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1

Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures.

Garcia-Gil N; Muñoz I; Santos-Garcés E; Arnau J; Gou P

2013-06-01

2

Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpose, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 (more) mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

Scambato, Agustina A.; Echeverria, Mariela; Sansberro, Pedro; Ruiz, Oscar A.; Menéndez, Ana Bernardina

2010-01-01

3

Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpose, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

Agustina A. Scambato; Mariela Echeverria; Pedro Sansberro; Oscar A. Ruiz; Ana Bernardina Menéndez

2010-01-01

4

Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere

2013-06-16

5

NaCl stress-induced growth, water and ions contents changes on in vitro selection of salt tolerant and salt sensitive callus of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Callus cultures tolerant to NaCl were developed from eight wheat genotypes using in vitro selection techniques. The accumulation of inorganic (Na+, Cl-and K+) solutes, water content and relative fresh weight were determined in selected (tolerant and sensitive) calli after a NaCl shock in order to evaluate their implication in salt tolerance of the selected lines. No growth reduction was observed in salt-tolerant calli compared to control while a significant (P<0.05) decrease about 46.54% was observed in salt sensitive ones when both were cultivated under NaCl stress. Water content is significantly (P<0.05) high in salt-sensitive calli than salt-tolerant ones. Selected calli accumulate less K+as compared with control. However, K+content of salt-tolerant calli is greater than that of salt-sensitive. Accumulation of Na+and Cl- were more important in salt-sensitive calli in comparison with salt-tolerant ones while K+content was lower in salt-sensitive than in salt-tolerant calli when both were exposed to salt. The results indicated Na+and Cl-exclusion combined to less K+accumulation may play a key role in in vitro salt-tolerance in wheat calli lines obtained by in vitro selection and they could contribute mainly to counteract the negative effects of salt stress in wheat tolerant calli. Comparison of K+/Na+ ratio permitted to classify Sebou, Anouar and Tarek which are as most salt-tolerant wheat genotypes and on contrary, Marzak, Ourgh, Massa and Amjad as salt-sensitive wheat genotypes.K+/Na+ ratio can be use as a criterion of wheat genotypes classification.

Ayolié Koutoua 1,2 , El Yacoubi Houda 2 , Atmane Rochdi 2 , Kouakou Kouakou Laurent 1 , Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire 1*

2011-01-01

6

Quality of fresh-cut tomatoes as affected by salt content in irrigation water and post-processing ultraviolet-C treatment  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is little information available concerning the effect of sanitizing agents, including ultraviolet (UV-C) light, on nutritional composition of fresh-cut produce. In this study, the influence of UV-C light irradiation (3.2-19.2 kJ m?²) on the nutritional quality of fresh-cut tomato cv. Durinta grown under either low (2.4/2.8 dS m?¹) or high (4.9/7.7 dS m?¹) electrical conductivity (EC) of the hydroponic nutrient influx/efflux solution was investigated.RESULTS: When grown under low EC UV-C light treatment reduced development of microbial population of fresh-cut tomato, increased phenolic content and delayed degradation of vitamin C after 7 days of storage at 4-6 °C. UV-C light irradiation had no significant effect on appearance, color or lycopene content of fresh-cut tomato. In recently harvested intact tomatoes, the lycopene and vitamin C contents were 30% higher in tomatoes irrigated with high EC, whereas the phenolic content was unaffected by the salt treatment. After fresh-cut processing, phenolic and vitamin C contents of fresh cuts produced from tomatoes treated with high EC decreased by > 10%. This decline was initially accelerated in tomato treated with UV-C light irradiation.CONCLUSIONS: Our results revealed that fresh-cut tomatoes are affected dissimilarly by UV-C treatments, depending on the degree of salt stress undergone by plants before harvest. We determined the impact of a sanitizing procedure on nutritional composition, an effect often overlooked but with great significance to ensure overall quality of fresh produce. Our findings revealed the need for more nutritional studies addressing the effect of multiple stress factors from pre-harvest to post-processing stages. Copyright

Kim Hyun-Jin; Fonseca JorgeM; Kubota Chieri; Kroggel Mark; Choi Ju-Hee

2008-08-01

7

Determining optimum ion content in water during coal flotation in salt medium  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Evaluates effects of sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid on flotation of black coal (type KZh from Karaganda, difficult to wash) crushed to below 0.5 mm. Salts of sodium and magnesium were added to distilled water. Water hardness degree was about 30 mg/l (common in the Karaganda basin). Coal content in the slurry was about 100 g/l. Coal concentrate yield was highest for 90% sodium hydroxide content. With decreasing sodium hydroxide content and increasing acid content coal concentrate yield decreased. Flotation efficiency was highest for a solution with 70-80% sodium hydroxide and 20-30% acid. Optimum composition of flotation solution was the following: 70% sodium hydroxide, 10% hydrochloric acid and 20% sulfuric acid. Effects of sodium ions, magnesium ions, calcium ions, hydrogen ions, hydroxyl ions, chloride ions and sulfate ions were analyzed. Optimum relation of ion types in flotation slurries was determined. 7 refs.

Rubinshtein, Yu.B.; Volkov, L.A.; Zhandosova, M.R. (Institut Obogashcheniya Tverdogo Topliva (USSR))

1989-06-01

8

The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI) by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP) activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

Stanis?aw Flasi?ski; Ryszard Zamorski; Urszula Kotowska

1989-01-01

9

Free fatty acid content of Manchego-type cheese salted by brine vacuum impregnation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new salting method based on the brine vacuum impregnation of porous products was tested in Manchego-type cheese in order to assess its effect on cheese lipolysis during ripening. This new salting method would allow a faster salt diffusion and a more homogeneous initial salt distribution, and would reduce the disposal of brine. Salt-in-moisture content was evaluated in three different cheese zones during a 90-day ripening period in order to monitor salt penetration in the cheese. Lipolysis was evaluated by means of gas chromatography of individual free fatty acids in the medium and internal zones of both cheeses salted by the conventional and the new salting procedures. Free fatty acid concentration regularly increased during ripening. Short-chain free fatty acid content was higher in the internal zone of conventionally salted cheeses than in the internal and medium zones of vacuum impregnated cheeses from the first month after manufacturing, probably due to the low initial salt concentration achieved in the inner zone of conventionally salted cheeses, which can enhance both bacterial and indigenous lipase activity. Panelists considered that conventionally salted cheeses presented a more intense aroma than vacuum impregnated cheeses, though no differences in global flavor intensity were observed.

Pavia M; Trujillo AJ; Sendra E; Guamis B; Ferragut V

2000-01-01

10

Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Dordick, J.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-20

11

Laboratory investigation of water content within rock salt and its behavior in a temperature field of disposed high-level waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The investigation of rock salt from different North German salt mines showed that at least three components of water exist within the rock salt. The majority of the water is from water of hydration of the minor minerals in the salt and from intergranular water adsorbed to the crystal boundaries. The amount of water from fluid inclusions in the salt of North German mines is comparatively low. In order to investigate the thermal liberation of the different water components within the rock salt, the loss of weight as a function of time at different constant temperatures between 90 and 6300C was measured. Salt samples from the Asse salt mines from different depths and stratigraphic layers were analyzed for their water content. Water content was not constant but depended on the amount of minor minerals present containing water of hydration. As the majority of the water within the rock salt is associated with the minerals polyhalite and kieserite, the thermal behavior and the liberation of the hydration water from these minerals were analyzed. The liberation temperature of water was found to be dependent on the humidity of the air above the sample. The diffusivity of rock salt samples from the Asse salt mines was measured and was found to decrease with increasing temperature, which meant that it is inversely proportional to the water vapor within the intergranular spaces

1980-11-20

12

Laboratory testing of salt samples for water content/loss of weight on heating, thermal fracture, insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy: Revision 1  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report presents the results of laboratory testing on salt samples from the Palo Duro Basin of the Texas Panhandle. Laboratory specimens were tested to determine water content by loss of weight on heating, temperature of thermal fracture, the amount of insoluble residue, and clay and bulk mineralogy. 7 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

Owen, L.B.; Schwendiman, L.

1987-07-01

13

Imaging artificial salt water infiltration using electrical resistivity tomography constrained by geostatistical data  

Science.gov (United States)

? Surface electrical resistivity tomography to image salt water infiltration. ? Borehole-derived variogram used as inversion constraints. ? Significant improvement compared to standard smoothness-constrained imaging. ? Plume scale imaging (200 m). ? Validated results and more reliable TDS content estimates.

Hermans, Thomas; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Lebbe, Luc; Martin, Roland; Kemna, Andreas; Beaujean, Jean; Nguyen, Frederic

2012-05-01

14

Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

MØller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.

2012-01-01

15

Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective

2001-01-01

16

Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m{sup 3} by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective.

Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Geology

2001-10-01

17

Antioxidant enzyme activities are affected by salt content and temperature and influence muscle lipid oxidation during dry-salted bacon processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fresh pork bacon belly was used as material and manufactured into dry-salted bacon through salting and drying-ripening. During processing both oxidative stability and antioxidant enzyme stability were evaluated by assessing peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and their correlations were also analysed. The results showed that all antioxidant enzyme activities decreased (p<0.05) until the end of process; GSH-Px was the most unstable one followed by catalase. Antioxidant enzyme activities were negatively correlated with TBARS (p<0.05), but the correlations were decreased with increasing process temperature. Salt showed inhibitory effect on all antioxidant enzyme activities and was concentration dependent. These results indicated that when process temperature and salt content were low at the same time during dry-salted bacon processing, antioxidant enzymes could effectively control lipid oxidation.

Jin G; He L; Yu X; Zhang J; Ma M

2013-12-01

18

Biological treatment of waste waters of high salt content; Depuracion biologica de efluentes con alto contenido salino  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The fish canning industry, a national industrial sector of economical significance, generates high volumes of wastewater containing a high organic load and salt concentration. In addition to other problems presented for the aerobic biological treatment of these effluents, the presence of a high chloride concentration produces an inhibitory effect on the growth of aerobic microorganisms. In this work the inhibitory effect of chloride has been analyzed by means of a biokinetic study carried out using the electrolytic respirometry techniques and tuna boiling water as wastewater. This kind of study is highly appropriated for the search of solutions to specific problems created during the treatment of different industrial sectors wastewater. (Author) 10 refs.

Perez, A.I.; Goytia, M.; Muguruza, I.; Blanco, F. [GAIKER, Zamudio (Spain)

1996-09-01

19

Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.).

1995-01-01

20

Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered ? ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

2007-10-05

 
 
 
 
21

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Science.gov (United States)

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh groundwater recharge into the sea. Using an analytical Dupuit-Forchheimer model, developed for the plain part of the catchment, explicit expressions for the water table, sharp interface location and stored volume of fresh water are obtained. It is shown that by the pumping of salt water from the intruded part of the aquifer, this intrusion can be mitigated. Different catchment sizes, intensities of fresh groundwater pumping, evaporation rates, water densities, sea level, incident fresh water level in the mountains and hydraulic conductivity are considered. SUTRA code is applied to a hypothetical case of a leaky aquifer with line sinks modeling fresh water withdrawal and evaporation. The numerical code also shows that pumping of saline water can pull the dispersion zone back to the shoreline.

Kacimov, A. R.; Sherif, M. M.; Perret, J. S.; Al-Mushikhi, A.

2009-05-01

22

Removal of sea salt hydrate water from seawater-derived samples by dehydration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aerosol particles produced from bubble bursting of natural seawater contain both sea salts and organic components. Depending on the temperature, pressure, and speed of drying, the salt components can form hydrates that bind water, slowing evaporation of the water, particularly if large particles or thick layers of salts undergo drying that is nonuniform and incomplete. The water bound in these salt hydrates interferes with measuring organic hydroxyl and amine functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy because it absorbs at the same infrared wavelengths. Here, a method for separating the hydrate water in sea salt hydrates using freezing and then heating in warm, dry air (70 °C) is evaluated and compared to other methods, including spectral subtraction. Laboratory-generated sea salt analogs show an efficient removal of 89% of the hydrate water absorption peak height by 24 h of heating at atmospheric pressure. The heating method was also applied to bubbled submicrometer (Sea Sweep), generated bulk (Bubbler), and atomized seawater samples, with efficient removal of 5, 22, and 39 ?g of hydrate water from samples of initial masses of 11, 30, 58 ?g, respectively. The strong spectral similarity between the difference of the initial and dehydrated spectra and the laboratory-generated sea salt hydrate spectrum provided verification of the removal of hydrate water. In contrast, samples of submicrometer atmospheric particles from marine air masses did not have detectable signatures of sea salt hydrate absorbance, likely because their smaller particles and lower filter loadings provided higher surface area to volume ratios and allowed faster and more complete drying.

Frossard AA; Russell LM

2012-12-01

23

Salt content of selected snack foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: Data were developed on the salt (sodium chloride) content of 15 common commercial snack foods (e.g.: chips, crackers, salted peanuts, sunflower seeds, pretzels) using 2 rapid methods for salt content analysis (autoanalyzer, and titration). While salt intake depends on the amount and frequency of consumption, a number of the snack foods had significant salt content (5 foods ranging from about 1.0 (corn-flavored snacks) to about 2.4 g/100 g (pretzel twists)). Granola snack bars and nacho cheese chips had the lowest salt contents (about 0.3 g/100 g). Somewhat higher salt values were consistently determined using the autoanalyzer method; this technique lends itself to rapid salt determinations. (wz)

Khan MahmoodA; Martin JudithA

1983-04-01

24

Monitoring Soil Water Content by Vertical Temperature Variations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The availability of high sensitivity temperature sensors (0.001?K sensitivity platinum resistors), which can be positioned at intervals of a few centimeters along a vertical profile in the unsaturated zone, allows short-term in situ determinations-one day or even less-of the thermal diffusivity. The development of high data storage capabilities also makes this possible over long periods and the relative variations in thermal diffusivity allow the monitoring of the variations in water content. The processing of temperature measurements recorded at different depths is achieved by solving the heat equation, using the finite elements method, with both conductive and convective heat transfers. A first set of measurements has allowed this approach to be validated. Water content variations derived from thermal diffusivity values are in excellent agreement with TDR measurements carried out on the experimental site at Boissy-le-Châtel (Seine et Marne, France).

Bechkit MA; Flageul S; Guerin R; Tabbagh A

2013-07-01

25

Analgesic comprising a high-ibuprophen content wherein the sodium salt is used and the water content is between 8 and 16 percent  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A non effervescent tablet of ibuprofen, comprising a tablet core and, if desired, a-sugar or film coat, wherein the tablet core, based on the weight of the tablet core, consists of 50 to 100% by weight sodium ibuprofen hydrate and 0 to 50% by weight auxiliary material component and contains no lubricant and no disintegrant, and wherein the sodium ibuprofen hydrate has a water content of 8 to 16% by weight possesses a sufficient hardness, is comparably small and leads to a particularly rapid increase in blood level and thereby to an accelerated onset of analgesic effect. Contrary to the current doctrine sodium ibuprofen hydrate having suitable water content is sufficiently compressible. Fig. 3 shows the dissolution profile of film tablets in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (pH 1.2) according to the Paddle Method at 100 rpm in comparison to a Dolormin film tablet and a Nurofen film tablet.

GRUBER PETER; REHER MARKUS

26

Clear salt water versus clear pure water  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.

Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2007-08-17

27

Chemotechnical treatment of used photographic fixing and developing baths by decomposition into utilizable basic chemicals and waste water with low salt content and CSB value. Final report. Chemisch-technische Aufbereitung von verbrauchten fotografischen Fixier- und Entwickler-Loesungen durch Zerlegung in verwertbare Grundchemikalien und ein salzfrachtarmes Abwasser mit geringem CSB-Wert. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is a requirement of the law and of society in general that contemporary methods should be employed in the disposal of used photochemical baths so as to safeguard the general welfare against lasting detriment. Used photochemical processing baths have a volume of 40,000 m[sup 3] per annum in Germany. A large portion of this comes from the black-and-white developing and fixing baths used in the printing and repro sector and from X-ray development in the field of medicine. To date there has been no rentilization method by which these wastes could be decomposed as a whole, without residual substances. The GUW in Mainz has developed a technochemical processing method by which used black-and-white fixing and developing baths can be decomposed into utilizable chemical feedstocks. All that remains is waste water with a low salt content and CSB value. (orig./BBR)

Kuelps, H.J.; Gellermann, S.T.; Neugebauer, H.

1990-01-01

28

Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years) to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g) of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g), not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p?=?0.002), and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001). Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

Bouhlal S; Chabanet C; Issanchou S; Nicklaus S

2013-01-01

29

Aqeous salt blanket tritium concentration control by water storage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket concept (ALSB) has been proposed for implementation in next-generation fusion devices. One of its potential problems is the tritium concentration in the main coolant loop, which can be as high as 50 Ci/l. The paper considers an approach that can reduce the tritium level without increasing the capacity of the Tritium Removal System (TRS). In particular, at specified intervals during the machine operation the coolant solution from the blanket will be exchanged with detritiated coolant solution. The tritiated solution can be held in temporary storage, and be processed while the fusion device is shut down. For next-generation machines with continuous operation periods of days to weeks, this approach can result in a significant decrease in tritium concentrations at modest increase in overall tritium system cost and tritium inventory. (orig.)

1990-01-01

30

Aqeous salt blanket tritium concentration control by water storage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Aqueous Lithium Salt Blanket concept (ALSB) has been proposed for implementation in next-generation fusion devices. One of its potential problems is the tritium concentration in the main coolant loop, which can be as high as 50 Ci/l. The paper considers an approach that can reduce the tritium level without increasing the capacity of the Tritium Removal System (TRS). In particular, at specified intervals during the machine operation the coolant solution from the blanket will be exchanged with detritiated coolant solution. The tritiated solution can be held in temporary storage, and be processed while the fusion device is shut down. For next-generation machines with continuous operation periods of days to weeks, this approach can result in a significant decrease in tritium concentrations at modest increase in overall tritium system cost and tritium inventory. (orig.).

Varsamis, G.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Gierszewski, P.J. (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project, Mississauga, ON (Canada)); Embrechts, M.J.; Steiner, D. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics)

1990-08-01

31

Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content) affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC) 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw), salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua). All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ? 0,92 and pH ? 4,4 or pH ? 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri) survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4%) of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6%) of the tested sausages.

Daskalov Hristo; Fejzullah Fejzulla; Stoyahchev Todora

2013-01-01

32

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous) flow model and the static (batch) flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-01-01

33

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl

2010-01-01

34

Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na2SO4, K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

2009-01-01

35

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb showed a decrease towards the surface (206Pb/207Pb = 1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature (206Pb/207Pb = 1.172 ± 0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 ?g g-1 in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 ?g g-1 in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments (206Pb/207Pb = 1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83 ± 4% for S. fruticosa and 74 ± 8% for S. maritima)

2007-07-15

36

Production of tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 Lactococcus lactis and 15 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. The production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. None of the L. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of E. faecalis produced tyramine and b -phenylethylamine. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of tyrosine decarboxylase genes in all of the isolated strains. Only the 12 biogenic amine-producing Enterococcus strains had a 924-bp fragment characteristic for the tyrosine decarboxylase gene. The comparison of the amplified partial tyrDC gene sequences of the 12 positive Enterococcus strains revealed 99% similarity within the same species. The tyramine production of the sterilized water-boiled salted duck inoculated with E. faecalis R612Z1 increased significantly during storage. This study reveals that the isolated E. faecalis strains can produce tyramine and ?-phenylethylamine in the medium; however, they can only produce tyramine in water-boiled salted duck. PMID:23643128

Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Xu, Weiyan; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2013-05-01

37

Production of tyramine by Enterococcus faecalis strains in water-boiled salted duck.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The potential to produce biogenic amines was investigated with 15 Lactococcus lactis and 15 Enterococcus faecalis strains isolated from water-boiled salted duck. The production of biogenic amines from the isolated strains grown in de Man Rogosa Sharpe broth containing precursor amino acids was determined by thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. None of the L. lactis strains produced any biogenic amines, whereas 12 strains of E. faecalis produced tyramine and b -phenylethylamine. PCR assays were used to detect the presence of tyrosine decarboxylase genes in all of the isolated strains. Only the 12 biogenic amine-producing Enterococcus strains had a 924-bp fragment characteristic for the tyrosine decarboxylase gene. The comparison of the amplified partial tyrDC gene sequences of the 12 positive Enterococcus strains revealed 99% similarity within the same species. The tyramine production of the sterilized water-boiled salted duck inoculated with E. faecalis R612Z1 increased significantly during storage. This study reveals that the isolated E. faecalis strains can produce tyramine and ?-phenylethylamine in the medium; however, they can only produce tyramine in water-boiled salted duck.

Liu F; Du L; Xu W; Wang D; Zhang M; Zhu Y; Xu W

2013-05-01

38

Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P water intakes per unit body gain and water intake per unit feed intake were significant (P ?.05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance.

Alhadrami GA; Al-Shorepy SA; Yousef AM

2010-12-01

39

Growth performance of indigenous sheep fed Sporobolus virginicus grass hay grown in saline desert lands and irrigated with high salt content ground water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-eight indigenous ewe lambs (6 months of age and 14.4 kg body weight (BW)) were used to evaluate the effect of feeding Sporobolus grass hay (SGH) as the only source of forage on growth, and feed and water intakes. The ewe lambs were randomly and equally allocated to two treatment groups (14 lambs/group). The ewe lambs in group 1 (treatment 1) received SGH, while lambs in group 2 (treatment 2) received Rhodes grass hay (RGH) as the only source of forage. Water was available at all times for both treatment groups. Sporobolus grass was irrigated with brackish water of high salt content (20,000 ppm) and grown in saline desert lands (sabkha) in the United Arab Emirates. The average daily dry matter intake was significantly (P RGH at all stages. Both water intakes per unit body gain and water intake per unit feed intake were significant (P ?.05) between the two groups at all stages. From these data, we conclude that SGH can replace Rhodes hay in sheep diet without significant effect on sheep performance. PMID:20607399

Alhadrami, G A; Al-Shorepy, S A; Yousef, A M

2010-07-06

40

[Development of salt concentrates for mineralization of recycled water aboard the space station].  

Science.gov (United States)

Recycled water can be brought up to the potable grade by adding minimal quantities of three soluble concentrates with the maximal content of inorganic salts. The authors present results of 3-year storage of potable water mineralized with makeup concentrates and analysis of potable water prepared with the use of the salt concentrates stored over this period of time. A water mineralization unit has been designed based on the principle of cyclic duty to produce physiologically healthy potable water with a preset salt content. PMID:17193977

Skliar, E F; Amiragov, M S; Bobe, L S; Gavrilov, L I; Kurochkin, M G; Solntseva, D P; Krasnov, M S; Skuratov, V M

 
 
 
 
41

Changes in glycine betaine and related enzyme contents in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaCl 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves. CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaCl 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their BADH protein level did not change. The present results indicate that CMO protein is important to GB synthesis when A. tricolor is under salt stress. PMID:15627702

Wang, Yu-Mei; Meng, Yu-Ling; Nii, Naosuke

2004-10-01

42

Changes in glycine betaine and related enzyme contents in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaCl 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves. CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaCl 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their BADH protein level did not change. The present results indicate that CMO protein is important to GB synthesis when A. tricolor is under salt stress.

Wang YM; Meng YL; Nii N

2004-10-01

43

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Lone Banke Rasmussen; Anne Dahl Lassen; Kirsten Hansen; Pia Knuthsen; Erling Saxholt; Sisse Fagt

2010-01-01

44

Measurement of dissolved radon and radium content of water samples by track etch technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a method to determine the dissolved radon and radium content of water samples using track etch type radon monitors. The device is an immersed, small volume radon monitor with CR-39 track etch detector. The monitor is sealed from the water by a thin radon permeable rubber foil. The dissolved radon and/or the radium content of water samples can be determined from two independent radon exposures by using the solutions of a non steady state differential equation which describes the temporal variation of radon content of water and by using an experimentally determined calibration coefficient. (author)

1996-01-01

45

Plastification of water-coal suspensions by the salts of humic acids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It was shown that the salts of humic acids are effective plasticizers of water-coal suspensions. The plasticizer prepared on the basis of the salts of sulfonated humic acids is suitable for use in water-coal fuel. The ability of the plasticisers for water-coal fuel to cause viscoplastic flow (close to Newtonian flow) of suspensions within a wide range of deformation rates (epsilon = 1.8-437.4) s{sup -1} was suggested as a criterion for plasticiser efficiency. It was established that the plasticizing effect of the salts of humic acids is due to their adsorption on the surface of the particles of coal dispersions, and is dependent on the acid-base properties of a plasticizer solution.

Khilko, S.L.; Titov, E.V. [National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine)

1995-11-01

46

Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This final report contains the results of computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on Jockwer's experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of this work was to select a water transport model that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse salt mine. The main result is that an evaporation model with Knudsen type vapour transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non-evaporated zone showed the best agreement with experimental evidence. An extrapolatory calculation for a borehole in a high-level waste repository showed that the water vapour inflow during the time of convergence of the initial gap between canister and borehole will not exceed 200 g per meter

1986-01-01

47

Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

Imani, A. [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Modarress, H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: hmodares@aut.ac.ir; Eliassi, A. [Chemical Industries Research Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdous, M. [Department of Chemistry, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2009-07-15

48

Analysis of Rn-222 Water Contents of the Environmental Waters by UsingLiquid Scintillation Counter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rn-222 water contents of drinking water, well water, river water andground water samples has been analyzed. This investigation has been carriedout for monitoring radioactivity level of environment water, besides it isuseful for controlling the possible internal radiation hazards to the peopleand the environment. The measurement of the soluble Rn-222 in the toluene hasbeen done after equilibrium state about 21 days using Packard TR- 2700/TRLiquid Scintillation Counter respectively. The detection limit of this methodis 1.35 Bq/L with 80.21 efficiency. From measurement and calculation, theRn-222 concentration in well water samples are various below the detectionlimit until 8.03 Bq/L, ground water below the detection limit until 4.11Bq/L, all of river water samples are below the detection limit and thedrinking water is 8.26 - 11.5 Bq/L. (author)

2000-01-01

49

Promoting mechanism by bile salt related to water absorption in drug rectal absorption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The promoting mechanism by bile salts in rat rectal absorption of antipyrine was studied by the in situ recirculating perfusion. The significant correlation between rectal absorption clearance (CLAP) of antipyrine (AP) and apparent water influx (influx') was found in the control without promoters, indicating the existence of solvent drag in the AP rectal absorption. Sieving coefficient of AP (bAP), i.e. the slope of the regression line between CLAP and influx', was 0.6 approximately equal to that in small intestine reported previously. The relation between the promoting effects and solvent drag was further studied, resulting that both CLAP and influx' were significantly enhanced by sodium taurocholate (TC-Na), sodium glycocholate (GC-Na) and sodium cholate (C-Na). Accordingly the promoting effects of bile salts might be due to the increase in solvent drag. However TC-Na did not produce the significant change in bAP. From these results, the enhancing mechanism in the epithelial cell membrane transport was discussed.

