol) systems were systematically investigated using conductivity and dynamic light scattering. Percolation behavior had a distinct change with different types of salts and nonionic surfactants. Addition of sodium chloride delayed the conductivity percolation, while sodium salicylate and sodium cholate assisted the percolation. Addition of Brij-56 and TX-100 promoted evidently the conductivity percolation, whereas Spans had little effect. Conductivity behavior was further discussed from the structural properties of nonionic surfactants and salts, and the surfactant packing parameter (P). Droplets sizes were measured using dynamic light scattering to underline the effect of nonionic surfactants on P. Furthermore, ln ? had a linear correlation with temperature in the range of (278.15 to 313.15) K. No percolation threshold induced by temperature was detected among all the studied systems. Moreover, the activation energy for conductivity was also estimated and discussed according to the Arrhenius-type equation

  3. Current Status of our Understanding of the Water Content in the Mantle Transition Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karato, S.; Dai, L.

    2008-12-01

    The water content of the mantle transition zone is a key factor that controls (or reflects) the nature of materials circulation in Earth. Although the maximum amount of water in the transition zone is well constrained by the experimental data on the solubility of water in the constituent minerals, actual water content in the mantle transition zone is highly controversial, and the published results range from almost dry to nearly water-saturated transition zone. In this presentation, we will review various methods to infer the water content in the transition zone including those using (i) seismological observations and (ii) electrical conductivity. Seismological observations used to infer water content include (i) the thickness-velocity anomalies correlation, (ii) the sharpness of the 410-km boundary and (iii) the seismic wave velocities. Limitations of this approach are that the direct influence of water on seismic wave velocities is appreciable only for large water contents (1 % or more) and the physical processes to control the sharpness of the 410-km are not unique. In contrast, the physical processes by which water (hydrogen) affects the electrical conductivity is well understood and the influence of water on electrical conductivity is large even for a relatively small water content. Therefore if the electrical conductivity in the mantle transition zone is known, and temperature is constrained within a certain range, the water content in the transition zone can be estimated from the comparison of laboratory data on electrical conductivity with geophysically determined electrical conductivity in the transition zone. However, there are a few technical details that one must pay attention to in order to obtain robust results on the influence of water on electrical conductivity. (i) Electrical conductivity must be determined from the measured impedance for a broad range of frequencies to eliminate the influence of charge accumulation (at electrodes and/or grain-boundaries). (ii) In order to determine the electrical conductivity for dry sample, extreme care must be paid for sample preparation because a substantial amount of water easily goes to a sample (wadsleyite, in particular) from the pressure medium without adding any water. We have conducted new measurements on the electrical conductivity in wadsleyite under a broad range of conditions and have shown that (i) the electrical conductivity of truly dry wadsleyite is much smaller than that of nominally dry wadsleyite by Yoshino et al. (2008), (ii) the electrical conductivities determined at 0.01 Hz (most of Yoshino et al. (2008) data were collected at this frequency) are systematically lower than those determined from the impedance spectroscopy from a broad frequency range (e.g., Huang et al. (2005)), and (iii) there is little dependence of activation energy on water content in the water-rich regime whereas Yoshino et al. (2008) found systematic decrease in activation energy with water content in the water-rich regime. However, we did reproduce Yoshino et al. (2008)'s results on water-rich wadsleyite if we use only one frequency (0.01 Hz). Therefore we conclude that the cause for the discrepancy between Huang et al. (2005) and Yoshino et al. (2008) is mainly the use of inappropriate methods by Yoshino et al. (2008), and the estimate of water content by Huang et al. (2005) remains the best estimate for the Pacific transition zone (~0.1-0.2 wt %), although the water content in the transition zone beneath the Philippine sea is much larger (1 % or more).

  4. Heat capacities of the mixed-solvents desiccants (glycols + water + salts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat capacities of glycol/H2O/salt systems have been measured over the temperature range 303.15-353.15 K with a differential scanning calorimeter. The salts studied were lithium chloride and lithium bromide; the glycols considered were diethylene glycol, triethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, propylene glycol and dipropylene glycol. For each ternary system, four systems of which (4-25 mass%) salt mixed with various glycols (50-80 mass%) were studied. An extended Redlich-Kister-type binary system equation was used to correlate the measured heat capacity data. To this end, the heat capacities of pure glycols and aqueous glycol solutions were also measured. The correlations give satisfactory results as shown by an overall AAD for heat capacity calculations of 0.5% for 234 data points. The present measurements are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations for the design of dehumidifier equipments

