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Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (?) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (?) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (? and ?) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced ? values (P 0.05). ? values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

2014-04-01

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Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpos [...] e, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

Agustina A., Scambato; Mariela, Echeverria; Pedro, Sansberro; Oscar A., Ruiz; Ana Bernardina, Menéndez.

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Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpose, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

Agustina A. Scambato

2010-01-01

4

Aerosol thermodynamics of potassium salts, double salts, and water content near the eutectic  

Science.gov (United States)

Water uptake by hygroscopic constituents of atmospheric particles has implications for climate and health. This article focuses on three topics related to calculating particle water uptake. First, an electrodynamic balance (EDB) is used to measure water activity for supersaturated binary KNO3 and KCl solutions. The EDB measurements for KNO3 confirm earlier predictions, while those for KCl confirm earlier measurements. Second, our earlier theory for the variation in mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) with temperature (T) is extended to double salt systems. The MDRH(T) equation for double salt systems reduces to the earlier equation under some conditions, and predictions for two systems are in reasonable agreement with solubility-based calculations. Finally, an approximate treatment of water uptake in the MDRH region (i.e., near the eutectic) is evaluated, and a new approach is developed that accounts for particle composition. The new approach represents predictions of a benchmark model well and eliminates most of the error associated with the earlier method. Although simple treatments of water uptake near the eutectic may introduce error into equilibrium calculations, their use can sometimes be justified based on inherent limitations of aerosol representations in chemistry-transport models. Results of this study can be used to improve calculations of water content in atmospheric aerosol models.

Kelly, James T.; Wexler, Anthony S.; Chan, Chak K.; Chan, Man N.

2008-05-01

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Relation of in situ resistivity to water content in salt rocks  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of water in salt-rock formations is of particular relevance to underground nuclear waste repositories. In the Asse salt-mine (Germany) a study into the relationship of in situ resistivity to water content has been made. Measurements were carried out in older rock-salt using an electrode array in boreholes, an electrode profile in a drift and small resistivity sensors in and around a drift seal. Further measurements were make on moist zones in a contact area of younger rock-salt and carnallitite and also in older rock-salt with anhydrite bands using electrode profiles in the drifts. The resistivities range from 102 ?m to 106 ?m. Corresponding probes have water contents from 0.01% to 1.3%. A definite relationship between resistivity and water content is revealed which can be described by Archie's law using a cementation factor m of 1.9. Porosities are between 0.08% and 1.4% and the saturations vary considerably. An explicitly influence of saturation on resistivity cannot be discovered using the present data. The results enable us to estimate the in situ water content and the order of the in situ porosity using resistivity surveys at different scales. This increases significantly the safety of a nuclear repository site

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NaCl stress-induced growth, water and ions contents changes on in vitro selection of salt tolerant and salt sensitive callus of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Callus cultures tolerant to NaCl were developed from eight wheat genotypes using in vitro selection techniques. The accumulation of inorganic (Na+, Cl-and K+ solutes, water content and relative fresh weight were determined in selected (tolerant and sensitive calli after a NaCl shock in order to evaluate their implication in salt tolerance of the selected lines. No growth reduction was observed in salt-tolerant calli compared to control while a significant (P<0.05 decrease about 46.54% was observed in salt sensitive ones when both were cultivated under NaCl stress. Water content is significantly (P<0.05 high in salt-sensitive calli than salt-tolerant ones. Selected calli accumulate less K+as compared with control. However, K+content of salt-tolerant calli is greater than that of salt-sensitive. Accumulation of Na+and Cl- were more important in salt-sensitive calli in comparison with salt-tolerant ones while K+content was lower in salt-sensitive than in salt-tolerant calli when both were exposed to salt. The results indicated Na+and Cl-exclusion combined to less K+accumulation may play a key role in in vitro salt-tolerance in wheat calli lines obtained by in vitro selection and they could contribute mainly to counteract the negative effects of salt stress in wheat tolerant calli. Comparison of K+/Na+ ratio permitted to classify Sebou, Anouar and Tarek which are as most salt-tolerant wheat genotypes and on contrary, Marzak, Ourgh, Massa and Amjad as salt-sensitive wheat genotypes.K+/Na+ ratio can be use as a criterion of wheat genotypes classification.

Ayolié Koutoua 1,2 , El Yacoubi Houda 2 , Atmane Rochdi 2 , Kouakou Kouakou Laurent 1 , Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire 1*

2011-08-01

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Innovative nondestructive measurements of water activity and the content of salts in low-salt hake minces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Impedance spectroscopy (IS), low-field proton nuclear magnetic resonance (LF (1)H NMR), chloride titration, ion chromatography, and an ion selective electrode were used to investigate the physicochemical parameters and measure sodium and potassium contents in low-salt brines and fish. Salt solutions (0-3 w/w, %) and model products of minced hake with added NaCl (0.5-3.0 w/w, %), or a mixture of NaCl and KCl (50/50 w/w, %), were analyzed. Good correlation was observed between the sodium content determined by using the ion selective electrode method and ion chromatography (R(2) = 0.97). In both salt solutions and fish minces, the impedance spectroscopy measurements could detect the difference in salt contents in mince with salt contents down to 0.5%. The NMR transversal relaxation time T2 measurements clearly distinguished samples with 0, 0.5, and 1.0-3.0% salt, based on principal component analysis (PCA). Therefore, LF (1)H NMR seems to be a suitable technique for studies of low-salt products. PMID:24617416

Greiff, Kirsti; Fuentes, Ana; Aursand, Ida G; Erikson, Ulf; Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Barat, Jose M

2014-03-26

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The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

Stanis?aw Flasi?ski

1989-03-01

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Optimizing the salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents: Effects of lyophilization time and water content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of simple inorganic salts to aqueous enzyme solutions prior to lyophilization results in a dramatic activation of the dried powder in organic media relative to enzyme with no added salt. Activation of both the serine protease subtilisin Carlsberg and lipase from Mucor javanicus resulting from lyophilization in the presence of KCl was highly sensitive to the lyophilization time and water content of the sample. Specifically, for a preparation containing 98% (w/w) KCl, 1% (w/w) phosphate buffer, and 1% (w/w) enzyme, varying the lyophilization time showed a direct correlation between water content and activity up to an optimum, beyond which the activity decreased with increasing lyophilization time. The catalytic efficiency in hexane varied as much as 13-fold for subtilisin Carlsberg and 11-fold for lipase depending on the lyophilization time. This dependence was apparently a consequence of including the salt, as a similar result was not observed for the enzyme freeze-dried without KCl. In the case of subtilisin Carlsberg, the salt-induced optimum value of k{sub cat}/K{sub m} for transesterification in hexane was over 20,000-fold higher than that for salt-free enzyme, a substantial improvement over the previously reported enhancement of 3750-fold. As was found previously for pure enzyme, the salt-activated enzyme exhibited greatest activity when lyophilized from a solution of pH equal to the pH for optimal activity in water. The active-site content of the lyophilized enzyme samples also depended upon lyophilization time and inclusion of salt, with opposite trends in this dependence observed for the solvents hexane and tetrahydrofuran. Finally, substrate selectivity experiments suggested that mechanism(s) other than selective partitioning of substrate into the enzyme-salt matrix are responsible for salt-induced activation of enzymes in organic solvents.

Ru, M.T.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Dordick, J.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-20

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Modification of cadaverine content by NO in salt-stressed maize.  

Science.gov (United States)

NO has an important role in the control of plant development, growth, and the response to abiotic stress. In our recent paper it was demonstrated that NO affected the salt-induced changes in free amino acid levels in maize. (1) Since polyamines are synthesized from lysine and arginine, it was supposed that their concentrations are also influenced by NO. Cadaverine levels were increased by a NO donor and decreased by an inhibitor of NO synthesis in salt-stressed maize. These findings indicate that NO participates in the mediation of the effect of salt on cadaverine content. The coordinated changes in the NO and cadaverine levels may be involved in regulating of the response to salt stress in maize. PMID:24398894

Simon-Sarkadi, Livia; Ludidi, Ndiko; Kocsy, Gábor

2014-01-01

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Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m{sup 3} and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository.

Pusch, R. [Geodevelopment AB, Lund (Sweden); Kasbohm, J. [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Geological Dep.

2002-02-01

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Impact of the heat and salt content in the Atlantic on the Western Mediterranean Deep Water masses formation  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mediterranean region is an unique semi-enclosed basin where deep water masses form in the Northwestern basin. Atlantic waters (AW) enters the Mediterranean basin through the strait of Gibraltar with a low salinity and relatively warm water. They are coming from the upper Atlantic ocean and compose the upper layer of water through the strait of Gibraltar. A newly state of the art region climate system model (RCSM) has been developed for the MED-CORDEX initiative and is composed of an atmospheric model: Aladin (50kms), of a Mediterranean sea model: NEMO-MED8 (10 kms) and river routine model: TRIP (50 kms). This RCSM is used to investigate the impact of warm and/or salty Atlantic water entering the Mediterranean sea and their impacts on the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) masses formation are examined. A control simulation performed over the period 1990-2008 uses interannual and realistic the near Atlantic water masses to force the Mediterranean sea model. This simulation reproduces correctly the Mediterranean heat and salt content as well as the WMDW mass formation and the associated convective events. In parallel, sensitivity simulations with a constant climatology for the heat and salt content in the near Atlantic are then performed to assess their respective contributions on the WMDW formation. We found that upper heat content anomalies are quickly damped through an increase in latent heat loss, whereas surface salt anomalies are propagating into the Mediterranean basin. The impact on the boyancy loss is very weak, but the stratification in the Northwestern basin is changed in the sensitivity simulation. Thus anomalies in the Atlantic water masses are thus able to influence the WMDW formation processes.

Dubois, C.; Sevault, F.; Somot, S.

2012-04-01

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Water properties in the super-salt-resistive gel probed by NMR and DSC.  

Science.gov (United States)

The so-called "super-salt-resistive gel", or poly(4-vinylphenol) (P4VPh) hydrogel, of different water contents ( H = 97-51%) was prepared by cross-linking with different amounts of ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether. 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to investigate the dynamic properties of water in the gel samples in terms of the spin-spin relaxation. The T2 values in those hydrogels were analyzed by assuming a two-component system, namely, T 2(long) and T2(short), and their fractions were obtained. In the higher water content region (75% < or = H < or = 97%), T2(long) for P4VPh gel was almost constant or even slightly increased with decreasing temperature. On the other hand, T2(long) for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) gel (80% < or = H < or = 96%) significantly decreased with decreasing temperature, showing a natural behavior for water mobility in common hydrogels. Water in P4VPh gels of lower water contents ( H = 70% and 51%) also showed intriguing behaviors: the T2 values are much larger than those of gels with higher water contents and decreased with decreasing temperature only in the lower temperature range (<10 degrees C). The fraction of T2(long) values of P4VPh gel showed another contrast to those of PVA gel; the latter decreased with decreasing water content (normal behavior), while in the former gel the highest fraction (ca. 60% at 20 degrees C) was observed for a sample with the lowest water content ( H = 51%). On the other hand, the results of DSC measurements for P4VPh gel were less specific than those of T2 and comparable to those of common hydrogels such as PVA; with decreasing water content, the total amounts of free water and freezable bound water per polymer mass (g/g) decreased, while the amount of nonfreezing water per polymer also decreased. PMID:18537280

Sakai, Yuko; Kuroki, Shigeki; Satoh, Mitsuru

2008-06-01

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Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

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Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

Hansen, Tina B.

2012-01-01

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The detection of chlorophyll content for salt stress of the wheat seedling by hyperspectral imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

An auto-development pushbroom imaging spectrometer (PIS) with wavelength range of 400-1000 nm was applied to measure the chlorophyll content of wheat seedling. It showed that according to images of spectral imaging for leaves of Chinese Spring (Salt-sensitive), Zhouyuan 9369(common and high-yield) and Changwu 134(salt-tolerant) wheat seedling under salt stress, growth of salt-sensitive Chinese Spring wheat seedling was inhibited and it was feasible to carry out qualitative analysis. Images could intuitively reflect morphological information of growth status of wheat seedling and could show spectral differences of different leaves and different locations of one leave. Also, it was feasible to identify green and yellow locations of leaf and to carry out qualitative analysis. The tested sites of spectrum and the chlorophyll content measured sites were on the same area of single leaf. After measuring the hyperspectral image of leaf, the mean reflectance spectra of each leaf was calculated Totally, 126 samples were collected, which were then divided into a calibration set and a prediction set. Partial least square regression (PLSR) method was used to build the calibration model. Results showed that the extracted hyperspectral spectra had high correlation with chlorophyll content. The correlation coefficient of the calibration model is R=0.8138, the standard error of prediction is SEP=4.75. The results indicated that hyperspectral imaging were suitable for the non-invasive detection of chlorophyll content of wheat seedling.

Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Dazhou; Wang, Cheng; Ma, Zhihong; Zhang, Dongyan; Chen, Kun; Wang, Jihua

2011-08-01

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Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is another reason why the inflow ceases after a few minutes. It is estimated that a higher injection pressure, i.e. 2-3 MPa, should yield more effective wetting but that an injection time exceeding a few minutes will not improve it. Injection of a very salt solution is expected to be particularly effective

18

Weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep is attributed to the influence of trace amounts of brine. Experiments carried out on dry dilated salt show more or less conventional dislocation creep behaviour, but brine-bearing samples show marked weakening at low strain rates. This is associated with dynamic recrystallization and a change of deformation mechanism to solution transfer creep. Because natural rock salt always contains some brine, these results are relevant to the long-term evolution of salt-based radioactive waste repositories and strategic storage caverns. (U.K.)

19

Control of sea-water intrusion by salt-water pumping: Coast of Oman  

Science.gov (United States)

A shallow alluvial coastal aquifer in the Batinah area of Oman, with sea-water intrusion that extends several kilometres inland, has been studied experimentally, analytically and numerically. The water table is proved to have a trough caused by intensive pumping from a fresh groundwater zone and evaporation from the saline phreatic surface. Resistivity traverses perpendicular to the shoreline indicated no fresh groundwater recharge into the sea. Using an analytical Dupuit-Forchheimer model, developed for the plain part of the catchment, explicit expressions for the water table, sharp interface location and stored volume of fresh water are obtained. It is shown that by the pumping of salt water from the intruded part of the aquifer, this intrusion can be mitigated. Different catchment sizes, intensities of fresh groundwater pumping, evaporation rates, water densities, sea level, incident fresh water level in the mountains and hydraulic conductivity are considered. SUTRA code is applied to a hypothetical case of a leaky aquifer with line sinks modeling fresh water withdrawal and evaporation. The numerical code also shows that pumping of saline water can pull the dispersion zone back to the shoreline.

Kacimov, A. R.; Sherif, M. M.; Perret, J. S.; Al-Mushikhi, A.

2009-05-01

20

Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There are few types of nuclear probes that measure the soil water content. The aim of this study is to develop a new nuclear probe, optimise its geometry using the code MCNP4C and calibrate it. This nuclear probe is constituted by a 60 keV gamma radiation source, a soil sample and a plastic scintillator. A beam of radiation coming from the source reaches the sample and is scattered by Compton effect. The scintillator then detects this scattered radiation. Its optimization is made using the MCNP4C adjusting the three parameters: distance between the source and the scintillator, dimensions of soil sample and source's energy. After choosing the optimized system, small amount of water is progressively added into the soil sample until its saturation, what permits correlate counts with water content. The results showed the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. (author)

 
 
 
 
21

Determination of water content of plant leaves by beta attenuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The method of determination of absolute water content of a plant leaf, based upon the measured relative intensities and the mass attenuation coefficient of ?-particles from 204T1 through the fresh and dry leaves of the plant, is described. Moisture content of plant leaves of Cotton, Sunflower, Mung and Spinach as estimated by this method agrees with the direct weighing measurements within ±4%. (Author)

22

Specific ion effects induced by mono-valent salts in like charged aggregates in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

While salt mediated association between similarly charged poly-electrolytes occurs in a broad range of biological and colloidal systems, the effects of mono-valent salts remains little known experimentally. In this communication we systematically study influences of assorted mono-valent salts on structures of and interactions in two dimensional ordered bundles of charged fibrils assembled in water using Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS). By quantitatively analyzing the scattering peak features, we discern two competing effects with opposite influences due to partitioning of salts in the aqueous complex. While electrostatic effects from salts residing between the fibrils suppress attraction between fibrils and expand the bundles, it is compensated by external osmotic pressure from peripheral salts in the aqueous media. The balance between the two effects varies for different salts and gives rise to ion-specific equilibrium behavior as well as structure of ordered bundles in salty water. The specific ions effects in like charged aggregates can be attributed to preferential distribution of ions inside or outside the bundles, correlated to the ranking of ions in Hofmeister series for macromolecules. Unlike conventional studies on Hofmeister effects by thermodynamic measurements relying on modeling for data interpretation, our study is based directly on structural analysis and is model-insensitive. PMID:24828119

Huang, Ningdong; Tao, Jiaojiao; Liu, Jun; Wei, Shenghui; Li, Liangbin; Wu, Ziyu

2014-06-28

23

Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered ? ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

24

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

25

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

26

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

27

[Determination of the sulfate ion content in antibiotic sulfate salts by a complexometric titration method].  

Science.gov (United States)

A possibility of assaying antibiotic sulfates, such as gentamicin, kanamycin, monomycin, neomycin, ristomycin, streptomycin, florimycin and polymyxin M sulfates for sulfate ions by titration with barium chloride in the presence of chlorphosphonaso-III, a metal indicator immediately in the salt solutions or after elimination of the cation by means of ion exchange (sulfocation exchange resins in H+-form) was tested. The procedure was shown to be adequate to the classical weight method. PMID:7469396

Kartseva, V D; Lokshin, G B; Libinson, G S; Kruzhkova, N G

1980-12-01

28

Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ? 0,92 and pH ? 4,4 or pH ? 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

Daskalov Hristo

2013-09-01

29

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-01-01

30

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-02-01

31

Electromotive Force Generation with Hydrogen Release by Salt Water Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By considering an electrolyte solution in motion in a duct under a transverse magnetic field, we notice that a so called Faraday voltage arises because of the Lorentz force acting on anions and cations in the fluid. When salt water is considered, hydrogen production takes place at one of the electrodes if an electric current, generated by Faraday voltage, flows in an external circuit. The maximum amount of hydrogen production rate is calculated by basic electrochemical concepts.

Roberto De Luca

2011-10-01

32

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.891.8 g per meal and 14.795.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n 109), and 2.891.2 g per meal and 14.496.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n 71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.892.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.394.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.893.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl

2010-01-01

33

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers  

Science.gov (United States)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-01

34

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of 206Pb/207Pb and 206Pb/208Pb showed a decrease towards the surface (206Pb/207Pb = 1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature (206Pb/207Pb = 1.172 ± 0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 ?g g-1 in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 ?g g-1 in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments (206Pb/207Pb = 1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83 ± 4% for S. fruticosa and 74 ± 8% for S. maritima)

35

Limited compensation by table salt for reduced salt within a meal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sixteen subjects, all of whom had said in a preliminary questionnaire that they normally added table salt to foods, were fed standard meals in the laboratory over 10 days. The meals were identical, except that on 5 days the meal had no added salt (containing 0.46 g sodium chloride) or had salt added to a level of 5.09 g. They were allowed free access to salt pots with the meals and used an average of 1.40 g table salt with the unsalted meal and 0.36 g with the salted meal, thus compensating for 22% of the difference in salt content of the meal. There was no difference in water consumption between the two types of meal. Nutrient intake from the rest of the diet did not differ between periods with high and low salt meals. The failure to compensate more fully for reduced salt in the foods can be attributed to the greater availability of table salt for perception; less table salt than salt incorporated in the foods is therefore required. Reduction of salt concentrations in purchased foods would be unlikely to be fully replaced by the consumer adding table salt. PMID:2596842

Shepherd, R; Farleigh, C A; Wharf, S G

1989-12-01

36

Determination of the salt content of corrosion products  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The salt content of corrosion products which form in a hermetically sealed anaerobic system in gas, gas condensate, geothermal wells, is determined. The corrosion products which are extracted from a hermetically sealed anaerobic system as a result of contact with air undergo chemical change. Analysis of the corrosion product compositions is not the actual one which take place in the system. Recommendations are given for determining the salt content of corrosion products without preliminary preservation. The partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide and the pH value of water are also considered.