Hirasawa T; Hayashi M; Shiga M; Horie T; Awazu S

1985-03-01

50

Enhanced removal of sodium salts supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis in a supercritical water oxidation process.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

For practical applications of supercritical water oxidation to wastewater treatment, the deposition of inorganic salts in supercritical phase must be controlled to prevent a reactor from clogging. This study investigated enhanced removal of sodium salts with titanium particles, serving as a salt trapper and a catalyst precursor, and sodium recovery by sub-critical water. When Na(2)CO(3) was tested as a model salt, sodium removal efficiency was higher than theoretically maximum efficiency defined by Na(2)CO(3) solubility. The enhanced sodium removal resulted from in-situ synthesis of sodium titanate, which could catalyse acetic acid oxidation. The kinetics of sodium removal was described well by a diffusion mass-transfer model combined with a power law-type rate model of sodium titanate synthesis. Titanium particles showed positive effect on sodium removal in the case of NaOH, Na(2)SO(4) and Na(3)PO(4). However, they had negligible effect for NaCl and negative effect for Na(2)CrO(4), respectively. More than 99% of trapped sodium was recovered by sub-critical water except for Na(2)CrO(4). In contrast, sodium recovery efficiency remained less than 50% in the case of Na(2)CrO(4). Reused titanium particles showed the same performance for enhanced sodium removal. Enhanced salt removal supported by in-situ catalyst synthesis has great potential to enable both salt removal control and catalytic oxidation.

Takahashi F; Sun ZR; Fukushi K; Oshima Y; Yamamoto K

2012-01-01

51

Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium Carbonates and Oxides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid alcohol was studied to enhance the sorption efficiency. Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X ? Ray Fluorescence, Inductive Coupled Plasma, Pour Point and Thermostatic Water Bath instruments. Determination of the amount of crude oil in water was done by extracting the crude oil in tricholorotrifluoroethane and measuring absorbance by FTIR spectrometer. @JASEM

Sayed, S A; El Sayed, A S; Zayed, A M

2004-01-01

52

Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers.

Sadeghi R; Jahani F

2012-05-01

53

Foaming, Water Absorption, Emulsification and Gelation Properties of Kersting`s Groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa) and Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean) Flours as Influenced by Neutral Salts and Their Concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO3, NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4) and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH3COONa at 15.0% (w/v) salt concentration in kesting`s groundnut while lowest was NaNO2 at 0.5% (w/v) in bambara groundnut flour. Foaming stability values after 8h were types of salt and salt concentrations dependent. The water absorption capacity decreased at various salt concentrations compared with value in distilled deionized water. The best salts for water absorption capacity were NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4 particularly at 0.5% (w/v) salt concentration. The oil emulsion capacity depended mostly on salt concentration and the type of salt under consideration while oil emulsion stability is better at higher salt concentrations between 5.0-15% (w/v) than lower salt concentrations for the two studied samples. Likewise the least gelation concentration of 12.0% (kersting`s groundnut flour) and 14.0% (bambara groundnut flour) in free salt solutions were improved to between 6.0-10% and 8.0-12.0%, respectively in the presence of the salts used.

M.O. Aremu; O. Olaofe; E.T. Akintayo; E.I. Adeyeye

2008-01-01

54

Studies of soil water drawdowns by single radish roots at decreasing soil water content using computer-assisted tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Application of computer-assisted tomography to the attenuation of X-rays has been used to compare the drawdowns in soil water content associated with radish roots at starting soil water contents (?v) of 0.3 cm3/cm3 and 0.1 cm3/cm3, respectively. Decreasing soil water content results in an increase in the appearance of 'beam hardening'. Decreasing soil water content from 0.3 to 0.1 cm3/cm3 caused the transpiration rate to decrease by 6-10 times. This was presumably due to a reduction in the water potential gradient across the root membrane. The transpiration rate decreased less rapidly than did the water content at the soil-root interface, suggesting some osmotic adjustment by the leaves. This osmotic adjustment would allow the plant to maintain transpiration rate even at relatively low soil water content. The drawdown distances associated with roots growing at the lower soil water content were 8 times smaller than those at the high soil water content and the value of ?v at the soil-root interface at the end of the transpiration period was 2.5 times lower. The radish roots exhibited a temporary slight decrease in diameter after the transpiration commenced followed by a significant temporary increase. However, root diameter stabilised around its original value when the plant attained an almost steady water uptake rate. Despite the complexity arising from 'beam hardening', CAT scanning can provide valuable information on processes at the root-soil interface. Copyright (2001) CSIRO Publishing

2001-01-01

55

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

Vilma Mota da Silva; Luciana Almeida Silva; Jailson B. de Andrade; Márcia C. da Cunha Veloso; Gislaine Vieira Santos

2008-01-01

56

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results sugg (more) ests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de; Veloso, Márcia C. da Cunha; Santos, Gislaine Vieira

2008-01-01

57

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

2008-01-01

58

Characterization of two-phase mixture (petroleum, salted water or gas) by gamma radiation transmission  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A mathematical description was accomplished to determine the discrimination of a substance in a two-phase mixture, for one beam system, using the five energy lines (13.9, 17.8,26.35 and 59,54 keV) of the 241 Am source. The mathematical description was also accomplished to determine the discrimination of two substances in a three-phase mixture, for a double beam system.. he simulated mixtures for the one beam system were petroleum/salted water or gas. The materials considered in these simulations were: four oils types, denominated as A, B, Bell and Generic, one kind of natural gas and salted water with the following salinities: 35.5, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg/m3 of Na Cl. The simulation for the one beam system consisted of a box with acrylic walls and other situation with a box of epoxi walls reinforced with fiber of carbon. The epoxi with carbon fiber was used mainly due to the fact that this material offers little attenuation to the fotons and it resists great pressures. With the results of the simulations it was calculated tables of minimum discrimination for each possible two-phase mixture with petroleum, gas and salted water at several salinities. These discrimination tables are the theoretical forecasts for experimental measurements, since they supply the minimum mensurable percentage for each energy line, as well as the ideal energy for the measurement of each mixture, or situation. The simulated discrimination levels were tested employing experimental arrangements with conditions and materials similar to those of the simulations, for the case of box with epoxi wall reinforced with carbon fiber, at the energies of 20.8 and 59.54 keV. It was obtained good results. For example, for the mixture of salted water (35.5 kg/m3) in paraffin (simulating the petroleum), it was obtained an experimental discrimination minimum of 10% of salted water for error statistics of 5% in I and Io, while the theoretical simulation foresaw the same discrimination level for error statistics of 3%. (author)

2003-01-01

59

Determination of bound water content by the nuclear magnetic resonance method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The method is suggested which allows to perform more accurately than by other available methods the determination of the content of bound water using NMR data by means of the component analysis of the relaxation curve with regard to corresponding group coefficients of the bound water content for each group of pores in the rock sample. The results are presented of the application of the proposed method of the determination of bound water through the NMR data to core samples from oil deposits of the Tatar ASSR and the Perm region

1977-01-01

60

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

 
 
 
 
61

Water content of aged aerosol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08) and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

2011-01-01

62

Water content of aged aerosol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece induring the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008). A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS) was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH) as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement period, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions of FAME-08) and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The Q-AMS water concentration was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests, that at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

G. J. Engelhart; L. Hildebrandt; E. Kostenidou; N. Mihalopoulos; N. M. Donahue; S. N. Pandis

2010-01-01

63

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

1990-01-01

64

[Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P < 0.05). No linear relationship of temperature and amount of extractable components was observed, but it was clear that the greatest protein extraction was accomplished when meat was immersed in cooking water at boiling point (P < 0.05). In general, salting of water reduced fat content of beef broths. However, a significant Salting x Cut type interaction showed this effect was only present in shanks (P < 0.05). Conversely, the reducing effect (P < 0.05) of salting on amount of protein extracted from flank was not observed in shanks. Based on these data, we conclude that larger amounts of protein and less fat could be transferred from meat pieces to the medium by immersing beef in salted water at the boiling point.

Gotera-Prado Z; Quintero JB; Huerta-Leidenz N; Prado Gotera Z

1997-12-01

65

Measuring atomized-water content at flood discharge of dam by nuclear technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The working principles of nuclear technique for measuring atomized-water content at flood discharge of dam are described. A 241Am point ?-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillator are used for measuring higher water content. A 90Sr plane ?-ray source and a plastic scintillator are adopted for determining lower water content. In addition, the laboratory calibrating is studied and the experiment data is assayed. A case study at Lubuge Hydro-power Station in Yunnan Province is presented.

1995-01-01

66

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of deep lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources of water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties in the contribution from groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentration of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution from the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66 % to the total salt load and only about 15 % to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameter sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

P. G. B. de Louw; Y. van der Velde; S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee

2011-01-01

67

Quantifying water and salt fluxes in a lowland polder catchment dominated by boil seepage: a probabilistic end-member mixing approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upward saline groundwater seepage is leading to surface water salinization of low-lying polders in the Netherlands. Identifying measures to reduce the salt content requires a thorough understanding and quantification of the dominant sources water and salt on a daily basis. However, as in most balance studies, there are large uncertainties about the contribution of groundwater seepage. Taking these into account, we applied a probabilistic (GLUE) end-member mixing approach to simulate two years of daily to weekly observations of discharge, salt loads and salt concentrations of water pumped out of an artificially drained polder catchment area. We were then able to assess the contribution of the different sources to the water and salt balance of the polder and the uncertainties in their quantification. Our modelling approach demonstrates the need to distinguish preferential from diffuse seepage. Preferential seepage via boils contributes, on average, 66% to the total salt load and only about 15% to the total water flux into the polder and therefore forms the main salinization pathway. With the model we were able to calculate the effect of future changes on surface water salinity and to assess the uncertainty in our predictions. Furthermore, we analyzed the parameters sensitivity and uncertainty to determine for which parameter the quality of field measurements should be improved to the reduce model input and output uncertainty. High frequency measurements of polder water discharge and weighted concentration at the outlet of the catchment area appear to be essential for obtaining reliable simulations of water and salt fluxes and for allotting these to the different sources.

P. G. B. de Louw; Y. van der Velde; S. E. A. T. M. van der Zee

2011-01-01

68

Electron-transfer quenching and hydrogen generation from water by a series of 1,10-phenanthrolinium salt relays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rate constants k for Ru (bipy)/sub 3//sup 2 +/ electron-transfer quenching by a series of 1,10-phenanthrolinium salts having different redox potential Esub(1/2) (R/sup 2 +//R/sup +/ radical) have been determined by laser flash spectroscopy in aqueous solutions at pH 5. Using the same 1,10-phenanthrolinium salts as electron relays, hydrogen generation from water was investigated upon visible-light irradiation of the model system Ru (bipy)/sub 3//sup 2 +//electron relay/EDTA/colloidal Pt. A correlation between hydrogen generation efficiencies and Esub(1/2)(R/sup 2 +//R/sup +/ radical) is observed, the best electron relays having a redox potential of about -0.43 V (vs. NHE) at pH 5. This optimum redox potential depends on the pH of the solution.

Amouyal, E.; Zidler, B.; Keller, P. (Universite Paris-Sud, 91 - Orsay (France))

1983-12-01

69

Alleviation of the Harmful Effects of Soil Salt Stress on Growth, Yield and Endogenous Antioxidant Content of Wheat Plant by Application of Antioxidants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons (2005/2006; 2006/2007) to investigate the role of some plant antioxidant materials such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, ?-tocopherol and spermine in alleviating the harmful effects caused by soil salt levels (3840 and 6080 mg L-1) on wheat plant. The grains were pre-soaked then the plants sprayed with any of antioxidants used. Moreover, the data showed that 6080 mg L-1 soil salt level alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the activity of total peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in wheat leaves. In addition, salinity level (6080 mg L-1) alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the endogenous contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione and total phenols but decreased carotenoids. It could be concluded that salt soil stress depressed all of growth parameters and yield components. The data also revealed that the different antioxidants could partially alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress which reflected on growth and yield of wheat plant.

M.T. Sakr; M.A. El-Metwally

2009-01-01

70

METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard).The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard) measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard) showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision).The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Afrose Afrina; Salahuddin Mohammad Khan; Masud S.M.; Anisuzzaman Sharif Md.

2012-01-01

71

Decreased biliary glutathione content is responsible for the decline in bile salt-independent flow induced by ethinyl estradiol in rats.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glutathione appears to be a major osmotic factor in the generation of bile salt-independent flow (BSIF). This study was designed to investigate its importance in the pathology of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis. Five-day EE treatment at the dose level of 5 mg/kg/day significantly decreased bile flow (57% of controls) and biliary glutathione secretion. Evaluation of the contribution of bile salt dependent flow (BSDF), glutathione dependent flow (GSDF) and the bile flow generated independently of both bile salts and glutathione (BS-GSIF) revealed that EE decreased all portions of the flow (63, 44 and 52% of control values, respectively). At 4 and 20 h after a single administration of the same EE dose, a significant diminution of bile flow was noted (decreases of 17 and 29%, respectively) in association with a significant fall in biliary glutathione content. Under these conditions, BSDF and BS-GSIF were not modified (98 and 112% of control BSDF values, respectively; 96 and 99% of control BS-GSIF values, respectively) while GSDF was decreased markedly, representing 65 and 50% of control values. Biliary glutathione secretion was diminished without modification of liver and blood glutathione concentration or redox status following single EE dose whereas, after 5 days of EE treatment, a significant increase in liver glutathione was observed, suggesting that EE may interfere with the glutathione secretory process. This study demonstrates that EE rapidly alters biliary glutathione content, leading to a marked decline in GSDF. This reduction may explain the decrease in BSIF produced by EE at the outset of cholestasis.

Bouchard G; Yousef IM; Tuchweber B

1994-12-01

72

Decreased biliary glutathione content is responsible for the decline in bile salt-independent flow induced by ethinyl estradiol in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione appears to be a major osmotic factor in the generation of bile salt-independent flow (BSIF). This study was designed to investigate its importance in the pathology of 17-alpha-ethinyl estradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis. Five-day EE treatment at the dose level of 5 mg/kg/day significantly decreased bile flow (57% of controls) and biliary glutathione secretion. Evaluation of the contribution of bile salt dependent flow (BSDF), glutathione dependent flow (GSDF) and the bile flow generated independently of both bile salts and glutathione (BS-GSIF) revealed that EE decreased all portions of the flow (63, 44 and 52% of control values, respectively). At 4 and 20 h after a single administration of the same EE dose, a significant diminution of bile flow was noted (decreases of 17 and 29%, respectively) in association with a significant fall in biliary glutathione content. Under these conditions, BSDF and BS-GSIF were not modified (98 and 112% of control BSDF values, respectively; 96 and 99% of control BS-GSIF values, respectively) while GSDF was decreased markedly, representing 65 and 50% of control values. Biliary glutathione secretion was diminished without modification of liver and blood glutathione concentration or redox status following single EE dose whereas, after 5 days of EE treatment, a significant increase in liver glutathione was observed, suggesting that EE may interfere with the glutathione secretory process. This study demonstrates that EE rapidly alters biliary glutathione content, leading to a marked decline in GSDF. This reduction may explain the decrease in BSIF produced by EE at the outset of cholestasis. PMID:7871546

Bouchard, G; Yousef, I M; Tuchweber, B

1994-12-01

73

Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

2007-01-01

74

Status of iodine content of salt in four regions of India.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study the Status of Iodine Content of Salt in four regions of India. METHODS: At each of the four centers (Vadodara, Dibrugarh, Jodhpur, New Delhi), High Schools were selected randomly from list of schools obtained from district education office and more than 700 salt samples were selected from each center. A total of 3,010 salt samples were collected from students of High Schools (consumed at their households), selected randomly from four centers and iodine content of salt by Standard Iodometric Titration Method (IT) was estimated. RESULTS: Analysis revealed that majority of salt sample collected at 4 centers were of powdered variety of salt. Analysis of iodine content in salt by IT method revealed that high proportion of school children (51.6%) consumed salt having inadequate iodine content (salt samples with less than 15 ppm of iodine) in Jodhpur district followed by Vadodara (19.8%), New Delhi (8.5%) and least in Dibrugarh (1.2%). The percentage of consumption of adequately iodized salt was highest in Dibrugarh (98.8%) among the four regions of India. CONCLUSIONS: Status of iodine content is varying from state to state i.e. highest at Dibrugarh and lowest at Jodhpur. This indicates that consumption of iodized salt in Jodhpur is low and needs more attention. Government may adopt different strategies in different states. There is a strong need of iodization of salt in addition to creating awareness among rural inhabitants for consumption of iodized salt especially in Jodhpur District. More attention is required for monitoring quality of iodized salt available in the community.

Singh MB; Sharma SK; Nair S; Pandey RM; Kapil U; Singh C

2011-06-01

75

Polyelectrolyte-macroion complexation in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents: a Brownian dynamics study.  

Science.gov (United States)

On the basis of the coarse-grained model, we performed Brownian dynamics simulations to investigate behavior of the polyelectrolyte (PE)-macroion complexations in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents. Our simulation results show that in 3:1 salt content there exists a critical salt concentration (CSC), which is determined by the charge stoichiometry, for the breakup of the PE-macroion complexations. Beyond the CSC concentration, an obvious depletion appears in the macroion-macroion and macroion-PE interactions, which is absent in 1:1 salt content. Both the mobilities of macroions and PEs increase monotonically with increasing the salt concentration in 1:1 and 3:1 salt contents. And the mobility in 3:1 salt content is always larger than that in corresponding 1:1 salt content, which is due to the fact that in 3:1 salt content the PE-macroion complexations are looser than those in 1:1 salt content. Moreover, we observed the collapse and re-expansion of PE chains with the increase of the salt concentration in the PEs-macroions systems of 3:1 salt content, which is due to the charge inversion of PE chains induced by the adsorption of trivalent cations. In addition, we also explored the effects of salt concentration and the length and charge density of PE chains. Our simulation results show that the effects of the length and charge density of PE chains in both salt contents on the radial distribution functions (RDFs) between macroions and between a macroion and a PE segment are similar to these in salt free solution basically. However, we observed an interesting phenomenon that the gyration radius of PE chains in the system of 3:1 salt content is not affected significantly by its charge density, while that in 1:1 salt content increases monotonically. PMID:19053684

Yang, Juan; Ni, Ran; Cao, Dapeng; Wang, Wenchuan

2008-12-25

76

Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

2012-04-19

77

Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

Wang H; Ma K; Zhang W; Li J; Sun G; Li H

2012-10-01

78

Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%.

Wang H; Ma K; Zhang W; Li J; Sun G; Li H

2012-10-01

79

Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses.

Zhang D; He P; Shao L; Jin T; Han J

2008-01-01

80

Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses. PMID:19209645

Zhang, Dongqing; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Jin, Taifeng; Han, Jingyao

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand) and Poland (silty loamy sand) were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian) test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

D. Błażejczak; R. Horn; J. Pytka

1995-01-01

82

Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect.

Long Y; Wang T; Liu L; Liu G; Zhang G

2013-03-01

83

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Ketta...

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

84

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

85

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

2008-08-31

86

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

Novotny EV; Murphy D; Stefan HG

2008-11-01

87

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

2008-11-15

88

Water- and Organo-Dispersible Gold Nanoparticles Supported by Using Ammonium Salts of Hyperbranched Polystyrene: Preparation and Catalysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Gold nanoparticles (1?nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles.

Gao L; Nishikata T; Kojima K; Chikama K; Nagashima H

2013-09-01

89

Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

2013-06-14

90

Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon.  

Science.gov (United States)

An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading. PMID:21789331

Alonso, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus, Miguel

2011-07-26

91

Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading.

Alonso F; Moglie Y; Radivoy G; Yus M

2011-09-01

92

Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: Mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, whic...

Eppler, Ross K.; Komor, Russell S.; Huynh, Joyce; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Clark, Douglas S.

93

Determination of water content and calorific value of peat by near IR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Near infrared reflectance (n.i.r.) spectroscopy is used for the determination of water and calorific value in peat. Partial least squares modelling in latent variables (PLS) has been used to correlate n.i.r. spectra to water content and calorific value. Separate calibrations for water and calorific value have been compared with the simultaneous calibration for both properties. The result of the simultaneous calibration for water is better than the result obtained in the separate calibration. This indicates that the inclusion of an extra meaningful variable will stabilize the calibration. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Johansson, E.; Persson, J.A.; Albano, C.

1987-01-01

94

Unfrozen water contents of submarine permafrost determined by nuclear magnetic resonance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prior work resulted in the development of techniques to measure the unfrozen water contents in frozen soils by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It has been demonstrated that NMR is a promising new method for the determination of phase composition which circumvents many of the limitations inherent in the adiabatic and isothermal calorimetric techniques. The NMR technique makes it possible, in a non-destructive, non-intrusive way, to explore hysteresis by determining both cooling and warming curves. Corrections are made for dissolved paramagnetic impurities which have the effect of increasing the signal intensity at decreasing temperatures. The results demonstrate that NMR techniques can be effectively utilized both at and below the melting point of ice in frozen soils and that accurate melting points can be determined. Refs.

Tice, A.R.; Anderson, D.; Sterrett, K.F.

1981-12-01

95

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

96

Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May

Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P

1999-01-01

97

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention

2007-12-07

98

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 ?m, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.

Mehrabanian M; Nasr-Esfahani M

2011-01-01

99

Study of cladding hull fixation by low water content ceramic cements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations of the suitability using portland cement free ceramic cements for the fixation of cladding hulls were started with laboratory experiments. The material chosen exhibits the lowest water content by a sufficient compressive strength of the cured product. To produce void free waste forms (hulls + matrix) mixtures with a water content of 12 weight % are suitable. The investigations with radioactive laboratory samples have shown the practicability of the dehydration of Zry-ceramic samples at temperatures of 100 to 1500C. In this case, a maximum of 0.06% of the inital activity - mainly as HTO - will be released. The thermal release in argon carrier gas at different temperatures was in relative good agreement with measurements with hydraulic and naked KWO-hulls. The yearly release rates were found in the range of 10-5 to 10-6 Ci/Ci. year. The leaching of tritium-, actinides- and fission products at 200C and 900C with H20 and carnalit brine have shown no advantages of ceramic matrix compared with portland cement. The drying of the inactive waste form requires a dry air temperature of 2350C. The thermal decomposition of Na-acetate, which is contained in small amounts in the mixture, begins at 1750C. A calorimeter was developed for the determination of the power of nuclear heat sources in radioactive waste and tested in hot cells. Compared to KORIGEN-calculations the measured values are 20 to 30% lower. The experimental facility MEGA was designed to determine the activity of the volatile fission products and hydrogen concentration.

1986-01-01

100

Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

Sowers, A.; Young, S. P.; Isely, J. J.; Browdy, C. L.; Tomasso, Jr. , J. R.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental dat (more) a. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

Gil, I. D.; Uyazán, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodríguez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

2008-03-01

102

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D. Gil; A. M. Uyazán; J. L. Aguilar; G. Rodríguez; L. A. Caicedo

2008-01-01

103

Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since {gamma}-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 {sup 0}C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy.

Hayashi, Yoshihito; Miura, Nobuhiro; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2005-02-21

104

Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

Shokoofeh Hajihashemi; Khadijeh Kiarostami

2007-01-01

105

Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site. Because of water`s importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P{sub H2O}) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P{sub H2O} is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site`s environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes.

Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

1997-02-01

106

Sucrose lyophiles: A semi-quantitative study of residual water content by total X-ray diffraction analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total X-ray Powder Diffraction Analysis (TXRPD) using transmission geometry was able to observe significant variance in measured powder patterns for sucrose lyophilizates with differing residual water contents. Integrated diffraction intensity corresponding to the observed variances was found to be linearly correlated to residual water content as measured by an independent technique. The observed variance was concentrated in two distinct regions of the lyophilizate powder pattern, corresponding to the characteristic sucrose matrix double halo and the high angle diffuse region normally associated with free-water. Full pattern fitting of the lyophilizate powder patterns suggested that the high angle variance was better described by the characteristic diffraction profile of a concentrated sucrose/water system rather than by the free-water diffraction profile. This suggests that the residual water in the sucrose lyophilizates is intimately mixed at the molecular level with sucrose molecules forming a liquid/solid solution. The bound nature of the residual water and its impact on the sucrose matrix gives an enhanced diffraction response between 3.0 and 3.5 beyond that expected for free-water. The enhanced diffraction response allows semi-quantitative analysis of residual water contents within the studied sucrose lyophilizates to levels below 1% by weight.