  5. HIGH PURITY ALUMINIUM-LITHIUM MASTER ALLOY BY MOLTEN SALT ELECTROLYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Y.; Toyoshima, M.; Itoh, K.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this work is to develop the economical production process of the Al-Li master alloy free from metallic sodium, calcium and potassium. This master alloy can be used for aluminium-lithium alloys for structual materials of aircrafts, automobiles and robots. Moreover the Al-Li master alloy with lithium content of 18-20wt. % is applicable to the blanket of fusion reactors and the active mass of batteries. This Al-Li master alloy can be produced by means of LiCl-KCl molten salt electroly...

  6. Using the radium quartet for evaluating groundwater input and water exchange in salt marshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluxes of 226Ra (half-life = 1600 years) and 228Ra (half-life = 5.7 years) from the North Inlet salt marsh to the sea are much larger than can be supported by decay of their Th parents in the surface marsh sediments. These fluxes are sustained almost entirely by groundwater flow through the marsh. An average groundwater flow of approximately 10 cm3 cm-2 day-1 is indicated if the groundwater activities we have measured are representative. The fluxes of 223Ra (half-life = 11.4 day) and 224Ra (half-life = 3.6 day) are factors of 22, and ten more than those expected from the flux of 226Ra. Groundwater also sustains most of the flux of the short-lived isotopes. The measured Ra activity ratio pattern in the marsh creeks matches the groundwater signature but is distinct from the pattern of the parent thorium isotopes in the sediment. We present a model to explain the anomalous distribution pattern of these isotopes. Despite their large throughput, the inventories of desorbable 226Ra and 228Ra in the top 15 cm sediment layer are very low. Nevertheless, the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the porewaters are large, indicating a low distribution coefficient (?10) for radium and a short retention time (?10 days) in the surface sediment layer. We surmise that groundwater flow may be a significant source of radium isotopes in the waters of shaf radium isotopes in the waters of shallow estuaries and coastal margins. This source must be recognized while considering mass balance of any tracer, be it radium, nutrients, other metals, or ?18O. 11 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Effect of water content and organic carbon on remote sensing of crop residue cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; McCarty, G. W.; Brown, D. J.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-04-01

    Crop residue cover is an important indicator of tillage method. Remote sensing of crop residue cover is an attractive and efficient method when compared with traditional ground-based methods, e.g., the line-point transect or windshield survey. A number of spectral indices have been devised for residue cover estimation. Of these, the most effective are those in the shortwave infrared portion of the spectrum, situated between 1950 and 2500 nm. These indices include the hyperspectral Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), and advanced multispectral indices, i.e., the Lignin-Cellulose Absorption (LCA) index and the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI), which were devised for the NASA Terra Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) sensor. Spectra of numerous soils from U.S. Corn Belt (Indiana and Iowa) were acquired under wetness conditions varying from saturation to oven-dry conditions. The behavior of soil reflectance with water content was also dependent on the soil organic carbon content (SOC) of the soils, and the location of the spectral bands relative to significant water absorptions. High-SOC soils showed the least change in spectral index values with increase in soil water content. Low-SOC soils, on the other hand, showed measurable difference. For CAI, low-SOC soils show an initial decrease in index value followed by an increase, due to the way that water content affects CAI spectral bands. Crop residue CAI values decrease with water content. For LCA, water content increases decrease crop residue index values and increase them for soils, resulting in decreased contrast. SINDRI is also affected by SOC and water content. As such, spatial information on the distribution of surface soil water content and SOC, when used in a geographic information system (GIS), will improve the accuracy of remotely-sensed crop residue cover estimates.

  8. Characterization of Swollen States of Polyelectrolyte Brushes in Salt Solution by Neutron Reflectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cationic and zwitterionic polyelectrolyte brushes on quartz substrate were synthesized by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization of 2-(methacryloyloxy)-ethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MTAC) and 2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC). The effects of ionic strength on brush structure are investigated by neutron reflectivity (NR) in NaCl deuterium oxide (D2O) solutions. We observed that poly(MTAC) chains were drastically shrunk at concentrations above 0.1 M NaCl/D2O, which may be the change in charge-screening effect against ions on poly(MTAC). On the other hand, effect of salt concentration on a swollen state of poly(MPC) brush was negligible, even at the high concentration (5.0 M) close to saturation. The behaviour of poly(MPC) in salt aqueous solution is completely different from that of poly(MTAC), which may arise from the unique interaction properties, neutral nature, and hydrated water structure of phosphorylcholine units.