Obukhova, G.P.; Kiril' chenko, N.Ye.; Kutovaya, A.A.

1982-01-01

37

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

Science.gov (United States)

Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

2010-01-01

38

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Sisse Fagt

2010-03-01

39

Hydrochlorothiazide-induced /sup 131/I excretion facilitated by salt and water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs.

Beyer, K.H. Jr.; Fehr, D.M.; Gelarden, R.T.; White, W.J.; Lang, C.M.; Vesell, E.S.

40

Hydrochlorothiazide-induced 131I excretion facilitated by salt and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

 
 
 
 
41

DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN INTERSTITIAL WATER OF FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS BY IE-HPLC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english An ionic exchange high resolution liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method for determination of cations and anions in interstitial water of sediments, affluent and effluent of dams is proposed in this paper. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, CO3(2-), NO3- and SO4(2-) were analyzing by [...] IE-HPLC method. Optimized analytical conditions were validated in terms of accuracy, recovery and detection limit. The method of flame spray atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used as an additional method for the determination of Ca and Mg. It must be indicated that cations may be analyzed by several analytical methods such as AAS, ICP, etc., but there are not enough methods to analyze anions; IE-HPLC methods are good alternative to determine these ions. The aim of this study was to determine ions in interstitial water in the affluent and effluent of the Chilean dams Cogotí, Corrales, La Paloma, Rapel and Recoleta in order to determine if the water is suitable for irrigation or human consumption and estimate the effect of dams on water quality. The results indicate that the highest concentrations observed were for the cations: Ca2+ (mean 43.5 mgL-1), Na+ (mean 16.4 mgL-1), Mg2+ (mean 12.6 mgL-1), and K+ (mean 2.3 mgL-1). The highest concentration of anions was found for CO3(2-) (mean 55.9 mgL-1); the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3- reached 59.3 mgL-1, 12.8 mgL-1 and 27.0 mgL-1, respectively. The results indicate that although the origin of soluble salts is lithogenic, the high concentrations of these salts found in some places indicate anthropogenic effect, either by direct or indirect discharges or by diffuse pollution. These high concentrations may be significant, considering that these waters are used mainly for irrigation, which would affect the quality of agricultural soils irrigated with this moderately saline water.

SYLVIA. V, COPAJA; VESNA, NÚÑEZ S; DAVID, VÉLIZ.

2366-23-01

42

Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium Carbonates and Oxides  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid alcohol was studied to enhance the sorption efficiency. Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X ? Ray Fluorescence, Inductive Coupled Plasma, Pour Point and Thermostatic Water Bath instruments. Determination of the amount of crude oil in water was done by extracting the crude oil in tricholorotrifluoroethane and measuring absorbance by FTIR spectrometer. @JASEM

Zayed, A M

2004-06-01

43

Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This final report contains the results of computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on Jockwer's experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of this work was to select a water transport model that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse salt mine. The main result is that an evaporation model with Knudsen type vapour transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non-evaporated zone showed the best agreement with experimental evidence. An extrapolatory calculation for a borehole in a high-level waste repository showed that the water vapour inflow during the time of convergence of the initial gap between canister and borehole will not exceed 200 g per meter

44

Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts  

Science.gov (United States)

Summary There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA) as electron donor and eosin Y (EY) as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON) reached 148 (H2/Co) in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene. PMID:25161850

Wang, Jing; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi-Jun; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tung, Chen-Ho

2014-01-01

45

Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA) as electron donor and eosin Y (EY) as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON) reached 148 (H2/Co) in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene. PMID:25161850

Wang, Jing; Feng, Ke; Zhang, Hui-Hui; Chen, Bin; Li, Zhi-Jun; Meng, Qing-Yuan; Zhang, Li-Ping; Tung, Chen-Ho; Wu, Li-Zhu

2014-01-01

46

Foaming, Water Absorption, Emulsification and Gelation Properties of Kersting`s Groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa and Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean Flours as Influenced by Neutral Salts and Their Concentrations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO3, NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4 and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH3COONa at 15.0% (w/v salt concentration in kesting`s groundnut while lowest was NaNO2 at 0.5% (w/v in bambara groundnut flour. Foaming stability values after 8h were types of salt and salt concentrations dependent. The water absorption capacity decreased at various salt concentrations compared with value in distilled deionized water. The best salts for water absorption capacity were NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4 particularly at 0.5% (w/v salt concentration. The oil emulsion capacity depended mostly on salt concentration and the type of salt under consideration while oil emulsion stability is better at higher salt concentrations between 5.0-15% (w/v than lower salt concentrations for the two studied samples. Likewise the least gelation concentration of 12.0% (kersting`s groundnut flour and 14.0% (bambara groundnut flour in free salt solutions were improved to between 6.0-10% and 8.0-12.0%, respectively in the presence of the salts used.

M.O. Aremu

2008-01-01

47

Titanium for salt water service  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

48

Measurement of dissolved radon and radium content of water samples by track etch technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have developed a method to determine the dissolved radon and radium content of water samples using track etch type radon monitors. The device is an immersed, small volume radon monitor with CR-39 track etch detector. The monitor is sealed from the water by a thin radon permeable rubber foil. The dissolved radon and/or the radium content of water samples can be determined from two independent radon exposures by using the solutions of a non steady state differential equation which describes the temporal variation of radon content of water and by using an experimentally determined calibration coefficient. (author)

49

Isotope geochemistry of water in Gulf Coast Salt Domes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

displays the type of 18O enrichments characteristic of saline formation waters, where water exchanges isotopically with calcite and clay minerals. It is concluded that the nonmeteoric waters are formation waters which have become incorporated in the salt. From the observed 18O enrichment it is calculated that formation waters were incorporated during diapiric rise of the salt at a depth of 3--4 km and have been trapped within the salt for 10--13 m.y. Large volumes of salt within salt domes are not naturally penetrated by meteoric groundwaters but can contain limited amounts of trapped formation water

50

Analysis of Rn-222 Water Contents of the Environmental Waters by UsingLiquid Scintillation Counter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rn-222 water contents of drinking water, well water, river water andground water samples has been analyzed. This investigation has been carriedout for monitoring radioactivity level of environment water, besides it isuseful for controlling the possible internal radiation hazards to the peopleand the environment. The measurement of the soluble Rn-222 in the toluene hasbeen done after equilibrium state about 21 days using Packard TR- 2700/TRLiquid Scintillation Counter respectively. The detection limit of this methodis 1.35 Bq/L with 80.21 efficiency. From measurement and calculation, theRn-222 concentration in well water samples are various below the detectionlimit until 8.03 Bq/L, ground water below the detection limit until 4.11Bq/L, all of river water samples are below the detection limit and thedrinking water is 8.26 - 11.5 Bq/L. (author)

51

Simulation of detection of total content of N, P in water using PGNAA by MCNP code  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The total content of N, P is an important index of water quality detection. The content of a special element in a water sample could be determined by prompt ? rays neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) quickly. The process, ? rays were emitted while the water sample was irradiated by neutron beam, was simulated by a model set up MCNP code and a pulse neutron generator as neutron source. The total content of N, P of class ?-? water demanded by the surface water environment quality standard were used as basis. So that detection limit of N, P using PGNAA could be gained. If the total content of N, P in the water sample were small, the detection precision could be improved by increasing the neutron flux or concentrating the water sample. For contaminated water, the total content of N, P can be obtained quickly by PGNAA so that related departments could take measures to deal with polluted water in time when emergency of water pollution takes place. (authors)

52

Water content of continental clouds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During 1977-1984 the Nevzorov total water content meter was used to acquire a large body of data on total cloud water content. The cloud water content distribution curves F(W) are constructed on the basis of the compiled archive. It is shown that the curves are very stable, provided there are sufficient statistical observations. A parameterization of F(W) by log-normal distribution, whose parameters are a function of temperature, is suggested. A reduction in the detection threshold of the Nevzorov meter as compared with the Zaitsev device by an order of magnitude resulted in a noticeable decrease in the characteristic total water content values. 19 refs.

Mazin, I.P. (Tsentral' naia Aerologicheskaia Observatoriia, Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation))

1992-10-01

53

Neutronics study on hybrid reactor cooled by helium, water and molten salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is no serious magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problem when helium,water or molten salt of Flibe flows in high magnetic field. Thus helium, water and Flibe were proposed as candidate of coolant for fusion-fission hybrid reactor based on magnetic confinement. The effect on neutronics of hybrid reactor due to coolant was investigated. The analyses of neutron spectra and fuel breeding of blanket with different coolants were performed. Variations of tritium breeding ratio (TBR), blanket energy multiplication (M) and keff with operating time were also studied. MCNP code was used for neutron transport simulation. It is shown that spectra change greatly with different coolants. The blanket with helium exhibits very hard spectrum and good tritium breeding ability. And fission reactions are mainly from fast neutron. The blanket with water has soft spectrum and high energy multiplication factor. However, it needs to improve TBR. The blanket with Flibe has hard spectrum and less energy release. (authors)

54

Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 ?m diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars today via water uptake.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

55

Effects of Storage Temperature on Tyramine Production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in Water-Boiled Salted Ducks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tyramine production by Enterococcus faecalis R612Z1 in water-boiled salted ducks was evaluated during storage at different temperatures. The results showed that E. faecalis R612Z1 could produce tyramine in meat samples when the storage temperature was no less than 4°C. The E. faecalis R612Z1 counts of the meat samples reached 10(8) CFU/g on day 7 at 4°C and on day 4 at 10°C. However, the tyramine content of the meat samples stored at 10°C increased to 23.73 ?g/g (on day 10), which was greater than the level in the samples stored at 4°C (7.56 ?g/g). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR detection of the expression level of the tyrDC gene in E. faecalis R612Z1 in the meat samples revealed no significant changes at different storage temperatures. Thus, the changes in tyramine production of E. faecalis R612Z1 may be due to the different enzymatic activities at different storage temperatures. PMID:25285502

Liu, Fang; Du, Lihui; Wu, Haihong; Wang, Daoying; Zhu, Yongzhi; Geng, Zhiming; Zhang, Muhan; Xu, Weimin

2014-10-01

56

Ionic size and behavior of diclofenac salts in water and ethanol/water mixtures by conductivity at 25 degrees C.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the size of the diclofenac ion and the electrical behavior of diclofenac salts (DM; M = Li, Na, or K) in ethanol/water mixtures. The molar conductance of DM in aqueous solution was measured in a dilute concentration range of Fedors method and the apparent ionization constant (pKa) of sodium diclofenac in ethanol/water mixture. The Walden products of DM increased up to 20% (w/w) ethanol, but above this concentration of ethanol they decreased. Specific interactions between the ions and solvent are discussed. PMID:8308704

Maitani, Y; Kugo, M; Nakagaki, M; Nagai, T

1993-12-01

57

Direct arylation of N-heteroarenes with aryldiazonium salts by photoredox catalysis in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A highly effective visible light-promoted "radical-type" coupling of N-heteroarenes with aryldiazonium salts in water has been developed. The reaction proceeds at room temperature with [Ru(bpy)3 ]Cl2 ?6?H2 O as a photosensitizer and a commercial household light bulb as a light source. Pyridine and a variety of substituted pyridines are effective substrates under these reaction conditions, and only monosubstituted products are formed with different regioselectivities. Using aqueous formic acid as solvent, an array of xanthenes, thiazole, pyrazine, and pyridazine are compatible with this new arylation approach. The broad substrate scope, mild reaction conditions, and use of water as reaction solvent make this procedure a practical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of compounds containing aryl-heteroaryl motifs. PMID:24500947

Xue, Dong; Jia, Zhi-Hui; Zhao, Cong-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Jianliang

2014-03-01

58

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

59

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

2008-07-01

60

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

Vilma Mota da Silva

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by ther [...] mogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

Vilma Mota da, Silva; Luciana Almeida, Silva; Jailson B. de, Andrade; Márcia C. da Cunha, Veloso; Gislaine Vieira, Santos.

62

Salting-in and salting-out of water-soluble polymers in aqueous salt solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

To obtain further experimental evidence for the mechanisms of the salting effect produced by the addition of salting-out or sating-in inducing electrolytes to aqueous solutions of water-soluble polymers, systematic studies on the vapor-liquid equilibria and liquid-liquid equilibria of aqueous solutions of several polymers are performed in the presence of a large series of electrolytes. Polymers are polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 250 (PEGDME250), polyethylene glycol dimethyl ether 2000 (PEGDME2000), and polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), and the investigated electrolytes are KCl, NH(4)Cl, MgCl(2), (CH(3))(4)NCl, NaCl, NaNO(3), Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit (tri-sodium citrate). Aqueous solutions of PPG400 form aqueous two-phase systems with all the investigated salts; however, other investigated polymers form aqueous two-phase systems only with Na(2)CO(3), Na(2)SO(4), and Na(3)Cit. A relation was found between the salting-out or sating-in effects of electrolyte on the polymer aqueous solutions and the slopes of the constant water activity lines of ternary polymer-salt aqueous solutions, so that, in the case of the salting-out effect, the constant water activity lines had a concave slope, but in the case of the salting-in effects, the constant water activity lines had a convex slope. The effect of temperature, anion of electrolyte, cation of electrolyte, and type and molar mass of polymers were studied and the results interpreted in terms of the solute-water and solute-solute interactions. The salting-out effect results from the formation of ion (specially anion)-water hydration complexes, which, in turn, decreases hydration, and hence, the solubility of the polymer and the salting-in effect results from a direct binding of the cations to the ether oxygens of the polymers. PMID:22486327

Sadeghi, Rahmat; Jahani, Farahnaz

2012-05-01

63

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

64

Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

1975-01-01

65

Non-destructive evaluation of the water content of concretes by low energy gamma backscattering  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A method of estimating the water content of various concretes mixed with neutron absorbers like boron or rare earths is described. This makes use of the fact that a large buildup of low energy photons in the 20 - 100 keV range is observed in the backscattered spectrum from water when compared to conrete. A 4.36 mCi 137Cs (662 keV) source is used with a 1 mm thick NaI scintillator as the detector to measure the backscattered radiation in the energy range. Calibration curves for evaluating the water content in borated concretes, ordinary conretes of different thickness, and a mortar brick are reported. It has been possible to estimate the water content to within 0.25% (by weight) by this method. (orig.)

66

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

67

[Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam < loam < clay loam. Salt accumulations in Japan euonymus and Chinese pine were less than that in Blue grass. The temporal and spatial distributions of soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

68

Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining half cubes were cast and cured with salt water. The concrete cubes were cured for 7,14 and 28 days respectively. The result of the average compressive strength of concrete obtained using fresh water ranges from 27.12 - 39.12N/mm2 and using salt water ranges from 28.45 – 41.34N/mm2

Preeti Tiwari

2014-04-01

69

Effectiveness of highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt, Route 25, southeastern Massachusetts; description of study area, data collection programs, and methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Four test sites along a 7-mile section of Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts, each representing a specific highway-drainage system, were instrumented to determine the effectiveness of the drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt. One of the systems discharges highway runoff onsite through local drainpipes. The other systems use trunkline drainpipes through which runoff from highway surfaces, shoulders, and median strips is diverted and discharged into either a local stream or a coastal waterway. Route 25 was completed and opened to traffic in the summer of 1987. Road salt was first applied to the highway in the winter of 1987-88. The study area is on a thick outwash plain composed primarily of sand and gravel. Water-table depths range from 15 to 60 feet below land surface at the four test sites. Ground-water flow is in a general southerly direction, approximately perpendicular to the highway. Streamflow in the study area is controlled primarily by ground-water discharge. Background concentrations of dissolved chloride, sodium, and calcium-the primary constituents of road salt-are similar in ground water and surface water and range from 5 to 20, 5 to 10, and 1 to 5 milligrams per liter, respectively. Data-collection programs were developed for monitoring the application of road salt to the highway, the quantity of road-salt water entering the ground water, diverted through the highway-drainage systems, and entering a local stream. The Massachusetts Highway Department monitored road salt applied to the highway and reported these data to the U.S. Geological Survey. The U.S. Geological Survey designed and operated the ground-water, highway- drainage, and surface-water data-collection programs. A road-salt budget will be calculated for each test site so that the effectiveness of the different highway-drainage systems in preventing contamination of ground water by road salt can be determined.

Church, P. E.; Armstrong, D. S.; Granato, G. E.; Stone, V. J.; Smith, K. P.; Provencher, P. L.

1996-01-01

70

The uptake of zinc-65 by oats in relation to soil water content and root growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of water content of the topsoil on root growth and 65Zn absorption by oats were measured. Seminal roots of oats grew through a labelled uptake layer that had been initially wetted to various water contents. The uptake layer was separated from adjacent layers of wet sand or soil by a thin layer of wax. When the uptake layer was wetted initially and allowed to dry during the uptake period, water content affected root growth and 65Zn uptake similarly. 65Zn absorption by unbranched seminal roots decreased lineraly as soil water suction increased from 0.3 to 5 bar. Nevertheless significant amounts of 65Zn were absorbed (40% of that from wet soil) even when the soil water suction exceeded 15 bar, with negligible concomitant uptake of water. Provided the roots had access to water in a subjacent layer, rates of 65Zn absorption from dry soil increased with the age of plants. The exudation of mucilage from the root was enhanced locally where the soil was dry. The mucilage may facilitate the transfer of zinc to the root in dry soil. (author)

71

Probing the State of Water on the Surface of Pharmaceutical Salts by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

•The results with both trifluoperazine di-HCl and clonidine HCl provide strong evidence for dissociative adsorption of water on organic hydrochloride salts. •This strongly bound water may act as nuclei for further moisture uptake and cause stability problems for moisture-labile salts. •Future work will investigate: • Role of surface chemistry and defect density of various faces of clonidine HCl single crystals on the extent of dissociation • Comparison between clonidine HCl, clonidi...

Guerrieri, Pete; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Taylor, Lynne S.

2008-01-01

72

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchasedted with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

73

METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard).The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard) measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standar...

Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib; Afrose Afrina; Salahuddin Mohammad Khan; Masud S.M.; Anisuzzaman Sharif Md.