Bates S; Jonaitis D; Nail S

2013-06-01

107

Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

2012-01-01

108

METHOD FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A UNIT (THERMAL SALT MARSH &THERMAL SALT PAN) DESTINED FOR THE SYNCHRONICAL PRODUCTION OF SALT AND DESALINATED WATER UNDER CONTROLLED CONDITIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Novelty: A new environmentally-friendly method for the construction of a unit destined for the synchronical production of extremely pure salt and desalinated water under controlled conditions - potential daily salt collection. Technical features: Sea water is pumped up from a selected point in the sea or from a subground basin via drilling in combination with the controlled operational conditions of the unit, a top-quality final product exempt from further treatment is resulted so that operation expenses, pollutants and waste can be significantly reduced. The controlled conditions, which are created in the thermal salt evaporation ponds, assist the evaporation of the sea water even after sunset. The coordinated mechanical salt gathering mode multiplies by far the production of floatingfirstborn salt crystals. Furthermore, the confined suspended water molecules in the space of the thermal salt marsh are absorbed and conveyed to the desalination system for the synchronical production of desalinated water.

109

Reducing radionuclide contents in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of a cost-benefit analysis of reducing radiation hazards to the population due to radionuclides in drinking water and to nuclear power plants operation are presented. Two aeration methods are used to reduce the radon content in drinking water -aeration in a shallow layer and aeration towers. The radon content can be reduced more effectively by a two-step arrangement of the aeration facility. A reduction of the content of radium, uranium and their daughter products is possible with the use of a modification of the processes common in water-works practice. The analysis of economic efficiency showed that for reducing radiation hazards to the population, it is much more effective to reduce the radionuclide contents in drinking water sources than, for instance, to reduce the tritium content in liquid effluents from nuclear power plants further below the projected level. (J.J.). 2 figs

1990-01-01

110

Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? mRNA in hearts and lungs of broiler chickens with ascites syndrome induced by excess salt in drinking water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates adaptive responses to hypoxia in all nucleated cells of metazoan organisms. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? is involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension in humans and animals, but whether HIF-1? is associated with the development of pulmonary hypertension syndrome (also known as ascites syndrome, AS) in broiler chickens has not been determined. In the present paper we addressed this issue by measuring the expression of HIF-1? mRNA in hearts and lungs of broiler chickens with AS induced by excess salt in drinking water. We conducted 2 experiments. The first experiment was used to observe the effects of excess salt on AS incidence. The results indicated that total incidence (20%) of AS in excess salt group (receiving 0.3% NaCl in drinking water) was much higher compared with the control group (receiving tap water) over a 43-d time course (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, we determined mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), ascites heart index (AHI), and expression of HIF-1? mRNA in lungs and hearts of broiler chickens after the excess salt treatment. Our results showed that excess salt induced pulmonary hypertension (indicated by higher mPAP) and right ventricular hypertrophy (greater ascites heart index) in broiler chickens. Meanwhile, the expression levels of HIF-1? mRNA in lungs and hearts were significantly increased at different time points in the excess salt group compared with the control group. Linear correlation analysis showed that the expression of HIF-1? mRNA in lungs was significantly positively correlated with mPAP (correlation coefficient = 0.79, P < 0.001), demonstrating that expression of HIF-1? mRNA was gradually increased in the excess salt group with the increase of pulmonary arterial pressure. In addition, the ascitic chickens showed significantly higher transcriptional levels of HIF-1? in hearts and lungs, compared with the age-matched healthy chickens, respectively. Our findings hinted that HIF-1? might be associated with the development of AS induced by excess salt in drinking water in broiler chickens.

Zhang J; Feng X; Zhao L; Wang W; Gao M; Wu B; Qiao J

2013-08-01

111

GmWRKY53, a water- and salt-inducible soybean gene for rapid dissection of regulatory elements in BY-2 cell culture.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Drought is the major cause of crop losses worldwide. Water stress-inducible promoters are important for understanding the mechanisms of water stress responses in crop plants. Here we utilized tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow 2 (BY-2) cell system in presence of polyethylene glycol, salt and phytohormones. Extension of the system to 85 mM NaCl led to inducibility of up to 10-fold with the water stress and salt responsive soybean GmWRKY53 promoter. Upon ABA and JA treatment fold inducibility was up to 5-fold and 14-fold, respectively. Thus, we hypothesize that GmWRKY53 could be used as potential model candidate for dissecting drought regulatory elements as well as understanding crosstalk utilizing a rapid heterologous system of BY-2 culture.

Tripathi P; Rabara RC; Lin J; Rushton PJ

2013-03-01

112

Nuclear power for salt water conversion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Pressure on water resources is resulting in manycountries from population growth, rising living standards, and the increasing demands of industrialization; there is. in consequence, a corresponding interest in the possibilities of large-scale desalting of water. The application of nuclear energy to desalting is being studied by IAEA, with special reference to the needs of developing countries. A number of technical and economic studies have been undertaken by other organizations in several countries. The desalting of salt water by distillation or other processes has long been familiar, but usually only on a small scale and at relatively high cost. The principal question today is whether much more economical results can be obtained by a great increase in the scale of operations, and by enlisting the most modern techniques. The matter is of most immediate interest to the arid regions. It was as a result of a request from Tunisia, following the 1962 General Conference, that the Agency undertook a series of studies. In March 1963 a group of experts met in Vienna under the chairmanship of Mr. J. K. Carr, Under-Secretary, US Department of the Interior, to discuss how the Agency could best help developing countries to use nuclear energy for desalting. This was followed by the visit of an Agency staff member to Tunisia with a UN mission and by the convening of a further expert panel in September 1963. This meeting was under the chairmanship of Mr. Carr and of Mr. J. T. Ramey, Commissioner, US Atomic Energy Commission. Eleven countries were represented, as well as the United Nations and the Food and Agriculture Organization. The panel examined the technical situation, including conversion methods and reactor systems.

1964-01-01

113

Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

Ghezzehei, T.A.

2008-05-29

114

Elucidating the Mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Maintains Cutaneous Water Content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO4) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO4 was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6 h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO4 led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO4, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO4 were nearly identical.

Ikarashi N; Ogiue N; Toyoda E; Nakamura M; Kon R; Kusunoki Y; Aburada T; Ishii M; Tanaka Y; Machida Y; Ochiai W; Sugiyama K

2013-08-01

115

Elucidating the Mechanism by Which Gypsum fibrosum, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, Maintains Cutaneous Water Content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aquaporin-3 (AQP3) plays an important role in maintaining the normal water content of the skin. Previously, we revealed that the expression of cutaneous AQP3 increased following oral administration of Gypsum fibrosum (main component: CaSO4) to mice. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the mechanism by which Gypsum fibrosum increases the expression of cutaneous AQP3 in a keratinocyte cell line. Gypsum fibrosum or CaSO4 was added to keratinocytes, and the expression level of AQP3, the Ca concentration, the activity of protein kinase C (PKC), and the degrees of phosphorylation of both extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) were measured. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AQP3 increased significantly 6?h-post addition of Gypsum fibrosum. In keratinocytes treated with Gypsum fibrosum, increases in the concentration of intracellular Ca, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB were observed. Pre-treatment with GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, suppressed the mRNA expression levels of AQP3. Similarly to treatment with Gypsum fibrosum, the addition of CaSO4 led to the same observations in keratinocytes. It is hypothesized that Gypsum fibrosum causes an increase in the intracellular Ca concentration, PKC activity, and the phosphorylation levels of ERK and CREB, resulting in increased AQP3 expression in keratinocytes. In addition, it is possible that the effect of Gypsum fibrosum is attributable to CaSO4, based on the results demonstrating that the mechanisms of action of Gypsum fibrosum and CaSO4 were nearly identical. PMID:23912684

Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Ogiue, Naoki; Toyoda, Eri; Nakamura, Marina; Kon, Risako; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Aburada, Takashi; Ishii, Makoto; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Machida, Yoshiaki; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

2013-08-02

116

Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol) appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragiši?-Maksimovi? Jelena J.; Maksimovi? V.M.; Živanovi? Branka D.

2012-01-01

117

Effects of Salt Stress on the Growth, Physiological Responses, and Glycoside Contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K(+) content and K(+)/Na(+) ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

2013-06-01

118

Effects of Salt Stress on the Growth, Physiological Responses and Glycoside Contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90 and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses and steviol glycosides composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for four weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl while kept unchanged at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70% while the increments of the antioxidant enzymes activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. The proline contents in salt treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K(+) content and K(+)/Na(+) ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2% while the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicated that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycosides composition.

Zeng J; Chen A; Li D; Yi B; Wu W

2013-05-01

119

Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: Current content and historical perspectives.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved.

Bijl E; van Valenberg HJ; Huppertz T; van Hooijdonk AC

2013-09-01

120

[Water-salt metabolism in space flights].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The article centres on the water-salt metabolism properties in space flights of varying duration. To assess the water and mineral turnover, renal function and their hormonal regulation in flight, a series of experiments was carried out with participation of Russian and international cosmonauts. These experiments and ground model investigations shed light on the mechanisms of osmotic and volumetric regulation in microgravity and guided the development of countermeasures and methods for correcting the negative shifts as a result of body adaptation to the novel environment.

Noskov VB

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Sewage sludge sanitization by ionizing radiation. Part 2. Water content influence on sludge hygienization process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decrease of specific filter resistance of anaerobically digested sludge (5% dry matter) is independent up to the dose 3 kGy at dose rate in the range 0.2-2.2 kGy/h when irradiated by 60Co. Irradiation by 4.5 MeV electrons has almost the same effect. Costs analysis shows that the sludge dewatering by either organic or inorganic flocculants is less expensive than by irradiation. Lowering of microbial concentration remains the main purpose of sludge irradiation. A combination of belt filter press and electron accelerator seems to be technically and economically very promising. The dose dependence of the concentrations of 8 types of bacteria was estimated up to the dose of 12 kGy in sludge with 5.24 and 95% content of dry matter. No distinct differences in the dose dependences by dry matter content were found. (author)

1981-01-01

122

Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O) through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients’ content at each time and the nutrients’ accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukey’s test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants’ macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plant’s shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

Cristiaini Kano; Quirino Augusto de Camargo Carmello; José Antonio Frizzone; Silvana da Silva Cardoso

2013-01-01

123

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

124

Evaluating climate change effects on water and salt resources in Salt Lake, Turkey using multitemporal SPOT imagery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main goal of this study is to investigate the dimension of climate change effects in Salt Lake and its vicinity in Turkey using satellite remote sensing data. The first stage of the study includes evaluation of the multitemporal climatic data on the Salt Lake Basin Area, Turkey for a period of 35 years (1970-2005). The changes in mean temperature and precipitation are evaluated for the study area by comparing two periods, 1970-1992 and 1993-2005. In the second stage, the effects of climate changes in the Salt Lake are investigated by evaluating water and salt reserve changes through seasonal and multitemporal SPOT imagery collected in 1987 and 2005. The climatic data and remotely sensed and treated satellite images show that water and salt reserve in Salt Lake has decreased between 1987 and 2005 due to drought and uncontrolled water usage. It is suggested that the use of water supplies, especially underground waters, around the Salt Lake should be controlled and the lake should regularly be monitored by current remote sensing data for an effective management of water and salt resources in the region. PMID:19267206

Ekercin, Semih; Ormeci, Cankut

2009-03-07

125

Freeze separation of contaminants from salt contaminated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The high operating and environmental costs associated with mine waste water treatment in the oil sands industry has led to the development of an innovative method to recycle waste water. Large volumes of process water are needed in the extraction and upgrading process for bitumen from oil sand deposits in Alberta. Currently, this high water demand is met by importing water and recycling clarified waste water. However, the concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants is steadily increasing in the recycle water due to continuous reuse. Conventional water treatment methods are uneconomical due to large volumes. This study examined natural thin layer freeze separation as a possible alternative method for treating contaminants and separating salt from mine waste water. Freeze separation relies on the physics of ice crystal formation. Impurities are rejected ahead of the growing crystal front. As freezing progresses, the impurity concentration increases and the freezing point decreases in the remaining unfrozen liquid. Ice and concentrated unfrozen liquid form until the freezing temperature of the liquid is reached. The purity of the ice and degree of concentration in the reject depends on the freezing rate and how efficiently the reject is removed from the crystal front. A laboratory experiment was conducted in which saline water consisting of table salt and tap water was used as a substitute for mine waste water. A specially designed flume placed in a cold room was used to evaluate thin layer freeze separation for contaminant separation of saline solutions. A series of experiments were conducted at a range of ambient temperatures, salt concentrations and mass flow rates. Production of slush and subsequent channelling impeded the freeze separation process. Melting proved to be more productive at concentrating salts than the freezing process. After revising the freezing method to optimize freezing and relying on melting for impurity separation, satisfactory removal of salt was achieved. The experiment showed that at an ambient temperature of -15 degrees C, separation and concentration of up to 95 per cent of the salt mass was possible in 22 to 54 per cent of the original volume, depending on the source concentration. Freeze separation has been used to treat several waste streams. Natural freezing has been used to produce potable water from brackish groundwater, to treat hog manure waste water and various industrial wastes. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

Beier, N.; Biggar, K.; Donahue, R.; Sego, D. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

2005-07-01

126

Monitoring the water content evolution of dikes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water content evolution of model dikes is monitored with geophysical methods. Water content changes are successfully quantified using electrical resistivity tomography. Numerical simulation of water flow in a dike model is used to estimate the variability of water content. Modeling of synthetic ...

Rings, Jörg

127

Salt (sodium chloride) content of retail samples of Nigerian white bread: implications for the daily salt intake of normotensive and hypertensive adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bread has been identified as a major contributor to the excessive salt (sodium chloride) intake of consumers in many countries, some of which have very high incidences of hypertension and related cardiovascular complications, such as stroke. This has prompted a global rise in interest in the salt content of breads produced and consumed in many other countries. METHODS: The sodium contents of retail samples of 100 brands of Nigerian white bread were determined by photometry with a view to estimating the relative contribution of bread to the recommended daily sodium intake of both normotensive and hypertensive adults in the country. RESULTS: The salt content of the bread samples varied extensively, ranging from 0.51 g per 100 g (0.51%) to 1.8 g per 100 g (1.8%). The average salt content was 1.36 g per 100 g. Based on an estimated consumption of six slices of bread (about 180 g) per meal of bread, this equates to a daily intake of between 0.99 g and 3.33 g of salt from bread alone. This represents between 19.8% and 66.6% of the recommended daily allowance of 5 g for normotensive adults, and between 24.75% and 83.25% of the recommended daily allowance of 4 g for hypertensive adults. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of some brands of bread by normotensive and hypertensive adults puts them at great risk of exceeding their recommended daily allowance for salt. Thus, there is an urgent need to regulate the amount of salt added to bread. In the interim, compelling bakers to declare the salt content of their products on the packaging could help consumers, especially hypertensive adults, avoid brands with a high salt content.

Nwanguma BC; Okorie CH

2013-10-01

128

Simulation of Exterior Conditions in Permanently Closed Soil Chambers by Controlling Air Flow, Soil Water Content, and Temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile substances and gases resulting e.g. from degradation processes of chemicals in soils emit into the atmosphere and no chemical mass balance is complete without considering this path. Closed soil chambers allow the evaluation of this transfer to the atmosphere. This study deals with the influence of soil chambers with a glass plate cover on physical soil conditions in the chambers and the possibility to simulate the exterior conditions within the chambers. The water content immediately at the soil surface is an important factor for the microbial activity and the transfer of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere as well. It is monitored by specially designed water content sensors in 1 cm depth in the chamber and as control outside. Funnels with a cross section equal to the soil surface area of the chamber collect the rain water and channel it into the soil chamber. This results in soil water content in the chambers very similar to that outside. For the purpose of analysing 14CO2 and volatile 14C-compounds, air is permanently pumped through the chamber. In order to simulate natural conditions, the wind speed is measured 1 cm above the soil surface outside the chambers. A control circuit adjusts the air flow through the chamber to a value corresponding to the wind speed outside. Temperature measurements in 1 cm depth verify that there is no significant difference between the soil chamber and the control outside.

2008-01-01

129

Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons) have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V) injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

S.M. McCann; C.R. Franci; A.L.V. Favaretto; J. Gutkowska; J. Antunes-Rodrigues

1997-01-01

130

Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons) have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to (more) inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V) injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

McCann, S.M.; Franci, C.R.; Favaretto, A.L.V.; Gutkowska, J.; Antunes-Rodrigues, J.

1997-04-01

131

Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H2O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author)[pt] Comparam-se dois procedimentos para a determinacao do teor de agua em tricarbonato de amonio e uranilo (TCAU) utilizando-se o reagente de Karl Fischer. Em um deles assume-se que o carbonato reage estequiometricamente com o iodo presente no reagente de Karl Fischer de modo similar a agua (1 mol de carbonato equivale a 1 mol de agua). Assim, determina-se o teor de carbonato no TCAU e faz-se a correcao apropriada descontando-se o numero de moles de agua aparente do numero total de moles de agua obtido pelo metodo de Karl Fischer. No outro procedimento extrai-se a agua do TCAU com metanol em um recipiente independente, deixa-se em repouso para decantacao e pipeta-se uma aliquota do sobrenadante para ser analisada pelo metodo de Karl Fischer. (autor)

1990-01-01

132

Determination of D2O contents of water at low levels by mass spectrometry: water-hydrogen isotope equilibration method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple analytical method for the determination of D2O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Isotope exchange equilibrium is attained within 30 min. Isotopic analysis of the equilibrated hydrogen gas is performed with mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviation is 1 ? 5 % for D2O concentration in the range 0.07 ? 10 mol%. Absolute determination of D2O is possible by making calibration with standard samples of known D2O concentration. (author)

1987-01-01

133

Laboratory studies of water transport in rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of water through rock salt as a result of heating is examined experimentally and a new model proposed to explain the data. The experiment consists of the measurement of water loss rate as a function of time for three 1 kg blocks of Southeastern New Mexico rock salt. Each block was heated for approximately three days with maximum temperatures ranging from 165 to 2500C. The resulting data is qualitatively explained by a continuum model of Darcian flow of water vapor from a receding evaporation front. The model includes the prediction of thermal stresses which are calculated to crack the specimens during heater shutdown giving an anomalously high water loss spike in agreement with the data

1979-01-01

134

Extraction of chromium(VI) by salting-out with a homogeneous, mixed solvent of water and 2-propanol: a laboratory study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND, AIMS AND SCOPE: Chromium enters into the aquatic environment as a result of effluent discharge from steel works, electroplating, leather tanning industries and chemical industries. As the Cr(VI) is very harmful to living organisms, it should be quickly removed from the environment when it happens to be contaminated. Therefore, the aim of this laboratory research was to develop a rapid, simple and adaptable solvent extraction system to quantitatively remove Cr(VI) from polluted waters. METHODS: Aqueous salt-solutions containing Cr(VI) as CrO4(2-) at ppm level (4-6 ppm) were prepared. Equal volumes (5 ml) of aqueous and organic (2-PrOH) phases were mixed in a 10 ml centrifuge tube for 15 min, centrifuged and separated. Concentrations of Cr(VI), in both the aqueous and organic phases, were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The effects of salt and acid concentrations, and phase-contact time on the extraction of Cr(VI) were investigated. In addition, the extraction of Cr(VI) was assessed in the presence of tetramethylammonium chloride (TMAC) in 2-PrOH phase. Effects of some other metals, (Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)), on the extraction of Cr(VI) were also investigated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Cr(VI) at ppm level was extracted quantitatively by salting-out the homogeneous system of water and 2-propanol(2-PrOH) using chloride salts, namely CaCl2 or NaCl, under acidic chloride media. The extracted chemical species of Cr(VI) was confirmed to be the CrO3Cl-. The ion-pair complex extracted into the organic phase was rationalized as the solvated ion-pair complex of [2-PrOH2+, CrO3Cl-]. The complex was no longer stable. It implied the reaction between extracted species. Studies revealed that salts and acid directly participated in the formation of the above complex. Use of extracting agents (TMAC) didn't show any significant effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) under high salting-out conditions. There is no significant interference effect on the extraction of Cr(VI) by the presence of other metals. The Cr(VI) in the organic phase was back-extracted using an aqueous ammonia solution (1.6 mol dm(-3)) containing 3 mol dm(-3) NaCl. The extraction mechanism of Cr(VI) is also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: Salting-out of homogeneous mixed solvent of 2-propanol can be employed to extract Cr(VI) quantitatively, as an ion-pair of [2-PrOH2+ * CrO3Cl-] solvated by 2-PrOH molecules. Then, the complex becomes 'solvent-like' and is readily separated into the organic phase. The increase of Cl- ion concentration in the aqueous phase favors the extraction. The 2-PrOH, salts and acid play important roles in the extraction process. There is no need to use an extracting agent at a high salting-out condition. RECOMMENDATIONS AND PERSPECTIVES: Chromium(VI) must be quickly removed before it enters into the natural cycle. As the 2-PrOH is water-miscible in any proportion, ion-pairing between 2-PrOH2+ and CrO3Cl- becomes very fast. As a result, Cr(VI) can easily be extracted. Therefore, the method is recommended as a simple, rapid and adaptable method to quickly separate Cr(VI) from aqueous samples.

Samaratunga SS; Nishimoto J; Tabata M

2008-01-01

135

FTIR and electrochemical observation of water content reduction in a thin Nafion {sup registered} film induced by an impregnation of metal complex cations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A thin Nafion {sup registered} ion exchange membrane was coated on a graphite electrode, and then impregnated by a metal complex couple of Os(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+/3+}, which served as a typical system to investigate the water content change induced by ion exchange. Cyclic voltammetry and FTIR reflection-adsorption spectroscopic methods were employed to characterize the complex loading, electrochemical behavior of the impregnates inside the film and the water content change. A direct observation of the water content reduction induced by the cation impregnation in the Nafion {sup registered} film was achieved. A monotonic relationship between the water reduction percentage and the Os(bpy){sub 3}{sup 2+/3+} loading was also obtained, that is, the heavier the complex loading, the more the water content will be reduced. The FTIR spectroscopic results suggested that the structure of the Nafion {sup registered} film could also be changed with water content reduction. (author)

Zhang, Jiujun; Wang, Haijiang; Liu, Zhong-Sheng [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 3250 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada) V6T 1W5; Wilkinson, David P. [Institute for Fuel Cell Innovation, National Research Council Canada, 3250 East Mall, Vancouver, BC (Canada) V6T 1W5; Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada) V6T 1Z4

2005-07-25

136

Surfactant enhanced wetting and salt leaching of soil contaminated by crude oil and brine  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As a pre-treatment of bioremediation, leaching of salts from an agriculture top soil contaminated with crude oil and brine was inhibited by severe water repellency resulting from the large difference in surface tension between water and soil aggregates coated by crude oil. Surfactant solutions were found effective in reducing soil water repellency and improving salt leaching. An intermittent leaching procedure further improved leaching efficiency by allowing diffusion of salt from soil interpores to aggregate surface. As a result, electric conductivity (EC) of the contaminated soil was reduced from 11.8 dS cm{sup -1} to 2.6 dS cm{sup -1} when the soil was leached with a non-ionic surfactant (0.05 N, SN-70, Witco Inc.) using 1.6 L kg{sup -1} water. Dissolved hydrocarbons into the leachate was 106 mg L{sup -1} counting for 3.5% of total oil content.

Guo, I.; McNabb, D.H.; Johnson, R.L. [Soil Remediation Research, Vegreville, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31

137

Dynamics of Confined Water Molecules in Aqueous Salt Hydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The unusual properties of water are largely dictated by the dynamics of the H bond network. A single water molecule has more H bonding sites than atoms, hence new experimental and theoretical investigations about this peculiar liquid have not ceased to appear. Confinement of water to nanodroplets or small molecular clusters drastically changes many of the liquid’s properties. Such confined water plays a major role in the solvation of macro molecules such as proteins and can even be essential to their properties. Despite the vast results available on bulk and confined water, discussions about the correlation between spectral and structural properties continue to this day. The fast relaxation of the OH stretching vibration in bulk water, and the variance of sample geometries in the experiments on confined water obfuscate definite interpretation of the spectroscopic results in terms of structural parameters. We present first time-resolved investigations on a new model system that is ideally suited to overcome many of the problems faced in spectroscopical investigation of the H bond network of water. Aqueous hydrates of inorganic salts provide water molecules in a crystal grid, that enables unambiguous correlations of spectroscopic and structural features. Furthermore, the confined water clusters are well isolated from each other in the crystal matrix, so different degrees of confinement can be achieved by selection of the appropriate salt.

Werhahn, Jasper C.; Pandelov, S.; Yoo, Soohaeng; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Iglev, H.

2011-04-01

138

The influence of water content and drug solubility on the formulation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The influence of drug solubility in the range 14.3-1000 gl-1 on the formation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation has been investigated by evaluating the performance of a series of model drugs mixed with an equal part by weight of microcrystalline cellulose. The optimum formulation in terms of pellet roundness and the maximum quantity within a limited size range was established by preparing samples with a range of water levels. The range of water levels over which pellets could be formed was found to be dependent on the model drug and its particle size. In general the force necessary to extrude the wet mass through the ram extruder was found to decrease as the quantity of water added increased. The optimum water level required to form the best quality pellets was found to decrease as a linear function of the natural logarithm of the water solubility of the drug. If allowance is made for the loss of solid by dissolution of the drug, there is an increase in the apparent water content necessary to form good spheres above a critical solubility between 350 and 400 gl-1.

Lustig-Gustafsson C; Kaur Johal H; Podczeck F; Newton JM

1999-05-01

139

The influence of water content and drug solubility on the formulation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of drug solubility in the range 14.3-1000 gl-1 on the formation of pellets by extrusion and spheronisation has been investigated by evaluating the performance of a series of model drugs mixed with an equal part by weight of microcrystalline cellulose. The optimum formulation in terms of pellet roundness and the maximum quantity within a limited size range was established by preparing samples with a range of water levels. The range of water levels over which pellets could be formed was found to be dependent on the model drug and its particle size. In general the force necessary to extrude the wet mass through the ram extruder was found to decrease as the quantity of water added increased. The optimum water level required to form the best quality pellets was found to decrease as a linear function of the natural logarithm of the water solubility of the drug. If allowance is made for the loss of solid by dissolution of the drug, there is an increase in the apparent water content necessary to form good spheres above a critical solubility between 350 and 400 gl-1. PMID:10210738

Lustig-Gustafsson, C; Kaur Johal, H; Podczeck, F; Newton, J M

1999-05-01

140

Water uptake and salt transport through Nafion cation-exchange membranes with different thicknesses  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The water uptake of different aqueous salt solutions in different Nafion membranes, and the salt transport through those membranes under the driving force of a concentration gradient, have been studied. These experiments have been performed by using the following salts: lithium chloride, sodium chlo...