  9. An Unprecedented Constraint on Water Content in the Sunlit Lunar Exosphere Seen by Lunar-Based Ultraviolet Telescope of Chang'e-3 Mission

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, J; Qiu, Y L; Meng, X M; Cai, H B; Cao, L; Deng, J S; Han, X H; Wei, J Y

    2015-01-01

    The content of $\\mathrm{OH/H_2O}$ molecules in the tenuous exosphere of the Moon is still an open issue at present. We here report an unprecedented upper limit of the content of the OH radicals, which is obtained from the in-situ measurements carried out \\rm by the Lunar-based Ultraviolet Telescope, a payload of Chinese Chang'e-3 mission. By analyzing the diffuse background in the images taken by the telescope, the column density and surface concentration of the OH radicals are inferred to be $<10^{11}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-2}}$ and $<10^{4}\\ \\mathrm{cm^{-3}}$ (by assuming a hydrostatic equilibrium with a scale height of 100km), respectively, by assuming that the recorded background is fully contributed by their resonance fluorescence emission. The resulted concentration is lower than the previously reported value by about two orders of magnitude, and is close to the prediction of the sputtering model. In addition, the same measurements and method allow us to derive a surface concentration of $<10^{2}\\ \\math...

  10. Magnetism in non-stoichiometric goethite of varying total water content and surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, C. A.; Betancur, J. D.; Greneche, J. M.; Goya, G. F.; Berquó, T. S.

    2006-02-01

    In this work, the magnetic properties of four non-stoichiometric goethites with varying total water content and surface area have been investigated. The samples were prepared using two different hydrothermal methods, deriving either from Fe(II) precursors or from Fe(III) precursors. The effects of both agitation during mixing solutions and drying time during synthesis upon the physical properties of the final products were also studied. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, BET, 57Fe Mössbauer spectrometry at 300 K, 77 K and 4.2 K, ZFC and FC curves, and magnetization curves. The goethites synthesized from the Fe(II) precursors result less crystalline, contain higher water content than those prepared from the Fe(III) precursor. In addition, ferrous precursor goethites exhibit superparamagnetic relaxation effects, while the ferric precursor goethites exhibit magnetic ordering of clusters. It is found that the stirring process during synthesis can affect the total water content and the magnetic behaviour of the goethites. Our results suggest that structural water content decreases the magnetic hyperfine field at 4.2 K. The adsorbed water content also affects this parameter as suggested by in situ annealing cycles of the goethites in a Mössbauer cryofurnace. Finally, we propose an unique 2-D phase diagram to describe all the magnetic properties of present goethites observed as a function of temperature, surface area (or particle size) and total water content.

  11. Salinity Effects on Growth Attributes Mineral Uptake, Forage Quality and Tannin Contents of Acacia saligna (Labill. H. Wendl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Elfeel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A greenhouse experiment was conducted at the Agricultural Research Station, King Abdulaziz University to examine the effects of salinity on biomass production, physiological responses, mineral uptake, leaves quality (protein, fiber, ash and tannin content. A 4 months old seedlings were exposed to an increasing salt concentrations: (Bore well water, 7, 9 and 12 dS/m, respectively. Physiological traits Specific Leaf Area (SLA, Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC and Relative Water Content (RWC were measured at different growth development. Leaves minerals (N, P, Na, Ca, K, Mg, protein, fiber and ash contents were analyzed. Condensed tannins were assayed by vanillin HCI method. The results showed that salinity resulted in reduced biomass production and growth in response to lower SLA, lower RWC and higher LDMC with increasing salt concentrations. The salts accumulation in soil media resulted in higher Na associated with lower (N, P, Ca, K, Mg contents in leaves, while tannin was increased with increasing salt concentration. Protein, ash and fiber contents were significantly differed among salt treatments. Despite the effects of salt stress on growth, the relatively good performance of the seedlings under all levels of salt concentrations indicates that this species has adaptive mechanisms to withstand relatively high levels of salinity.