2012-01-01

74

Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

2005-11-01

75

Water content of aged aerosol  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The composition and physical properties of aged atmospheric aerosol were characterized at a remote sampling site on the northern coast of Crete, Greece during the Finokalia Aerosol Measurement Experiment in May 2008 (FAME-2008. A reduced Dry-Ambient Aerosol Size Spectrometer (DAASS was deployed to measure the aerosol water content and volumetric growth factor of fine particulate matter. The particles remained wet even at relative humidity (RH as low as 20%. The aerosol was acidic during most of the measurement campaign, which likely contributed to the water uptake at low RH. The water content observations were compared to the thermodynamic model E-AIM, neglecting any contribution of the organics to aerosol water content. There was good agreement between the water measurements and the model predictions. Adding the small amount of water associated with the organic aerosol based on monoterpene water absorption did not change the quality of the agreement. These results strongly suggest that the water uptake by aged organic aerosol is relatively small (a few percent of the total water for the conditions during FAME-08 and generally consistent with what has been observed in laboratory experiments. The water concentration measured by a Q-AMS was well correlated with the DAASS measurements and in good agreement with the predicted values for the RH of the Q-AMS inlet. This suggests that, at least for the conditions of the study, the Q-AMS can provide valuable information about the aerosol water concentrations if the sample is not dried.

G. J. Engelhart

2011-02-01

76

Determination of water content by capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents some experience obtained by applying capillary gas chromatography coupled with thermal conductivity detection (GC/TCD) to the determination of water in substances for pharmaceutical use. This technique represents a useful, orthogonal tool complementary to water determination methods based on volumetric or coulometric titration. It can also represent an alternative technique when such titrations are not applicable. This article presents the preliminary results obtained in a number of case studies where a GC/TCD procedure was applied in comparison with pharmacopoeial methods to substances with different water contents. PMID:22225767

Lodi, A; Bellini, M S; Clavel, A; Pijnenburg, N

2011-11-01

77

Activity of water mixed with molten salts at 3170C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have determined the activity of water in extremely concentrated solutions of individual salts and common ion ternary mixtures in the system Na+-K+-OH--acetate-Cl--H2O at 3170C. The sodium salts of boric acid, phenol, propionic acid, benzoic acid, and toluenesulfonic acid were also studied. These solutions are relevant to water chemistry and corrosion control in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant. The data have been fitted by using the thermodynamic model of very concentrated salt solutions recently proposed by Pitzer and Simonson. The model is able to successfully represent the data in all cases, and allows salt activity coefficients to be calculated

78

Influence of the temperature of salt brine on salt uptake by Ragusano cheese.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of temperature (12, 15, 18, 21, and 24 degrees C) of saturated brine on salt uptake by 3.8-kg experimental blocks of Ragusano cheese during 24 d of brining was determined. Twenty-six 3.8-kg blocks were made on each of three different days. All blocks were labeled and weighed prior to brining. One block was sampled and analyzed prior to brine salting. Five blocks were placed into each of five different brine tanks at different temperatures. One block was removed from each brine tank after 1, 4, 8, 16, and 24 d of brining, weighed, sampled, and analyzed for salt and moisture content. The weight loss by blocks of cheese after 24 d of brining was higher, with increasing brine temperature, and represented the net effect of moisture loss and salt uptake. The total salt uptake and moisture loss increased with increasing brine temperature. Salt penetrates into cheese through the moisture phase within the pore structure of the cheese. Porosity of the cheese structure and viscosity of the water phase within the pores influenced the rate and extent of salt penetration during 24 d of brining. In a previous study, it was determined that salt uptake at 18 degrees C was faster in 18% brine than in saturated brine due to higher moisture and porosity of the exterior portion of the cheese. In the present study, moisture loss occurred from all cheeses at all temperatures and most of the loss was from the exterior portion of the block during the first 4 d of brining. This loss in moisture would be expected to decrease porosity of the exterior portion and act as a barrier to salt penetration. The moisture loss increased with increasing brine temperature. If this decrease in porosity was the only factor influencing salt uptake, then it would be expected that the cheeses at higher brine temperature would have had lower salt content. However, the opposite was true. Brine temperature must have also impacted the viscosity of the aqueous phase of the cheese. Cheese in lower temperature brine would be expected to have higher viscosity of the aqueous phase and slower salt uptake, even though the cheese at lower brine temperature should have had a more porous structure (favoring faster uptake) than cheese at higher brine temperature. Therefore, changing brine concentration has a greater impact on cheese porosity, while changing brine temperature has a larger impact on viscosity of the aqueous phase of the cheese within the pores in the cheese. PMID:14507016

Melilli, C; Barbano, D M; Licitra, G; Portelli, G; Di Rosa, G; Carpino, S

2003-09-01

79

Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3?, and NO2?) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

80

Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

Antonio Augusto Xavier

1939-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio / Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Kraw [...] kow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

Antonio Augusto, Xavier.

82

Water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles supported by using ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene: preparation and catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold nanoparticles (1 nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. PMID:24115377

Gao, Lei; Nishikata, Takashi; Kojima, Keisuke; Chikama, Katsumi; Nagashima, Hideo

2013-12-01

83

Soil Profile Water Content in Pepper Crop Production as Affected by Different Weed Infestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the soil water status and pepper water use efficiency under irrigated and rainfed conditions as affected by different weed infestation in a semiarid environment. The experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Southern Italy. Two water regimes were imposed to compare water competitive effects under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Weeds were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a pepper field, where a rainfed treatment was compared to a full irrigated one corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration. Leaf water potential, soil water content, water use efficiency, maximum Leaf Area Index, dry matter and pepper yield were measured. Results revealed that all parameters differed significantly due to irrigated and rainfed treatments. Weed infestation reduced the pepper yield and interaction between irrigation regime with weed interference was highly significant. In 2008 weed-free pepper yield of irrigated treatment was equal to 36.5 t ha-1, while it was 43.4 t ha-1 in 2009. Lower yield was obtained in rainfed weedy treatment in both years, 0.2 and 0.5 t ha-1, respectively. In semiarid environment, different weed population had a great impact on pepper growth and yield, both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. Results showed that a weed-free agrosystem, especially in a drought condition, is necessary to maximize production and water use efficiency.

S. Lovelli

2013-01-01

84

Advanced supercritical water and molten salt reactors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The super-critical water coolant enables a thermal efficiency about one-third higher than current light-water reactors, as well as simplification in the balance of plant. The balance of plant is considerably simplified because the coolant does not change phase in the reactor and is directly coupled to the energy conversion equipment. The reference system for SCWR (Super-Critical Water Reactor) is 1500 MWe with an operating pressure of 25 MPa, and a reactor outlet temperature of 500 C or more, possibly ranging up to 625 C. The fuel is uranium dioxide, MOX or possibly thorium dioxide. Passive safety features shall be incorporated similar to those of simplified boiling water reactors. Two design options - pressure vessel and pressure tube design - are considered for SCWR. In the MSR (Molten Salt Reactor) system, the fuel is dissolved in a fluoride salt liquid mixture also playing the role of primary coolant. For both systems, SCWR and MSR, extensive research work is being carried out, in view of the great promises if a successful development can be achieved. Indeed, both systems face big challenges due to the technical difficulties associated to the reactor system on the one hand, and to the fuel cycle, for what concerns the MSR. The international support exists and System Agreements are signed by three partners (Canada, Japan, EURATOM) for the SCWR (Project Arrangements are in preparation), whereas MSR is at an earlier status, with confirmed interest from France, EURATOM and Usa

85

Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest ...

Shokoofeh Hajihashemi; Khadijeh Kiarostami

2007-01-01

86

Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading.

Alonso Valde?s, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus Astiz, Miguel

2011-01-01

87

Determination of Deuterium Content of Deuterium Depleted Water by Gas Chromatography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An applicable deuterium analysis method of deuterium depleted water was experimentally studied by used H2 carrier and the chromatogram calumniation with 5A molecular sieve at natural temperature after decompounding the deuterium depleted water by magnesium at 500 degree C. Decompounding the water using the magnesium instead of uranium can avoid the radioactive danger and the isotope effect was smaller than zinc. Determination by chromatograph at natural temperature can overcome the operation complexity at liquid nitrogen and the difficulty of determining the emend factor of the H2, HD, D2. The results showed that standard curved using standard sample of super low heavy water can reversely extend to below the natural deuterium abundance, deuterium content of deuterium depleted water can be calculated. The relative standard deviation of the method<5%, recovery rate with added specimen with three addition level was 96.6%-99.9%, the combined relative uncertainty was 0.166. It can meet the need of quantitative analysis during the deuterium depleted water manufacturing. (authors)

88

Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

2013-11-01

89

Measuring the content by volume of deuterium in heavy water with carbon dioxide dissolved in it  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

From data on the density of solutions of CO2-D2O and experimental data on the solubility of CO2 in D2 in a CO-D2O system, the authors calculated the volume content of deuterium in heavy water saturated with carbon dioxide then compared it with the volume content of deuterium in heavy water alone at the same parameters. It is shown that the volume content of deuterium in heavy water with carbon dioxide dissolved in it is markedly lower. This reduction becomes more pronounced with an increase in pressure. At increased pressures, the volume content of deuterium is reduced, both for heavy water and for a saturated solution of carbon dioxide in heavy water

90

Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

J. Pytka

1995-09-01

91

Assessing water salinity along River Limón and Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel (Maracaibo, Venezuela) as affected by the balance of soluble salts in alluvium soils  

Science.gov (United States)

The saline degradation of soils that are irrigated with brackish water is worrisome increasing worldwide, and it may further affect the salinity of fresh water in those streams flowing across. The problem that is caused by an increasing concentration of salts that are more soluble than gypsum depends on the quality of irrigation water, climatic aridity, and drainage limitations. All these conditions meet in the alluvium soils of River Limón basin that are crossed by Caño San Miguel irrigation paleochannel. River Limón's regulation by closing Manuelote and Tulé artificial reservoirs has diminished the input of water and sediments from flooding events, which exerted dilutive effects in the past. In addition, the balance of soluble salts in these soils has also registered further net accumulation during those extremely dry years happened before 2006, because the great dilution contribution of ombrogenic dammed water coming from rain has not been enough to compensate salts concentration generated by water evapotranspiration in those irrigated soils of the middle basin, particularly in the absence of superficial runoff and deep drainage. Considering those semi-arid climate conditions prevailing in the area (annual precipitation = 710 mm; potential evapotransporation = 2361 mm), it resulted that water analyses in River Limón showed a ten-fold increased maximum annual salinity concentration (March) along the stream; that is, an electric conductivity (Ce) of 0.37 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at Puente Carrasquero pumping station, where water for crop irrigation is subtracted, turns to 34.60 dS•m-1 (at 25 °C) at its base level in Puerto Mara, where it discharges to Lake Maracaibo. In addition, the quality of irrigation water from Caño San Miguel, which aggregates to those coming from River Limón at the pumping station located in Carrasquero just before running through the alluvium of this water stream, resulted pretty irregular. In short, it spanned form C1 to C4 soil salinization risk classes depending on the sampling location and time of the year. In short, the farther away the sampling point from the initial pumping location, the higher the concentration of salts is measured; and these are even ten-fold higher in March, that is, after the end of the dry season, just before new rain dissolves the generated salt efflorescence on the surrounding soil (maximum Ce=9740 dS/m at 25 °C). In conclusion, a balance of salts should be attached to the balance of water required to compensate crop evapotranspiration aiming to achieve a sustainable use of the agrosystem. This salts balance is assessed in terms of the quantity of water that is required to drain soil so that productivity would be retained.

Rodriguez, Raquel; Moreno, Juan; Hermosilla, Daphne; Gascó, Antonio

2013-04-01

92

Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts  

Science.gov (United States)

The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

2004-01-01

93

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazán; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodríguez; L. A., Caicedo.

94

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazán; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodríguez; L. A., Caicedo.

2008-03-01

95

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D. Gil

2008-03-01

96

Independent estimation of attenuation and rain water content by passive and active multi-frequency sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Rain water content is an important parameter for the characterization of precipitating clouds, however its estimation might be significantly affected by unknowns on the drop size distribution and attenuation. The latest might be estimated for the rain layer by means of radar polarimetric methods. On the other hand, the passive microwave radiometer ADMIRARI is able to retrieve rain and cloud integrated water content as well as path integrated attenuation simultaneously at three frequencies (10.7, 21.0 and 36.5 GHz). Since last year the Jülich Research Center in Germany has became a test-bed for multi sensor observations, with a X-band polarimetric radar and the radiometer ADMIRARI as a main instrumental suit. This allows to have a synergistic observation of rain events at the radiometer's field of view. In this work, independent methods to estimate attenuation are validated and its corresponding uncertainties will be put into consideration. This study pave the way to develop an optimal estimation theory framework for a foresee passive and active retrieval approach. Its application on rain measurements collected at the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation field campaigns will also be presented.

Saavedra, Pablo; Simmer, Clemens

2014-05-01

97

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pr...

Gil, I. D.; Uyaza?n, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodri?guez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

2008-01-01

98

Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

2007-01-01

99

Numerical Simulation of Soil Water Content in the Unsaturated Zone Using Constraints Provided by Geophysical Measurements  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil moisture distribution and variation in the vadose zone is important for agricultural, engineering and contaminant studies. Conventional sampling techniques for estimating soil water moisture content are costly, time consuming, invasive, and typically recover information at a single point in space and time only. Geophysical techniques have the potential to provide dense and accurate information about subsurface soil moisture. However, these data still provide information about water content at the time of measurement only, and geophysical data acquisition is sometimes hindered by cultural or site conditions. For example, although both surface and crosshole GPR techniques have been successfully applied for providing soil moisture information over space and time, the penetration distance of the GPR signal is limited in soils having high electrical conductivity, sometimes inhibiting moisture profiling through the entire vadose zone. In this study, we investigate the potential of coupling geophysical measurements with numerical modeling to provide information about soil moisture variations in space and over time. Such an approach was undertaken to permit estimation of soil moisture throughout the root zone even under difficult GPR data acquisition conditions, and also to yield insight into the dynamics of soil water distribution, including both state variables and fluxes. In this study, surface and crosshole geophysical measurements provide initial and boundary soil moisture conditions to a numerical simulator (TOUGH2-EOS9) based on Richard­_s Equation. Simulations were run using information available from various geophysical techniques collected at a naturally heterogeneous agricultural field site, including surface GPR, crosshole GPR, neutron probe, and TDR measurements. Information about soil heterogeneity was obtained using borehole soil textural information, and meteorological water flux boundary conditions were obtained using rain gauges, sap flow meters and also from a nearby CIMIS weather station. Hydraulic conductivity, one of the most difficult field variables to measure, can be satisfactorily estimated using a stochastic inverse modeling approach. Comparison of soil moisture measurements (collected throughout a year at a field site near Napa, CA) with the various simulations suggested that the approach was able to capture the natural evolution of the vadose zone soil moisture profile at several locations throughout the heterogeneous site. These results illustrate that improvement in the understanding of water cycling and its interaction with ecosystems can be obtained by coupling hydrological theory and measurements available from geophysical and meteorological techniques.

Hou, Z.; Rubin, Y.; Hubbard, S. S.

2002-12-01

100

Isotope geochemistry of water in Gulf Coast salt domes  

Science.gov (United States)

Water found as active leaks and isolated pools in the Weeks Island, Jefferson Island, and Belle Isle salt mines of south Louisiana has ?18O values ranging from -4 to +11.5‰ and ?D values from -2.3 to -53‰. One sample from Weeks Island and one from Jefferson Island are isotopically similar to local surface waters and are clearly of meteoric origin. All other samples are too enriched in 18O to be meteoric waters. In the Weeks Island mine the isotopic data define a linear array given by ?D = 3.0?18O - 40.1. Active leaks define the positive end of this array. Isolated pools are interpreted as inactive leaks with initial ?18O and ?D values of +9.1±0.5‰ and -11‰±7‰, which have subsequently exchanged with water vapor in the mine air to produce the linear array of ? values. The water derived from active leaks in these three mines is too enriched in 18O and too depleted in D to be connate ocean water or evaporite connate water trapped in the salt. The isotopic composition of water derived from the dehydration of gypsum is probably dissimilar to that of the active leaks. It is unlikely that the water has originated from the dehydration of gypsum. It is also unlikely that isotopic exchange with anhydrite is responsible for the observed 18O enrichments. Nonmeteoric water from the active leaks displays the type of 18O enrichments characteristic of saline formation waters, where water exchanges isotopically with calcite and clay minerals. It is concluded that the nonmeteoric waters are formation waters which have become incorporated in the salt. From the observed 18O enrichment it is calculated that the formation waters were incorporated during diapiric rise of the salt at a depth of 3-4 km and have been trapped within the salt for 10-13 m.y. Large volumes of salt within salt domes are not naturally penetrated by meteoric groundwaters but can contain limited amounts of trapped formation water which will have to be contended with in any attempt to store radioactive wastes in salt domes.

Knauth, L. Paul; Kumar, M. B.; Martinez, J. D.

1980-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (sg cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

102

Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May

Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P

1999-01-01

103

Uptake of radioactive strontium by fishes in relation to the calcium content of the water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study attempts to compare experimental results obtained with pseudorasbora parava with regard to 85Sr uptake at various Ca concentrations of the water (4.20 and 50 mg/l Ca) and also to compare these results with natural conditions. The water was contaminated with 500 pCi/ml 85SrCl2 only at the onset of the experiments. Radiostrontium uptake is much higher with a very low calcium content of the water; maximum values are reached in about 10 days. - With low or optimum calcium contents of the water, the values are 3-5 times lower and are not reached until 30 days after radioactive contamination. The fish in this Danube water experiment took up somewhat less radioactivity than in an experiment with the same amounts of Ca and Mg in a control medium. The uptake of 85Sr in fish in dependence of the Ca content of the water varies according to the formula F.C = 2.505 x Casup(-0.909), with Ca given in Mg/l. (orig.)

104

Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug interventio000.

Hoad, C L [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Marciani, L [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Foley, S [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Totman, J J [Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Wright, J [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Bush, D [Division of GI Surgery, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Cox, E F [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Campbell, E [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Spiller, R C [Wolfson Digestive Diseases Centre, QMC, Nottingham University Hospitals, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Gowland, P A [Sir Peter Mansfield Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

2007-12-07

105

HIGH PERMEABILITY MEMBRANES FOR THE DEHYDRATION OF LOW WATER CONTENT ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Energy efficient dehydration of low water content ethanol is a challenge for the sustainable production of fuel-grade ethanol. Pervaporative membrane dehydration using a recently developed hydrophilic polymer membrane formulation consisting of a cross-linked mixture of poly(allyl...

106

Study of cladding hull fixation by low water content ceramic cements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations of the suitability using portland cement free ceramic cements for the fixation of cladding hulls were started with laboratory experiments. The material chosen exhibits the lowest water content by a sufficient compressive strength of the cured product. To produce void free waste forms (hulls + matrix) mixtures with a water content of 12 weight % are suitable. The investigations with radioactive laboratory samples have shown the practicability of the dehydration of Zry-ceramic samples at temperatures of 100 to 1500C. In this case, a maximum of 0.06% of the inital activity - mainly as HTO - will be released. The thermal release in argon carrier gas at different temperatures was in relative good agreement with measurements with hydraulic and naked KWO-hulls. The yearly release rates were found in the range of 10-5 to 10-6 Ci/Ci. year. The leaching of tritium-, actinides- and fission products at 200C and 900C with H20 and carnalit brine have shown no advantages of ceramic matrix compared with portland cement. The drying of the inactive waste form requires a dry air temperature of 2350C. The thermal decomposition of Na-acetate, which is contained in small amounts in the mixture, begins at 1750C. A calorimeter was developed for the determination of the power of nuclear heat sources in radioactive waste and tested in hot cells. Compared to KORIGEN-calculations the measured values are 20 to 30% lower. The experimental facility MEGA was designed to determine the activity of the volatile fission products and hydrogen concentration

107

Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since ?-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 0C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

108

Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD--water and salt revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

2014-07-01

109

Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

2010-06-01

110

Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.

Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Christensen, Tue

2007-01-01

111

Polyion-surfactant ion complex salts formed by a random anionic copolyacid at different molar ratios of cationic surfactant: phase behavior with water and n-alcohols.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of acid groups with different pK(a) values in the anionic copolymer poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid), P(SS-Ma), allowed the preparation of complex salts with a variable fraction of anionic groups neutralized by cationic surfactant in the copolymer via controlled titration with hexadecyltrimethylammonium hydroxide, C(16)TAOH. Two new complex salts were selected for detailed phase studies, C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma) and C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma), where both had 100% charged styrene sulfonate groups, but the fraction of charged carboxylate groups on the polyion was 50% or 100%, respectively. These complex salts thus contained both hydrophobic (styrene sulfonate) and hydrophilic (carboxylate) charged groups, and the ratio between the two could be altered by titration. These features were found to have consequences for the phase behavior in water and in ternary mixtures with water and n-alcohols for the two complex salts, which differed compared to complex salts containing homo- or copolyions with only carboxylate or styrene sulfonate charged groups. For both complex salts, binary mixtures with water produced, in the dilute region, two isotropic phases in equilibrium, the bottom (concentrated) one displaying increasing viscosity with increasing concentration. For the complex salt C(16)TA(2)P(SS-Ma), there was evidence of micellar growth to form anisometric aggregates at high concentrations. For the C(16)TA(3)P(SS-Ma) complex salt, this was not observed, and the isotropic phase was followed by a narrow region of cubic phase. In both cases, concentrations above ca. 60 wt % produced a hexagonal phase. For ternary mixtures with n-alcohols, the general trend was that a short-chain alcohol such as n-butanol acted as a cosolvent dissolving the aggregates, whereas with n-decanol, a cosurfactant effect was observed, inducing the formation of lamellar phases. Visual inspection (also between crossed polarizers), small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and diffusion nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used in these studies. PMID:22288901

Percebom, Ana Maria; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

2012-03-01

112

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

Villiers, Brian Lindsay

2002-01-01

113

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

Villiers, Brian Lindsay

2005-01-01

114

Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20?µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1?µg/L-300?µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2?) >?0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02?µg/L and 0.27?µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2694-2701. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25242239

Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

2014-12-01

115

[Salt and water loads and water-sodium metabolism in patients with hypertension].  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-seven subjects including 29 patients with essential hypertension (8 with labile and 21 with stable disease patterns) and 8 controls received salt and water loads. Sodium chloride was administered per os at a rate of 0.12-0.22 g bw, water at a rate of 20 ml bw. Before loads the measurements were taken of the total water content in the body and of the total metabolic sodium. Radiocardiography was employed to study the central hemodynamics. After sodium chloride load BP measurements were taken over 2 h, within the first 45 min every other 5 to 10 min. Sodium excretion with urine was measured hourly, whereas the changes in the central hemodynamics were evaluated every other 5 to 10 min. After water load BP measurements were taken for 1.5 h. Urine excretions were evaluated too. It was demonstrated that patients with labile and stable hypertension responded differently to salt and water loads. In the first case the increment of BP was similar to that seen in the controls, being measured by increases in the cardiac and stroke indices. In the second case BP rises were more prolonged and more significant than in the controls and occurred primarily at the expense of the high total peripheral resistance of the blood flow. There were two types of the response to salt load: the first one involved a rapid BP elevation (after 1 to 5 min) accompanied by the violent vegetative symptomatology and BP returning to normal after 20 to 30 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6523412

Kharchenko, V I; Liusov, V A; Rifau, M A; Evsikov, E M

1984-01-01

116

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of tudies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

117

Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K? content and K?/Na? ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

2013-06-19

118

Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

1997-04-01

119

Demulsification of bitumen emulsions using water soluble salts of polymers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process for recovering bitumen from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions is disclosed wherein water-soluble demulsifiers are used. These demulsifiers are water-soluble salts of polymers prepared by the reaction between certain polyoxyalkylene diamines with diepoxides. To resolve the bituminous petroleum emulsions, the process is carried out between 25/sup 0/ and 160/sup 0/C. wherein the demulsifier of the invention is contacted with the bituminous emulsion.

McCoy, D.R.; Cuscurida, M.; Speranza, G.P.

1983-08-02

120

Protein, casein, and micellar salts in milk: current content and historical perspectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The protein and fat content of Dutch bulk milk has been monitored since the 1950s and has increased considerably, by 11 and 20%, respectively, whereas milk yield has more than doubled. The change in protein and fat content of milk is advantageous for the dairy industry, as these are the 2 most economically valuable constituents of milk. Increases in protein and fat content of milk have allowed increases in the yield of various products such as cheese and butter. However, for cheese and other applications where casein micelles play a crucial role in structure and stability, it is not only casein content, but also the properties of the casein micelles that determine processability. Of particular importance herein is the salt partition in milk, but it is unknown whether increased protein content has affected the milk salts and their distribution between casein micelles and milk serum. It was, therefore, the objective of this research to determine the salt composition and protein content for individual cow milk and bulk milk over a period of 1 yr and to compare these data to results obtained during the 1930s, 1950s, and 1960s in the last century. Calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and phosphorus content were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and inorganic phosphate, citrate, chloride, and sulfate content by anion-exchange chromatography in bulk milk and milk ultracentrifugate. In addition, ionic calcium and ionic magnesium concentration were determined by the Donnan membrane technique. We concluded that historical increase in milk yield and protein content in milk have resulted in correlated changes in casein content and the micellar salt fraction of milk. In addition, the essential nutrients, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus in milk have increased the past 75yr; therefore, the nutritional value of milk has improved. PMID:23849643

Bijl, E; van Valenberg, H J F; Huppertz, T; van Hooijdonk, A C M

2013-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing wastewater residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by-products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 °C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hour. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These results indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities.

Franks, C.; Quach, A.; Birnie III, D.; Ela, W.; Saez, A.E.; Zelinski, B.; Smith, H.; Smith, G.

2004-01-01

122

Critical phenomena in water-salt systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental data on critical phenomena in aqua-salt systems, where water is defined as a more volatile component, and solid phases of the salts are stable to the point of supercritical temperatures, are generalized. The systematization of the basic types of full phase diagrams describing all phase state of substance over a wild range of temperatures and pressures is presented. Besides the analysis of experimental data on the binary and ternary systems, among which are CsCl, CsNO3, H3BO4, HgI, PbI, Na2B4O7, Na2WO4, UO2SO4, Li2SO4, KLiSO4, certain theoretical models used for describe of high temperature aqueous solutions of electrolytes are under consideration

123

PHASE SEPARATION AND SALTING OUT OF OCTYL PENTA (OXYETHYLENE GLYCOL) IN WATER AND HEAVY WATER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Partial miscibility and salting out is studied in the system octyl penta(oxyethylene glycol)/C8E5/-water/heavy water. The temperature induced phase separation is due to increased interactions between small spherical micelles. It is studied how the phase separation temperatures are shifted by adding salts (KCl, CsCl, NaF) and by subtituting D2O for H2O as solvent.

Weckstro?m, K.; Zulauf, M.

1984-01-01

124

Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P 0.30 m deeper (P atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

2008-01-01

125

Measurements of Iodine Contents in Some Iodized Salts (Consumer Level) in (Myanmar)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of iodine contents in iodized salt (consumer level) of six brands in Myanmar were measured by means of volumetric method (WHO recommended) and vibrational spectroscopic technique. The results optained from both methods were in good agreement within the statistical error

126

Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons) have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pitu [...] itary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V) injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

S.M., McCann; C.R., Franci; A.L.V., Favaretto; J., Gutkowska; J., Antunes-Rodrigues.

127

Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

McCann S.M.

1997-01-01

128

Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons) have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V) region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pitu [...] itary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V) injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

S.M., McCann; C.R., Franci; A.L.V., Favaretto; J., Gutkowska; J., Antunes-Rodrigues.

1997-04-01

129

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot salt stress corrosion.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on subsequent resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement and cracking was investigated. A Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppm H), duplex annealed (70 ppm H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppm H) and a low (9 ppm H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppm did not influence resistance to hot salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1972-01-01

130

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 and NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3-Ca(NO3)2 salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 and NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3-Ca(NO3)2 salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO3-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO3-NaNO3 salt mixture are about NO3:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005)

131

Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

2010-11-25

132

Modelling of The Salt Water Inflow Into The Baltic Sea  

Science.gov (United States)

The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed basin, with a large drainage area and a positive water balance. Because of the brackish water nature, vertical mixing between surface and deep water is prevented in large areas, leading to oxygen depletion. Salt water intrusions from the North Sea into the Baltic Sea flow through a series of distinct basins, having a strong influence on the Baltic Sea hydrography, and consequently on the oxygen regime of the deep water. In the absence of strong enough intrusions, oxygen is totally depleted from the bottom-near water and the nutrient sink/source behaviour of the sediments is affected. Thus, from the point of view of the marine environment of the Baltic Sea, the understanding and simulation of the salt water intrusions under various conditions is of importance. High resolution 3D hydrodynamic modelling can be used to study in detail the dynamics of this phenomenon. The Baltic Sea baroclinic model with horizontal resolution of two nautical miles and 40 vertical levels was used to simulate the inflow of January 1993. This inflow occurred after a stagnation period of 17 years and no major inflows have taken place since. Vertical convection process is included in the model in parametric form. The results show that the highly saline water flowing into the first of the Baltic Sea basins, the Arkona basin, generate eddies which decrease significantly the water exchange between this basin and the next basin, the Bornholm basin. Modelling results are in a good agreement with observations. In the model simulation, the behaviour of a theoretical non-reactive, fully soluble tracer was used to trackthe way of the North Sea waters entering Baltic Sea. Estimations and possible advection pattern of the volume of this water as well as its contents in different parts of the Baltic Sea are discussed.

Andrejev, Oleg; Perttila, Matti; Malkki, Pentti

133

Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water  

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Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients’ content at each time and the nutrients’ accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukey’s test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants’ macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plant’s shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

Cristiaini Kano

2013-09-01

134

The influence of aqueous content in small scale salt screening--improving hit rate for weakly basic, low solubility drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt screening and selection is a well established approach for improving the properties of drug candidates, including dissolution rate and bioavailability. Typically during early development only small amounts of compound are available for solid state profiling, including salt screening. In order to probe large areas of experimental space, high-throughput screening is utilized and is often designed in a way to search for suitable crystallization parameters within hundreds or even thousands of conditions. However, the hit rate in these types of screens can be very low. In order to allow for selection of a salt form early within the drug development process whilst using smaller amounts of compounds, a screening procedure taking into account the compounds properties and the driving forces for salt formation is described. Experiments were carried out on the model compounds clotrimazole, cinnarizine itraconazole and atropine. We found an increase in crystalline hit rate for water-insoluble drugs crystallized from solutions that included at least 10% aqueous content. Conversely it was observed that compounds with greater water solubility did not benefit from aqueous content in salt screening, instead organic solvents lead to more crystalline screening hits. Results from four model compounds show that the inclusion of an aqueous component to the salt reaction can enhance the chance of salt formation and significantly improve the crystalline hit rate for low water soluble drugs. PMID:20553863

Tarsa, Peter B; Towler, Christopher S; Woollam, Grahame; Berghausen, Jörg

2010-09-11

135

Mapping water content in the upper mantle  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in water (hydrogen) content in Earth's (upper) mantle can be inferred from geophysical observations if the relationship between water content and relevant physical properties is known and if high-resolution geophysical measurements are available. This paper reviews the current status of mineral physics understanding of the effects of water on elastic and non-elastic deformation of minerals such as olivine and its influence on seismologically measurable properties. Important effects of water on seismic wave propagation are through indirect effects due to hydrogen-related defects in nominally anhydrous minerals as opposed to the direct effects caused by the formation of hydrous minerals. Two cases of indirect effects are reviewed: (i) effects through the enhancement of anelasticity and (ii) effects through the modifications of lattice preferred orientation. The former causes enhanced attenuation (low Q) and low velocities by the increase of water content and the latter modifies the nature of seismic anisotropy. Experimental data are reviewed to formulate ways to infer water content from seismological data and analytical equations are derived that relate velocity and attenuation anomalies to anomalies in temperature and/or water content. The results are applied to infer the distribution of water in Earth's upper mantle using seismological observations. In subduction zones, the regions of high water content in the shallow upper mantle (200 km) are inferred to be localized to the mantle beneath current or recent volcanoes although wider distribution is hinted in the deeper portions (200 km). In the upper mantle beneath hot spot volcanoes such as Hawaii and Iceland, both seismic wave attenuation and anisotropy measurements suggest the presence of a column of material with a high water content, indicating that Hawaii and Iceland are not only "hot" spots but also "wet" spots.

Karato, Shun-ichiro

136

Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States. PMID:18351111

Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

2008-02-15

137

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

138

Detection of Plant Water Content with Needle-Type In-Situ Water Content Sensor  

Science.gov (United States)

A needle-type water content sensor with a polyethersulfone (PES) polymer membrane was developed for the low-invasive, direct in-situ measurement of plant water content (PWC) in prior work. In this paper we demonstrate a measurement of plant water stress that represents the demand for water of the plant and greatly affects its sweetness. We inserted the sensor into a stalk of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) and soil. The variation in both the plant and the soil water content were successfully detected, which revealed the delay between variation in the plant water stress and soil water content after irrigation. Such delay could only be detected by the proposed sensor that could directly measure the variation of PWC in situ and continuously. The experiments also showed the variation in the signals as a function of detection sites and suggested that the detection sites of plant water stress need to be considered when the sensor is applied to irrigation culture.

Katayanagi, Hitoshi; Miki, Norihisa

139

Dechlorination of chloroacetanilide herbicides by thiosulfate salts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Halogenated organic compounds (XOCs) are among the most widely used synthetic chemicals. Many XOCs are recalcitrant to natural degradation and have become prominent environmental contaminants. One group of such XOCs are the heavily used chloroacetanilide herbicides. We have found that chloroacetanilide herbicides are rapidly dechlorinated in water, sand, and soil by thiosulfate salts under ambient conditions. Structural and kinetics analysis suggests that the reaction occ...

Gan, Jianying; Wang, Qiquan; Yates, Scott R.; Koskinen, William C.; Jury, William A.

2002-01-01

140

Salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with water-miscible organic solvents for the determination of carbonyl compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method has been reported for the determination of carbonyl compounds involving reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and extraction of hydrazones with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when the phase separation occurs by addition of ammonium sulphate, a process called salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 360 nm. The procedure has been optimized with respect to solvent suitable for extraction, salt for phase separation between water and organic solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time. The method has been validated when a linear dynamic range was obtained between the amount of analyte and peak area of hydrazones in the range 7 microg-15 mg L(-1), the correlation coefficient over 0.9964-0.9991, and the limit of detection in the range 0.58-3.2 microg L(-1). Spiked water samples have been analyzed with adequate accuracy, and application of the method has been demonstrated in the analysis of benzaldehyde formed as oxidation product in pharmaceutical preparation where benzyl alcohol is used as preservative, and for a keto drug dexketoprofen. PMID:19836515

Gupta, Manju; Jain, Archana; Verma, Krishna K

2009-12-15

 
 
 
 
141

Nature of yeast cells immobilized by radiation polymerization. Activity dependence on the water content of polymer carriers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Higher activity of ethanol production due to higher density of yeast cells was observed in yeast cells immobilized with artificial polymer carriers of higher water content based on methoxypolyethyleneglycol methacrylate and 2-hydroxyethylacrylate. These polymer carriers were prepared by radiation-induced polymerization below 0 degrees C. Yeast cells were immobilized with these carriers by adsorption method during multiplication. Two possible reasons for higher activity were discussed. PMID:18576372

Fujimura, T; Kaetsu, I

1987-02-01

142

Comparison of soil thermal properties in cultivated fields determined using soil water content measured by two methods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Results of the measurements of water content in the topsoil layer (1-6 cm) in fields with various crops obtained by gravimetric and reflectometric (TDR) methods have been used for the calculations of soil volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity. Calculation values of individual soil thermal properties obtained in the two ways were then analysed by means of statistical and geostatistical methods and compared (correlation coefficients, regression equations, difference di...

Kossowski J.; Usowicz B.

1999-01-01

143

Salt water intrusion on Uznam Island - 'Wydrzany' water intake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aquifers of Uznam Island have high risk of saline water intrusion due to geographical and geological location. Hydrogeological and geophysical researchers were taken up in order to evaluate changes in intrusion of saline water into aquifer of Uznam Island. Water intake named 'Wydrzany' was built in south part of island in 1973. Since 1975 geophysical research has shown intrusion of salt water from reservoirs and bedrock due to withdrawn of water. In 1997 geoelectrical researches evaluated changes which have taken place since 1975 in saline water intrusion into aquifers of Uznam Island. The last research result showed that intrusion front moved 1100 m to the centre of island in comparison with situation in 1975. (author)

144

Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

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Full Text Available Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94 with a seasonal cycle of ~1–2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December–January-February, DJF. Studying the A-Train CALIPSO cirrus and MLS water vapor measurements, we find that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=?0.9 anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during DJF. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the high anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone. The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=?0.91 and our results support the hypothesis that the total water is roughly constant in the TTL at 100 hPa. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

T. Flury

2011-09-01

145

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 3: Organic compounds, water, and ionic constituents by consideration of short-, mid-, and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.3  

Science.gov (United States)

X-UNIFAC.3, a group contribution method for estimating activity coefficients of neutral and ionic components in liquid mixtures of organic compounds, inorganic salts, and water, is presented here. It is an extended UNIFAC method, in that traditional UNIFAC terms for short-range energetic interaction effects are extended to include ions as mixture components, and are combined with a Debye-Hückel long-range effect term and a second virial coefficient-type mid-range effect term. The method is formulated for application in modeling the formation of liquid aerosol particles consisting of general organic+inorganic salt+water solutions in which phase separation is likely to occur. Existing extended UNIFAC activity coefficient estimation methods can be problematic in modeling phase separation, since they require independent reference state corrections that may introduce significant errors. In X-UNIFAC.3, this problem is avoided by selecting appropriate reference states for all solution components, and imposing additional constraints on method parameters, when necessary, by inclusion of reference state correction terms within the activity coefficient expressions. Interaction parameters in the X-UNIFAC.3 equations are optimized for 12 different chemical groups (CH 3-, -CH 2-, -C|H-, -C||-, -OH, -COOH, H 2O, NH 4+, Na +, Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-) using available data for systems containing multi-functional oxygenated organic compounds and/or inorganic salts that are relevant to atmospheric aerosol applications. Estimations of water activities and mean ionic activity coefficients using X-UNIFAC.3 are compared with those of other extended UNIFAC methods. To demonstrate the use of X-UNIFAC.3 in predicting phase separation, the method is also applied to the butanoic acid+NaCl+water system, for which experimental liquid-liquid equilibrium data is available. The method performs well for aqueous salt solutions with salt concentrations within 30 mol kg -1 and for organic+inorganic salt+water solutions with salt concentrations less than or equal to 10 mol kg -1. Suggestions are proposed for improving the predictive capabilities of the method in future work.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Chang, Elsa I.; Pankow, James F.; Seinfeld, John H.