Izquierdo Gil, María Amparo; Barragán García , Vicenta María; García Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Godino Gómez, Mari Paz

 
 
 
 
141

Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author).

1988-01-01

142

Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set-up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Full text: Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content is a main topic both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. The evaluation of gross alpha/beta and individual radionuclides concentrations usually requires specific sample treatments, purification and measuring techniques. In our institute a step by step procedure has been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water by a single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC). LSC was equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device and has been coupled to quick radiochemical procedures. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. A few becquerel per liter alpha and beta activity can be checked in 24 hours in more than one hundred samples. More sensitive gross alpha and beta measurement can be performed on water samples after preconcentration by evaporation under controlled conditions. This procedure allows the determination of the actual gross alpha and beta activity of most drinking waters. Total and isotopic uranium content is measured by selective extraction followed LSC. This procedure is less cumbersome than the traditional one (chemical separation followed by electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry) and allows evaluation of 234U/238U ratio. Then a quick check of depleted uranium contamination in a wide number of samples is also possible. 226Ra and 228Ra can be directly measured in a few mBq/l concentrations after specific concentration and purification steps. The procedure has proven to be quick and highly specific. Our emergency screening procedure has been adopted by all district laboratories of Lombardia Environmental Protection Agency to face both accidental and intentional drinking water contaminations. High sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium analytical procedures have been applied to the first extensive monitoring program of natural radioactivity in Lombardia drinking waters, in compliance with the most recent European Council Directives. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique, which can be easily implemented in new laboratories. (author)

2003-01-01

143

Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress.

Marunde MR; Samarajeewa DA; Anderson J; Li S; Hand SC; Menze MA

2013-04-01

144

Water and Salt Metabolism Disorders Following Transsphenoidal Pituitary Surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is frequently complicated with mild to severe water and electrolyte disturbances in the postoperative period. These disorders are: transient diabetes insipidus, early or delayed hyponatremia, diabetes insipidus followed by hyponatremia (biphasic pattern), diabetes insipidus-hyponatremia-diabetes insipidus (triphasic pattern), permanent diabetes insipidus, and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome. Close monitoring of water intake, urine output, thirst, volume status and serum electrolytes is imperative, and a dynamic treatment plan according to the changing status of the patient is mandatory. This review will focus on the types, course and treatment of water and electrolyte disturbances observed after transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Turk Jem 2011; 15: 28-32

Mehtap Cakir

2011-01-01

145

Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occurred by S(N)2 nucleophilic substitution, in which the chlorine was replaced by thiosulfate and the herbicide was detoxified. Laboratory studies showed that this reaction could be used for removing residues of chloroacetanilide herbicides in water, soil, and sand. Our findings also suggest that some other XOCs may be subject to this reaction. Because common thiosulfate salts are innocuous products (e.g., fertilizers) and the reaction selectively detoxifies XOCs at low thiosulfate levels, this discovery may lead to a new way for safe removal of certain XOCs from the environment.

Gan J; Wang Q; Yates SR; Koskinen WC; Jury WA

2002-04-01

146

Characteristics of salt taste and free chlorine or chloramine in drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salty taste with or without chlorine or chloramine flavour is one of the major consumer complaints to water utilities. The flavour profile analysis (FPA) taste panel method determined the average taste threshold concentration for salt (NaCl) in Milli-Q water to be 640 +/- 3 mg/L at pH 8. Chlorine and chloramine disinfectants have no antagonistic or synergistic effects on the taste of NaCl, salt, in Milli-Q water. The flavour threshold concentrations for chlorine or chloramine in Milli-Q water alone or in the presence of NaCl could not be estimated by the Weber-Fechner curves due to the chlorine or chloramine flavour outliers in the 0.2-0.8 mg/L concentration range. Apparently, NaCl is not equilibrated with the concentration of ions in the saliva in the mouth and the concentration of free chlorine or chloramines cannot be tasted correctly. Therefore, dechlorinated tap water may be the best background water to use for a particular drinking water evaluation of chlorine and chloramine thresholds. Laboratory FPA studies of free chlorine found that a 67% dilution of Central Arizona Project (CAP) (Tucson, AZ) water with Milli-O water was required to reduce the free chlorine flavour to a threshold value instead of a theoretical value of 80% (Krasner and Barrett, 1980). No synergistic effect was found for chlorine flavour on the dilution of CAP water with Milli-Q water. When Central Avra Valley (AVRA) groundwater was used for the dilution of CAP water, a synergistic effect of the TDS present was observed for the chlorine flavour. Apparently, the actual mineral content of drinking water, and not just NaCl in Milli-Q water, is needed for comparative flavour tests for chlorine and chloramines. PMID:17489422

Wiesenthal, K E; McGuire, M J; Suffet, I H

2007-01-01

147

Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg++ and K++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na+ and Cl- contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4-- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO-- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4-- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl- content was higher than Na+ content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

2000-01-01

148

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01

149

Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

2010-11-01

150

The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, {sup 1}H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics.

Jaffel, H. [ICSM - UMR CNRS 5257 - CEA Marcoule (France); DEN/DTCD - CEA Marcoule (France); Guillermo, A. [SPrAM - UMR CNRS 5819 - CEA Grenoble (France); Diat, O. [ICSM - UMR CNRS 5257 - CEA Marcoule (France); Ledieu, A.; Poulesquen, A. [DEN/DTCD - CEA Marcoule (France)

2008-07-01

151

Degradation products of different water content sevoflurane in carbon dioxide absorbents by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is currently used as a volatile inhalation anesthetic with many clinical advantages. A representative degradation product, compound A, was quantitatively measured to investigate whether there are different reactions between two kinds of water content sevoflurane formulations with different carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents. METHODS: A closed-circle breathe bag with the Dräger Fabius GS anesthesia apparatus was used as an artificial rubber lung. The experiments were grouped according to different sevoflurane formulations: group A: higher-water sevoflurane (Ultane); group B: lower-water sevoflurane (Sevoness). During the experiment, CO2 (200 ml/min) was continually perfused to keep the end-tidal pressure of CO2 (P(ET)CO2) at 35 - 45 mmHg. The artificial ventilation was set to 6 L/min, and the breathing rate at 12 breaths/min. The circuit was operated with constant fresh gas flow rate (1 L/min) and the sevoflurane concentration was kept at 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 240 minutes. At 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes, gas was collected from the Y-piece. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to quantify the major degradation product, compound A, with different water content sevoflurane. PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentration, and the temperature of the canister were continuously monitored during the experiment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in P(ET)CO2 and sevoflurane concentrations between the two groups. Drägersorb 800 plus produced the highest concentrations of compound A compared with other sodalimes, and Sevoness in Drägersorb 800 plus generated more compound A than Ultane (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in the peak and average compound A concentrations between Ultane and Sevoness with Drägersorb 800 plus (P < 0.05), while the compound A concentration produced by Sodasorb grase and sofonolime in the two groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). In the same group, the peak and average of compound A concentration produced by Sodasorb grase and sofonolime showed significant difference with Drägersorb 800 plus (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The water content of sevoflurane and potassium hydroxide in CO2 absorbent can influence compound A production.

Li Y; Li YC; Zhang YN; Liu SJ; Zhou YM; Wang CS; Gong YL; Li EY

2011-04-01

152

Study on kinetics of mass transfer in water-boiled salted duck during wet-curing  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Curing is the most important process for the production of water-boiled salted duck. This work was designed to compare the difference in mass transfer of water and salt in water-boiled salted duck among different concentration brines during wet-curing. Duck breasts were wet-cured for 72h in four brine solutions having concentrations, i.e. 5%, 15%, and 25% NaCl (w/w), and repeatedly reused supersaturated brine (?25% NaCl (w/w)) which is often used in commercial production in China. Results showed that as brine concentration increased, the weight gain and water content decreased and the NaCl content of meat samples increased. Moreover, hardness and springiness increased with increasing brine concentration coupled with a drop in water holding capacity (WHC). Higher salt concentration brines showed a higher proteolysis than lower salt concentration brines. Therefore, 15% NaCl (w/w) brine, the solution having moderate salt concentration, was the most suitable for wet-curing just because of its higher process yields, effective diffusivity value, D e, and lower health risks.

Du Lei; Zhou Guang-Hong; Xu Xing-Lian; Li Chun-Bao

2010-10-01

153

Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

2010-01-01

154

Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2) on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl–, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

Bouzid Nedjimi; Youcef Daoud; Mustapha Touati

2006-01-01

155

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?¹). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

Machado AA; Hoff ML; Klein RD; Cardozo JG; Giacomin MM; Pinho GL; Bianchini A

2013-08-01

156

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?¹). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper. PMID:23721848

Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza; Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Cardozo, Janaina Goulart; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Bianchini, Adalto

2013-04-29

157

Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

2012-01-01

158

Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs), measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs) during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m) was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m) to DOC (mg/ L)."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.3±0.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.3±0.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

2009-01-01

159

Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In our institute different procedures have been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. A single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC), has been used. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. Alpha and beta activities can be measured in more than one hundred samples per day with sensitivities of few Bq/kg. Higher sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium measurements can be performed on water samples after specific sample treatments; the sequential method proposed is designed in such a way that the same water sample can be used in all the stages, with slight modifications. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique which can be applied also by laboratories lacking specific radiochemistry facilities and experience. (author)

2004-01-01

160

Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

2010-01-01

162

Optimization of hydrophilic interaction LC by univariate and multivariate methods and its combination with salting-out liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of antihypertensive drugs in the environmental waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrophilic interaction LC for the separation of four antihypertensive drugs was optimized by both univariate and multivariate methods. The column efficiency, resolution, and separation time were used as the three assessment parameters. The best separation condition of 97% ACN with 3% aqueous buffer containing 50 mM ammonium acetate at a pH of 3.0 was obtained by the two optimization methods. The multivariate optimization, orthogonal array design herein, was demonstrated to be a little tedious, but afforded a much better understanding of underlying separation factors. The content of ACN in the mobile phase contributed most significantly to separation. Furthermore, sample diluent and injection volume were found to influence the chromatographic performance. To match the hydrophilic interaction LC mobile phase, a proper sample pretreatment method, salting-out liquid-liquid extraction, in which ACN was the extractant, was chosen. Since reserpine was unstable under both acidic and alkaline conditions, it was not studied in this part. The optimal salting-out liquid-liquid extraction parameters were as follows: 400 ?L ACN was added to 1 mL sample solution containing 500 mg NH4 Cl at a pH of 14.0. The linearity ranged from 0.01 to 1.00 ?g/mL with r(2) > 0.9937. The LODs were between 1.9 and 2.5 ng/mL. The developed method was applied to the environmental water sample with good performance. PMID:23450627

Wang, Qing; Yin, Chen-ru; Xu, Li

2013-03-01

163

Optimization of hydrophilic interaction LC by univariate and multivariate methods and its combination with salting-out liquid-liquid extraction for the determination of antihypertensive drugs in the environmental waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hydrophilic interaction LC for the separation of four antihypertensive drugs was optimized by both univariate and multivariate methods. The column efficiency, resolution, and separation time were used as the three assessment parameters. The best separation condition of 97% ACN with 3% aqueous buffer containing 50 mM ammonium acetate at a pH of 3.0 was obtained by the two optimization methods. The multivariate optimization, orthogonal array design herein, was demonstrated to be a little tedious, but afforded a much better understanding of underlying separation factors. The content of ACN in the mobile phase contributed most significantly to separation. Furthermore, sample diluent and injection volume were found to influence the chromatographic performance. To match the hydrophilic interaction LC mobile phase, a proper sample pretreatment method, salting-out liquid-liquid extraction, in which ACN was the extractant, was chosen. Since reserpine was unstable under both acidic and alkaline conditions, it was not studied in this part. The optimal salting-out liquid-liquid extraction parameters were as follows: 400 ?L ACN was added to 1 mL sample solution containing 500 mg NH4 Cl at a pH of 14.0. The linearity ranged from 0.01 to 1.00 ?g/mL with r(2) > 0.9937. The LODs were between 1.9 and 2.5 ng/mL. The developed method was applied to the environmental water sample with good performance.

Wang Q; Yin CR; Xu L

2013-03-01

164

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

165

Impact of the analytical blank in the uncertainty evaluation of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical analysts use analytical blanks in their analyses, but seldom is this source of uncertainty evaluated. Generally, there is great confusion. Although the numerical value of the blank, in some situations, can be negligible, its source of uncertainty cannot be. This article discusses the uncertainty contribution of the analytical blank using a numerical example of the copper content in waters by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicate that the uncertainties of the analytical blank can contribute up to 50% when the blank sample is considered in this analysis, confirming its high impact. This effect can be primarily observed where the analyte concentration approaches the lower range of the analytical curve. Even so, the blank is not always computed. Therefore, the relevance of the analytical blank can be confirmed by uncertainty evaluation.

de Oliveira EC; Monteiro MI; Pontes FV; de Almeida MD; Carneiro MC; da Silva LI; Alcover Neto A

2012-03-01

166

Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (?- and ?-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of ?-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period.

Song R; Xia G; Xing X; He L; Zhao Q; Ma Z

2013-07-01

167

Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (?- and ?-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of ?-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period. PMID:23587338

Song, Rui; Xia, Guangmei; Xing, Xueqing; He, Linghao; Zhao, Qiaoling; Ma, Zhi

2013-03-28

168

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake. PMID:23424102

Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

2013-02-04

169

Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individual food. The average salt content from elementary, middle, and high school meals were 2.44 g, 3.96 g, and 5.87 g, respectively. The amount of salt provided from the school lunch alone was over 80% of the recommended daily salt intake by WHO. Noodles, stews, sauces, and soups were major sources of salt intake at dish group level, while the most salty dishes were sauces, kimchies, and stir-fried foods. Dietary knowledge and attitude related to sodium intake and consumption frequency of the salty dishes were surveyed with questionnaire in 798 students and 256 staffs working for school meal service. Compared with the staffs, the students perceived school meals salty and the proportions of students who thought school meals were salty increased with going up from elementary to high schools (P < 0.001). Among the students, middle and high school students showed significant propensity for the preference to one-dish meal, processed foods, eating much broth and dipping sauce or seasoning compared with the elementary students, although they had higher nutrition knowledge scores. These results proposed that monitoring salt content of school meals and consideration on the contents and education methods in school are needed to lower sodium intake.

Ahn S; Park S; Kim JN; Han SN; Jeong SB; Kim HK

2013-02-01

170

Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): A physico-chemical and textural study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two different meat-cutting methods were used to prepare kung-wans in an attempt to produce low-salt products while retaining the same, or improved, textural and physicochemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. The level of salt and the processing method significantly affected color, cooking yield, texture and changes in the secondary structures of proteins. Improved salt levels resulted in firmer texture. At the same salt levels, compared with chopping, the beating method resulted in higher L(?)-values, improved cooking yields and changes in the ?-sheet content of the proteins, which resulted in an improved product with better texture. Using the beating process, the kung-wans prepared with 1% and 2% salt had similar L(?)-values, cooking yield and texture, and were better than those prepared by chopping with 2% salt. Overall, the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content, making the kung-wans more hard, brittle and elastic.

Kang ZL; Zou YF; Xu XL; Zhu CZ; Wang P; Zhou GH

2014-01-01

171

Effect of a beating process, as a means of reducing salt content in Chinese-style meatballs (kung-wan): A physico-chemical and textural study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two different meat-cutting methods were used to prepare kung-wans in an attempt to produce low-salt products while retaining the same, or improved, textural and physicochemical properties of the standard high-salt formulation. The level of salt and the processing method significantly affected color, cooking yield, texture and changes in the secondary structures of proteins. Improved salt levels resulted in firmer texture. At the same salt levels, compared with chopping, the beating method resulted in higher L(?)-values, improved cooking yields and changes in the ?-sheet content of the proteins, which resulted in an improved product with better texture. Using the beating process, the kung-wans prepared with 1% and 2% salt had similar L(?)-values, cooking yield and texture, and were better than those prepared by chopping with 2% salt. Overall, the beating process enabled lowering of the salt content, making the kung-wans more hard, brittle and elastic. PMID:23896148

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Zou, Yu-Feng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2013-06-17

172

Aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salts with high peak 5 Al content  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are enhanced efficacy aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt compositions which exhibit an HPLC peak 5 area content of about 33% or more, preferably at least 45%, more preferably at least 50%, most preferably at least 55%. Especially preferred are aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt compositions which, in addition to the aforementioned high peak 5 content, also exhibit an HPLC peak 4 to peak 3 area ratio of at least 0.4, preferably at least 0.7. The aforementioned salt compositions will preferably have a metal (Al+Zr) to chloride (or anion) ratio of about 0.90 to about 1.00. Also disclosed are methods of making such antiperspirant salt compositions and aqueous solutions of such antiperspirant salt compositions. Further disclosed are topical compositions comprising a dermatologically acceptable carrier vehicle and a perspiration reducing effective amount of an aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt composition as described above.

CARRILLO ANGEL L; ORYSZCZAK RICHARD; SHEN YAN-FEI

173

Aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salts with high peak 5 al content  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are enhanced efficacy aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt compositions which exhibit an HPLC peak 5 area content of about 33% or more. Especially preferred are aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt compositions which, in addition to the aforementioned high peak 5 content, also exhibit an HPLC peak 4 to peak 3 area ratio of at least 0.4. The aforementioned salt compositions will preferably have a metal (Al+Zr) to chloride (or anion) ratio of about 0.90 to about 1.00. Also disclosed are methods of making such antiperspirant salt compositions and aqueous solutions of such antiperspirant salt compositions. Further disclosed are topical compositions comprising a dermatologically acceptable carrier vehicle and a perspiration reducing effective amount of an aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt composition as described above.

CARRILLO ANGEL L; ORYSZCZAK RICHARD; SHEN YAN-FEI

174

Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the recommended 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravies). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal CVD events that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. METHODS: Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. RESULTS: Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. CONCLUSIONS: Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

Bertram MY; Steyn K; Wentzel-Viljoen E; Tollman S; Hofman KJ

2012-09-01

175

Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravies). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal CVD events (more) (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal strokes that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. METHODS: Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. RESULTS: Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. CONCLUSION: Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

Bertram, Y; Steyn, Krisela; Wentze-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Tollman, Stephen; Hofman, J

2012-09-01

176

[On the growth of various Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alkaligenes spec. in distilled water, de-ionized water, tap water, and mineral salt solution (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The behaviour of 12 strains of gram-negative bacteria was analysed in media having a low content of nutrients. Sterile tap water, de-ionized water, aqua bidestillata and mineral salt solution were used. It was found that Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella and Citrobacter are those with the most frequently observed growth. In the mineral salt solution survived also Providencia, E. coli, Erwinia, Hafnia, and Alkaligenes and reached max. colony numbers of some 100000/ml. When the salts used were added stepwise potassium phosphate and especially magnesium sulfate showed a growth-promoting effect.

Botzenhart K; Kufferath R

1976-12-01

177

Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows) were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk), respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

Andrea Summer; Piero Franceschi; Massimo Malacarne; Paolo Formaggioni; Flavio Tosi; Gianfranco Tedeschi; Primo Mariani

2010-01-01

178

Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations.

Bianco S; Tewes F; Tajber L; Caron V; Corrigan OI; Healy AM

2013-11-01

179

Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2013-08-12

180

Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determination. Test setup and procedure for verification and calibration of moisture sensor with specific-oil solubility parameters is described then tested and evaluated. This allows greater accuracy of online water content monitoring in the operating transformers under the changing temperature conditions.

PANKAJSHUKLA; Y.R.SOOD; R.K.JARIAL

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Comestible liquid sea salt having a low sodium content and method for producing the same  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A comestible liquid sea salt preparation and method for producing the same. The comestible preparation is produced from sea water and is low in sodium, about 9.8 wt %, therefore making it suitable for consumption by persons having cardiac disorders, arterial hypertension, renal disorders, endemias and the like. Even though the amount of sodium is reduced the preparation is able to maintain a suitable gustatory sensation, making it an advantageous substitute for regular table salt. The method for producing the preparation involves a series of steps in which sea water is decanted, evaporated, converted into a spray; and concentrated. The preparation also undergoes a micro plankton regulation step and sodium chloride is added to the resulting preparation so that the concentration of sodium chloride is 25 percent of the total preparation.

GARCIA FERNANDO HORACIO; MUGAS HECTOR MARCELO

182

Comestible liquid sea salt having a low sodium content and method for producing the same  

Science.gov (United States)

A comestible liquid sea salt preparation and method for producing the same. The comestible preparation is produced from sea water and is low in sodium, about 9.8 wt %, therefore making it suitable for consumption by persons having cardiac disorders, arterial hypertension, renal disorders, endemias and the like. Even though the amount of sodium is reduced the preparation is able to maintain a suitable gustatory sensation, making it an advantageous substitute for regular table salt. The method for producing the preparation involves a series of steps in which sea water is decanted, evaporated, converted into a spray; and concentrated. The preparation also undergoes a micro plankton regulation step and sodium chloride is added to the resulting preparation so that the concentration of sodium chloride is 25 percent of the total preparation.

2000-04-11

183

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-02-27

184

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water deficit and salt stress upon the growth process of Jatropha curcas L.. Red(Fr) and far-red(FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit). The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the jatropha plants under stress. The data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range. The fluorescence ratio also permitted the detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed in the first 10 days of the experiment, and before signs of visual stress became apparent. The results suggest that the Fr/FFr ratio is an early-warning indicator of water deficit stress.

Silva EA Jr; Gouveia-Neto AS; Oliveira RA; Moura DS; Cunha PC; Costa EB; Câmara TJ; Willadino LG

2012-03-01

185

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L.  

Science.gov (United States)

LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water deficit and salt stress upon the growth process of Jatropha curcas L.. Red(Fr) and far-red(FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit). The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the jatropha plants under stress. The data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range. The fluorescence ratio also permitted the detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed in the first 10 days of the experiment, and before signs of visual stress became apparent. The results suggest that the Fr/FFr ratio is an early-warning indicator of water deficit stress. PMID:22051983

Silva, E A; Gouveia-Neto, A S; Oliveira, R A; Moura, D S; Cunha, P C; Costa, E B; Câmara, T J R; Willadino, L G

2011-11-04

186

X-ray fluorescence used to characterize the salt content of proteins.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The quantitative measurement of the salt content in solid protein samples was performed using X-ray fluorescence. Linear calibration curves were obtained for chloride, calcium and sulfur using sulfur and chloride as internal standards in the range 1-10 protein molar equivalents. The detection limit was approximately 0.02 molar equivalents for chloride and less than 0.01 molar equivalents for calcium. X-ray fluorescence thus provides a non-destructive sensitive method of testing the efficiency of different purification methods. Commercial hen egg white lysozyme samples contain from 15 to 46 molar equivalents of chloride, whereas the calcium content remains less than 0.2 equivalents. Deionization on ion-exchange resins is a very efficient tool for removing ionic species since deionized lysozyme samples contain less than 0.34 molar equivalents of chloride. Extensive dialysis against water only partially removes chloride ions, the residual chloride content corresponding to the number of counter-ions necessary to ensure the electroneutrality of lysozyme when dissolved in water.

Jolivalt C; Riès-Kautt M; Chevallier P; Ducruix A

1997-01-01

187

Influence of activity of water on deterioration of CFRP and GFRP by immersion in boiling salt water; CFRP, GFRP no futto ensuichu shinseki rekka ni oyobosu mizu no katsudodo no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental study was conducted to investigate influences of salt water on mechanical properties of carbon or glass fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, GFRP) used in or on the sea. Unidirectionally reinforced CFRP and GFRP were immersed in boiling salt waters with various concentrations for periods from 2 hours to 3000 hours, and width dilation, flexural strength and interlayer stress strength (ILSS) of samples were measured after immersion. Weight of sample was also measured to calculate the quantity of absorbed water per unit volume that was the portion except fiber in CFRP or GFRP. As a result, width dilation of them was about 75% of the value which was estimated from the quantity of absorbed water. The flexural strength and ILSS of CFRP and GFRP decreased with increasing in quantity of absorbed water, and it became clear that the quantity of absorbed water increased with the activity of water in the salt water. The higher concentration of salt is, the lower activity of water is. Therefore, the deterioration of CFRP and GFRP is not accelerated with concentration of salt. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Nakanishi, Y. [Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

1994-06-25

188

Surveys of the salt content in UK bread: progress made and further reductions possible.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To explore the salt reductions made over time in packaged bread sold in the UK, the biggest contributor of salt to the UK diet. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional surveys were carried out on the salt content of breads available in UK supermarkets in 2001(40 products), 2006 (138) and 2011 (203). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the change in salt content per 100 g over time. Further measures included the proportion of products meeting salt targets and differences between brands and bread types. RESULTS: The average salt level of bread was 1.23±0.19 g/100 g in 2001, 1.05±0.16 in 2006 and 0.98±0.13 in 2011. This shows a reduction in salt/100 g of ?20% between 2001 and 2011. In the 18 products which were surveyed in all 3 years, there was a significant reduction of 17% (p<0.05). Supermarket own brand bread was found to be lower in salt compared with branded bread (0.95 g/100 g compared with 1.04 g/100 g in 2011). The number of products meeting the 2012 targets increased from 28% in 2001 to 71% in 2011 (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the salt content of bread has been progressively reduced over time, contributing to the evidence base that a target-based approach to salt reduction can lead to reductions being made. A wide variation in salt levels was found with many products already meeting the 2012 targets, indicating that further reductions can be made. This requires further progressive lower targets to be set, so that the UK can continue to lead the world in salt reduction and save the maximum number of lives.