  12. Alfalfa root role in osmotic adjustment under salt stress (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the sodium chloride on the morpho physiological characteristics of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The characteristics taken into consideration dry matter production of shoot and root (DMS, DMR), root volume (RV), proline content (PS, PR), included total soluble sugar (SSS; SSR) and chlorophyll a, band (a+b). Salt tolerance of the six genotypes was characterised by capacity to growth in salt environment, buildup of osmoregulating compounds (proline and solubles sugar) and a less inhibition of photosynthesis process (decrease of chlorophyll pigment content). Important genotypes differences were observed for each parameter, which make possible a better understanding of the Alfalfa adaptation mechanisms. The results show that the salt stress has a significant influence on the growth of this plants by decreasing the production of dry matter and :)f the root volume. The most important decreases were clear at the 12 g/l concentration mainly upon the Australian variety (Siriver).Thus the most tolerant to salt stress was the Demnate genotype (Dem04) which presented the lowest decrease percentage. The salt effect upon the plant physiological characteristics causes a decrease of the relative water content and chlorophyll a, b and (a+b) content. It also causes an increase of the relative loss of water, the total soluble sugars (SSS; SSR) and the proline contents (PS, PR). Thus, we found a high correlation between the proline and shigh correlation between the proline and sugar contents of shoot and root and also between these substances and shoot and root dry matter production. (author)

  13. ESTUDIO DEL MECANISMO DE FALLA DE TERRAPLENES DEBIDO A LA INFILTRACIÓN DE AGUAS LLUVIAS MEDIANTE EL MONITOREO DE PRESIONES DE POROS Y CONTENIDOS DE AGUA / STUDY OF FAILURE MECHANISM IN EMBANKMENTS INDUCED BY RAINFALL INFILTRATION BY MONITORING PORE WATER PRESSURES AND WATER CONTENTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDWIN, GARCÍA; TARO, UCHIMURA.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo muestra experimentos realizados utilizando modelos a escala para estudiar el proceso de infiltración en terraplenes sometidos a aguas lluvias. Varios modelos a escala fueron construidos usando un suelo arenoso con alto contenido de finos; para aplicar la lluvia artificial y obse [...] rvar el proceso de infiltración del agua se utilizó un tubo de irrigación. Para monitorear los cambios en succión ocasionados por los ciclos de humedecimiento y secado se instalaron dentro del suelo varios sensores de presión de poros, contenido de agua y de desplazamiento en diferentes puntos. El cambio de la presión de poros en el tiempo, el contenido de agua y las relaciones entre las mediciones de presión de poros y desplazamientos del suelo son presentados. Este estudio muestra que el movimiento del suelo en un talud está directamente relacionado con el contenido de agua del suelo y las presiones de poros existentes en él, sugiriendo que por medio del monitoreo de estos dos parámetros es posible predecir fallas locales inducidas por infiltración de aguas lluvias en los taludes. Abstract in english This paper presents experiments using scale models to study the infiltration process on embankments subjected to rainfall infiltration. Various model embankments were built using a silty sand soil; an irrigation pipe was used to applied artificial rainfall in order to observe the effect of the water [...] infiltration. Pore water pressure, water content and displacements transducers were installed within the scale models at various locations to monitor the changes in suction caused during cycles of wetting and drying processes. Pore water pressure histories, water content histories and relations between measurements of pore water pressures and displacements are presented. This study showed that slope movements are directly related to the soil water content and pore water pressures within the slope, suggesting that slope failure caused by rainfall infiltration could be predicted by monitoring these parameters.

  14. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran?elovi? Saša S.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I, with exception of lead content. The coefficients of extraction for the observed metal can be represented in the following order: Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. Correlation coefficients between the metal concentration in the extract and total metal content in plant material vary in the range from 0.6369 to 0.9956. This indicates need the plants to be collected and grown in the unpolluted area and to examine the metal content. The content of heavy metals in the investigated medicinal plants and their water extracts is below the maximum allowable values, so they are safe to use.

  15. The use of Wenner configuration to monitor soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field investigation of the relationship between soil resistivity Rs and soil water content WC was conducted using the 4-probe Wenner Configuration Method WCM. The WCM is traditionally used by electrical engineers for earth testing but was adapted for use as a soil water monitor in this study. Calibration curves were established between Rs and WC, demonstrating that the earth tester can be used for such measurements. Power correlation (Rs = k WCn) with r2 values of 0.81, 0.83 and 0.97 were obtained for electrode spacing of 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm respectively. Linear correlation (Rs = c WC + d) yielded r2 values 0.68, 0.87 and 0.99 for 1400, 1300 and 1200 cm, respectively. Generally, both the linear and power relationships get weaker with increasing spacing between electrodes. However, the power relationship holds better at higher electrode spacing while the linear relationship holds better at lower electrode spacing. The bulky nature of the equipment rendered the measurements cumbersome. It must be noted that electrode spacing of between 12 to 14 m will affect the spatial variability of the soil. This must have accounted for the weaker correlation as the electrode spacing increased, considering that the theory on which the earth tester is based assumes a homogeneous soil. (author)