146

Simulation of Exterior Conditions in Permanently Closed Soil Chambers by Controlling Air Flow, Soil Water Content, and Temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile substances and gases resulting e.g. from degradation processes of chemicals in soils emit into the atmosphere and no chemical mass balance is complete without considering this path. Closed soil chambers allow the evaluation of this transfer to the atmosphere. This study deals with the influence of soil chambers with a glass plate cover on physical soil conditions in the chambers and the possibility to simulate the exterior conditions within the chambers. The water content immediately at the soil surface is an important factor for the microbial activity and the transfer of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere as well. It is monitored by specially designed water content sensors in 1 cm depth in the chamber and as control outside. Funnels with a cross section equal to the soil surface area of the chamber collect the rain water and channel it into the soil chamber. This results in soil water content in the chambers very similar to that outside. For the purpose of analysing 14CO2 and volatile 14C-compounds, air is permanently pumped through the chamber. In order to simulate natural conditions, the wind speed is measured 1 cm above the soil surface outside the chambers. A control circuit adjusts the air flow through the chamber to a value corresponding to the wind speed outside. Temperature measurements in 1 cm depth verify that there is no significant difference between the soil chamber and the control outsidethe control outside

147

Effect of Salting Duration on Lipid Oxidation and the Fatty Acid Content of Dry-Cured Lacon  

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Full Text Available We investigated the effects of salting duration (3, 4 or 5 days on lipid oxidation and the total fatty acid content of muscular fat and subcutaneous fat during the manufacturing of dry-cured lacon, a traditional meat product made in NW Spain from pork foreleg. Two batches of lacon were processed using each salting duration. In each batch, samples were analysed at seven different times throughout the manufacturing process. In each sample, the moisture and NaCl contents, and the peroxide value of the fat and the total fatty acid contents were determined in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat. Increasing the salting duration significantly increased lipid oxidation (as indicated by peroxide values, in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat and at all sampling times throughout the manufacturing process. At the end of the ripening stage, the average peroxide values were 7.69, 17.79 and 21.72 meq. of O2/kg of subcutaneous fat and 10.78, 24.96 and 26.48 meq. of O2/kg of muscular fat, in the batches salted for 3, 4 and 5 days, respectively. Salting duration significantly affected the fatty acid content, particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the linoleic acid within these. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lacon pieces salted for 3 days were significantly higher than those of pieces salted for 4 or 5 days, in both the muscular and subcutaneous fat.

Ruben Garrido

2013-11-01

148

Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

1982-04-01

149

Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model  

Science.gov (United States)

The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

1996-01-01

150

Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

2010-11-01

151

Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules

152

Molecular dynamics study of salt–solution interface: Solubility and surface charge of salt in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The NaCl salt–solution interface often serves as an example of an uncharged surface. However, recent laser-Doppler electrophoresis has shown some evidence that the NaCl crystal is positively charged in its saturated solution. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we have investigated the NaCl salt–solution interface system, and calculated the solubility of the salt using the direct method and free energy calculations, which are kinetic and thermodynamic approaches, respectively. The direct method calculation uses a salt–solution combined system. When the system is equilibrated, the concentration in the solution area is the solubility. In the free energy calculation, we separately calculate the chemical potential of NaCl in two systems, the solid and the solution, using thermodynamic integration with MD simulations. When the chemical potential of NaCl in the solution phase is equal to the chemical potential of the solid phase, the concentration of the solution system is the solubility. The advantage of using two different methods is that the computational methods can be mutually verified. We found that a relatively good estimate of the solubility of the system can be obtained through comparison of the two methods. Furthermore, we found using microsecond time-scale MD simulations that the positively charged NaCl surface was induced by a combination of a sodium-rich surface and the orientation of the interfacial water molecules.

Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Matsuoka, Toshifumi, E-mail: y-liang@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matsuoka@earth.kumst.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Environment and Resource System Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Sakka, Tetsuo [Department of Energy and Hydrocarbon Chemistry, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

2014-04-14

153

Determination of D2O contents of water at low levels by mass spectrometry: water-hydrogen isotope equilibration method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple analytical method for the determination of D2O concentration of water at low levels (below 10 mol%) is established. Hydrogen gas is brought into isotope equilibrium with samples of water in the presence of hydrophobic platinum catalyst. Isotope exchange equilibrium is attained within 30 min. Isotopic analysis of the equilibrated hydrogen gas is performed with mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviation is 1 ? 5 % for D2O concentration in the range 0.07 ? 10 mol%. Absolute determination of D2O is possible by making calibration with standard samples of known D2O concentration. (author)

154

Effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt content on partitioning equilibrium of hydrophilic VOC at air-sweat interface  

Science.gov (United States)

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) must initially be absorbed by sweat on the surface of skin for human VOC dermal exposure. The partitioning equilibrium at the air-sweat interface is given by p=Cg*/C, where pc is the partitioning coefficient, and Cg* is the gaseous concentration in equilibrium with the aqueous VOC concentration ( CL) at a constant water temperature ( Tw). A series of thermodynamic functions of Cg*(C,T) are presented, as well as the values of pc, and the heat of gaseous-liquid phase transfer (? Htr) for tested VOCs, including iso-propanol (IPA, CL=12-120 mg L -1) and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK, CL=10-80 mg L -1) to determine the effects of liquid VOC concentration and salt contents of sweat on pc of hydrophilic VOCs. Experimental data reveal that the pc values of IPA and MEK drop as the liquid VOC concentrations increasing from 10 to 120 mg L -1. However, sodium salt content in human sweat (sodium chloride and sodium lactate) induces the effect of salt, indicating the increase in pc. Notably, neither urea nor ammonia in human sweat increase pc. Artificial sweat, consisting of sodium chloride 0.47%, urea 0.05%, ammonia 0.004% and sodium lactate 0.6%, was used to evaluate the increase in the pc values of IPA and MEK. The liquid VOC concentration effect simultaneously develops together with the salt effect on the partition at the interface of air-sweat for hydrophilic VOC solutions. The pc values of IPA for artificial sweat decrease as much as 32.5% as CL increases from 12 to 120 mg L -1 at 300 K, and those of MEK drop by as much as 70.9% as CL increases from 10 to 80 mg L -1 at 300 K. This investigation provides a basis for elucidating the assessment of human dermal exposure to hydrophilic VOCs.

Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Chu, Fu-Sui; Su, Tzy-I.

155

Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium content in water samples by nuclear physical methods using XRFA and the MT-25 microtron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some of element contents in the samples have been determined by nuclear physical methods (XRFA, GAA and NAA). The possibility of determining Al, Si and Mg content in water samples has been studied. The detection limits of 0.03 mg/1 for Al, 0.3 mg/1 for Si and 0.1 mg/1 for Mg in water samples have been obtained. Monitoring of the aluminium and silicon content in water is important because the high concentration of aluminium or the low content of silicon in drinking water may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

156

The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, 1H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics

157

Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geochemical studies were conducted on bitumen and salts saturating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia. This location is noted for the discovery of remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses in 1907, and a nearly completely preserved rhinoceros carcass in 1929. The bitumen (oil and brines (chloride ions were preserving agents for the large Pleistocene mammals. The main mass of organic carbon hosted in the Pleistocene muds is related to bitumen originating from oil migrating from deep accumulations within the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. The highest analysed bitumen content is 9.26 wt%. The chloride ion content, originating from highly concentrated brines ascending from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds, vary from 0 to 4.66 wt% but this usually does not exceed 1 wt%. The natural pathways of underground fluids (oil, gas and water migration within the Quaternary sediments were disturbed by intensive ozokerite mining operations run between the last three decades of the 19th century and 1960. Therefore, the present preservation and conservation conditions of large, extinct mammals' remains can be different from those prevailing during the Pleistocene, when the mammals were buried. Taking into consideration the contents of the remaining preservatives: chloride and bitumen, the most favourable zone for fossils conservation and preservation is located close to boreholes Nos 22, 23, 28 and 36N, where the thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. Generally, the spatial distributions of bitumen and chloride ion contents within the Holocene sediments and salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds are very similar to those in the Pleistocene sediments.

Maciej J. KOTARBA

2009-01-01

158

Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

159

Ice melting and crystallization in binary water-salt systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paper contains the results of comparison of the published data on physical and chemical properties of the Periodic system I and II group metal chlorides and sulfates (radius of cation, heat of salt solution in water) and position of eutectics point in the appropriate salt-water binary systems. In addition to metal chlorides one investigated, as well, into HCl and NH4Cl aqueous systems. It is shown that there are rather strict relationships between physical and chemical properties of some salts, nature of phase diagrams of the appropriate aqueous-salt systems and peculiarities of ice crystallization and melting there

160

Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs+ ion

 
 
 
 
161

Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

2014-01-01

162

A model of brine migration and water transport in rock salt supporting a temperature gradient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for calculating the loss of water as vapor or as brine in a borehole containing nuclear waste has been developed. The method accounts for vapor transport of water by Knudsen and bulk diffusion in the open porosity of the salt and brine movement by inclusion migration in the salt crystals and by extrusion from the interconnected porosity. Aside from the temperature distribution, the parameters that have the most profound effect on the water loss are the salt permeability, the closure of interconnected porosity by thermal expansion or stress, and the fraction of the grain boundary porosity, whether originally in the salt or created by trapped intragranular inclusions, which is interconnected and provides a fluid pathway to the drillhole. Reasonable estimates of the parameters of the model produce water release predictions that are consistent with field tests in rock salt

163

Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

164

Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set-up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content is a main topic both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. The evaluation of gross alpha/beta and individual radionuclides concentrations usually requires specific sample treatments, purification and measuring techniques. In our institute a step by step procedure has been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water by a single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC). LSC was equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device and has been coupled to quick radiochemical procedures. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. A few becquerel per liter alpha and beta activity can be checked in 24 hours in more than one hundred samples. More sensitive gross alpha and beta measurement can be performed on water samples after preconcentration by evaporation under controlled conditions. This procedure allows the determination of the actual gross alpha and beta activity of most drinking waters. Total and isotopic uranium content is measured by selective extraction followed LSC. This procedure is less cumbersome than the traditional one (chemical separation followed by electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry) and allows evaluation of 234U/238U ratio. Then a quick check of depleted uranium contamination in a wide number of samples is also possible. 226Ra and 228Ra can be directly measured in a few mBq/l concentrations after specific concentration and purification steps. The procedure has proven to be quick and highly specific. Our emergency screening procedure has been adopted by all district laboratories of Lombardia Environmental Protection Agency to face both accidental and intentional drinking water contaminations. High sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium analytical procedures have been applied to the first extensive monitoring program of natural radioactivity in Lombardia drinking waters, in compliance with the most recent European Council Directives. Reduced equipment requirements and relative readiness of radiochemical procedures make LSC an attractive technique, which can be easily implemented in new laboratories. (author)

165

PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

Wisnu Cahyadi1

2004-04-01

166

Foaming, Water Absorption, Emulsification and Gelation Properties of Kersting`s Groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa) and Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean) Flours as Influenced by Neutral Salts and Their Concentrations  

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Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO3, NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4) and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH3COONa at 15.0% (w/v) salt concentration ...

Aremu, M. O.; Olaofe, O.; Akintayo, E. T.; Adeyeye, E. I.

2008-01-01

167

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

168

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L{sup ?1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

2013-08-15

169

Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of volunteers were subjected to intensive PE and fluid-salt supplements. For the simulation of the hypokinetic effect, both groups of subjects were kept under an average of 4000 steps/day. During the prehypokinetic period of 60 days and under the hypokinetic period of 364 days water consumed and eliminated in urine by the men, water content in blood, plasma volume, rate of glomerular filtration, renal blood flow, osmotic concentration of urine and blood were measured. Under HK, the rate of renal excretion of water increased considerably in both groups. The additional fluid and salt intake failed to normalize water balance adequately under HK and PE. It was concluded that negative water balance evidently resulted not from shortage of water in the diet but from the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of fluid under HK and a set of intensive PEs.

Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

170

Kinetic regularities of water oxidation by Ru(dipy)33+ complex in the presence of cobalt salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic of Ru(dipy)33+ reduction to Ru(dipy)32+ in the presence of cobalt hydroxocomplexes has been investigated. It is shown that oxidating agent (Ru(dipy)33+) in the system is consumed in two ways: 1) redox destruction of Ru(dipy)33+, accompanied by practically quantitative formation of Ru(dipy)32+, and deep oxidation of a small part of coordinated bipyridyl molecules up to CO2; 2) water oxidation with the formation of oxygen, cobalt hydroxocomplexks being the catalysts. It is shown that kinetic regularities of catalytic reaction are determined by the composition and ratio of different forms of cobalt hydroxocomplexes in sovution

171

Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

172

Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

173

Use of computed tomography to study raw ham properties and predict salt content and distribution during dry-cured ham production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Varying salt content in hams of equal brand is a major challenge for Norwegian dry-cured ham producers. This study was thus undertaken to test existing computed tomography (CT) calibration models for salt on entire hams, regarding predictability of salt content at different processing times including final ham and to study salt distribution during processing of dry-cured ham. Twenty-six hams were scanned by computed tomography (CT) 11 times during dry-curing for this purpose. However, previously established calibration models had to be adjusted as they overestimated salt in dry samples. Prediction of ultimate salt content was more accurate approaching the end of the dry-curing process (RMSEP=0.351-0.595% salt). Inclusion of remaining weight loss improved the prediction accuracy in un-dried samples by approximately 0.1% NaCl. The prediction errors were sufficiently low to be of practical interest. PMID:22154569

Håseth, Torunn T; Sørheim, Oddvin; Høy, Martin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

2012-03-01

174

Endocrine control of salt and water excretion: the role of vasopressin in DOCA-salt hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arginine-vasopressin (AVP), the antidiuretic hormone, not only regulates water balance but may also exert direct and indirect effects on blood pressure by influencing systemic vascular resistance and body fluid volumes. Recently, specific competitive antagonists of AVP at its vascular and tubular receptors have been described. We used d(CH2)5Tyr(Me) AVP, a vascular (V1) antagonist, and d(CH2)5-D-Tyr(Et) VAVP, a vascular and tubular (V1V2) antagonist, for studies on the role of AVP in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. The antagonists were infused intravenously via osmotic minipumps in unilaterally nephrectomized rats for 6 weeks after the beginning of the DOCA-salt treatment. At the end of the experiment, blood pressure was 15 mm Hg lower in the rats receiving the V1 antagonist than in those in which the vehicle was infused. In the rats receiving the V1V2 antagonist, blood pressure was reduced by 38 mm Hg. However, these rats were in poor general condition and gained no body weight. Their plasma sodium concentration was markedly increased throughout the duration of the experiment. These results suggest that AVP contributes to the development of DOCA-salt hypertension not only through its vascular but also through its renal tubular effects. Thus AVP may act as an impormediator of volume changes associated with alterations in sodium intake or excretion and thereby affect blood pressure. PMID:6204139

Hofbauer, K G; Mah, S C; Baum, H P; Hänni, H; Wood, J M; Kraetz, J

1984-01-01

175

Isotopic study of water origin in salt mines in Poland  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The most important results of isotopic analyses carried out so far in salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia, Klodawa, Wapno and Inowroclaw are presented. Discussion of these results for individual leakages proofs that isotopic methods are fully useful in determining of the origin of water appearing in salt mines. (author)

176

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

177

Hygienic importance of increased barium content in some fresh waters.  

Science.gov (United States)

In surface waters of the mining and processing areas of uranium ore there is an increased content of free and bound barium ions due to the use of barium salts for the treatment of waste and mine waters containing radium. In model experiments with the algae Ankistrodesmus falcatus, Chlorella kessleri and Scenedesmus obliquus, we studied the effect of Ba2+ on the accumulation of 226Ra. It was found that the accumulation of radium by algae is negatively influenced with barium concentrations higher than 1 mg.l-1. The accumulation of barium of organisms of primary production was studied using 133BaCl2. At a barium content in the medium of 4.0, 0.46 and 0.04 mu. l-1, the algae accumulated 30-60% of the added amount of barium during an exposure of 15 days. Biochemical analyses showed that barium is bound to the cellular membrane and to other components of the algal cell that cannot be extracted with water or alcohol. PMID:7462608

Havlík, B; Hanusová, J; Rálková, J

1980-01-01

178

Absolute determination of deuterium content of heavy water standards by distillation and mass spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An absolute method for heavy water standardization is described which is based on linear extrapolation to 100% D2O. The method uses a reflux column attached to a boiler containing the sample to be standardized. With the column operating at equilibrium under total reflux, samples from both the top and bottom of the column are converted to hydrogen and mass analyzed by use of an arbitrary D2O scale. To minimize mass spectrometer errors, the difference between top and bottom HD/total ion current is measured at the sample concentration and at several other slightly higher HD concentrations. The difference values vary linearly with the HDO concentration in the boiler. The linear relationship is extrapolated to zero HD difference as would be observed if 100% D2O were used. The extrapolated value on the arbitrary D2O scale is compared with 100% and any discrepancy represents an adjustment required to establish an absolute scale. The method has been tested at both the D2O and H2O ends of the range and has shown that the accuracy of the method is within the precision of 0.0006 mass % D2O. 8 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

179

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar  

Science.gov (United States)

Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with <10 ppm water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

2016-01-01

180

Amplification of salt-induced polymer diffusiophoresis by increasing salting-out strength.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of salting-out strength on (1) polymer diffusiophoresis from high to low salt concentration, and (2) salt osmotic diffusion from high to low polymer concentration was investigated. These two cross-diffusion phenomena were experimentally characterized by Rayleigh interferometry at 25 °C. Specifically, we report ternary diffusion coefficients for polyethylene glycol (molecular weight, 20 kg·mol(-1)) in aqueous solutions of several salts (NaCl, KCl, NH4Cl, CaCl2, and Na2SO4) as a function of salt concentration at low polymer concentration (0.5% w/w). We also measured polymer diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering in order to discuss the interpretation of these transport coefficients in the presence of cross-diffusion effects. Our cross-diffusion results, primarily those on salt osmotic diffusion, were utilized to extract Nw, the number of water molecules in thermodynamic excess around a macromolecule. This preferential-hydration parameter characterizes the salting-out strength of the employed salt. For chloride salts, changing cation has a small effect on Nw. However, replacing NaCl with Na2SO4 (i.e., changing anion) leads to a 3-fold increase in Nw, in agreement with cation and anion Hofmeister series. Theoretical arguments show that polymer diffusiophoresis is directly proportional to the difference Nw - nw, where nw is the number of water molecules transported by the migrating macromolecule. Interestingly, the experimental ratio, nw/Nw, was found to be approximately the same for all investigated salts. Thus, the magnitude of polymer diffusiophoresis is also proportional to salting-out strength as described by Nw. A basic hydrodynamic model was examined in order to gain physical insight on the role of nw in particle diffusiophoresis and explain the observed invariance of nw/Nw. Finally, we consider a steady-state diffusion problem to show that concentration gradients of strong salting-out agents such as Na2SO4 can produce large amplifications and depletions of macromolecule concentration. These effects may be exploited in self-assembly and adsorption processes. PMID:25245596

McAfee, Michele S; Zhang, Huixiang; Annunziata, Onofrio

2014-10-21

 
 
 
 
181

Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2  

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Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2 on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl–, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

Youcef Daoud

2006-09-01

182

Estimating total body water content in suckling and lactating llamas (Lama glama) by isotope dilution  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Total body water (TBW) in 17 suckling and six lactating llamas was estimated from isotope dilution at three different post natum and lactation stages using both 18O and deuterium oxide (D2O). In total, 69 TBW measurements were undertaken. While TBW in lactating dams, expressed in kilogram, remained stable during the three measurement periods (91.8?±?15.0 kg), the body water fraction (TBW expressed in percent of body mass) increased slightly (P?=?0.042) from 62.9% to 65.8%. In contra...