Brinsden HC; He FJ; Jenner KH; Macgregor GA

2013-01-01

189

Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl) in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner) and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner) offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%), in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%), in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1%) and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%). NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%), dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8%) and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%). The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01). Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

Trajkovi?-Pavlovi? Ljiljana; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana; Novakovi? Budimka; Bijelovi? Sanja; Torovi? Ljilja

2010-01-01

190

Comparison of soil thermal properties in cultivated fields determined using soil water content measured by two methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Results of the measurements of water content in the topsoil layer (1-6 cm) in fields with various crops obtained by gravimetric and reflectometric (TDR) methods have been used for the calculations of soil volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity. Calculation values of individual soil thermal properties obtained in the two ways were then analysed by means of statistical and geostatistical methods and compared (correlation coefficients, regression equations, difference distributions, mean square errors, and maximum relative errors were determined). Compatibility of values of thermal properties as determined on the basis of soil moisture measured by means of gravimetric and TDR methods, was generally speaking, satisfactory, even though not uniform in various soil moisture ranges; it is better with higher moisture levels, and worse when moisture levels were low. More accuracy in spatial distribution of thermal properties obtained on the basis of soil moisture as measured by gravimetric than by reflectometric method points to the lower sensitivity of the TDR method for the soil moisture measurements.

Usowicz B.; Kossowski J.

1999-01-01

191

On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

2000-03-01

192

Hydrogeology and Simulated Ground-Water Flow in the Salt Pond Region of Southern Rhode Island  

Science.gov (United States)

The Salt Pond region of southern Rhode Island extends from Westerly to Narragansett Bay and forms the natural boundary between the Atlantic Ocean and the shallow, highly permeable freshwater aquifer of the South Coastal Basin. Large inputs of fresh ground water coupled with the low flushing rates to the open ocean make the salt ponds particularly susceptible to eutrophication and bacterial contamination. Ground-water discharge to the salt ponds is an important though poorly quantified source of contaminants, such as dissolved nutrients. A ground-water-flow model was developed and used to delineate the watersheds to the salt ponds, including the areas that contribute ground water directly to the ponds and the areas that contribute ground water to streams that flow into ponds. The model also was used to calculate ground-water fluxes to these coastal areas for long-term average conditions. As part of the modeling analysis, adjustments were made to model input parameters to assess potential uncertainties in model-calculated watershed delineations and in ground-water discharge to the salt ponds. The results of the simulations indicate that flow to the salt ponds is affected primarily by the ease with which water is transmitted through a glacial moraine deposit near the regional ground-water divide, and by the specified recharge rate used in the model simulations. The distribution of the total freshwater flow between direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds is affected primarily by simulated stream characteristics, including the streambed-aquifer connection and the stream stage. The simulated position of the ground-water divide and, therefore, the model-calculated watershed delineations for the salt ponds, were affected only by changes in the transmissivity of the glacial moraine. Selected changes in other simulated hydraulic parameters had substantial effects on total freshwater discharge and the distribution of direct ground-water discharge and ground-water-derived surface-water (streamflow) discharge to the salt ponds, but still provided a reasonable match to the hydrologic data available for model calibration. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions of watershed areas and ground-water discharge to the salt ponds, additional hydrogeologic data would be required to constrain the model input parameters that have the greatest effect on the simulation results.

Masterson, John P.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Stone, Janet R.; Moran, S. Bradley; Hougham, Andrea

2007-01-01

193

Phase diagram of 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE):water system at subzero temperatures and at low water contents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The phase behavior of partially hydrated 1, 2-dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction methods together with water sorption isotherms. DOPE liposomes were dehydrated in the H(II) phase at 29 degrees C and in the L(alpha) phase at 0 degrees C by vapor phase equilibration over saturated salt solutions. Other samples were prepared by hydration of dried DOPE by vapor phase equilibration at 29 degrees C and 0 degrees C. Five lipid phases (lamellar liquid crystalline, L(alpha); lamellar gel, L(beta); inverted hexagonal, H(II); inverted ribbon, P(delta); and lamellar crystalline, L(c)) and the ice phase were observed depending on the water content and temperature. The ice phase did not form in DOPE suspensions containing <9 wt% water. The L(c) phase was observed in samples with a water content of 2-6 wt% that were annealed at 0 degrees C for 2 or more days. The L(c) phase melted at 5-20 degrees C producing the H(II) phase. The P(delta) phase was observed at water contents of <0.5 wt%. The phase diagram, which includes five lipid phases and two water phases (ice and liquid water), has been constructed. The freeze-induced dehydration of DOPE has been described with the aid of the phase diagram.

Shalaev EY; Steponkus PL

1999-07-01

194

ALUMINUM-ZIRCONIUM ANTIPERSPIRANT SALTS WITH HIGH PEAK 5 Al CONTENT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed are enhanced efficacy aluminum-zirocnium antiperspirant salt compositions which exhiit an HPLC peak 5 area content of about 33 % or more, preferably at least 45 %, more preferably at least 50 %, most preferably at least 55 %. Especially preferred are aluminum-zirconium antiperspirant salt composition which, in addition to the aforementioned high peak 5 content, also exhibit an HPLC peak 4 to peak 3 area ratio of at least 0.4, preferably at least 0.7. The aforementioned salt compositions will preferably have a metal (Al + Zr) to chloride (or anion) ratio of about 0.90 to about 1.00. Also disclosed are methods of making such antiperspirant salt compositions and aqueous solutions of such antiperspirant sald compositions. Further disclosed are topical compositions comprising a dermatologically acceptable carrier vehicle and a perspiration reducing effective amount of an aluminium-zirconium antiperspirant salt composition as described above.

CARRILLO Angel L.; ORYSZCZAK Richard; SHEN Yan-Fei

195

On Chlorine Salts: Their Detection, Stability and implications for Water on Mars and Europa  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

Hanley, Jennifer

2013-10-01

196

Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr90, Cs137, and Pu239. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 1500C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

1973-01-01

197

Fitoextração de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico/ Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se avaliar a extração de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sódico sob condições de estresse hídrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e após seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sódico em quatro níveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo), com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo), montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repetiçõ (more) es. As altas concentrações de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas à elevada produção de massa seca, caracterizam esta espécie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variáveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases) e o carbono orgânico total, permaneceram estáveis entre o início e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sódio trocável diminuíram após o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produção de biomassa e a extração de sais. Abstract in english This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity) with a control (soil without plant). The experiment was perfo (more) rmed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. The variables of the exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, sum of bases) and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while Na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. The Atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.

Souza, Edivan R. de; Freire, Maria B. G. dos S.; Nascimento, Clístenes W. A. do; Montenegro, Abelardo A. de A.; Freire, Fernando J.; Melo, Hidelblandi F. de

2011-05-01

198

Genetic analysis of physiological components of salt tolerance conferred by Solanum rootstocks. What is the rootstock doing for the scion?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Grafting desirable crop varieties on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to increase crop salt tolerance. Here, a commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on two populations of recombinant inbred lines developed from a salt-sensitive genotype of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, as female parent, and two salt-tolerant lines, as male parents, from S. pimpinellifolium, the P population, and S. cheesmaniae, the C population, to identify an easy screening method for identifying rootstocks conferring salt tolerance in terms of fruit yield. Potential physiological components of salt tolerance were assessed in the scion: leaf biomass, [Na(+)], nutrition, water relations and xylem ABA concentration. A significant correlation between scion fruit yield and scion leaf fresh weight, water potential or the ABA concentration was found in the C population under salinity, but the only detected QTL did not support this relationship. The rootstocks of the P population clearly affected seven traits related to the sodium, phosphorous and copper concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, showing heritability estimates around 0.4 or higher. According to heritability estimates in the P population, up to five QTLs were detected per trait. QTLs contributing over 15% to the total variance were found for P and Cu concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, and the proportion of fresh root weight. Correlation and QTL analysis suggests that rootstock-mediated improvement of fruit yield in the P population under salinity is mainly explained by the rootstock's ability to minimise perturbations in scion water status.

Asins MJ; Bolarín MC; Pérez-Alfocea F; Estañ MT; Martínez-Andújar C; Albacete A; Villalta I; Bernet GP; Dodd IC; Carbonell EA

2010-06-01

199

Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure /sup 18/0 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO/sub 2/, followed by the determination of the /sup 18/0 content of the CO/sub 27/ and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H/sub 2/0 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO/sub 2/ produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same /sup 18/0 content as that of the original H/sub 2/0 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of (/sup 18/0) H/sub 2/0 was placed in a PCl/sub 5/ reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl/sub 5/ was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N/sub 2/, and diluting with CHCl/sub 3/. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated /sup 18/0 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl/sub 5/ introduces four oxygens from water into the H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/ should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl/sub 5/ hydrolysis. 2 tables. (DP)

Sharp, T.R.; Minard, R.D.

1980-03-01

200

Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure 180 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO2, followed by the determination of the 180 content of the CO27 and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H20 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO2 produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same 180 content as that of the original H20 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of [180] H20 was placed in a PCl5 reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl5 was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N2, and diluting with CHCl3. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated 180 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl5 introduces four oxygens from water into the H3P04, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H3P04 should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl5 hydrolysis. 2 tables

1980-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metal fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements is purified and reused. For this purpose, a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A is under development. For obtaining the basic data of salt treatment process by using 'column type method' in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt through the columns was measured by using columns of 1 cm in inner diameter and 10 cm or 30 cm in length. The average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. The relationship between velocity and gas pressure was close to that of obtained by using water, whose kinematic viscosity is similar to that of molten LiCl-KCl salt. Additionally, the absorption behaviour of cesium, which was used as a representative of univalent FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the effluent molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. It was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and the value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent salt was confirmed. (author)

2012-01-01

202

Determination of potassium iodide in table salt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt) has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1) is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

Rajkovi? Miloš B.

2009-01-01

203

Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface.

1997-01-01

204

Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling.

1997-01-01

205

Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling.

Gdowski, G.

1997-04-04

206

Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface.

Gdowski, G.

1997-04-04

207

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200) peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased with the water content, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 8 × 10-4 ?cm, for films deposited at 450? from a starting solution with a water content of 10 ml per 100 ml of solution; further increase in water content increased the corresponding resistivity. Optical transmittances of SnO2:F films were high, in the order of 75%, and the band gap values oscillated around 3.9 eV. SEM analysis showed uniform surface morphologies with different geometries depending on the deposition conditions. Composition analysis showed a stoichiometric compound with a [Sn/O] ratio around 1:2 in all samples. The presence of F into the SnO2 lattice was detected, within 2 at % respect to Sn.

Mario A. Sánchez-García; Arturo Maldonado; Luis Castañeda; Rutilo Silva-González; María de la Luz Olvera

2012-01-01

208

ASIAN SALTED NOODLE QUALITY: IMPACT OF AMYLOSE CONTENT ADJUSTMENTS USING WAXY WHEAT FLOUR  

Science.gov (United States)

Fourteen (14) flour blends of two natural wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flours, `Nuplains¿ and `Centura¿, blended with one waxy flour sample were characterized and processed to Asian salted noodles. The flour amylose content ranged from <1% to 29%. Damaged starch contents were 10.4%, 7.0%, ...

209

Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

210

Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly

2012-01-01

211

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph tra...

Adamo Fini; Cristina Cavallari; Francesca Ospitali

212

Study on the determination of water content by measuring natural neutron flux on the ground-atmosphere interface  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper proposes a new type of neutron moisture gauge which employs the natural neutron flux as the neutron source. The paper discusses the origin and characters of natural neutron flux on the ground-atmosphere interface. Although the sensitivity of natural neutron moisture gauge with the natural neutron flux source is as not good as that of an artificial neutron source, it resolves the problems of the neutron shield and escapes some necessary management procedures for radioisotopes. The new natural neutron moisture gauge can be used to determine the water content of soil in the area of engineering geological mapping and geological environment monitoring. (authors)

2004-01-01

213

Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms.

Chabanet C; Tarrega A; Septier C; Siret F; Salles C

2013-06-01

214

The association of octadecyl-end-capped poly-(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonates) in water and salt solutions: A study by fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry  

Science.gov (United States)

Steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) have been used to study the aggregation in aqueous solutions of poly-(2-acrylamido)-2-methylpropanesulfonic acids, sodium salt mono-endcapped with either N,N-di-n-octadecyl or N-4-[(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-N-n-octadecyl which were prepared by free radical polymerization of 2-(acrylamido)-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) initiated with the azo compounds, 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-di-n-octadecyl}pentanamide and 4,4'-azobis{cyano-N,N-[4-(1-pyrenyl)butyl]-n-octadecyl}pentanamide, respectively. Both techniques indicate the occurrence of multimolecular aggregates in solutions of the polymers in water and in 0.2 M NaCl. The concentration range for aggregation is about 1-14 mmol AMPS l^{-1} (0.5-2.7 g l^{-1}) in 0.2 M NaCl and the enthalpy of micellization, estimated from ITC data, is 100 J [mol AMPS]^{-1}. The accessibility of the chromophores to neutral molecules and to cationic species was assessed by quenching of fluorescence with nitromethane and thallium nitrate, respectively. The association of the mono-endcapped polymers is compared to that of PAMPS derivatives carrying hydrophobic groups randomly attached along the chain.

Mizusaki, M.; Morishima, Y.; Raju, B. B.; Winnik, F. M.

215

Topsoil salt-control method of planting salt-tolerant plant in mudflat kaline soil  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a topsoil salt-control method for planting a salt-tolerant plant in mudflat kaline soil, which comprises the step of determining the freshwater salt-sprinkling watering amountaccording to the salinity content background of soil, a salt-tolerant threshold value of a planted plant, a slat-control target value, actual measured data of salinity dynamic state, actual measureddata of the water content of the soil, a predicted value of rainfall and evaporation within the past few days and soil permeability. The method is characterized in that a four-electrode salinity sensor and a digital soil water potential monitor are adopted to monitor the water-salt dynamic state of the topsoil in real time, one monitoring site is arranged per 1-10 mu, and monitoring signals collected by each monitoring site are intensively processed, thereby realizing the overall real-time monitoring of an irrigation process and a salt leaching effect.

JINSONG YANG; RONGJIANG YAO; XIUFANG ZHAO; JIANJUN HAN; GUANGMING LIU

216

[Effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on soil water and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using mcirolysimeter, a laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on the soil water evaporation and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Under the same initial soil water content and deposition thickness condition, finer-textured (<0.063 mm) deposits promoted soil water evaporation, deeper soil desiccation, and surface soil salt accumulation, while coarse-textured (0.063-2 mm) deposits inhibited soil water evaporation and decreased deeper soil water loss and surface soil salt accumulation. The inhibition effect of the grain size of dust deposits on soil water evaporation had an inflection point at the grain size 0.20 mm, i. e., increased with increasing grain size when the grain size was 0.063-0.20 mm but decreased with increasing grain size when the grain size was > 0.20 mm. With the increasing thickness of dust deposits, its inhibition effect on soil water evaporation increased, and there existed a logarithmic relationship between the dust deposits thickness and water evaporation. Surface soil salt accumulation had a negative correlation with dust deposits thickness. In sum, the dust deposits in study area could affect the stability of arid desert ecosystem.

Sun YW; Li SY; Xu XW; Zhang JG; Li Y

2009-08-01

217

Avaliação da salinização de açudes no semi-árido brasileiro por ICP-AES Evaluation of the salt accumulation process in water resources in the Brazilian semi - arid area by ICP-- AES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The salt accumulation process in some reservoirs of regular and irregular use (from 10 to 50 years of constrution), located in the Southeast of Bahia State was evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg in water samples from inside and upstream of the reservoirs. The results showed that for reservoirs of irregular use, the salt accumulation, indicated by the tracer Na, increases with the age of the reservoirs, however for the reservoirs of regular use the hydraulic retention time is the main parameter.

José Soares dos Santos; Elisabeth de Oliveira; Sérgio Massaro

2000-01-01

218

Determination of aluminium in water samples by adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry in the presence of pyrogallol red and a quaternary ammonium salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fast, sensitive and selective method for the determination of aluminium based on the reaction of the metal with pyrogallol red (PR) in the presence of tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBATFB) to form an Al(PR)(3)x9TBATFB complex which is adsorbed on the mercury electrode is presented. Under these conditions complexation of aluminium is rapid and no waiting period or heating of the sample is required. The reduction current of the accumulated complex is measured by scanning the potential in the cathodic direction. The variation of peak current with pH, adsorption time, adsorption potential, ligand and quaternary ammonium salt concentration, and some instrumental parameters, such as stirring rate in the accumulation stage, and step amplitude, pulse amplitude and step duration while obtaining the square wave voltamperograms were optimized. The best experimental parameters were pH 8.5, (NH(4)Ac-NH(3) buffer), C(PR)=25mumolL(-1), C(TBATFB) over 75mumolL(-1), t(ads)=60s, and E(ads)=-0.60V versus Ag/AgCl. A linear response is observed over the 0.0-30.0mugL(-1) concentration range, with a detection limit of 1.0mugL(-1). Reproducibility for 9.0mugL(-1) aluminium solution was 2.3% (n=6). Synthetic sea water and sea water reference material CRM-SW were used for validation measurements. Aluminium in urine samples of a volunteer who ingested 800mg of Al(OH)(3) was analyzed. PMID:19073069

Arancibia, Verónica; Muñoz, Carolina

2007-04-22

219

Dietary salt and the glycaemic response to meals of different fibre content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In attempting to resolve the existing controversy on the effect of dietary salt intake on glycaemic responses, we investigated post-prandial plasma glucose levels in 10 healthy normal weight non-diabetic Nigerian subjects (aged 23.1 years +/- 1.3 (s.e.m.) with body mass index, BMI 19.9 +/- 0.6 kg/m2) consuming equal amounts of carbohydrate from glucose, boiled yam (low fibre content of 0.9 per cent raw tuber weight) and boiled black-eyed peas (high fibre content of 4.8 per cent dry weight) with and without added table salt (4.25 g). The results indicated no significant differences in fasting, peak and 2-h plasma glucose concentrations and total and incremental areas under the 3-h glucose/time curves in the subjects consuming each meal with and without added salt. Added salt had no influence on the glycaemic index of each meal. We conclude that salt has no effect on the glycaemic response to plain glucose or meals with varying fibre content even in a population known to demonstrate defects in salt handling.

Akanji AO; Charles-Davies MA; Ezenwaka C; Abbiyesuku FA; Osotimehin BO

1989-10-01

220

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were stud...

Mario A. Sánchez-García; Arturo Maldonado; Luis Castañeda; Rutilo Silva-González; María de la Luz Olvera

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of Salt Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Carbohydrates Content in Four Hullless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of salinity on some traits of barley, Four hullless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars (Namely, UH3, UHM7, EHM81-12 and CM67) were grown in research station of Islamic Azad University of Eghlid in Iran, under salt stress in two years (2006 and 2007). Four salinity treatments (1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1) were used. The experimental design was a split plot which salt treatments were arranged as main plots and cultivars as subplots, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The measured parameters were yield and its components, mono, poly and disaccharides content in flag leaves. Results showed that grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain per ear, grain weight and plant height were reduced significantly by salt stress. In all treatments of salinity, CM67 cultivar produced the highest and UH3 cultivar produced the lowest grain and biological yield. In all cultivars, salinity stress decreased starch content but increased sucrose content. In high level of salinity, CM67 cultivar had the highest sucrose content (100.20 mg g-1) in comparison with other cultivars. Thus, this cultivar had the highest tolerance to salt stress than the others and is suitable for cultivation in salinity conditions.

A. Bagheri; O. Sadeghipour

2009-01-01

222

Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

2009-04-01

223

Verification of Ground Penetrating Radar for Soil Water Content Measuring  

Science.gov (United States)

Spatially distributed water at the land surface is a vital natural resource for human being and ecosystems. Soil water content at vadose zone at regional scale controls exchange of moisture and energy between Earth surface and atmosphere, at the catchment scale - the separation of precipitation into infiltration, runoff and evapotranspiration, at the field scale - plant growing, at the small plot scale - pathway of water flow through soil profile. Hydrologist, agronomists, soil scientists and others looking for technology providing soil water content measurements across a range of spatial range. Ground penetrating radar is not destructive method of measurement for diverse application was tested in the field for mapping a spatial distribution of soil water content during infiltration event at chestnut soil of Saratov Region, Russia. A Common-MidPoint method was used to calibrate GPR OKO with a 400 MHz antenna. At experimental plot of 50x50 m a range of 36 boreholes equipped by vertical access tubes (10 distance between) for TDR PR2 with 4 predefined depths of soil moisture measurements was prepared. TDR PR2 equipment used for measurements was calibrated on special experimental setup with soil from plot. Data sets of parallel measurements of soil water content by TDR at 4 depths of borehole locations and GPR at trace lines along ranges of boreholes were used to produce soil water content maps with geo-statistical methods. Keywords: GPR, TDR, soil water content

Ermolaeva, O.; Zeiliguer, A.

2009-04-01

224

Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 – 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5°C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation.

Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

2011-01-01

225

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2011-02-01

226

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices.

Wang J; Xu R; Yang S

2009-10-01

227

Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

2008-10-14

228

Determination by combustion of the total organochlorine content of tissue, soil, water, waste streams, and oil sludges  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The distribution and concentration of organochlorine pesticides have been intensively investigated, but there is much less information on the total organochlorine overburden either in the environment or in man. The reason for this paucity of information seems to be that while there were many methods available for the determination of individual organochlorines, there was no simple method which permitted the determination of the total organochlorine content of biological and environmental samples. In this communication a method is described which is suitable for measuring gram quantities of total lipid-soluble organochlorine. Chloride in tissues, tissue fluids, water, soil, liquid industrial wastes and oil sludges. The method is simple and consists of three steps. The first step is a small volume extraction procedure, which extracts organic compounds containing chlorine, but excludes inorganic chlorides. The other two steps involve the degradation of organically bound chlorine to inorganic chlorides and a colorimetric assay of these chlorides.

Morton, M.; Pollak, J.K.

1987-01-01

229

[Low caloric value and high salt content in the meals served in school canteens].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

School lunch can contribute to aggravate food quality, by excess or deficiency, or it can contribute to compensate and alleviate them. This school meal should be an answer to combating the epidemic of obesity, and to feed some grace children. The objective was to study the nutritional composition of catering in canteens of public schools, from Northern municipalities in the District of Porto: Vila do Conde, Póvoa de Varzim, Santo Tirso and Trofa. Meals were subjected to laboratory analysis. Thirty two meals, four per each school were analysed, reference values for the analysis of the nutritional composition of meals were dietary reference intakes (USA) and eating well at school (UK). The average energy meal content was 447 kcal and the median 440 kcal (22% of daily calories). The average values of nutrients, per meal, were: lipids 9, 8 g, carbohydrate 65,7 g and proteins 24,0 g. In average the contribution for the meal energy was: 20% fat, 59% carbohydrate and 21% protein. In more than 75% of meals the contribution of lipid content was below the lower bound of the reference range. The average content of sodium chloride per meal was 3.4 g, and the confidence interval 95% to average 3.0 to 3.8 g, well above the recommended maximum value of 1.5 grams. The average content fiber per meal was 10.8 g higher than the minimum considered appropriate. In conclusion, the value low caloric meals was mainly due to the low fat content, and content salt of any of the components of the meal was very high.

Paiva I; Pinto C; Queirós L; Meister MC; Saraiva M; Bruno P; Antunes D; Afonso M

2011-03-01

230

Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%water volumes within {approx}20% for the high water contents (RH>85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.

Kreidenweis, S M; Petters, M D; DeMott, P J [Department of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1371 (United States)], E-mail: sonia@atmos.colostate.edu

2008-07-15

231

Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the deoxygenation of salt-containing water using hydrazine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, hydrazine was added to salt-containing water in order to reduce dissolved oxygen. Hydrazine is known to reduce dissolved oxygen in high-temperature pure water, but its deoxygenation behavior in salt-containing water at ambient temperature in the presence of radiation is unknown. Deoxygenation using hydrazine in salt-containing water was thus investigated using a 60Co gamma-ray source and artificial seawater at room temperature. Water samples containing a small amount of hydrazine were irradiated at dose rates of 100 - 10,000 Gy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water samples was measured before and after irradiation. Notably, a decrease in the dissolved oxygen was only observed after irradiation, and the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with increasing dose rate and irradiation time. The rate of decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen using hydrazine was slow in the presence of salts. Kinetic considerations suggested that the deoxygenation of the salt-containing water exposed to gamma-ray irradiation using hydrazine was suppressed by chloride ions. (author)

2013-01-01

232

Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of -40 microA to -80 microA were applied to human subjects' tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium sulfate, sodium saccharin, sodium acetate and sodium benzoate, which taken together encompass salty, bitter, sour and sweet taste qualities. The taste of NaCl, the salty and bitter tastes of the other chloride salts and the taste of NaNO(3) was inhibited, suggesting the current displaced stimulatory cations from salty and bitter receptors. However, bitter tastes of non-halide sodium salts were not inhibited, likely because other bitter receptors respond to anions. A discharge current at cathode-off ubiquitously evoked a metallic taste reminiscent of anodal taste used in clinical electrogustometry. Analogous effects on ambient NaCl responses were recorded from the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Increases in tastes of the saccharin and benzoate anions were not evoked during current flow, suggesting that cathodal current does not carry stimulatory anions to sweet receptors. Cathodal current may selectively inhibit salty and bitter-salty tastes for which proximal stimuli are cations. PMID:19576268

Hettinger, Thomas P; Frank, Marion E

2009-07-01

233

Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

2012-01-01

234

Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-?t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from ?t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction ? is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

2010-01-01

235

Total Suspended Solid Content in Raha Waters, Northeast of Celebes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurement on Total Suspended Solid (TSS) in Raha waters were carried out in May 2001. The results showed that the content of total suspended solid varied between 74,8 – 78,9 ppm with averages content is 76,5 ppm. This content is still suited to the threshold value stated by government decree in 1988 for fishery and sea conservation park, but not suitable for recreation (swimming, diving activity).