  16. On-sample water content measurement for a complete local monitoring in triaxial testing of unsaturated soils

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz-Castelblanco, José; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2013-01-01

    To provide a complete local monitoring of the state of an unsaturated soil sample during triaxial testing, a local water content measurement device was adapted to a triaxial device comprising the measurement of local displacements (Hall effect transducers) and suction (High capacity transducer). Water content was locally monitored by means of a resistivity probe. The water content/resistivity calibration curves of an intact natural unsaturated loess from Northern France extracted by block sampling at two depths (1 and 3.3 m) were carefully determined, showing good accuracy and repeatability. The validity of two models giving the resistivity of unsaturated soils with respect to their water content was examined.

  17. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanovi?, Goran; Radovanovi?, Milan; Malešev, Mirjana; Radonjanin, Vlastimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument. PMID:22399880

  18. Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanovi?

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capacitance of the LC circuit, thus decreasing the sensor’s resonant frequency. The sensor is made up of a printed circuit board in one metal layer and water content has been determined for clay brick and autoclaved aerated concrete block, both widely used construction materials. Measurements were conducted at room temperature using a HP-4194A Impedance/Gain-Phase Analyzer instrument.

  19. An empirical model for salt removal percentage in water under the effect of different current intensities of current carrying coil at different flow rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameen S. AbdelHady

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic treatment of hard water is an alternative, simple approach by which the hard water that needs to be treated flows through a magnetic field. This field is created by inducing current in a coil wrapped around a pipe. Consequently some of its properties, such as total dissolved salts (TDS, conductivity (Ec and PH change. The primary purpose of hard water treatment is to decrease TDS in the incoming liquid stream. Using performance data from the application of different magnetic field densities on the different flow levels of water, empirical mathematical models were developed relating the salt removal percentage (SRP to operating flow rate and current of the coil. The obtained experimental results showed that the SRP increased with increasing the current at low flow rates (up to 0.75 ml/s.

  20. Salts Production from Dead Sea by using Different Technological Methods: Prospective Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents alternative methods for the utilizing of Dead Sea resources. These include crystallization through cooling by passing the Dead Sea water across cooled surfaces, or by direct contact between a cooling agent and the water solution. The cooling process of the Dead Sea water leads to the saturation state, after which precipitation of the main salts occurs. However, more work is required to study the effect of freezing on the crystallization process and to obtain the equilibrium data for the Dead Sea solution under cooling conditions. Another alternative method for crystallization of the Dead Sea salts is the adiabatic vacuum crystallization, which depends on the evaporation of water at low temperature as a result of the presence of vacuum. Here the rate of decreasing the Dead Sea level due to evaporation in solar evaporation ponds can be reduced to a minimum by condensing the obtained vapor and recycling it back to the Dead Sea or reuse it for the industrial processes.

  1. Extraction of rare earth metal(3) nitrates by triisoamylphosphate from concentrated aqua-salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Equations for describing isotherms of rare earth metals(3) nitrate extraction by 100% triisoamylphosphate from concentrated aqua-salt solutions with an account of changes of component activity coefficients in organic phase by wide-range variations of its composition are proposed. Constants values of phase extraction equilibria standardized by hypothetical monomolar solution of rare earth metal nitrate in water and by the pure components state in the organic phase with mole fraction equal to 1.0 are determined. 9 refs.; 2 figs

  2. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)

  3. Diverse microhabitats experienced by Halomonas variabilis on salt-secreting leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Adrien Y; Finkel, Omri M; Cho, Juliana K; Belkin, Shimshon; Lindow, Steven E

    2013-02-01

    The leaf surfaces of the salt-excreting tree Tamarix aphylla harbor a wide diversity of halophilic microorganisms, including Halomonas sp., but little is known of the factors that shape community composition in this extreme habitat. We isolated a strain of Halomonas variabilis from the leaf surface of T. aphylla and used it to determine the heterogeneity of salt concentrations experienced by bacteria in this environment. This halophilic strain was transformed with a proU::gfp reporter gene fusion, the fluorescence of which was responsive to NaCl concentrations up to 200 g liter(-1). These bioreporting cells were applied to T. aphylla leaves and were subsequently recovered from dew droplets adhering