Riek, Alexander; Gerken, Martina

2010-01-01

183

Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravi [...] es). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal CVD events (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal strokes that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. METHODS: Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. RESULTS: Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. CONCLUSION: Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

Y, Bertram; Krisela, Steyn; Edelweiss, Wentze-Viljoen; Stephen, Tollman; J, Hofman.

2012-09-01

184

Reducing the sodium content of high-salt foods: effect on cardiovascular disease in South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Average salt intake in South African (SA) adults, 8.1 g/day, is higher than the 4 - 6 g/day recommended by the World Health Organization. Much salt consumption arises from non-discretionary intake (the highest proportion from bread, with contributions from margarine, soup mixes and gravi [...] es). This contributes to an increasing burden of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). OBJECTIVES: To provide SA-specific information on the number of fatal CVD events (stroke, ischaemic heart disease and hypertensive heart disease) and non-fatal strokes that would be prevented each year following a reduction in the sodium content of bread, soup mix, seasoning and margarine. METHODS: Based on the potential sodium reduction in selected products, we calculated the expected change in population-level systolic blood pressure (SBP) and mortality due to CVD and stroke. RESULTS: Proposed reductions would decrease the average salt intake by 0.85 g/person/day. This would result in 7 400 fewer CVD deaths and 4 300 less non-fatal strokes per year compared with 2008. Cost savings of up to R300 million would also occur. CONCLUSION: Population-wide strategies have great potential to achieve public health gains as they do not rely on individual behaviour or a well-functioning health system. This is the first study to show the potential effect of a salt reduction policy on health in SA.

Y, Bertram; Krisela, Steyn; Edelweiss, Wentze-Viljoen; Stephen, Tollman; J, Hofman.

185

Determination of uranium contents in water, blood and toothpastes by the fission track method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of uranium in water, blood, urine and toothpaste samples with the fission track method was described. The stability of tracks and the feasibility of the method were discussed. The results were compared with those reported. The method has the advantages of high sensitivity, less sample needed, steadiness and economy. It is also applicable to analysis of plutonium and radon

186

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

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Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA) + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) + salts (NaCl and KCl) at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems....

Roy, Bhupesh C.; Awual, M. R.; Goto, M.

2007-01-01

187

Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metal fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements is purified and reused. For this purpose, a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A is under development. For obtaining the basic data of salt treatment process by using 'column type method' in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt through the columns was measured by using columns of 1 cm in inner diameter and 10 cm or 30 cm in length. The average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. The relationship between velocity and gas pressure was close to that of obtained by using water, whose kinematic viscosity is similar to that of molten LiCl-KCl salt. Additionally, the absorption behaviour of cesium, which was used as a representative of univalent FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the effluent molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. It was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and the value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent salt was confirmed. (author)

188

Water-vapor content in the atmosphere of arid zone  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation in water-vapor content W in the atmosphere of the arid zone is studied. The seasonal oscillations in W for the arid zone are characterized by changes in the moisture content from 2.3 to 3.6 times during the transition from winter to summer. The summer-fall period is characterized by a well-expressed midday minimum of moisture content. In winter the moisture content monotonically decreases during the day. In spring the water-vapor content has a wide maximum in midday. The water-vapor content in the atmosphere during dust haze increases up to two times.

Abdullaev, S. F.; Maslov, V. A.; Nazarov, B. I.; Salikhov, T. Kh.

2014-03-01

189

24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 ?M of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar. PMID:23443638

Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

2013-09-01

190

Movement of Salt and Nitrate in Shallow Groundwater in California's Central Valley - Large Scale Water, Salt, and Nitrate Balance Calculations  

Science.gov (United States)

A large-scale analysis of salt and nitrate was performed for the shallow groundwater aquifer of the entire California Central Valley floor (about 20,000 square miles). This analysis combined many different platforms of data in order to complete water and mass balance calculations. Groundwater and surface water quality test data were used in combination with mass loading from a watershed model (the Environmental Protection Agency's Watershed Analysis Risk Management Framework, or WARMF), as well as an integrated hydrologic model that simulates the use and movement of water coupled between the landscape, surface water, and groundwater (the U.S. Geological Survey's Central Valley Hydrologic Model, or CVHM). For this analysis, the Central Valley floor was divided into 22 zones, and the movement of shallow groundwater, surface water, salt, and nitrate was simulated in, out, and between the zones on a quarterly basis for a 20-year simulation period. In this analysis, shallow groundwater is defined by an estimate of the vertical distance water will travel from the water table within 20 years. Fluxes of mass from deep ambient groundwater and ambient surface water quality were estimated from measured concentration data. Quantities of mass were acquired for recharge (from WARMF output) or calculated using concentrations and other water budget components. Flow and volume components were extracted by post-processing CVHM output data. This resulted in a transient water, salt, and nitrate budget for each of the 22 zones. Simulated shallow groundwater concentrations were calculated to investigate water quality trends for the Central Valley. Four zones were identified as areas with the highest concentrations of salt (TDS) in the southwestern portion of the Central Valley; and six zones were identified as areas with the highest nitrate concentrations, mostly in the southeastern portion of the Valley. Additional analyses intended to shift from the large-scale balance calculations to a higher resolution analysis of the movement of water, salt, and nitrate was performed as a 'proof of concept' for two focus areas located in Stanislaus/Merced Counties and the Kings Subbasin, using MODPATH and MODPATH-OBS. Particle tracking was employed for both focus areas to observe the movement of water, salt, and nitrate from recharge zones to monitored wells, or on a cell-by-cell/layer-by-layer basis.

Dalgish, B. A.; Boyle, D.; Kretsinger Grabert, V. J.

2013-12-01

191

Determination of 3D Cloud Ice Water Contents by Combining Multiple Data Sources from Satellite, Ground Radar, and a Numerical Model  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims at determining the three-dimensional distribution of ice water content over a broad area near the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Southern Great Plains site, where cloud radar and meteorological observations have been routinely conducted. Together with wind fields from other measurements, the ice water content retrievals can be used to derive the cloud ice water advective tendency terms needed for single-column model simulations. In this study, a Bayesian retrieval algorithm has been developed that combines multiple data sources from satellite high-frequency microwave radiometry, ground cloud radar observations, and mesoscale numerical model analysis. The cloud radar observations allow the characteristics of vertical ice water content structures to be inferred. The numerical model data are used to locate the cloud height. The satellite data provide information on the integrated ice water path, its horizontal distribution over a broad area, and, to a lesser extent, the vertical structure of ice water content. The approach herein is to retrieve the three-dimensional cloud ice water content in a 10° × 10° area surrounding the cloud radar site by combining all the information contained in the above datasets through a Bayesian framework. Validation of the algorithm has been done by comparing the retrievals with measurements from two ground radars. The comparison shows that the mean ice water content profiles and the two-dimensional (height ice water content) probability density functions retrieved for 19 coincident cases agree fairly well with the validation data. However, the retrieved ice water contents generally lack detailed vertical structures because of the low sensitivity of satellite data to the vertical variation of cloud ice.

Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Liu, Guosheng

2006-11-01

192

Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

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Full Text Available Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r=0.94 and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r=?0.9. Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=?0.9 anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone. The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=?0.91 and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

T. Flury

2012-01-01

193

Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

2012-01-01

194

Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs, measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m to DOC (mg/ L."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.3±0.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.3±0.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

2009-08-01

195

Genetic analysis of physiological components of salt tolerance conferred by Solanum rootstocks. What is the rootstock doing for the scion?  

Science.gov (United States)

Grafting desirable crop varieties on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to increase crop salt tolerance. Here, a commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on two populations of recombinant inbred lines developed from a salt-sensitive genotype of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, as female parent, and two salt-tolerant lines, as male parents, from S. pimpinellifolium, the P population, and S. cheesmaniae, the C population, to identify an easy screening method for identifying rootstocks conferring salt tolerance in terms of fruit yield. Potential physiological components of salt tolerance were assessed in the scion: leaf biomass, [Na(+)], nutrition, water relations and xylem ABA concentration. A significant correlation between scion fruit yield and scion leaf fresh weight, water potential or the ABA concentration was found in the C population under salinity, but the only detected QTL did not support this relationship. The rootstocks of the P population clearly affected seven traits related to the sodium, phosphorous and copper concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, showing heritability estimates around 0.4 or higher. According to heritability estimates in the P population, up to five QTLs were detected per trait. QTLs contributing over 15% to the total variance were found for P and Cu concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, and the proportion of fresh root weight. Correlation and QTL analysis suggests that rootstock-mediated improvement of fruit yield in the P population under salinity is mainly explained by the rootstock's ability to minimise perturbations in scion water status. PMID:20180091

Asins, M J; Bolarín, M C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Estañ, M T; Martínez-Andújar, C; Albacete, A; Villalta, I; Bernet, G P; Dodd, Ian C; Carbonell, E A

2010-06-01

196

Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

lt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ? Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a ?g/kg basis, ? 5 × higher than those of mothers. ? Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ? Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

197

Determination of potassium iodide in table salt  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The samples of table salt bought in Belgrade supermarkets are analysed in this paper. The method of indirect iodometry was used in the process of the analysis, and received results were converted into the content of KI in mg/kg of salt. Beside the content of KI, the content of NaCl was also determined, counted to dry meter and water content, and received results were compared with the requests determined by Regulations of Table Salt Quality Meant for Human Diet and by manufacturers' declaration. Received results show that the volumetric method of indirect iodometry, applied in this analysis, is very reliable for determination of potassium iodine in table salt, because of its high precision and reproducibility of the analysis results. All received results show that the samples of table salt which can be bought in supermarkets are according to the demands given by Regulations. Only one sample (evaporated salt has significantly less mass of KI than it is determined by Regulations, but also by manufacturer's declaration. Measured humidity in the samples of table salt received from sea salt (sample 1 is higher than humidity in the samples received from rock salt as the result of magnesium presence in sea salt, which is hygroscopic material. Although samples 5 and 6 also originate from sea salt, their smaller humidity is the result of additional heating and salt processing. .

Rajkovi? Miloš B.

2009-01-01

198

Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

Bijelovi? Sanja

2010-01-01

199

Rapid estimates of relative water content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Relative water content may be accurately estimated using the ratio of tissue fresh weight to tissue turgid weight, termed here relative tissue weight. That relative water content and relative tissue weight are linearly related is demonstrated algebraically. The mean value of r(2) for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Shiraz) leaf tissue over eight separate sampling occasions was 0.993. Similarly high values were obtained for maize (Zea mays cv. Cornell M-3) (0.998) and apple (Malus sylvestris cv. Northern Spy) (0.997) using a range of leaf ages. The proposal by Downey and Miller (1971. Rapid measurements of relative turgidity in maize (Zea mays L.). New Phytol. 70: 555-560) that relative water content in maize may be estimated from water uptake was also investigated for grapevine leaves; this was found to be a less reliable estimate than that obtained with relative tissue weight. With either method, there is a need for calibration, although this could be achieved for relative tissue weight at least with only a few subsamples. PMID:16658686

Smart, R E

1974-02-01

200

High Salt Diets, Bone Strength and Mineral Content of Mature Femur After Skeletal Unloading  

Science.gov (United States)

It is known that high salt diets increase urinary calcium (Ca) loss, but it is not known whether this effect weakens bone during space flight. The Bone Hormone Lab has studied the effect of high salt diets on Ca balance and whole body Ca in a space flight model (2,8). Neither the strength nor mineral content of the femurs from these studies has been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of high salt diets (HiNa) and skeletal unloading on femoral bone strength and bone mineral content (BMC) in mature rats.

Liang, Michael T. C.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Iron salt poisoning complicated by gastric stenosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron salt poisoning has been reported in a 7-year-old child. Desferioxamine was used for 6 days; systemic toxicity remained moderate. The clinical course was marked by gastro-intestinal symptoms and gastric stricture. The treatment principles for iron salt poisoning are reviewed. PMID:1337774

Saviuc, P; Joannard, A; Mazingue, S D; Danel, V; Dyon, J F

1992-01-01

202

Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

2010-05-18

203

Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.  

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The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (? neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface further indicate that the surface charge and potential influence the surfactant diffusion and kinetic rates of adsorption at the silica-water interface. PMID:23947412

Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven

2013-08-29

204

Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr90, Cs137, and Pu239. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 1500C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

205

Ternary systems of rare earth salt-butylamine salt-water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase equilibrium in ternary systems, containing water, samarium and dysprosium chlorides, neodymium and gadolinium nitrates and hydrochlorides or nitrates of n-, s-, t-butylamines, were studied at 20(25) and 40(50) def C. The system of gadolinium nitrate-t-butylamine nitrate-water is referred to the systems with chemical interaction of salt components; a new solid phase of the composition 1:2 was detected. The rest systems are referred to the simple eutonic type, their solubility isotherms consist of two non-interlinking branches, charcterizing solubility lines of the initial salt components

206

Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metallic fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements should be purified and reused. For this purpose, we are developing a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A. The absorption behaviors of FP elements in molten LiCl-KCl salt have been studied by batch type absorption tests. However, salt treatment process by using 'Column type method', in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, is preferable in the practical process in the view points of high decontamination of FPs in a single step and effective treatment of the salt in shorter processing time. For obtaining the basic data of the column system such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. (1) The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt go through the columns was measured by using columns of 1cm in inner diameter and 10cm or 30cm in length. As shown, the average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. Additionally, the relationship between velocity and gas pressure was quite close to that of obtained by using water instead of molten salt, whose kinematic viscosities are quite similar. (2) The absorption behavior of cesium, which was used as a representative of FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the exhausted molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. As shown, it was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and its value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent molten salt was confirmed

207

Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet  

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Full Text Available In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase. The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoagland’s solution with different concentrations of Sodium chloride (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. Measurement of chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were taken at different time intervals of salt treatment (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The results showed statistically significant differences in traits for the salt treatment. A significant increase in Catalase activity was observed under all the salt concentrations while no significant activity of Ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed. The protein content and chlorophyll content decreased with increasing salt concentration. This result shows salt stress affects the photosynthesis rate by decreasing chlorophyll content. Catalase enzyme plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species generated due to salt stress in the plant cell.

Sonam Sneha

2014-01-01

208

ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

209

Surface tension measurements show that chaotropic salting-in denaturants are not just water-structure breakers.  

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Since the salting-in agents guanidinium chloride, urea, and lithium perchlorate increase the surface tension of water, the salting-in phenomenon does not reflect easier cavity formation in water. Therefore, these salting-in agents must be directly contributing to the solvation of a solute such as benzene in water, probably by a direct solvation interaction. The increased surface-tension effects do not overbalance these solvation effects since they are smaller than the large surface-tension in...

Breslow, R.; Guo, T.

1990-01-01

210

Effect of beating processing, as a means of reducing salt content in frankfurters: a physico-chemical and Raman spectroscopic study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Structural changes, L(?)-value, cooking yield changes and textural properties of pork frankfurters containing 1% or 2% salt, produced by the two methods were studied by Raman spectroscopy and texture profile analysis. Increasing salt content from 1% to 2% increased the L(?)-value, cooking yield and hardness, and decreased (pcooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters in both salt concentrations. It also resulted in an increase in ?-sheets, accompanied by a significant (pcooking yield and hardness of the frankfurters. PMID:24960638

Kang, Zhuang-Li; Wang, Peng; Xu, Xing-Lian; Zhu, Chao-Zhi; Li, Ke; Zhou, Guang-Hong

2014-10-01

211

Upper-tropospheric water contents as observed by the A-Train MLS, CALIPSO and CloudSat  

Science.gov (United States)

Partition between water vapor and cloud masses in the upper-troposphere has an important implication for cloud feedback processes in climate change. Uncertainties about ice microphysics in the upper troposphere remain to be one of the large error sources in cloud remote sensing. Due to lack of in-situ observations and reliable climatology about ice microphysics, poorly-constrained assumptions made in Aura MLS and CloudSat cloud ice retrievals can result in a factor of 2-3 differences in the retrieved cloud ice. To reduce the uncertainties, in this study we analyze the A-Train MLS, CALIPSO, and CloudSat data since May 2008 when these measurements begin to collocate to each other within +/- 10 km along the orbit plane. The collocated data provide an unprecedented opportunity to study cloud-induced radiance (Tcir), lidar backscatter (beta), and radar received power (Pr) measurements jointly on a point-by-point basis. By computing the integrated quantity of the active measurements for the MLS measurement volume, we are able to derive the Tcir-beta and Tcir-Pr relationships, as well as their relationships to ice water content (IWC) near the upper troposphere. Using MLS 240 and 640 GHz measurements, we obtain an empirical beta-IWC relation to derive IWC from CALIPSO 532nm backscatter. The derived lidar IWCs are consistent with CloudSat and insitu measurements in the upper troposphere, suggesting more water mass stored in the condensed phase than gas phase in the tropical upper-troposphere.

Wu, D. L.; Chae, J.; Lambert, A.; Read, W. G.

2009-12-01

212

Impact of water content on enzymatic modification of wheat bran  

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Enzymatic treatments of plant-based materials are generally conducted in excess water because reduction of water content usually decreases enzymatic conversion. Processing at high solids content would offer economical advantages, but in the area of enzymatic bioprocessing of plant materials for food applications, the role of water content has seldom been studied. Wheat bran is one of the most important by-products of the cereal processing industry and comprises the outer tissues of grain. Bra...

Santala, Outi

2014-01-01

213

Fat and salt contents affect the in-mouth temporal sodium release and saltiness perception of chicken sausages.  

Science.gov (United States)

In cooked meats, sodium chloride is involved in taste, texture and flavour release. So a reduction in the salt content may have an impact on overall perception and acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of composition on sodium release and saltiness intensity in chicken sausages. The rheological properties of the sausages differed according to composition. Temporal sodium release and temporal saltiness intensity were evaluated by four selected subjects when eating sausages. At each time point, the effect of the salt level in sausages on sodium release was positive and highly significant. The effect of lipids on sodium release was negative. Concerning perception, the amount of salt used had a positive effect on saltiness intensity, and lipids seemed to exert a masking effect. Generally, clear relationships between salt levels, sodium release and saltiness intensity were found but the masking effect of lipids on saltiness intensity probably also involved texture or fat perception mechanisms. PMID:23501259

Chabanet, C; Tarrega, A; Septier, C; Siret, F; Salles, C

2013-06-01

214

Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

2014-01-01

215

Investigation of indigenous water, salt and soil for solar ponds  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of salt-gradient solar ponds in nature is a strong indication that the successful exploitation of this phenomenon must account adequately for the influences of the local setting. Sun, weather and other general factors are treated elsewhere. This paper deals with water, salt, and soil. A general methodology for evaluating and, where feasible, adjusting the effects of these elements is under development. Eight essential solar pond characteristics have been identified, along with a variety of their dependencies upon properties of water, salt and soil. The comprehensive methodology, when fully developed, will include laboratory investigation in such diverse areas as brine physical chemistry, light transmission, water treatment, brine-soil interactions, sealants, and others. With the Salton Sea solar pond investigation as an example, some methods under development will be described.