M. Salam Tarigan; Edward

2003-01-01

236

Dry matter accumulation and foliar K, Ca and Na contents in salt-stressed cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment aimed at determining the effect of five NaClconcentrations (namely 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM, determiningrespective EC values of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.2 dS m-1) on capegooseberry plants was set up at Humboldt University’s greenhousein Berlin, Germany. Dry weight (DW) of roots, stemsand leaves, as well as foliar content of ions K+, Ca2+ and Na+ andthe relationship they hold with one another, were determinedover a 75-day period. DW of all plant organs was observedto decrease with increasing salinity. The lowest values of thisvariable, which were recorded from the 120 mM NaCl plants,were found to be significantly smaller than those recorded at60 mM and lower salt concentrations. Salt stress effects on drymatter (DM) accumulat ion were observed to increase withplant age. Leaf K+ content increased with salinity and peakedat 90 mM NaCl, where the value was significantly higher thanthat observed at 120 mM. Foliar Ca2+ content remained unchangedat the different salt concentrations, whilst Na+ contentincreased together with salt stress. The relationship among ionconcentrations was significantly influenced only by 90 mM orhigher NaCl concentrations, which determined a progressiveincrease of the Na+/Ca2+ ratio and a similar decrease of the K+/Na+ ratio. According to the results, cape gooseberry can beconsidered as moderately tolerant to salt, as shown by the 30mM NaCl treatment, which did not affect DM accumulation inplant organs. This tolerance is also supported by steady leaf Ca2+contents at all levels of salinity, indicating that cape gooseberryuses K+ as an osmoprotectant, at least up to 90 mM NaCl.

Miranda Diego; Ulrichs Christian; Fischer Gerhard

2010-01-01

237

Water Status and Protein Pattern Changes Towards Salt Stress in Cotton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate performance of four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties, Deir-Ezzor22 (DE22), Niab78 (N78), Aleppo118 (A118) and Deltapine50 (DP50) grown under non-saline conditions (control) and salt stress (200 mM NaCl) for 7 weeks. During the course of the experiment, potential osmotic (?), leaf relative water content (RWC) , water saturation deficit (WSD), membrane stability index (MSI), and salt tolerance index (STI) were measured. Moreover, protein pattern changes were detected under salt application. Data indicated that potential osmotic (?) considerably decreased under saline condition. Where, the lowest value was recorded for DP50 and A118, while the highest one was recorded for N78 and DE22. Whereas, RWC was strongly reduced for DP50 and A118, while, it was slightly increased for N78 and DE22 varieties. However, it was noticed that WSD showed an inverse trend of RWC. In contrast to DP50 and A118 varieties, both the estimated membrane stability index (MSI) and salt tolerance index (STI) were higher in N78 and DE22. In addition, salt application induced changes in protein pattern including decrease, increase or induction of some polypeptides bands. According to our results, N78 and DE22 varieties showed a better protection mechanism against salinity damage than the other two tested varieties

Saleh, Basel

2013-01-01

238

Method for standardizing pectin by buffer salt  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention discloses a method for standardizing pectin by buffer salt. The method comprises the following process steps: firstly, performing dosing on the following components in percentage by weight: 60 to 75 percent of semi-finished product pectin, 6 to 12 percent of tartrate, 6 to 12 percent of citrate and 5 to 20 percent of white granulated sugar or glucose secondly, mixing the mixture, namely mixing the semi-finished product pectin with the white granulated sugar or the glucose firstly, and mixing the tartrate with the citrate evenly and proportionally so as to prepare the buffer salt and finally, mixing the mixed buffer salt with the mixture of the semi-finished product pectin and the white granulated sugar or the glucose evenly to prepare ultra-slow coagulation pectin standardized by the buffer salt. The method has the characteristics of long gelation time and diversified product structures. For terminal products, the method simplifies process control and saves the cost.

ANMING ZHANG; DE FANG; XIAOYAN HU; JIANMIN ZHOU; BING LIU; LEI XU; QIYIN DU

239

Osmotic forces for salt-water power plants; Osmosekrefter for saltkraftverk  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With its long coastal line and numerous fresh-water lakes, Norway has a great potential for energy production. Research is in progress to examine how fresh water meeting salt water may supply competitive and environmentally friendly light and heat. This type of energy production may become important in the future. The process uses the osmotic pressure arising on the salt-water side of a membrane with fresh-water on the other side. The salt-water level is raised above the fresh-water level. Fresh river water is pumped into the plant where it meets salt water pumped up from the sea. The osmotic pressure will be used to power a turbine for the production of electric power. Calculations show that Norway may produce 20-25 TWh per year by means of this method, if the technology can be successfully developed. Research focuses on membrane technology. The membrane will in several respects be similar to the membranes currently used in reverse osmosis, but so far these have not been suitable, considering costs. The price of this energy will depend on the price and lifetime of the membranes. To be economical, these plants must be built close to both a river and a lake. A 50 MW plant will take up an area the size of a football stadium if built at ground level. However, the impact on the environment is small compared to the alternatives.

Oeyan, Rune

2000-07-01

240

Compositions for depolluting fresh water and salt water bodies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Compositions are disclosed, which are adapted to depollute fresh and sea water bodies from crude oil and petroleum product pollution by microbial action. The growth of micro-organisms capable of metabolizing hydrocarbons is exalted by certain combination of nutrients, such as lecithin as a phosphorus source, hydantoins, amides allophanates, polyamines, acyl-ureas and esters of the hydantoic and allantoic acids as the nitrogen sources. Ureido-derivatives of amides are also contemplated as additional nutrients.

Olivieri, R.; Degen, L.; Robertiello, A.

1983-11-08

 
 
 
 
241

Imaging artificial salt water infiltration using electrical resistivity tomography constrained by geostatistical data Imagerie d'une infiltration d'eau salée par tomographie de résistivité électrique contrainte par des données géostatistiques  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Electrical resistivity tomography is a well-known technique to monitor fresh-salt water transitions. In such environments, boreholes are often used to validate geophysical results but rarely used to constrain the geoelectrical inversion. To estimate the extent of salt water infiltration in the dune ...

Hermans, Thomas; Vandenbohede, Alexander; Lebbe, Luc; Martin, Roland; Kemna, Andreas; Beaujean, Jean; Nguyen, Frédéric

242

Protection against flashback by backfilling with rock salt gruss  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] If wastes are disposed of in deep geological formations, e.g. in salt domes, radiolytically produced hydrogen may escape from the waste forms into the boreholes, forming an inflammable mixture with air. Complementary to part I (Report Juel-Spez--573), here the protection against flashback by salt gruss backfillings, the volume and form of the flammability range are examined. It was found out that salt gruss backfillings, under certain conditions, can prevent flashbacks in hydrogen-air mixtures, the most important condition being that the backfillings contain trickling material of the finest particle size of between 0 and 2 mm. Unfractional backfillings drilled in the domes of rock salt formations meet this requirement in their dry state. Their water content must not exceed 2 mass per cent. For flashback, the flammability point referred to as 'near' is more critical than the one referred to as 'far'. The length-diameter ratio of the hollow space where the mixture is ignited only has a secondary influence on the flashback. It hardly plays a role either whether the surfaces of the flammability ranges are rough or smooth. (orig./BBR)[de] Bei der Endlagerung radioaktiver Abfaelle in tiefen geologishen Formationen, z.B. in Salzstoecken, kann radiolytisch entstandener Wasserstoff aus den Abfallgebinden in die Bohrloecher entweichen und mit der Luft ein zuendfaehiges Gemisch bilden. In Ergaenzung zum Teil 1 (Report Juel-Spez--573) wird hier die Durchschlagsicherheit von Salzgrus-Schuettungen, Volumen und Form der Zuendstrecke untersucht. Es wurde festgestellt, dass Salzgrus-Schuettungen unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen den Durchschlag von Flammenfronten in Wasserstoff-Luft-Gemischen verhindern koennen. Die wesentlichste Voraussetzung besteht darin, dass in den Schuettungen Material feinster Koernungen mit den Abmessungen von 0 bis 2 Millimeter rieselfaehig vorhanden ist. Unfraktionierte Schuettungen, wie sie in den Stoecken von Steinsalzformationen erbohrt werden, erfuellen diese Forderung im trockenen Zustand. Der Wassergehalt darf 2 Massen-Prozent nicht ueberschreiten. Fuer den Flammendurchschlag ist der mit 'nah' bezeichnete Zuendort kritischer als der mit 'fern' bezeichnete. Das Laenge-Durchmesser-Verhaeltnis des Hohlraumes, in dem die Zuendung des Gemisches erfolgt, hat nur einen untergeordneten Einfluss auf den Flammendurchschlag. Ebenso spielt es kaum eine Rolle, ob die Oberflaechen der Zuendstrecken rauh oder glatt sind. (orig./BBR)

1991-01-01

243

Contents of tritium in drinking water and surface water of the CIS countries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium contents in drinking water and surface waters of the CIS countries was determined. Contents of tritium in water sources of the countries overdraw nature background of tritium before testing the nuclear weapon in 60-80 times and consists of nearly 40 Bq/litre. Contents of tritium in drinking water, both from artesian sources and surface water is approximately equally. Significant difference of tritium concentrations depending on geographical width was not revealed. Maximum concentration of tritium was in atmospheric setting, that is caused by the upper layer of atmosphere after testing of the thermonuclear weapon. (authors)

2005-01-01

244

Short-term effects of salt stress on antioxidant systems and leaf water relations of pea leaves.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants the effect of short-term salt stress and recovery on growth, water relations and the activity of some antioxidant enzymes was studied. Leaf growth was interrupted by salt addition. However, during recovery, growth was restored, although there was a delay in returning to control levels. Salt stress brought about a decrease in osmotic potential and in stomatal conductance, but at 48 h and 24 h post-stress, respectively, both parameters recovered control values. In pea leaves, a linear increase in the Na+ concentration was observed in salt treated plants. In the recovered plants, a slight reduction in the Na+ concentration was observed, probably due to a dilution effect since the plant growth was restored and the total Na+ content was maintined in leaves after the stress period. A significant increase of SOD activity occurred after 48 h of stress and after 8 h of the recovery period (53% and 42%, respectively), and it reached control values at 24 h post-stress. APX activity did not change during the stress period, and after only 8 h post-stress it was increased by 48% with respect to control leaves. GR showed a 71% increase after 24 h of salt stress and also a significant increase was observed in the recovered plants. A strong increase of TBARS was observed after 8 h of stress (180% increase), but then a rapid decrease was observed during the stress period. Surprisingly, TBARS again increased at 8 h post-stress (78% increase), suggesting that plants could perceive the elimination of NaCl from the hydroponic cultures as another stress during the first hours of recovery. These results suggest that short-term NaCl stress produces reversible effects on growth, leaf water relations and on SOD and APX activities. This work also suggests that both during the first hours of imposition of stress and during the first hours of recovery an oxidative stress was produced.

Hernández JA; Almansa MS

2002-06-01

245

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

246

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

1999-01-01

247

CELLULAR MECHANISMS OF SALT SECRETION BY THE MALPIGHIAN TUBULES OF INSECTS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malpighian tubules secrete primary urine and the hindgut and rectum perform the fine regulation of its composition. The system plays an important role in the regulation of the salt and water content in insects : after eclosion and before flight some insects must lose a lot of water in order to reduc...

VAN KERKHOVE, Emmy

248

Measurement of Soil Water Content by Amplitude Domain Reflectometry Method and Its Calibration; ADS ho ni yoru dojo suibunryo no sokutei to kyaribureshon  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Recently, it is noticed that the measurement method of soil water content from the dielectric constant of soil, and TDR (time domain reflectometry) method and FDR (frequency domain reflectometry) method are a frequently utilized. However, these methods have some problems of cost and of their complex automatic meauring system. ADR (amplitude domain reflectometry) method which measures the dielectric constant of soil at low cost using a simplifiied impedance measuring technique has been developed to solve these problems and has a fimilar performance to TDR method and FDR method. In the measurement by the ADR sensor, the amplitude of the voltagestanding wave produced on the transmissin line is outputted as direct current voltage from the ADR sensor, and {theta} is calculated from the voltage. ADR method is very effective for measuring soil water content because of the easiness of automatic or multiplexing monitoring and thee possibility of the use in deep underground. In this study, calibrations with the soil moisture sensor based on ADR method were carried out by laboratory experiments and field measurements, and the applicability of the ADR sensor to the measurement of woil water content was examined. The calibration curves with the ADR sensor were obtained applying the theoory that the relationship between the volumetric water content {theta} and the square root of dielectirc constant {radical}{epsilon} can be approximated by a linear equation, and these calibration characteristics can be obtained easily with only two parameters, i.e., the slope and the intercept of the curve. The calibration characteristics between {radical}{epsilon} and {theta} botained in this study are almost matched to that obtained for mineral soil by Miller P Gaskin (1996) and that obtained by White et al. (1994). (author)

Nakajima, Makoto. [Kokusai Kogyo Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Inoue, Mitsuhiro. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan); Sawada, Kazuo.; Nicholl, C. [Delta T-Devices Corp., Cambridge (United Kingdom)

1998-11-30

249

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

Science.gov (United States)

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.

1958-01-01

250

Destroying Gadofullerene Aggregates by Salt Addition in Aqueous Solution of Gd@C60(OH)x and Gd@C60[C(COOH2)]10  

Science.gov (United States)

A combined proton relaxivity and dynamic light scattering study has shown that aggregates formed in aqueous solution of water-soluble gadofullerenes can be disrupted by addition of salts. The salt content of fullerene-based materials will strongly influence properties related to aggregation phenomena, therefore their behavior in biological or medical applications. In particular, the relaxivity of gadofullerenes decreases dramatically with phosphate addition. Moreover, real biological fluids present a rather high salt concentration which will have consequences on fullerene aggregation and influence fullerene-based drug delivery.

Laus, Sabrina; Sitharaman, Balaji; Toth, Eva; Bolskar, Robert D.; Helm, Lothar; Asokan, Subashini; Wong, Michael S.; Wilson, Lon J.

2008-01-01

251

Water Solubility of Polymers with Salt: the Hofmeister Series  

Science.gov (United States)

We have designed temperature gradient microfluidic devices that allow high throughput, low sample volume assays to be performed on the folding of thermoresponsive polymers and proteins. These macromolecular systems are insoluble at high temperatures, but become hydrated and unfold as the temperature is decreased in a process analogous to the cold denaturation of proteins. Our assays enable highly precise measurements to be made rapidly of the physical behavior of the polymers. The device is specifically used to obtain data on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) and alpha-elastin at multiple concentrations in the presence of a variety of ions. The results indicate that the folding process follows the Hofmeister series. This series, which dates back to 1888, is a rank ordering of anions and cations based upon their ability to salt-out or salt-in proteins. It had been historically believed that ions affect macromolecule solubility indirectly through their interactions with bulk water. This idea has been largely disproved by a variety of characterization techniques over the last decade. A new theory to explain the mechanism of the Hofmeister effect, however, still needs to be developed. Microfluidic assays in combination with vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy allowed us to develop a model based solely on the direct interaction of the ions with a macromolecule and its first hydration shell. In fact, the protein folding properties can be related to a few simple factors: an ion's hydration entropy, its effect on the surface tension of an aqueous interface, and its ability to interact directly with binding sights on a protein.

Cremer, Paul

2006-03-01

252

Effect of Alfalfa and forage-maize on restraining soil salt content in Jingtai yellow river irrigation areas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Soluble salt content and different salt ions content in fields were measured after planting alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and in forage-maize {Zea may. cv.) for studying their effect on restraining soil salt content in Jing-tai Yellow River irrigation areas. The results showed: In 0~100 cm soil layer, the average soil soluble salt content in alfalfa treatment decreased 30.1 %, the average soluble salt content in alfalfa treatments and the control was very significantly difference (SSR 0.01) on statistic analysis; the average soluble salt, K~(+), Na~(+), Ca~(2+), Mg~(2+), SO_(4)~(2-) and Cl~(-) 0--20 cm soil layer in alfalfa treatment decreased most obviously; With deepening of soil layer, Soil salt ions content of alfalfa treatment was as following: high in surface - low in middle - high in bottom; forage-maize plangting has not obvious effect on restraining soil salt, but it significantly changed the ratio and distribution of salt ions. So it can be regarded that covering with plants will play very important role in both developing economy and improving ecological environment of salty land in the inland.

Zhang Youfu; Lin Haiming; Jia Huixian

2004-01-01

253

Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, e.g., 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty and/or dark chocolate note.

Lapsongphon N; Cadwallader K; Rodtong S; Yongsawatdigul J

2013-06-01

254

Peptide salt bridge stability: from gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins. PMID:23163393

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

2012-11-14

255

Salt rejection and water transport through boron nitride nanotubes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanotube-based water-purification devices have the potential to transform the field of desalination and demineralization through their ability to remove salts and heavy metals without significantly affecting the fast flow of water molecules. Boron nitride nanotubes have shown superior water flow properties compared to carbon nanotubes, and are thus expected to provide a more efficient water purification device. Using molecular dynamics simulations it is shown that a (5, 5) boron nitride nanotube embedded in a silicon nitride membrane can, in principle, obtain 100% salt rejection at concentrations as high as 1 M owing to a high energy barrier while still allowing water molecules to flow at a rate as high as 10.7 water molecules per nanosecond (or 0.9268 L m(-2) h(-1)). Furthermore, ions continue to be rejected under the influence of high hydrostatic pressures up to 612 MPa. When the nanotube radius is increased to 4.14 A the tube becomes cation-selective, and at 5.52 A the tube becomes anion-selective.

Hilder TA; Gordon D; Chung SH

2009-10-01

256

Salt-water encroachment in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties, Long Island, New York  

Science.gov (United States)

Test drilling, extraction of water from cores, electric logging, water sampling, and water-level measurements from 1958 to 1961 provided a suitable basis for a substantial refinement in the definition of the positions, chloride concentrations, and rates of movement of salty water in the intermediate and deep deposits of southern Nassau County and southeastern Queens County. Filter-press, centrifugal, and dilution methods were used to extract water from cores for chloride analysis at the test-drilling sites. Chloride analysis of water extracted by these methods, chloride analyses of water from wells, and the interpretation of electric logs helped to define the chloride content of the salty water. New concepts of environmental-water head and zerovels, developed during the investigation, proved useful for defining hydraulic gradients and ratee of flow in ground water of variable density in a vertical direction and in horizontal and inclined planes, respectively. Hydraulic gradients in and between fresh and salty water were determined from water levels from data at individual and multiple-observation wells. Salty ground water occurs in southern Nassau and southeastern Queens Counties as three wedgelike extensions that project landward in unconsolidated deposits from a main body of salty water that lies seaward of the barrier beaches in Nassau County and of Jamaica Bay in Queens County. Salty water occurs not only in permeable deposits but also in the shallow and deep clay deposits. The highest chloride content of the salty ground water in the main body and the wedges is about 16,000 ppm, which is about 1,000 to 2,000 ppm less than the chloride content of ocean water. The shallow salty water in the Pleistocene and Recent deposits is connected freely with the bays, tidal estuaries, and ocean. The intermediate wedge is found only in the southwestern part of Nassau County in the upper part of the Magothy (?) Formation, in the Jamneco Gravel, and in the overlying clay deposits. It extends from the seaward areas inland about 2 miles into Island Park. The deep wedge extends into southeastern Queens County and southern Nassau County principally in the deeper parts of the Magothy (?) Formation and in the underlying clay member of the Raritan Formation. The leading edge of the deep wedge is at the base of the Magothy (?) Formation. This edge is apparently at the shoreline east of Lido Beach and extends inland about 4 miles to Woodmere and about 7 miles to South Ozone Park. Zones of diffusion as much as 6 miles wide and about 500 feet thick were delineated in the frontal part of the salty-water wedges. These thick and broad zones of diffusion were probably formed during the past 1,000 or more years in heterogeneous unconsolidated deposits by long- and short-term changes in sea level and in fresh-water outflow to the sea and by dispersion caused by the movements of the water and its salt mass. Changes in sea level and fresh-water outflow together produced appreciable advances and recessions of the salt-water front. The chemical compositions of the diffused water in all wedges are modified to some extent by base exchange and other physical and chemical processes and also by diffusion. The intermediate wedge of salty water is moving landward at a rate of less than 20 feet a year in the vicinity of Island Park and, thus, has moved less than 1,000 feet since 1900. The leading edge of the deep wedge has advanced landward at about 300 feet a :ear in Woodmere in southwestern Nassau County and about 160 feet a year at South Ozone Park in southeastern Queens County, principally under the influence of local withdrawals near the toe of the wedge. Between Hewlett and Lido Beach, the deep wedge is moving inland at the rate of about 10 feet a year under the influence of regional withdrawals in inland areas. Regional encroachment of the deep wedge is apparently retarded appreciably by cyclic flow, that is, by the return seaward in the upper

Lusczynski, N. J.; Swarzenski, Wolfgang V.

1966-01-01

257

Oceanographic controls over sediment water content: northern Bermuda rise  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cores taken from the plateaus of Northern Bermuda Rise show that the region is underlain at depths of 1-5 m by a 1-3 m thick layer of hemipelagic lutites with anomalously high water contents. The lack of visually apparent textural and lithological changes in this extremely fine grained sediment rule out these common causes for variation in water content. The water content averages 175% within this layer and 100% immediately above and below it. This is an increase of 9.5% in porosity. The high water content sediment is confined to a period between 12 and 16 ka. Current work on the mineralogy of the sediments which comprise this layer suggest two oceanographic factors that may have influenced its formation. A meltwater spike associated with deglaciation may have altered the ecological conditions above the thermocline sufficiently to promote the increased production of radiolaria, resulting in the deposition of silica enriched sediment on the sea floor. A combination of textural and perhaps chemical factors caused by the silica enrichment may have influenced the increase in water content. Intensified bottom currents at this time also may have eroded smectite rich sediments from exposures of Neogene age and deposited them on the plateaus. An increase in smectite would increase the water content due to the extremely fine grain size and the chemistry of the clay. Thus, the lateral continuity and isochroniety of this layer, combined with its mineralogical characteristics suggests that oceanographic changes can influence water content and perhaps other geotechnical properties on a regional scale.

Baker, M.; Laine, E.P.

1985-01-01

258

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Adamo Fini; Cristina Cavallari; Francesca Ospitali

2010-01-01

259

Thorium isotope content of ocean water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

/sup 232/Th concentrations of surface and deep Pacific Ocean waters are 0.01-0.02 dpm/1000 kg(60 pgm/kg). The /sup 230/Th activity is 0.03-0.13 dpm/1000 kg in surface waters and 0.3-2.7 dpm/1000 kg in deep waters. Chemical residence times based on in situ production from parent isotopes are about the same for /sup 230/Th in surface waters (1-5 years) but are ten times greater for /sup 230/Th in deep waters (10-100 years). Apparently there are additional sources of /sup 230/Th into deep waters. At MANOP site S manganese nodule tops are enriched in Th isotopes by adsorption of Th from seawater and not by incorporation of Th-rich particulates.

Moore, W.S. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia (USA). Dept. of Geology)

1981-05-01

260

The thorium isotope content of ocean water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

232Th concentrations of surface and deep Pacific Ocean waters are 0.01-0.02 dpm/1000 kg(60 pgm/kg). The 230Th activity is 0.03-0.13 dpm/1000 kg in surface waters and 0.3-2.7 dpm/1000 kg in deep waters. Chemical residence times based on in situ production from parent isotopes are about the same for 230Th in surface waters (1-5 years) but are ten times greater for 230Th in deep waters (10-100 years). Apparently there are additional sources of 230Th into deep waters. At MANOP site S manganese nodule tops are enriched in Th isotopes by adsorption of Th from seawater and not by incorporation of Th-rich particulates. (orig.).

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

1990-01-01

262

Estimating foliar water content of winter wheat with hyperspectral image  

Science.gov (United States)

Estimates of vegetation water content are of great interest for assessing vegetation water status in agriculture and forestry, and have been used for drought assessment. This study focuses on the retrieval of foliar water content with hyperspectral data at canopy level. The hyperspectral image used in this study was acquired by the airborne operative modular imaging spectrometer (OMIS) at Demonstration Site for Precision Agriculture in Xiaotangshan area, Beijing, on April 26th, 2001. 40 image spectra were extracted to correspond to the quasi-synchronous meansurements of foliar water content (FWC). The image spectra of winter wheat were utilized to validate the sensitivity of the existing and novel water indices and parameters of three water absorption features in NIR and SWIR regions. Correlation analysis showed that, NDWI(860,1241) and NDWI(860,1200) both had significant linear relationships with FWC (R2 were 0.4124 and 0.4042 respectively). Red edge position (REP) could reflect indirectly the variations of wheat FWC to some extent. Significant linear relationships were also found between WI(820,1600) and FWC, and between WI(900,1200) and FWC, while no relationship was shown between the traditional WI(900,970) and FWC. The derived depth of water absorption centered around 2078nm, namely AD2078, had the highest linear correlation with FWC (R2 is 0.4551) , much higher than those parameters derived from the two water absorption around 1175 and 1409. In the end, AD2078 was applied to OMIS image to map the foliar water content. The value range of the inverted foliar water content ranged from 69.39 to 78.35%, which was quite close to that of the field measurements (70.72-78.12%). The distribution of the FWC map was quite consistent with growth status of winter wheat.