Marsh, H. E.

216

Comparison of soil thermal properties in cultivated fields determined using soil water content measured by two methods  

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Full Text Available Results of the measurements of water content in the topsoil layer (1-6 cm in fields with various crops obtained by gravimetric and reflectometric (TDR methods have been used for the calculations of soil volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity. Calculation values of individual soil thermal properties obtained in the two ways were then analysed by means of statistical and geostatistical methods and compared (correlation coefficients, regression equations, difference distributions, mean square errors, and maximum relative errors were determined. Compatibility of values of thermal properties as determined on the basis of soil moisture measured by means of gravimetric and TDR methods, was generally speaking, satisfactory, even though not uniform in various soil moisture ranges; it is better with higher moisture levels, and worse when moisture levels were low. More accuracy in spatial distribution of thermal properties obtained on the basis of soil moisture as measured by gravimetric than by reflectometric method points to the lower sensitivity of the TDR method for the soil moisture measurements.

Kossowski J.

1999-09-01

217

Water Uptake and Salt-Distribution Patterns in Saline Soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is.an interaction between the pattern of water uptake from saline soils and the distribution of salts within the soil profile. To predict the response of a plant to the combined matric and osmotic components of the water potential, integrated over the entire root zone, it is necessary to solve the water-uptake and salt-leaching problems simultaneously. Data in the literature suggest that little saline water will be taken up so long as there is non-saline water at a higher potential within the root zone. The implications of this hypothesis with respect to salinity control in the field are discussed. Tentative conclusions concerning the re-use of saline water are also drawn. (author)

218

Avaliação da salinização de açudes no semi-árido brasileiro por ICP-AES Evaluation of the salt accumulation process in water resources in the Brazilian semi - arid area by ICP-- AES  

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Full Text Available The salt accumulation process in some reservoirs of regular and irregular use (from 10 to 50 years of constrution, located in the Southeast of Bahia State was evaluated. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry was used to evaluate the concentrations of Na, K, Ca and Mg in water samples from inside and upstream of the reservoirs. The results showed that for reservoirs of irregular use, the salt accumulation, indicated by the tracer Na, increases with the age of the reservoirs, however for the reservoirs of regular use the hydraulic retention time is the main parameter.

José Soares dos Santos

2000-08-01

219

Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths  

Science.gov (United States)

Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

2013-01-01

220

Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts  

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Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flakin...

Pinchin, S.; Martin, W.; Doehne, E.; Lopez-arce, P.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Effects of chemical blanching and salt content on quality of pickled chilli  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of blanching agents (citric acid and alum and the salt concentrations (10%, 15% and 20% (w/w on the quality of pickled chilli was studied. The results showed that both citric acid and alum hadno effect on pH, titratable acidity and moisture content of pickled chilli. However, the pickled chilli blanched in alum solution had lower counts of total microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria than those of pickled chilli blanched in citric acid solution indicating that alum had greater inhibitory effect on microbial growth than citric acid. On the other hand, the salt concentration affected the moisture content of pickled chilli.The moisture content of the pickled chilli increased as the salt concentration increased. In addition, the salt concentration also affected the microbial growth in pickled chilli. The data indicated that the growth oftotal microorganisms and lactic acid bacteria decreased as the salt concentration increased. This study showed that the combination of using alum solution as blanching agent and 20% salt exhibited greatest inhibitory effect on microbial growth.

Prachaiyo, P.

2007-03-01

222

Baric dependence of solubility of salts in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental material on baric dependence of solubility of salts (CdCl2xH2O; CdSO4xH2O; CdBi2x4H2O; CdCl2x2.5H2O; CdCl2x4H2O; CdBr2) in water up to 1000 MPa was collected and systematized. Four types of solubility polybars were marked out. Using available experimental data, as well as thermodynamic calculations baric factors of solubility (BFS) were determined for more than 40 water-salt systems at different pressures. It is shown, that BFS and its change with pressure have different signs in solutions of low concentrations and in water melts or highly concentrated solutions. BFS differences of salts were interpreted using the structural model of water solution composition. The sign of BFS change with pressure in different structural, concentration regions of solutions was predicted. Classification of salt BFS in water on molecular base is given

223

Effects of Salt Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Carbohydrates Content in Four Hullless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars  

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Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of salinity on some traits of barley, Four hullless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars (Namely, UH3, UHM7, EHM81-12 and CM67 were grown in research station of Islamic Azad University of Eghlid in Iran, under salt stress in two years (2006 and 2007. Four salinity treatments (1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 were used. The experimental design was a split plot which salt treatments were arranged as main plots and cultivars as subplots, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The measured parameters were yield and its components, mono, poly and disaccharides content in flag leaves. Results showed that grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain per ear, grain weight and plant height were reduced significantly by salt stress. In all treatments of salinity, CM67 cultivar produced the highest and UH3 cultivar produced the lowest grain and biological yield. In all cultivars, salinity stress decreased starch content but increased sucrose content. In high level of salinity, CM67 cultivar had the highest sucrose content (100.20 mg g-1 in comparison with other cultivars. Thus, this cultivar had the highest tolerance to salt stress than the others and is suitable for cultivation in salinity conditions.

A. Bagheri

2009-01-01

224

Deformation induced by dissolution of salts in porous media  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a theoretical work aiming at studying the behaviour of porous material containing salts. A constitutive model including creep is adopted in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the material. A formulation is proposed for the analysis of deformation induced by dissolution of salts due to water uptake. The formulation includes some aspects which are particular for a bituminized waste product but it can be applied to soils and rocks to investigate a similar response which is probable in low permeability geological materials. The proposed formulation coupled with the elasto-viscoplastic constitutive model may provide a powerful tool to model the swelling deformations induced by the uptake of water by the salts in the bituminized radioactive waste materials.

Mokni, Nadia; Olivella, Sebastià; Li, Xiangling; Smets, Steven; Valcke, Elie

225

Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure 180 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO2, followed by the determination of the 180 content of the CO27 and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H20 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO2 produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same 180 content as that of the original H20 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of [180] H20 was placed in a PCl5 reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl5 was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N2, and diluting with CHCl3. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated 180 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl5 introduces four oxygens from water into the H3P04, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H3P04 should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl5 hydrolysis. 2 tables

226

Salt-water coupling in leaky epithelia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theory of quasi-isotonic transport by cellular osmosis (the standing-gradient theory) has been challenged on the grounds that the osmotic permeabilities of the mucosal and interspace membranes are too low; if they were as high as the theory requires then the osmotic permeability of the whole epithelium would be 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than observed. This objection has basically been accepted for it is now claimed that these enormous permeabilities do exist, but are masked by unstirred-layer effects; I show that this is incorrect because unstirred-layer corrections are small and that the situation has not changed since 1975. The view that the route of fluid transport is junctional is replacing the cellular theory, and trans-junctional water flows seem to account for major fractions of the flow in various epithelia. I argue on grounds of general theory that these are unlikely to be osmotic flows because the junctional pores cannot satisfy both the osmotic and diffusive properties required of them, but the basic osmotic theory is also rather vague here. Non-osmotic theories, if junctional flow is accepted, must be either electro-kinetic or peristaltic. PMID:7005450

Hill, A

1980-10-31

227

Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring.

Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

2004-01-01

228

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2011-02-01

229

Lowering the radionuclide content in drinking water - procedures and devices  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Procedures and equipment for reducing the radionuclide content of drinking water are outlined. By way of example, the treatment is described of water with high radionuclide content, serving as the source for the village of Lounovice. (Z.S.) 3 tabs

230

[Effects of water-salt stresses on seedling growth and activities of antioxidative enzyme of Suaeda salsa in coastal wetlands of the Yellow River Delta].  

Science.gov (United States)

The halophyte Suaeda salsa is the pioneer plant and is used for the degraded coastal wetland in Yellow River Delta. The water-salt stress is the most important factor for ecological restoration to degraded coastal wetland. To understand the adaptive mechanism of Suaeda salsa to water-salt stresses, the induced effects of different groundwater table depths (0, -10, -20, -30 cm) and salt stress (0%, 1%, 2%, 3%) on seedlings of Suaeda salsa plant were characterized by the growth parameters of plant height, branch number and biomass of different organs and biological indices of leaf chlorophyll content, the activities of SOD, CAT, the leaf content of MDA and protein. The results showed the significantly (p seedlings from -30 cm to 0 cm of groundwater table depth, together with the decreased the number of branches, the biomass of leaf, shoot and root. The highest total biomass of single plant was (1.09 +/- 0.15) g under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress. However, the combination of 0 cm water table depth and 3% NaCl resulted in the biomass of (0.23 +/- 0.01) g, which was ca. 21% compared with the highest biomass. Similarly, the contents of leaf chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid were the highest under the condition of -30 cm water table depth and 0% salt stress and lowest under the condition of 0 cm water table depth combined with 3% NaCl. The activities of SOD, CAT were increased significantly (p plant could change its morphological characteristics, biomass allocation, and the activities of antioxidative enzymes to adapt severe environment. PMID:22619973

Guan, Bo; Yu, Jun-Bao; Lu, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xue-Hong

2011-08-01

231

PulsArt : IT, Salt and Water for Family Awareness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in considering the domestic household as a new and important domain for interaction design. In this paper we present pulsArt - a physical and digital installation designed for the home to represent different family members’ level of activity by water running down blocks of salt based on a real-time reading of the individual family member’s pulse. We describe how pulsArt explores novel ways of looking at the interaction between the physical, the social and the technological and how it acts as a context-aware artefact, amplifying the domestic setting to provide a new kind of awareness in the family. In doing so, we seek to develop new perspectives on designing interactive and context-aware systems for the home and what values they might support.

Fritsch, Jonas; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup

2005-01-01

232

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone + salts (NaCl and KCl at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. The salting-out effect was investigated by using inorganic salts NaCl or KCl at two concentrations of each salt within their solubility limits. The results obtained in these experiments showed that the salts NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents, as well as the distribution coefficients and separation factors for PA by changing their equilibrium composition and the selectivity of the solvents while the region of heterogeneity increases as compared to the same system of without salt. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-line data was ascertained by Othmer-Tobias plots as well as by Hand plots.

Bhupesh C. Roy

2007-01-01

233

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200 peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased with the water content, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 8 × 10-4 ?cm, for films deposited at 450? from a starting solution with a water content of 10 ml per 100 ml of solution; further increase in water content increased the corresponding resistivity. Optical transmittances of SnO2:F films were high, in the order of 75%, and the band gap values oscillated around 3.9 eV. SEM analysis showed uniform surface morphologies with different geometries depending on the deposition conditions. Composition analysis showed a stoichiometric compound with a [Sn/O] ratio around 1:2 in all samples. The presence of F into the SnO2 lattice was detected, within 2 at % respect to Sn.

Mario A. Sánchez-García

2012-10-01

234

Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce  

Science.gov (United States)

• Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations. • Methods An existing dynamic model (Nicolet), designed to predict growth and nitrate content of glasshouse lettuce, is modified to accommodate the ontogenetic changes of reduced-nitrogen and water contents (on a dry matter basis). The decreasing reduced-N content and the increasing water content are mimicked by dividing the originally uniform plant into ‘metabolically active’ tissue and ‘support’ tissue. The ‘metabolic’ tissue is assumed to contain a higher nitrogen content and a lower water content than the ‘support’ tissue. As the plants grow, the ratio of ‘support’ to ‘metabolic’ tissue increases, resulting in an increased mean water content and a decreased reduced-N content. Simulations with the new model are compared with experimental glasshouse data over four seasons. • Key Results The empirical linear relationship between water and reduced-N contents, matches, to a good approximation, the corresponding relationship based on the model. The agreement between the two makes it possible to effectively uncouple the estimation of the ‘ontogenetic’ parameters from the estimation of the other parameters. The growth and nitrate simulation results match the data rather well and are hardly affected by the new refinement. The reduced-N and water contents are predicted much better with the new model. • Conclusion Prediction of nitrogen uptake for the substantial nitrate pool of lettuce depends on the water content. Hence, the modified model may assist in making better fertilization decisions and better estimates of nitrogen leaching. PMID:15294851

SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

2004-01-01

235

Water and chlorine content in the Martian soil along the first 1900 m of the Curiosity rover traverse as estimated by the DAN instrument  

Science.gov (United States)

presence of hydrated phases in the soil and near-surface bedrock of Gale Crater is thought to be direct evidence for water-rock interaction in the crater in the ancient past. Layered sediments over the Gale Crater floor are thought to have formed in past epochs due to sediment transport, accumulation, and cementation through interaction with fluids, and the observed strata of water-bearing minerals record the history of these episodes. The first data analysis of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) investigation on board the Curiosity rover is presented for 154 individual points of active mode measurements along 1900 m of the traverse over the first 361 Martian solar days in Gale crater. It is found that a model of constant water content within subsurface should be rejected for practically all tested points, whereas a two-layer model with different water contents in each layer is supported by the data. A so-called direct two-layer model (water content increasing with depth) yields acceptable fits for odometry ranges between 0 and 455 m and beyond 638 m. The mean water (H2O) abundances of the top and bottom layers vary from 1.5 to 1.7 wt % and from 2.2 to 3.3 wt %, respectively, while at some tested spots the water content is estimated to be as high as ~5 wt %. The data for odometry range 455-638 m support an inverse two-layer model (water content decreasing with depth), with an estimated mean water abundance of 2.1 ± 0.1 wt % and 1.4 ± 0.04 wt % in the top and bottom layers, respectively.

Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B.; Starr, R. D.; Lisov, D. I.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Behar, A.; Boynton, W. V.; Hardgrove, C.; Harshman, K.; Jun, I.; Milliken, R. E.; Mischna, M. A.; Moersch, J. E.; Tate, C. G.

2014-07-01

236

Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice:a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 5–11days it was possible to reduce the chloride concentration from up to 420mg/kg to concentration of 140mg/kg, nitrate concentration from 1000mg/kg to concentration of 310mg/kg nearest the cathode and the sulphate concentration from up to 540mg/kg to 30mg/kg nearest the anode in 750–1020g dry matter stone sample.The final concentrations meet the limiting values indicating no risk for salt decay. The placement of the anode related to the original outer surface of the stone showed its importance only in the experiments with the long duration 10–11days. Due to the placement of the anode to the outer surface of the stone segments which was more contaminated, higher concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were measured in the anode clay poultices at the end of experiments. The longer duration might show even more significant role of the electrode placements.The clay poultice successfully neutralized the acid from electrolysis at the anode. During the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect in the stones themselves under the present conditions.

Matyš?ák, Ond?ej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

2014-01-01

237

Water Content of Lunar Alkali Feldspar  

Science.gov (United States)

A report of the first estimate of lunar water from alkali feldspar, which is ~2–3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. We estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+bulk Moon) of 100–1000 ppm.

Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Hauri, E. H.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.

2014-09-01

238

Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface.

Gdowski, G.

1997-04-04

239

Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and ?-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

240

Characterising flow regime and interrelation between surface-water and ground-water in the Fuente de Piedra salt lake basin by means of stable isotopes, hydrogeochemical and hydraulic data  

Science.gov (United States)

SummaryThis research reports the characterisation of ground- and surface-water interaction in the Fuente de Piedra Salt lake basin in southern Spain by a combined approach using hydraulic, hydrogeochemical and stable isotope data. During three sampling campaigns (February 2004, 2005 and October 2005) ground- and surface-water samples were collected for stable isotope studies ( 18O, D) and for major and minor ion analysis. Hydraulic measurements at multilevel piezometers were carried out at four different locations around the lake edge. Conductivity logs were performed at four piezometers located along a profile at the northern lake border and at two deeper piezometers in the Miocene basin at a greater distance from the lake. To describe processes that control the brine evolution different hydrogeochemical simulations were performed. Hydrogeochemical data show a variety of brines related to thickness variations of lacustrine evaporites around the lake. Salinity profiles in combination with stable isotope and hydraulic data indicate the existence of convection cells and recycled brines. Furthermore restricted ground-water inflow into the lake was detected. Dedolomitisation processes were identified by hydrogeochemical simulations and different brine origins were reproduced by inverse modelling approaches.

Kohfahl, Claus; Rodriguez, Miguel; Fenk, Cord; Menz, Christian; Benavente, Jose; Hubberten, Hans; Meyer, Hanno; Paul, Liisa; Knappe, Andrea; López-Geta, Juan Antonio; Pekdeger, Asaf

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
241

The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product  

Science.gov (United States)

Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases; improve irrigation scheduling by reducing over-watering and under-watering. These estimates will also allow researchers to identify wildfire behavior/risk: drives ignition probability and burning efficiency; to be used as an indicator of soil moisture and Leaf Area Index.

Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

2008-12-01

242

Effect of initial hydrogen content of a titanium alloy on susceptibility to hot-salt stress-corrosion  

Science.gov (United States)

The Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V alloy was tested in four conditions: mill annealed (70 ppM H), duplex annealed (70 ppM H), vacuum annealed to an intermediate (36 ppM) and a low (9 ppM H) hydrogen level. Material annealed at 650 C (duplex condition) exhibited resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion superior to that exhibited by material in the mill-annealed condition. Reduction of the alloy hydrogen content from 70 to as low as 9 ppM did not influence resistance to hot-salt stress corrosion embrittlement or cracking.

Gray, H. R.

1971-01-01

243

Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the ntent showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

244

Renal arteriolar injury by salt intake contributes to salt memory for the development of hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of salt intake in the development of hypertension is prominent, but its mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Our aim was to examine the effect of transient salt intake during the prehypertensive period in hypertensive model animals. Dahl salt-sensitive rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with low-salt (0.12% NaCl), normal-salt (0.8% NaCl), high-salt (7% NaCl), or high-sodium/normal-chloride diet and returned to normal-salt diet for 3 months. Rats in the high-salt group saw elevations in blood pressure (BP) not only during the treatment period but also for the 3 months after returning to normal-salt diet. We named this phenomenon salt memory. Renal arteriolar injury was found in the high-salt group at the end of experiment. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed from 6 to 14 weeks with high-salt diet with angiotensin receptor blocker, vasodilator, calcium channel blocker, and calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker and returned to normal-salt diet. Although BP was suppressed to control levels by vasodilator or calcium channel blocker, elevated renal angiotensin II and renal arteriolar injury were observed, and salt memory did not disappear because of sustained renal arteriolar injury. Calcium channel blocker+angiotensin receptor blocker suppressed renal arteriolar injury, resulting in the disappearance of salt memory. Cross-transplantation of kidneys from Dahl salt-sensitive rats on high salt to control rats caused increase of BP, whereas control kidneys caused reduction in BP of hypertensive rats, inducing the central role of the kidney. These results suggest that renal arteriolar injury through BP and renal angiotensin II elevation plays important roles in the development of salt memory for hypertension. PMID:24980670

Oguchi, Hideyo; Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Shinoda, Kazunobu; Morita, Shinya; Kono, Hidaka; Nakagawa, Ken; Ishiguro, Kimiko; Hayashi, Kaori; Nakamura, Mari; Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Oya, Mototsugu; Itoh, Hiroshi

2014-10-01

245

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

C. Comina

2014-05-01

246

Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with th...