Zhang, Xia; Jiao, Quanjun; Wu, Di; Zhang, Bing; Gao, Lianru

2007-11-01

263

Lipstick with high water content and preparation method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a lipstick prescription with high water content and a preparation method thereof. The lipstick prescription with high water content comprises the following components in percentage by weight: 1-10 weight percent of emulsifying agent, 1-30 weight percent of aqueous phase component and 69-98 weight percent of oil phase component. Pigment, a pearlized component or a water-soluble active component also can be added into the lipstick according to the requirements. The preparation method comprises the following steps: taking two or three mixtures of aliphatic acid polyglycerin ester, aliphatic acid ester and polyorganosiloxane modifier as the emulsifying agent forming water-in-oil pre-emulsion and then mixing the pre-emulsion and the oil phase component togther. The method effectively improves the water content in the lipstick. The lipstick with high water content has good shape stability in the processes of storage and use and does not have any phenomenon of rough surfaces or generated air holes. The prescription can reduce the lipstick cost, further add the water-soluble active component in an aqueous phase and bring bran-new experience to a consumer and can be widely used for a lip care product.

HAIZHOU ZHANG; JINGYA DAI; JIALI ZOU; ZHIHENG GAO

264

Simulation of Cl Uptake by Low-salt Barley Roots as a Test of Models of Salt Uptake.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Computing techniques are used to simulate the course of uptake of K(+), Na(+), and Cl(-) by low-salt roots. Measurements of the fluxes of these ions in high-salt roots are used to calculate membrane permeabilities, which are then used to calculate cell uptake. In this way it is possible to test the predictive value of different models for the location of sites of salt uptake in the cell.On the basis of the permeability data used, it is suggested that anion transport at the plasmalemma must be larger than that provided by Mechanism I and that there is a need for transport of both cations and anions at the tonoplast. To account for the observation that the level of salt at equilibrium in the tissue is very nearly independent of concentration, it is suggested that there must be some feedback from vacuolar content to rate of transport at the tonoplast.

Pitman MG

1969-10-01

265

Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

1981-01-01

266

Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

1993-01-01

267

Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level. PMID:16213544

Behari, Jai Raj; Prakash, Rajiv

2005-10-06

268

Determination of total arsenic content in water by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) using vapour generation assembly (VGA).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Analysis of arsenic in water is important in view of contamination of ground water with arsenic in some parts of the world including West Bengal in India and neighboring country Bangladesh. WHO has fixed the threshold for arsenic in drinking water to 10ppb (microg/l) level, hence the methodology for determination of arsenic is required to be sensitive at ppb level. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry with vapour generation assembly (AAS-VGA) is well known technique for the trace analysis of arsenic. However, total arsenic analysis [As(III)+As(V)] is very crucial and it requires reduction of As(V) to As(III) for correct analysis. As(III) is reduced to AsH3 vapours and finally to free As atoms, which are responsible for absorption signal in AAS. To accomplish this the vapour generation assembly attached to AAS has acid channel filled with 10 M HCl and the reduction channel with sodium borohydride. Further sample can be reduced either before aspiration for analysis, using potassium iodide (KI) or the sample can be introduced in the instrument directly and KI can be added in the reduction channel along with the sodium borohydride. The present work shows that samples prepared in 3 M HCl can be reduced with KI for 30 min before introduction in the instrument. Alternatively samples can be prepared in 6 M HCl and directly aspirated in AAS using KI in VGA reduction channel. The latter methodology is more useful when the sample size is large and time cycle is difficult to maintain. It is observed that the acid concentration of the sample in both the situations plays an important role. Further reduction in acid concentration and analysis time is achieved for the arsenic analysis by using modified method. Analysis in both the methods is sensitive at ppb level.

Behari JR; Prakash R

2006-03-01

269

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01

270

The salting out action of alkali metal nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system  

Science.gov (United States)

The results of a polythermal study of the salting out action of alkali metal (Na, K, and Cs) nitrates on the water-diethylamine binary system characterized by stratification with a lower critical solution point (LCSP) were comparatively analyzed. Alkali metal nitrates experiencing homoselective solvation in aqueousorganic solvents were found to decrease the LCSP of this binary system, that is, have a salting out action. A decrease in the radius of the cation in the series CsNO3-KNO3-NaNO3 decreased the temperature of critical tie line formation in the monotectic state of salt-water-diethylamine ternary systems (69.3, 48.1, and 22.9°C, respectively). In all ternary systems, first and foremost in the system with potassium nitrate, the effect of diethylamine salting out from aqueous solutions grew stronger as the temperature increased. The conclusion was drawn that, among the salts studied, sodium nitrate had the strongest salting out effect at 22.9-88.4°C, and potassium nitrate, at 88.4-150.0°C.

Il'in, K. K.; Cherkasov, D. G.; Kurskii, V. F.

2011-01-01

271

Varietal differences in growth vigor, water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of two wheat varieties grown under seawater stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seawater salinity (10% and 25%) on growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of two wheat cultivars (Salt sensitive var., Gemmieza-9 and salt resistant var., Sids-1) during grain-filling was investigated. In general, seawater at 10% and 25% caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations (RWC & SWD) , protein and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) content of both varieties during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by seawater stress in both wheat cultivars. The magnitude of reduction was more obvious at higher salinity levels than the lower one particularly in Gemmieza-9.

Heshmat S. Aldesuquy; Zakaria A. Baka; Omar A. El-Shehaby; Hanan E. Ghanem

2012-01-01

272

Double inversion of emulsions induced by salt concentration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of salt on emulsions containing sorbitan oleate (Span 80) and Laponite particles were investigated. Surprisingly, a novel double phase inversion was induced by simply changing the salt concentration. At fixed concentration of Laponite particles in the aqueous phase and surfactant in paraffin oil, emulsions are oil in water (o/w) when the concentration of NaCl is lower than 5 mM. Emulsions of water in oil (w/o) are obtained when the NaCl concentration is between 5 and 20 mM. Then the emulsions invert to o/w when the salt concentration is higher than 50 mM. In this process, different emulsifiers dominate the composition of the interfacial layer, and the emulsion type is correspondingly controlled. When the salt concentration is low in the aqueous dispersion of Laponite, the particles are discrete and can move to the interface freely. Therefore, the emulsions are stabilized by particles and surfactant, and the type is o/w as particles are in domination. At intermediate salt concentrations, the aqueous dispersions of Laponite are gel-like, the viscosity is high, and the transition of the particles from the aqueous phase to the interface is inhibited. The emulsions are stabilized mainly by lipophilic surfactant, and w/o emulsions are obtained. For high salt concentration, flocculation occurs and the viscosity of the dispersion is reduced; thus, the adsorption of particles is promoted and the type of emulsions inverts to o/w. Laser-induced fluorescent confocal micrographs and cryo transmission electron microscopy clearly confirm the adsorption of Laponite particles on the surface of o/w emulsion droplets, whereas the accumulation of particles at the w/o emulsion droplet surfaces was not observed. This mechanism is also supported by the results of rheology and interfacial tension measurements.

Zhang J; Li L; Wang J; Sun H; Xu J; Sun D

2012-05-01

273

Critical water contents of hydrophobic soils in New Zealand  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil water repellency is an important problem for pasture farming in New Zealand which causes low infiltration rates and increased surface runoff. However, the real extent of this issue is not yet evaluated. Water repellency is thought to appear on dry soils, when the water content falls below a critical limit. The main objectives of this study was 1) to investigate the effects of different amounts of infiltration water on hydrophobicity of three selected soils under grassland in the North island of New Zealand, and 2) to determine the critical water content for ten sites with five different soil types. In April 2011 undisturbed and disturbed soil samples from a brown, gley and organic soil have been taken from sites around Mount Taranaki. Soil water repellency was determined using the Water Droplet Penetration Time Test (WDPT) and the Molarity of Ethanol Droplet Test (MED). During the lab experiment four amounts of water were applied to the 270 cm³ samples: 400, 800, 1600 and 2400 mL . One test was performed with cold and one with hot (80 °C) water. Each test was replicated four times. In the leachate the amount of dissolved organic carbon was analyzed. The experiments showed that only for the brown soil water repellency decreased significantly with increasing amount of infiltration water whereas for gley soils no correlation was found. Gley soil had initially a lower degree of hydrophobicity compared to the other soils. Possibly due to the higher bulk density of these soils, the carbon compounds directly surrounding the soil particles wre rearranged rather than leached. No clear pattern could be obtained for organic soils. This may be explained by the high initial carbon content of more than 20%. It may take a much greater amount of infiltration to affect hydrophobicity. The critical contact angle of investigated soils above which water repellency is moderately persistent, was 93.8°. In May 2012 ten more sites were sampled and five soil types were investigated with respect to the critical water content. Soil hydrophobicity was again tested during 4 wetting and drying cycles on 3 replicates each of disturbed and undisturbed soil samples. The tests confirmed that water repellency does not exist at high water contents. It generally starts to appear at a certain limit, increases rapidly up to a peak value and finally decreases slowly when the water content approaches 0. Critical water contents were very high in the first wetting cycle and stabilized at a rather constant level during the 2nd, 3rd and 4th wetting cycle. This phenomenon may be due to inhomogeneous water distributions within the field moist soil samples in the 1st wetting cycle and it was thus chosen to take the critical moisture content from the 2nd wetting cycle for further purposes. We found relatively broad transition zones where soils were found to be both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Critical water contents or rather transition zones were found to differ significantly between the various soil orders and showed values between 0.34 (m³/m³) for recent soil and 0.44(m³/m³) for organic soil.

Landl, Magdalena; Holzinger, Ursula; Singh, Ranvir; Klik, Andreas

2013-04-01

274

Effects of Salinity on Seedling Biomass Production and Relative Water Content of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of salinity on fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) varieties at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. Data analysis was carried out using jmp 5 (version 5.0) and SPSS (version 12) statistical softwares. Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW), Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW), Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW) and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW) were measured; and seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC) and seedling Root Relative Water Content (RRWC) were calculated. The two ways ANOVA for varieties found statistically insignificant with respect to Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW), seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC) and seedling root relative water content (RRWC) (p>0.05) but it was significant with respect to Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW), Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW) and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW) (p0.05) with respect to the entire parameters. Varieties such as Awash-1, Argene, Chore, Mexican 142 and Awash Melka were found to be salt tolerant during seedling biomass production and in Relative Water Content (RWC). On the other hand, varieties Red Kidney (DRK), Dimtu, Gofta, Cranscope and Sinkinesh were found to be salt sensitive during seedling biomass production and in RWC. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production and Relative Water Content (RWC).

Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

2011-01-01

275

Cost benefit of reducing radionuclide contents in drinking water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Protective measures for reducing the content of natural radionuclides in drinking water were evaluated using cost benefit analysis of risk reduction. The risk indicator used was the weighted collective commitment of the effective dose equivalent. An increased radon level in the water represents a health hazard for the population, and mainly for the personnel of the water treatment plant. The justification was contemplated of spending 58,600 Czechoslovak crowns for reducing the collective commitment by 1 manSv. The presence of decay products in drinking water may cause a six-fold increase in radiation hazard. (M.D.). 4 tabs., 4 refs

1988-01-01

276

Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith  

Science.gov (United States)

Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than ˜20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric analysis of this amorphous solid shows that it contains ˜26% H2O (compared with 47% in crystalline hexahydrite), and its observed macroscopic expansion behavior suggests that it can reversibly hydrate and dehydrate. Although neither epsomite nor hexahydrite is likely to be stable near the surface of Mars, their amorphous derivatives or crystalline forms of the lower hydrates might be present (preliminary thermogravimetric data indicate that kieserite is likely to be stable). However, the limited rehydration of structurally degraded hexahydrite indicates that unrealistically large amounts ( ˜50%) would be required in the upper meter of regolith to account for the higher water contents ( ˜13%) suggested for some martian equatorial regions; even larger amounts of kieserite ( ˜100%) would be required. A more important role for sulfates may be in the formation of a low-permeability salt crust that could restrict dewatering of underlying soil horizons.

Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

2003-12-01

277

Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

2012-07-01

278

Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

Yoritsugu Ito; Yuki Kohno; Nobuhumi Nakamura; Hiroyuki Ohno

2013-01-01

279

Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

2010-05-01

280

Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) ...

F.C. Oad; Z. A. Abro; A. G. Siyal; N. L. Oad; A.A. Siyal

 
 
 
 
281

Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: A simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples. PMID:23953206

Xu, Chen; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

2013-07-15

282

Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: A simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Superoxide anion radical (O2(-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), l-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.

Xu C; Liu S; Liu Z; Song F; Liu S

2013-09-01

283

Elasticidade do solo em função da umidade e do teor de carbono orgânico Soil elasticity as affected by water and organic carbon content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O acúmulo de carbono orgânico (CO) observado em solos sob sistema de semeadura direta pode resultar em aumento de sua elasticidade, levando a maior resistência à compactação. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da umidade e do enriquecimento de CO sobre a elasticidade de dois solos, sendo um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico e um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. Amostras superficiais de solo, coletadas no Argissolo e no Nitossolo, com variação significativa do teor de CO, foram equilibradas em quatro diferentes tensões de água e, então, submetidas a carregamentos e descarregamentos em uma prensa de compressão uniaxial, determinando-se o coeficiente de descompressão (Cd), o índice de recuperação do índice de vazios (Ir) e a redução da densidade (Re), após remoção das cargas aplicadas. Os resultados demonstram que o Ir variou de 11,4 a 16,4 % no Nitossolo e de 14 a 23,4 % no Argissolo, dependendo da tensão de água e do teor de CO da amostra. O teor de CO das amostras afetou significativamente o Cd e, conseqüentemente, a Re após a retirada das cargas. A Re média observada variou de 0,023 a 0,059 Mg m-3 e de 0,018 a 0,078 Mg m-3, respectivamente para o Argissolo e o Nitossolo. A elasticidade do solo é sensivelmente afetada pela variação no teor de água e de CO.The organic carbon accumulation observed in soils under no-till system can increase the soil elasticity, resulting in a higher resistance to soil compaction. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of water content and soil organic carbon (SOC) enrichment on soil elasticity. Samples of a Hapludalf and a Typic Hapludox in southern Brazil, both with a significant variation in SOC content, were equilibrated at four different water tensions, and then loaded and unloaded on a uniaxial apparatus. The decompression coefficient (Cd), the recovery index (Ir) of the void ratio and the density rebound (Re) after load removal were determined. Results demonstrate that Ir varied from 11.4 to 16.4 % in the Hapludox and from 14 to 23.4 % in the Hapludalf, depending on the water tension and SOC content. The SOC content affected Cd significantly and, consequently, the rebound after load removal. The observed mean rebound varied from 0.023 to 0.059 Mg m-3 and from 0.018 to 0.078 Mg m-3, respectively, for the Hapludalf and the Hapludox. Soil elasticity is affected by variations in the water and SOC content.

João Alfredo Braida; Jose Miguel Reichert; Dalvan Jose Reinert; Letícia Sequinatto

2008-01-01

284

Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Liu, Zhi; MØller, Flemming

2011-01-01

285

[Determination of tracer gas contents in sediment pore water of gas hydrate area by two-dimensional gas chromatography].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-dimensional gas chromatographic instrument was established by the capillary flow technology (Deans Switch) and two columns (PoraPLOT Q and Molsieve 5A) and three detectors (pulsed discharge helium ionization detector, flame photometric detector and thermal conductivity detector). The instrument can be used to measure tracer gases simultaneously including hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. The detection limits of the hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide were 0.51, 0.17, 82 and 0.08 micromol/mol, and the calibration curves presented good linear relationships in the range of 2-1030, 0.6-501, 120-10500 and 0.2- 49.1 micromol/mol, respectively. The relative standard deviations were less than 10% for the measurements of ten standard gases. By this method, the tracer gases in the sediment pore water of gas hydrate area in South China Sea had been detected. This method is simple, sensitive, and suitable for on-board detection. Compared with the usual methods for measuring tracer gases, the amount of a sample necessary is reduced greatly. It is useful for the survey of gas hydrate and hydrothermal resources below sea floor and for the research of dissolved gases in the ocean.

Wang H; Yang Q; Ji F; Zhou H; Xue X

2011-01-01

286

Method for increasing the hydroxide content of polymetal hydroxychlorides used as antiperspirant salt compositions with enhanced efficacy  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention describes processes for the production of basic aluminum compounds, including aluminum chlorohydrate, basic zirconium compounds, and basic aluminum zirconium compounds. The process produces products of a wide range of basicities. The products formed by the present invention are comprised of low molecular weight species characteristic of enhanced efficacy antiperspirant salt compositions. The products of this process are suitable for use as water purification agents, as binders in catalyst applications, and in antiperspirant applications.

PRATT WILLIAM E; STEVENS JOSEPH J; SYMONS PETER G

287

Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate.

2008-01-01

288

Water contents in pyroxenes of intraplate lithospheric mantle  

Science.gov (United States)

Water contents of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in mantle peridotites from various xenolith occurrences in intraplate settings (both oceanic and continental) were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The localities are as follow: Sal Island (Cape Verde Archipelago); Baker Rocks and Greene Point (Northern Victoria Land, Antarctica); Panshishan and Lianshan (Subei Basin, Eastern China). They represent well-known localities where detailed petrographical and geochemical studies have already been carried out or areas which are currently under investigation. The water incorporated in these pyroxenes is low (cpx, 37-399ppm; opx: 9-166ppm)(or very low as in Greene Point, Antarctica; cpx, 5-16ppm; opx: 9-16ppm) and, among each population, no clear correlation with melting parameters (MgO contents) in single mineral is evident. Results are compared with the available literature data on water contents in mantle pyroxene which includes peridotites from on-craton (hosted by kimberlitic-type magmas) and off-craton (hosted by alkaline basic magmas), as well as subarc mantle settings. The "relatively dry" (cpx: 140-528 ppm; opx: 38-280 ppm) sub-arc mantle xenoliths (Peslier et al., 2002) are shown to be wetter than the intraplate (off-craton) xenoliths. Cratonic mantle pyroxenes are only represented by a few determinations on garnet peridotites and eclogite from Kaapvaal and Colorado Plateau. They record the highest water contents (cpx: 342-1012 ppm; opx: 180-491 ppm) so far measured in mantle pyroxenes from various tectonic settings. Despite the limited data set, the indication that the cratonic mantle is strongly hydrated is compelling. Rehydration for the Colorado Plateau craton may be due to the Farallon plate subduction (Li et al., 2008), while for Kaapvaal Craton it might be related to young (<100Ma) metasomatic enrichments (Griffin et al., 2003a; Kobussen et al., 2008). If this is the case then the Archean mantle water content needs to be determined; this may be solved by analysing highly depleted unmetasomatized lithologies. However, assuming that the water content was initially very low, it is hard to believe that metasomatic events, similar to those observed in the intra-plate settings studied in this work, would be able to produce a significant water content. According to literature and our own data it appears that water rehydration may substantially occur at convergent margins.

Bonadiman, C.; Hao, Y.-T.; Coltorti, M.; Dallai, L.; Faccini, B.; Hu, H.; Qunke, X.

2009-04-01

289

Streaming potential dependence on water-content in Fontainebleau sand  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrokinetic potential results from the coupling between the water flow and the electrical current because of the presence of ions within water. The electrokinetic coefficient is well described in fluid-saturated media, however its behaviour under unsaturated flow conditions is still discussed. We propose here an experimental approach to investigate streaming potential variations in sand at unsaturated conditions. We present for the first time continuous records of the electrokinetic coefficient as a function of water content. Two drainage experiments have been performed within a column filled with a clean sand. Streaming potential measurements are combined with water pressure and water content measurements every 10 cm along the column. In order to model hydrodymanics during the experiments, we solve Richards equation coupled with an inverse problem to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the constitutive relations between hydraulic conductivity, water pressure and water content. The electrokinetic coefficient C shows a more complex behaviour for unsaturated conditions than it was previously reported and cannot be fitted by the existing models. The normalized electrokinetic coefficient increases first when water saturation decreases from 100 to about 65-80 per cent, and then decreases as the water saturation decreases, whereas all previous works described a monotone decrease of the normalized electrokinetic coupling as water saturation decreases. We delimited two water saturation domains, and deduced two different empirical laws describing the evolution of the electrokinetic coefficient for unsaturated conditions. Moreover, we introduce the concept of the electrokinetic residual saturation, Sr,ekw, which allows us to propose a new model derived from the approach of the relative permeability used in hydrodynamics.

Allègre, V.; Jouniaux, L.; Lehmann, F.; Sailhac, P.

2010-09-01

290

Do monovalent mobile ions affect DNA's flexibility at high salt content?  

Science.gov (United States)

Numerous theoretical and experimental studies disagree on the impact of surrounding mobile ions on DNA conformational flexibility at high salt content. Specifically, it is not clear how the DNA persistence length varies when concentration of monovalent mobile ions is increased beyond the physiological value of ?0.1 M. In the present Communication we address this biologically important issue computationally by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We utilize our recently developed chemically accurate coarse-grained model for the double-stranded DNA with explicit mobile ions. We find that in a range of moderate-to-high ionic concentrations, ?0.1-1 M, DNA persistence length drops noticeably by ?25%. Our results contradict some experimental works and the celebrated theory of Odijk, Skolnick and Fixman (Skolnick et al., Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 944), suggesting a negligible variation of DNA persistence length at these concentrations. On the other hand, our findings are in near quantitative agreement with a number of other theoretical and experimental studies. Combined with our recent work on elucidating the role of elastic and electrostatic effects in maintaining DNA shape, the results reported here may indicate that conceptually new understanding of DNA rigidity needs to be developed. PMID:22246071

Savelyev, Alexey

2012-01-13

291

Do monovalent mobile ions affect DNA's flexibility at high salt content?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Numerous theoretical and experimental studies disagree on the impact of surrounding mobile ions on DNA conformational flexibility at high salt content. Specifically, it is not clear how the DNA persistence length varies when concentration of monovalent mobile ions is increased beyond the physiological value of ?0.1 M. In the present Communication we address this biologically important issue computationally by means of molecular dynamics simulations. We utilize our recently developed chemically accurate coarse-grained model for the double-stranded DNA with explicit mobile ions. We find that in a range of moderate-to-high ionic concentrations, ?0.1-1 M, DNA persistence length drops noticeably by ?25%. Our results contradict some experimental works and the celebrated theory of Odijk, Skolnick and Fixman (Skolnick et al., Macromolecules, 1977, 10, 944), suggesting a negligible variation of DNA persistence length at these concentrations. On the other hand, our findings are in near quantitative agreement with a number of other theoretical and experimental studies. Combined with our recent work on elucidating the role of elastic and electrostatic effects in maintaining DNA shape, the results reported here may indicate that conceptually new understanding of DNA rigidity needs to be developed.

Savelyev A

2012-02-01

292

Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of addition of Lithium Bromide salt in isopropanol -water binary azeotropic mixture using extractive distillation is discussed. As LiBr is a high boiling point salt, it will not appear in the distillate and moreover LiBr is hygroscopic and has a characteristic to givehigher boiling point elevation with water which is main cause of its use in this application. Addition of salt (40% of water)eliminates azeotrope formation and purity of 99.74% (by wt.) is achieved.

Sanket R. Vora; Prof. Suchen B. Thakore; Prof. Nitin Padhiyar; Ameerkhan Pathan

2013-01-01

293

Effect of water content on the activity of lipase-hydrolysis of olive oil in reverse micelles. Gyakuso micelle nai ni okeru lipase no olive oil kasui bunkai hanno no gansuiritsu izonsei  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrolysis of olive oil by Chromobacterium viscosum lipase was studied in a reverse micellar system of a anionic surfactant Aerosol OT (AOT) and isooctane. Different methods of solubilization of the micellar system afford specific dependence of enzymatic activity of the lipase on the water content in the micelles. In an injection method, water content is controlled by the amount of injected water, which determines the micelle size and hydrophobicity of the micelle without salt addition and changes reversibly the conformation of lipase corresponding to the change of lipase activity. The activity reaches the maximum at a water content (water/AOT)of 7. In a phase transfer method, water content is determined by salt concentration in the aqueous phase in contact with micelles and the water content corresponding to the maximum activity is 12 to 13, below which the activity decrese drastically. Addition of taurodeoxycholic acid to the AOT micelles suppresses the reversible conformational change of the lipase in some degree and improves the activity at high salt concentration. 18 refs., 6 figs.

Kuboi, R.; Yamada, Y.; Komazawa, I. (Osaka Univ., Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering and Science)

1992-01-10

294

Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

Z. J. Wu; A. Nowak; L. Poulain; H. Herrmann; A. Wiedensohler

2011-01-01

295

Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water.

Garrec DA; Norton IT

2012-08-01

296

The changes in contents of Salt Marsh Species and the importance of Edaphic Physiochemical Factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The changes in nutrient contents of some halophytic plants which occurred in a salt marsh located in the vicinity of Bafra town, on the north coast of Turkey during the growing seasons were investigated. Contents of So4, Cl, Na, K, Ca and Mg changed during the growing season in most species. High correlation coefficients were obtained between plant ion and soil ion contents. It has been found that the most prevalent ion was Na in the plant and soil samples. It was also shown that species diversity was quite low in the study area, and species diversity was highly correlated with so4/Cl ratio, electrical conductivity and pH. (author)

2001-01-01

297

[Clinical studies of the quantitative changes in mineral salt content of irradiated vertebral body metastases with 2-energy computerized tomography  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Results are represented a clinical experimental series of examinations in 19 patients having osteolytic and osteoplastic metastases in the region of the vertebral column. An attempt was made to quantify the changes in mineral salt content after high-voltage therapy, via two-energy computed tomography. The vertebral bodies with osteolytic affection showed directly after completion of the irradiation an individually highly differentiated increase in mineral salt content. This was due both to recalcification of the osteolysis and an increase in mineral salt content of the still intact spongiosa. Likewise, an increase in mineral salt content was seen in patients with osteoplastic metastases, in the tumour-free bony substance. The methodical approach is described and the different reactive behaviour of the vertebral body metastases in response to radiotherapy is discussed.

Crone-Münzebrock W; Spielmann RP; Brockmann WP

1988-06-01

298

[Natural water contents and endemic goiter--a review  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A review is given of literature which considers water as the cause of endemic goitre irrespective of its iodine content and which incriminates goitrogenic substances in the water. There are evident connections between the geogenic origin of the water and the incidence of goitre insofar as water from shallow wells from phyllite, gneiss and slate was linked to an elevated goitre incidence as compared to water from igneous rock or from deeper wells with limestone underground. Water which caused goitre was often found to be grossly polluted. So far, nitrate, humic acids and some of their degradation products have been clearly identified to be goitrogenic. Experimental studies by the author emphasize the importance of nitrate as well as of humic acids and their derivatives as waterborne goitrogens.

Seffner W

1995-01-01

299

Structural development of salt and associated potential hydrocarbon traps, deep-water northern Gulf of Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico is the frontier area where recent discoveries indicate the potential for large hydrocarbon accumulations. Multichannel seismic data of the lower continental slope of Louisiana reveal that the lower slope is underlain by shallow, continuous salt. Salt in the upper lower slope originated from the deep Jurassic salt during the initial stage of salt deformation. As the salt moved to shallower depths, the downslope part of the salt moved basinward as an allochthonous nappe, evolving into massifs and ridges in the middle lower slope. Intraslope basins formed locally by withdrawal of the allochthonous salt. Lobes of salt spread further seaward forming the Sigsbee Escarpment along the base of the slope. Various types of potential traps for hydrocarbons were created, both below and above the salt layer as a result of the intrusion of salt and subsequent withdrawal of salt. Since salt is impermeable and covers large areas, it may seal the underlying source beds. Hence, truncation of the subsalt sediment layers against the basal thrust plane of salt has the potential to trap hydrocarbons. Within the salt-withdrawal basins, hydrocarbons can escape from deep source beds along tensional faults caused by salt withdrawal or through salt-free zones caused by an evacuation of salt. Hydrocarbons can migrate into fault traps, updip pinchouts and anticlines formed by the subsidence and uplift of sediment layers associated with the withdrawal of salt.

Gwang, H.L.; Bryant, W.R.; Watkins, J.S. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA))

1990-05-01

300

Modeling root water uptake with root mediated soil water content redistribution  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this study was to develop and test a simple root water uptake parameterization applicable in numerical models of soil water movement. The suggested approach was implemented in a one-dimensional dual-continuum model of soil water flow based on Richards' equation. The model was used to simulate soil water movement at an experimental forest site. The performance of the model was evaluated using observed soil water pressure and soil water content data. Several episodes, during which the root mediated soil water content redistribution effects played an important role, were detected. Differences between the model responses and observations, as well as differences between the traditional and newly developed root water uptake modeling approaches, were analyzed. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation project No. 205/08/1174.

Dohnal, M.; Votrubova, J.; Vogel, T.; Tesar, M.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
301

From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

2010-03-15

302

From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

2010-03-15

303

Decorative Cosmetic Product Having a High Water Content  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Decorative cosmetic product having a high water content The invention relates to a decorative cosmetic product having a high water content. The product comprises 70-92% by weight of water, 2.0-30% by weight of pigments, 2-8% by weight of a gel-forming agent with emulsifying properties comprising a mixture of sodium acrylate copolymers, hydrogenated polyisobutene, plant-based phospholipids, a polyglyceryl acylate and an oil, and the remainder up to 100% of said product is made up of cosmetic auxiliaries, carriers, active agents or mixtures thereof. Despite of the cooling effect the product with a stabile cosmetic formula has an extraordinary transfer stability. In the case of lipsticks, a glossy product is obtained with accordingly good transfer stability.

BARONE SALVATORE J

304

WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary), and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia), and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

Carlos G. Musso; José R. Jauregui

2010-01-01

305

Influence of Water Stress on Proline Accumulation, Lipid Peroxidation and Water Content of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of water stress on Triticum aestivum L. was investigated before and during a period of stress at the seedling stage. For this purpose Turkish bread wheat cultivar Gönen 98 was used in this research. Changing of proline and lipid peroxidation content (malonyl dialdehyde, MDA) at five different harvesting times (7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after sowing) during early vegetative stage was determined in relation to dry matter production and relative water content of leaves. After onset of stress treatment (14 days after sowing) decline of dry matter production by water stress was observed. The decreasing of relative water content and increasing of proline concentration of stressed plants harvested 28 days after sowing was markedly more than at other harvesting times. Water stress caused an increase of MDA content in leaves of plants. It reached highest level 28 days after sowing. The data showed that proline accumulation increased after lipid peroxidation content became higher and relative water content of leaves became lower. Therefore proline appeared to be mainly involved in protection against oxidative stress than osmotic adjustment during initial steps of water stress.

Ozgur Tatar; Mithat Nuri Gevrek

2008-01-01

306

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L-1 over the salinity range of 100-370 g L-1; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes

2009-01-01

307

The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

Prabhakar A; Raju O; Kurthukoti A; Vishwas T

2008-01-01

308

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe; E.A. Hammer; Y. Kaahwa

2011-01-01

309

Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

1989-01-01

310

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

Science.gov (United States)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects.As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water.Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

2013-04-01

311

Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2? is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, ?, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author).

1976-01-01

312

Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

313

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

314

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08

315

Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is also elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus) or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide), in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

L.A. Jr De Luca; R.C. Vendramini; D.T.B. Pereira; D.A.S. Colombari; R.B. David; P.M. Paula; J.V. Menani

2007-01-01

316

Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is also elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the di (more) stinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus) or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide), in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

De Luca, L.A. Jr; Vendramini, R.C.; Pereira, D.T.B.; Colombari, D.A.S.; David, R.B.; Paula, P.M.; Menani, J.V.

2007-05-01

317

Complexation and extraction of halogenoacetates in ternary systems salt-water-extractant  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is given to results of investigations into uranyl halogenacetates, acetat and nitrate in ternary systems salt-water-extractant (diethyl ether or tributyl phosphate) at 25 deg C. Reciprocal solubility diagrams for uranyl salt systems are presented. Relationship between the character of phase diagram and anion properties at the fixed cation and extractant was revealed. Tendency to formation of the closed binodal curve correlates with hydration number and is connected with electron-donor ability. Deviations are explained satisfactorily by the difference in solvation numbers, which seems to be connected with steric effects. The data obtained show that relationship between anion characteristics and salt extraction ability is ambiguous. Edwards parameter should be used to obtain more accurate evaluations

1988-01-01

318

FUNCTIONAL SALT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Functional salt, and a producing method thereof are provided to add a natural additive to salt water for evaporating and producing the salt, and to offer an improved seasoning effect of the salt. CONSTITUTION: A producing method of functional salt comprises the following steps: dissolving high quality bay salt in tap water or underground water to obtain salt water having salinity of 23-25% precipitating the salt water in a first storage tank for removing first impurities transferring the salt water to a second storage tank, and adding a natural additive heating the salt water at the temperature higher than 100 deg C for evaporating the tap water or the underground water and re-crystallizing the salt and cooling the salt before inserting into a container. The natural additive is selected from Japanese apricot, grape, ginseng, pine needles, and a garlic extract.

YOON SUN WOONG

319

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer.

1994-01-01

320

UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ``Vitro`` site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ``Clive`` disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer.

1994-06-01

 
 
 
 
321

Antifungal effects of palmitic acid salt and ultrapure soft water on Scedosporium apiospermum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Scedosporium apiospermum sometimes causes serious infectious diseases on the skin of immunodeficient subjects. Antifungal effects of fatty acid salts in soap against S. apiospermum were investigated under different water conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ultrapure soft water (UPSW) was generated by the water softener with cation-exchange resin. The calcium and magnesium ions were replaced with sodium ions in UPSW. Scedosporium apiospermum was incubated with different fatty acid salts that constituted soap in distilled water (DW), tap water (TW) and UPSW. After incubation, the number of fungi was counted. Among the fatty acids, palmitic acid salt (C16) reduced the number of S. apiospermum. UPSW enhanced the antifungal effect of C16 on S. apiospermum. The absence of both calcium and magnesium ions and the existence of sodium chloride in UPSW were responsible for its antifungal effect. In addition, repeated short-term treatment with UPSW and C16 decreased the number of S. apiospermum. CONCLUSIONS: Antifungal effects of C16 on S. apiospermum were demonstrated. Moreover, the use of UPSW promoted the antifungal effect of C16. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF STUDY: This study provides the preventive method for diseases associated with S. apiospermum infection using novel palmitic acid soap in UPSW.

Jung K; Miyagawa M; Matsuda A; Amagai Y; Oida K; Okamoto Y; Takai M; Nishikawa S; Jang H; Ishizaka S; Ahn G; Tanaka A; Matsuda H

2013-09-01

322

Onium salt effects on p-terphenyl-sensitized photoreduction of water to hydrogen  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salt effects on photoinduced electron-transfer reactions are often discussed and used to control or probe photochemical reactions. p-Terphenyl (TP) sensitizes photocatalytic reduction of water to H{sub 2} under UV irradiation of homogeneous aqueous acetonitrile solution in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) as an electron donor and Ru{sup 3+} as a precursor of cocatalyst, Ru metal colloid. The addition of quaternary onium salts, such as tetraalkylammonium and tetraalkylphosphonium cations, enhances the H{sub 2} evolution, where the onium salts with longer alkyl groups become more effective. Dynamics studies of TP photosensitization reveal that the presence of the salts contributes to stabilization of the radical anion of TP (TP{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}}) formed through reductive quenching of the singlet state of TP ({sup 1}TP{sup *}) and the triplet state of TP ({sup 3}TP{sup *}) by TEA. The TP photosensitization accompanies competitive photo-Birch reduction via TP{sup {minus}}, but the presence of onium salts enhances the lifetime of TP{sup {sm_bullet}{minus}} through the specific interaction, leading to the effective TP-photosensitized H{sub 2} evolution.

Fujiwara, Hiroaki [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan)]|[Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States); Kitamura, Takayuki; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan); Kamat, P.V. [Notre Dame Radiation Lab., IN (United States)

1999-06-24

323

Post-salting studies in Spanish cured ham manufacturing. Time reduction by using brine thawing-salting.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of the simultaneous brine thawing/salting on frozen raw material was compared in a previous work with the traditional pile salting method. The aim of this study was to characterise and compare the post-salting stage in Spanish cured ham production by processing fresh and thawed raw material with the traditional pile salting method (which can be considered as the reference method), with the results obtained using the brine thawing/salting method, with and without applying vacuum impregnation. The obtained results show that the thawed salted hams exhibited a higher NaCl diffusion than the fresh ones, implying a shorter post-salting period. Post-salting stage could be reduced from the 50 days employed in the traditional fresh raw material salting, to 25 days when using frozen hams brine thawed/salted. No influence of the use of vacuum impregnation during the salting stage was observed on the post-salting period. PMID:22062809

Barat, J M; Grau, R; Ibáñez, J B; Fito, P

2005-02-01

324

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

Science.gov (United States)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

325

Low salt petroleum produced water reuse: a farming alternative outside the food chain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oil and gas production gives rise to water production depending on the state of maturation of the Field. This means large volumes of water available. Today, this water is partly re-injected into the reservoir. Totalfinaelf's sustainable contribution to preserve water resources is to propose an alternative utilization: the reuse of produced waters from petroleum activities, outside the food chain. The aim of the first part of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing low-salt water (<20 g/l) cleaned of hydrocarbons, for agricultural or forest irrigation. Rudimentary technologies such as artificial wetlands were tested to remove hydrocarbon substances and preliminary tests were performed with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and hemp (Cannabis sativa). Among the species tested in real conditions (greenhouse), hemp was affected by saline water whereas the results obtained for cotton were representative of the average worldwide production. These results validate the reuse of low-salt produced water in climatic conditions with expected temperatures of up to 37 degrees C in summer and 25 degrees C in winter. Following these results, field pilots are planned. Further research is planned to focus, taking into account local needs and environmental and production constraints.

Rambeau O; de Lafond RM; Baldoni P; Gosselin JP; Baccou JC

2004-01-01

326

Control of xyloglucan endotransglucosylase activity by salts and anionic polymers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crude extracts of cauliflower florets had high xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activity, but this was largely lost after partial purification and de-salting. Activity was restored (promoted up to 40-fold) by any of a wide variety of inorganic and organic salts. Optimum concentrations for Na+, K+ and NH4+ salts were typically approximately 300 mM. The chlorides of Ca2+, Mg2+, Al3+ and La3+ were optimally active at lower concentrations (e.g. 0.1 mM LaCl3), but became inhibitory at higher concentrations (e.g. 5 mM LaCl3). Some anionic polysaccharides at 0.04-0.2% w/v (e.g. gum arabic, pectin and hypochlorite-oxidised xyloglucan) promoted the XET activity of de-salted enzyme, especially if a sub-optimal concentration of NaCl was also present; others (e.g. homogalacturonan, 4- O-methyl-glucuronoxylan and alginate) were inhibitory. Similar ionic effects were noted on the XET activity of the Arabidopsis protein XTH24 (heterologously expressed by insect cells); in this case carboxymethylcellulose was also stimulatory. To look for endogenous modulators of XET activity, we prepared a cold-water extract of cauliflower florets; after boiling and centrifugation, the supernatant [boiled cauliflower preparation (BCP)] promoted the XET activity of de-salted cauliflower enzyme and of XTH24. About half the activator present in BCP was an ethanol-precipitable, anionic polymer of apparent Mr <5,000. After acid hydrolysis the polymer yielded much arabinose and galactose, and small amounts of galacturonic and glucuronic acids amino acids were also present. The polymer may thus contain arabinogalactan-proteins. We suggest that acidic polymers and/or other apoplastic ions are naturally occurring regulators of XET action in vivo, and may thus control cell wall assembly, loosening, and growth. PMID:15095092

Takeda, Takumi; Fry, Stephen C

2004-04-17

327

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

328

Images of Water in School Textbooks: A Content Analysis --- ???? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?????  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Education as a social process is under the influence of the society, its institutions and the environment that it operates in. Schools as a part of the social structure shape students both attitudes and behavior and reflect the society's values. Students’ socialization is heavily influenced by their family, neighborhoods, and schools including teachers and textbooks. School textbooks are an important source for socialization in the process of learning during the course of schooling for children aged between 6 to 18 years old. This age group is including population of over 15 million boys and girls in Iran. These are a reflection of the culture, knowledge and values considered important by authorities in society. Iran, like other Middle Eastern societies, is facing higher population and water resources shortage in the future. Therefore, the impact of environmental images or knowledge about the resources and predicted risk would worth to be studied. The purpose of this paper is to show the way school textbooks shape Iranian kids attitudes towards the word or concept of water in terms of natural resources or water consumption. This study analyzed the presentation of concept of water in Iranian school textbooks. Some 82 school textbooks were investigated by utilizing content analysis method. Content analyses of the 11 different subjects showed that there were significant differences among science, humanities and social science books in terms of structure and social values. The study examined school textbooks used in grades 1 through 11 published 1984 by the Ministry of Education. The study revealed an interesting finding that about two percent of total content devoted to water related issues under 20 different categories, but less than 0.05 percent related to the way of consumptions or quality of healthy water. The images of water portrayed here, show the richness of natural resources including sea, rivers and the level of rain or snow for different parts of the country or the world. In contrast, data from WRI indicate that in the next two decades sanitation, healthy water and drought would be the major challenge for the people who are living in some part of the world including the Middle East and Central Asian regions. Results implied important directions for educational administrators and policy makers in the preparation and use of right educational content to support the environmental cause. ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ??? 82 ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???. ??? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????-??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???. ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ????? ??? ? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???. ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????. ?? ???? ???? ??? ? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???. ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????. ?????? ??? ???? ? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ? ????? ?? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???. ??????

Hossein Afkhami, hafkhami48@yahoo.co.uk - ???? ?????

2008-01-01

329

Identifying the Economic Effects of Salt Water Intrusion after Hurricane Katrina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina made landfall August 29, 2005 becoming the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in U.S. history. Katrina caused widespread loss of life, with over 700 bodies recovered in New Orleans by October 23, 2005. Before Hurricane Katrina, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in New Orleans. The ecological consequences were considerable including storm surge floods into coastal areas. These ecological impacts are still being felt throughout the region through human-driven coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion—issues that have long been damaging the region's natural storm buffers—were made worse by the hurricane. Specifically this research will: (1) provide current updates of the economic and ecological impacts from Katrina (2) review the current literature relating to salt water intrusion and (3) identify the economic impact of salt water erosion from hurricane Katrina. 

Vereda Johnson Williams

2010-01-01

330

In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars) equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany; Jameel M. Al-Khayri

2012-01-01

331

Soil stabilization and frost heave prevention for volcanic cohesive soil of low water content by lime and cement; Teigansui hi kazanbaishitsu nenseido no sekkai oyobi cemento ni yoru doshitsu antei shori to togai boshi  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In cold districts, frost heave of ground in the winter and ground softening in the ice-melting period in the spring are problems. Volcanic cohesive soil is a soil liable to frost heave, and many frost heave damages occurred in ground of cohesive soil of low water content. However, it is considered that it is effective to use slaked lime and cement as well as raw lime which has been conventionally used for soil stabilization and frost heave protection of volcanic cohesive soil of low water content (natural water content 60% or less). This paper describes the results of the comparison and study on the application of raw lime, slaked lime, and cement as soil stabilizers to the cohesive soil of low water content. The results led to many new findings that if the non-immersion strength of the soil stabilized by lime and cement is known, the immersion strength can be estimated, that the water content has an effect on frost heave more than the immersion strength, and that the relationships between the water content and the frost heave amount of the three types of soil stabilizers are expressed by a single straight line, showing a similar tendency. 7 refs., 12 figs.

Ishida, H. [Iwate Univ., Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

1995-08-01

332

[Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization. PMID:23323426

Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

2012-11-01

333

Salt diffusion in interstitial waters and halite removal from sediments: Examples from the Red Sea and Illinois basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large thicknesses of bedded halite can be removed in subsiding sedimentary basins by verticla diffusion of dissolved salt in interstitial waters over geologic time scales. Calculations show that at least 10 m to 40 m of halite may have dissolved and diffused through the Red Sea sediments overlying the salt beds, since cessation of salt deposition approximatley 5.3 million years ago. The total amount of salt diffused out of the sediment column over geologic time is five to twenty times the amount of salt that currently exists in the porewater column. If upward flow in the past occurred at even small rates, 10{sup {minus}3} m/yr, the amount of halite removed could have been ten times as great, 500 m. Unlike the Red Sea Basin, no halite beds are known in the Illinois Basin in spite of the fact that interstitial waters with as much as 200{per thousand} TDS (approximately 220 g/L) occur. Calculations show that if a halite bed had been deposited at the base of the Illinois Basin in Cambrian time, it would have been completely removed from the stratigraphic record had it initially been less than 60 m to 130 m in thickness. A significant thickness of halite deposited in sedimentary basins may thus be removed during active burial of salt beds, and before exhumation and exposure of the salt beds to shallow meteoric waters.

Ranganathan, V. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-06-01

334

Aggressive salt and water restriction in acutely decompensated heart failure: is it worth its weight in salt?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Evaluation of: Aliti GB, Rabelo ER, Clausell N, Rohde LE, Biolo A, Beck-da-Silva L. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Intern. Med. 173(12), 1058-1064 (2013). Acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is the leading cause of hospitalization worldwide, especially in the elderly, and is associated with a high readmission rate and increased first year mortality [2,3] . Fluid overload manifested by pulmonary congestion is seen in the majority of patients with ADHF and is believed to be the reason behind most admissions. ADHF is commonly treated with intravenous diuretics aimed to alleviate congestion and restore euvolemia. In fact, current European and American guidelines for heart failure (HF) [4-6] consider relief of congestion as the first-line therapy in ADHF. Following the same theme of reducing fluid retention, historical approaches have recommended water and salt restriction as an essential non-pharmacological therapy in the management of symptomatic HF. This 'common sense' dietary practice was mainly based on experts' opinions and has been challenged by recent data suggesting that salt or fluid restriction has neutral outcomes in achieving clinical stability and improving signs and symptoms of HF [7,8] .

Rami K

2013-09-01

335

Potential Antioxidant Activities Improve Salt Tolerance in Ten Varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of antioxidative enzymes system is affected by salt stress, chlorophyll content (CHL), leaf relative water content (RWC), Na+ and K+ contents, their ratio and some oxidative stress indices were studied in leaves of ten bread wheat cultivarsSehar-06, Lu-26, NARC-09, BARC-09 and Pirsbak-09’(salt-tolerant) and Kaghan-94, Rohtas-90, Soughat-90, Shaheen-94 and Zardana-89’(salt-sensitive), grown under salinity treatments carried out in five levels (1 dS·m-1 as control, 2, 4, 8, 16 dS·m-1) via sodium chloride. Under high salt potency significant increase for activities of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and guiacol peroxidase (GPX), occured in salt tolerant varieties. Meanwhile, under salinity condition the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and (GPX) in sensitive cultivar were lower than control. Regarding (APX) activity there was no significant difference between salinity and control situation. Under salt stress membrane stability index (MSI) of both cultivars were negatively influenced. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of salinity sensitive cultivars was higher than control. Salt tolerant varieties had more amounts of K+ content, K+ and Na+ ratio, relative water content, yield and chlorophyll under salt conditions, and sensitive ones recorded higher Na+ content at tillering stage. The mechanism of salt stress might be achieved due to low lipid peroxidation, assumingly lower changes in membrane stability index and evasion of Na+ combination and amplified activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Aurangzeb Rao; Syed Dilnawaz Ahmad; Syed Mubashar Sabir; Shahid Iqbal Awan; Asad Hussain Shah; Syed Rizwan Abbas; Saima Shafique; Fareed Khan; Atia Chaudhary

2013-01-01

336

The effect of fertilization with different rates of potassium and calcium carbonate on yield, vitamin C content, and salt concentration in the medium of stalk celery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different rates of potassium: 0.4; 0.8; 1.2; 1.6 g K ?dm -3 , and calcium carbonate: 5 g and 15 g CaCO 3 ?dm -3 , on stalk celery yield and vitamin C content as well as on salt concentration in the medium was analysed in a greenhouse experiment. Stalk celery weight and vitamin C content were found to be reduced after the application of the potassium rate higher than 1.2 g K ?dm -3 . The study found that the salt concentration in the medium increased with an increase in the rate of potassium and that there was no effect of the increased rate of calcium carbonate on total salt concentration in the medium of stalk celery. The different rates of calcium carbonate affected the uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium by stalk celery.

Karolina Pitura; Zenia Micha?oj?; Katarzyna Dzida; Zbigniew Jarosz

2013-01-01

337

A new salt resistant stabilizing agent for a water based mud  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results are cited of a study to process a water based drilling mud with SPU(II) and SPU(II)HPAN reagents. It is established that the salt and heat resistance of the mud is substantially increased. The addition of a quite large volume of NaCl to muds processed by these reagents does not have a substantive effect on their rheological properties.

Xie, Z.; Huong, Y.; Li, Z.

1983-01-01

338

Properties of glasses with high water content. Progress report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Glasses with high water content were prepared by a hydrothermal process and various properties were measured. The following unique features have been revealed: (1) electrical conductivity decreases substantially at first with the addition of water and then increases with the further addition of water. The phenomenon is somewhat similar to the mixed alkali effect; (2) the glass with higher water content is radiation coloration resistant; (3) with the addition of water, glasses became tougher at room temperature, suggesting the occurrence of plastic deformation.

Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.

1981-01-01

339

Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

Brodersen, K.

1992-01-01

340

Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD) and adequate (50 percent SMD) levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.

F.C. Oad; Z. A. Abro; A. G. Siyal; N. L. Oad; A.A. Siyal

2002-01-01

342

Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2?, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C.

1986-01-01

343

Disposable contact lenses and bacterial adhesion. In vitro comparison between ionic/high-water-content and non-ionic/low-water-content lenses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An in vitro quantitative study of the adhesion of a Staphylococcus aureus strain to two types of disposable contact lenses has been carried out. The first type was an ionic/high-water-content (I-HWC) lens (42% Etafilcon A, 58% water) and the second was a non-ionic/low-water-content (Nl-LWC) lens (61.4% poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate), 38.6% water). Adhesion to the two lens types was evaluated both in basic conditions and after treatment with lysozyme. The results showed that I-HWC lenses are more prone to Staphylococcus aureus adhesion than NI-LWC lenses, both untreated (+15.4%) and treated with lysozyme (+20.5%). Lysozyme increased bacterial adhesion by 30.5% on the lenses with lower water content, and by 36.3% on those with higher water content.

Arciola CR; Maltarello MC; Cenni E; Pizzoferrato A

1995-06-01

344

Witoto ash salts from the Amazon.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: This article presents the results of an anthropological and ethnobotanical study of the vegetable salts used by the Witoto Indians of the Amazon. It thoroughly documents the species used, the processing of the salts, their chemical composition and their anthropological, nutritional and medicinal relevance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Salts from 57 plant species known to the Witoto were processed using the same materials and techniques employed by the Indians: burning plant material, lixiviating the ashes with water, and boiling down the brine to desiccate the salt. Chemical analyses of macroelements of 49 of the salts, and of microelements of 24, were conducted. Tests on the taste of the salts as perceived by the native persons were carried out. RESULTS: Average ratio ashes/raw material was 3.05% (from 0.71% to 10.14%); average ratio dry salt/ashes was 11% (from 1% to 37%). All the samples analyzed presented a high proportion of potassium (26.9-44.6%); contents of phosphorus, sodium, calcium and magnesium were less than 1%; contents of carbonate, chloride and sulfate varied greatly among the salts. Boron, molybdenum and vanadium were present in all or almost all the samples analyzed; copper, barium and strontium were also frequent; manganese, zinc and iron were less frequent. CONCLUSIONS: There is a correlation between the concentration of the three anions and the perceived taste of the salts, the "sweet" flavor of chloride being the preferred taste. Our research shows that the culinary function of these salts is secondary to their ritual, medicinal and cosmological meaning. The search for chloride is one of the reasons to produce and consume these salts; other reasons are also important: their alkaline pH, which liberates the alkaloid of the tobacco with which the salts are mixed; and their contents of microelements, which, although not discernible in taste, are inferred from symbolic associations of the species used.