Garci?a Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Barraga?n Garci?a, Vicenta Mari?a; Seoane Rodri?guez, Benjamin; Ruiz Bauza?, Carlos

2006-01-01

247

Determinants of Residential Water Conservation: The Case of Salt Lake City, Utah  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study evaluates the effectiveness of demand-side water conservation policies in Salt Lake City, Utah for the years 1999 to 2002. We add to the existing residential water demand literature by exploring panel estimation techniques with disaggregated household level data. Alternative policies used to induce water conservation are discussed based on estimates of demand schedule parameters. We find that public conservation campaigns have had negligible impacts on the city's water use. There h...

Coleman, Eric A.; Glover, Terry

2004-01-01

248

The effects of pre-salting methods on water distribution and protein denaturation of dry salted and rehydrated cod – A low-field NMR study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) relaxation time measurements were used to evaluate the effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection of salt and/or phosphates followed by brining, solely brining, pickling and kench salting) on the protein denaturation and change in muscle properties during the production steps of dry salted cod fillets followed by rehydration. The NMR relaxation curves were affected by the salting method and represented well the structural differences between the salting methods at each processing step. Significant correlations were observed between the NMR relaxation parameters and all physicochemical quality properties measured, except the cooking yield, when samples from all processing stages were analyzed together. The longitudinal relaxation time T1, and the faster relaxing transverse relaxation time T21 were shown to be especially sensitive to protein denaturation in the fillets. The water distribution indicated that the salting and rehydration processes changedthe cells irreversibly. The study indicated that pre-brining by brine injection followed by brining, with low salt concentrations, led to the least protein denaturation during the dry salting and rehydration process.

Guðjónsdóttir, María; Arason, Sigurjón

2011-01-01

249

GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivity inverse model with position around 20-30 m depth. This aquifer is referred to second aquifer. As the final result, a map with the possibility of salt/brackish and fresh water interface can be generated

Nur Islami

2011-02-01

250

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Adamo Fini

2010-04-01

251

The Effect of Sodium Chloride Salinity on the Growth, Water Status and Ion Content of Phragmites communis Trin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study deal with the physiological behavior of Phragmites communis under salt stress. The effects of salinity on growth, dry weight partitioning, water status and ion content were studied on seedlings of P. communis fed with nutrient solutions containing 0 to 600 mM NaCl. The plants grew best when irrigated with distilled water; biomass production and Relative Growth Rate (RGR decreased with increasing salinity. Nevertheless, plants were able to produce and allocate dried matter to all their organs even at the highest salt level (600 mM NaCl. The leaves showed the lowest growth activity. Increasing salinity was accompanied by a decrease in seedling water content; aerial parts were more dehydrated than roots. Examination of the K+/Na+ selectivity revealed that salt tolerance of reed plants may be due to its capacity to limit Na+ transport and to enhance K+ transport into aerial parts resulting in a high K/Na ratio. Our results suggest an exclusive behavior towards Na+ as shown by the decreasing Na+ gradients from leaves to roots. It is concluded that Na+ exclusion mechanism appeared to be operative and contributes to salt tolerance of Phragmites.

Mustapha Gorai

2007-01-01

252

Modeling of salt-water migration through spod-podzolic soils under the field and laboratory conditions  

Science.gov (United States)

The assessment of highly mineralized water influence on soils is an important issue in the contemporary world. Various regions with different conditions are exposed to salt-affected soils forming. Salinization of soils is a complex process of the chemical and physical properties changes. Therefore the chain of the laboratory and field experiments should be done in order to assess the main factors promoting highly mineralized water migration. In addition to it modelling is a good way to understand and evaluate main chemical and physical transformations in soils. The chain of experiments was done to assess salt water movement in spod-podzolic soils under field and laboratory conditions. The main goals were to evaluate the rate of salt water movement through soils and to estimate velocity of the desalinization process. Field experiment was conducted on spod-podzolic soils of Kaliningrad region. There were 4 sites measuring 20*25 cm watering with salt water in amount of 5 liters per each area. The mineralization of the solution was 100 g/l. In addition to the salt affected sites, 2 non polluted grounds were assessed too. Soils samples were collected in the period of 1 week, 1 month, 3 month and 1 year after the spill had been done. The samples were taken each 10 cm 110 cm deep and in double repeatability. Main chemical and physical parameters, such as volume water content, pH, conductivity, amount of calcium ion, magnesium, sodium, and chlorite in soils etc. were measured in each sample. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the rate of soils solutions transformation under the laboratory conditions. Organic horizon was taken from the field and was stuffed in columns with 1.0 g/cm3 density. There were 16 columns with 4 cm diameter. 14 columns were showered with salt water with the same mineralization as in the field experiment. The amount of salt water injected in columns was 104 mm per one sample which is equal to the salt water volume spilled per one area in the previous experiment. Also there were 2 columns as a verification variant contained pure soil. Each column was washed off with different amount of distilled water. The total volume of the pure solution was equal to the mean amount of the annual precipitation in the region of the field experiment. The main physical and chemical properties were measured in soils samples as well in the first experiment. In addition to it the complex assessment of soil's water were made. The experiments revealed the fast rate of salinization-desalinization processes in spod-podzolic soils of the coniferous areas in Kaliningrad region. The maximum values of conductivity were observed at the end of 1 week period and made up more than 2000 mSm/cm in top soils horizons. Furthermore the desalinization of the soils took place in both field and laboratory experiments a year after the spill. The reported study was partially supported by RFBR, research project No 12-05-31088 mol_a.

Ronzhina, Tatiana

2013-04-01

253

Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

254

Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency : Studies of water-substrate interactions at low and high dry matter content  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance decreases. However, the addition of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the water mobility, leading to higher water availability, and ultimately higher glucose production. More specifically, the higher water availability boosts the activity of processive cellulases. Thus, water availability is vital for efficient hydrolysis, especially at high dry matter content where water availability is low. At high dry matter content, cellulase activity changes water interactions with biomass, affecting the water mobility. While swelling and fiber loosening also take place during hydrolysis, the cellulase hydrolytic activity changes the substrate to give a unique relaxation time profile. In extreme conditions where water is only present as bound water, cellulases are still able to utilize bound water for hydrolysis.

Hsieh, Chia-Wen

2014-01-01

255

Heat transfer when developed boiling of water-salt solutions in tubes under increased pressures  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Heat transfer when developed boiling in tubes of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 aqueous solutions and concentrates of softened sea (Caspian) water at 0.5-20 MPa pressures is experimentally investigated. It is stated that under boiling of these solutions the dependence of heat transfer coefficient on pressure has anomalous character, presence of salts dissolved in water results in intensification of heat transfer at low pressures and to worsening - at high pressures. Relation of disclosed peculiar features of heat transfer with phenomenon of foam formation under boiling of solutions of above critical salt content is revealed. An empirical dependence for calculation of heat transfer coefficient under boiling of NaCl solutions and concentrates of sea water true for up to 20% salt content, at pressures from 0.5 to 20 MPa, densities of heat fluxes from 0.1 to 1 MW/m2, mass rates from 200 to 1100 kg/(m2xs) is recommended

256

Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

2013-07-10

257

A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems  

Science.gov (United States)

A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

Essaid, H. I.

1986-01-01

258

Simultaneous determination of elemental content in water samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical exercise between two laboratories was performed in order to compare the elemental composition of a water sample. The metal concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water sample was analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The analysis by Total Reflection X-Ray Spectrometry was realized by an Ital Structures TX-2000 and the analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was made by a Perkin Elmer Spectrophotometer Model 3110. Results show a good agreement in the metal concentrations obtained by both techniques. The variation coefficient between the results with both techniques was less than 14%. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that both techniques are reliable and adequate for the determination of these elements in environmental water samples. (author)

259

Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 – 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5°C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation.

Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

2011-01-01

260

Salt and water imbalance in chronic heart failure.  

Science.gov (United States)

In chronic heart failure (CHF), neurohumoral systems, which help to maintain circulatory homeostasis, are maladaptive and responsible for disease progression and congestion in the long term. The activation of sympathetic hormones and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), in addition to non-osmotic vasopressin release, up-regulation of aquoporine 2 and renal sodium transporters, and renal resistance to natriuretic peptide lead to a salt- and water-avid state. A primary decrease in cardiac output and arterial vasodilatation brings about arterial underfilling, which activates neuro-humoral reflexes and systems. The heart disease is the primum movens, but the kidney is the end organ responsible for increased tubular reabsorption of sodium and water. The most important hemodynamic alteration in the kidneys is constriction of glomerular efferent arterioles, which increases intraglomerular pressure and hence glomerular filtration rate. The resulting changes in intrarenal oncotic and hydrostatic pressures promote tubular reabsorption. Over time, a gradually falling glomerular filtration rate, due to CHF progression, medications or chronic kidney injury due to comorbidities, becomes more critical in sodium/water imbalance. Moreover, long-term use of diuretics can lead to a diuretic-resistant state, which necessitates the use of higher doses further activating RAAS, often at the expense of worsening renal function. However, every patient is a case in itself and the general pathophysiology of hydro-saline balance may be different in each subject. A mechanism can prevail over others and the kidney may have different responses to the same diuretic. So, it is necessary to customize each individual's long-term therapy, tailoring medical treatment according to clinical profiles, comorbidities and renal function, introducing active control of body weight by the patient himself, fluid restriction, a less restricted sodium intake, flexibility of diuretic doses, early and personalized ambulatory follow-up, and congestion monitoring by bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, BNP, inferior vena cava ultrasonography or echocardiographic e/e(1) ratio or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. PMID:22009610

Parrinello, Gaspare; Torres, Daniele; Paterna, Salvatore

2011-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

Pluha?ová, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

2012-11-01

262

Water contents and OH speciation in pyroxenes  

Science.gov (United States)

Nominally anhydrous minerals such as pyroxene contain trace amounts of hydrogen which reside in structural defects. Dissolved water (hydroxyls species OH) plays a crucial role in modifying the physical and chemical properties of the Earth’s mantle and attests a significant water reservoir inside. For a series of natural clino- and orthopyroxenes (cpx and opx) from large suite mantle xenoliths, we investigated the total water (H2Otot) in pyroxenes using micro-FTIR so as to constrain the OH dissolution mechanisms. Samples studied have been brought up either by 1) alkaline basalts magmas, Mont Briançon, Maar de Borée , Barges (France), Dreiser Weiher (Germany), San Carlos (Arizona), Black Rock Sumitt (Nevada), Kilbourne Hole (New Mexico), or by 2) kimberlite magmas, Letseng-la-Terae (South Africa). Crystal chemistry from the different xenoliths was determined by microprobe analyses. Pyroxenes have high Mg number (about 0.9) and spinels contain 0.19 Fe3+/Fetot. Equilibrium P, T conditions were determined by geothermobarometry. P-T conditions were estimated between 700 and 1400°C and between 0.5 and 6.3 GPa. Polarized FTIR spectra acquired on natural cpx and opx are consistent with previous studies, showing the main absorption bands attributed to OH species in the region between 3000-3800 cm-1. H2Otot was estimated by the Beer-Lambert law using the calibration of Libowitzky and Rossman (1997) and gives about 300 ppm and 100 ppm H2O for cpx and opx, respectively. Partionning coefficient between cpx and opx is estimated to 2.1, similar to those from literature data on pyroxenes of alkali-basalt and kimberlitic xenoliths. The H2Otot does not show significant correlation with crystal chemistry, therefore contrasting with previous studies. However, we observe a good linear correlation between the cpx/opx water content and the physical conditions (P, T and fO2 determined from Fe3+/Fetot in spinel) recorded by the mantle xenoliths: ppm H2Ocpx=522.89-119.38*P-0.195*T+484.19*(Fe3+/Fetot) and ppm H2Oopx=193.14+3.18*P-6.22*T-178.78*(Fe3+/Fetot).The derived linear equations suggest a strong influence of the Fe3+/Fetot in the water dissolution mechanism in agreement with recent work.

Bégaudeau, K.; Morizet, Y.; Mercier, J.

2010-12-01

263

Mixtures of lecithin and bile salt can form highly viscous wormlike micellar solutions in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The self-assembly of biological surfactants in water is an important topic for study because of its relevance to physiological processes. Two common types of biosurfactants are lecithin (phosphatidylcholine) and bile salts, which are both present in bile and involved in digestion. Previous studies on lecithin-bile salt mixtures have reported the formation of short, rodlike micelles. Here, we show that lecithin-bile salt micelles can be further induced to grow into long, flexible wormlike structures. The formation of long worms and their resultant entanglement into transient networks is reflected in the rheology: the fluids become viscoelastic and exhibit Maxwellian behavior, and their zero-shear viscosity can be up to a 1000-fold higher than that of water. The presence of worms is further confirmed by data from small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering and from cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM). We find that micellar growth peaks at a specific molar ratio (near equimolar) of bile salt:lecithin, which suggests a strong binding interaction between the two species. In addition, micellar growth also requires a sufficient concentration of background electrolyte such as NaCl or sodium citrate that serves to screen the electrostatic repulsion of the amphiphiles and to "salt out" the amphiphiles. We postulate a mechanism based on changes in the molecular geometry caused by bile salts and electrolytes to explain the micellar growth. PMID:25121460

Cheng, Chih-Yang; Oh, Hyuntaek; Wang, Ting-Yu; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Tung, Shih-Huang

2014-09-01

264

A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accu...

Flors, Vi?ctor; Paradi?s, Mercedes; Garci?a-andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; Gonza?lez-bosch, Carmen; Garci?a-agusti?n, Pilar

2007-01-01

265

Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate a general non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

Samin, Sela; Hod, Manuela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

2014-08-01

266

Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt  

CERN Document Server

We demonstrate a general non--Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

Samin, Sela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

2014-01-01

267

Reducing the content of alloying elements in high-speed steel during heating in salt baths  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Barium chloride salt baths are primarily used for the high-temperature quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed steels. If the barium chloride melt should have a decarbonizing effect on the surface components that are heated in it, the authors maintain that it may also affect the content of alloying elements in the surface layers of high-speed-steel components that are heated in it. Commercial salt baths with a rectifier -- chemically pure magnesium fluoride -was used for the investigation. Cooling was accomplished in a caustic melt. Analysis of the results of investigation of the molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt distributions in steel R9M4K8 as well as the tungsten and cobalt distributions in steel R9K5 indicated that the cobalt content does not diminish on heating to 12300C. A decrease in molybdenum content occurs in the surface layers during the quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel in a barium chloride salt bath after the required heating time, while a decrease in the tungsten content takes place with more prolonged hold times. It is shown to be possible to reduce or completely eliminate loss of alloying elements in the surface layers of a high-speedsteel tool during heat treatment when magnesium fluoride in combination with silicon carbide additives is used as a rectifier

268

Actinide removal from molten salts by chemical oxidation and salt distillation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Actinide removal from molten salts can be accomplished by a two step process where the actinide is first oxidized to the oxide using a chemical oxidant such as calcium carbonate or sodium carbonate. After the actinide is precipitated as an oxide the molten salt is distilled away from the actinide oxides leaving a oxide powder heel and an actinide free distilled salt that can be recycled back into the processing stream. This paper discusses the chemistry of the oxidation process and the physical conditions required to accomplish a salt distillation. Possible application of an analogous process sequence for a proposed accelerator driven transmutation molten salt process is also discussed

269

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01

270

Total Suspended Solid Content in Raha Waters, Northeast of Celebes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurement on Total Suspended Solid (TSS in Raha waters were carried out in May 2001. The results showed that the content of total suspended solid varied between 74,8 – 78,9 ppm with averages content is 76,5 ppm. This content is still suited to the threshold value stated by government decree in 1988 for fishery and sea conservation park, but not suitable for recreation (swimming, diving activity.

Edward

2003-12-01

271

Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

272

Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design  

Science.gov (United States)

The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K. M.; Thiros, S. A.; Giddings, E. M.; Hadley, H. K.; Stephens, D. W.; Gerner, S. J.

2002-01-01

273

Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-?t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from ?t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction ? is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

274

Radon content in drinking water in 71 cities of China  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radon contained in water is to some extent transferred into room air as a result of agitation or heating, and it may become one of the important sources of indoor radon when the water contains high concentrations of radon. In this paper, we report the results of radon content in drinking water measured with scintillation detector in 71 cities of China. The radon concentrations in drinking water in these cities were ranged from 0.2 to 49 KBqm-3, with the arithmetic average and population weighted average of 8 KBqm-3 and 7 KBqm-3, respectively. The total population is 76 million in the 71 cities investigated. The distribution character of radon content in drinking water in cities of China was observed. We also report the radon content in well water used by residents in some cities, with the range of 3 - 181 KBqm-3 and arithmetic average of 35 KBqm-3. When the indoor air exchange rate was 1.0 h-1, the radon release rate of 2.4 * 10-4 from drinking water to indoor air was determined. Annual effective dose equivalent received by residents in cities of China from exposure to radon in drinking water was evaluated according to radon content in drinking water, release rate of radon from drinking water to indoor air, and indoor equilibrium factor, etc. (orig.). (9 refs., 2 tabs.)

275

Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors  

Science.gov (United States)

Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine, sulphur, strontium, lithium, molybdenum, nickel, and vanadium are widely spread there. Geochemical habit of basalts largely determines chemical compositions of waters and mineral formations in hearths of salting. Unloading the fissure-vein waters that evacuate solute from the Jurassic-Cretaceous volcanogenic-sedimentary deposits greatly effects chemical composition in some hearths of salting. Irrigation systems in many intermountain depressions influence the salting hearth formation. The associated secondary salting occurs as spots in the areas, where ground water surface reaches foot of loams during irrigation. Salting the landscapes takes out big areas of fertile lands from agricultural use, threatens with breakdowns at enterprises of thermal energetic that consume water as heat carrier.

Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

2010-05-01

276

The water cycles of water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric importance  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the water cycles of nine water-soluble organic salts of atmospheric interest were studied using an electrodynamic balance (EDB) at 25°C. Sodium formate, sodium acetate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and sodium methanesulfonate (Na-MSA) particles crystallize as the relative humidity (RH) decreases and they deliquesce as the RH increases. Sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate form supersaturated particles at low RH before crystallization but they do not deliquesce even at RH=90%. Sodium malonate and sodium maleate particles neither crystallize nor deliquesce. These two salts absorb and evaporate water reversibly without hysteresis. In most cases, the solid states of single particles resulting from the crystallization of supersaturated droplets do not form the most thermodynamically stable state found in bulk studies. Sodium formate, sodium oxalate, ammonium oxalate, sodium succinate, sodium pyruvate and Na-MSA form anhydrous particles after crystallization. Sodium acetate forms particles with a water/salt molar ratio of 0.5 after crystallization. In salts with several hydrated states including sodium formate and sodium acetate, the particles deliquesce at the lowest deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of the hydrates. Except sodium oxalate and ammonium oxalate, all the salts studied here are as hygroscopic as typical inorganic hygroscopic aerosols. The hygroscopic organic salts have a growth factor of 1.76-2.18 from RH=10-90%, comparable to that of typical hygroscopic inorganic salts such as NaCl and (NH 4) 2SO 4. Further study of other atmospheric water-soluble organic compounds and their mixtures with inorganic salts is needed to explain the field observations of the hygroscopic growth of ambient aerosols.

Peng, Changgeng; Chan, Chak K.

277

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts  

Science.gov (United States)

17O NMR and Raman spectra of water with different calcium salts have been measured. Different water samples were prepared by adding nano-materials, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate and calcium chloride into distilled water. Both 17O NMR and Raman spectra of different water samples were recorded. The effects of temperature and time on 17O NMR line-width of different water samples were analyzed as well. The experimental results showed that Raman spectra of water with these four calcium salts were almost the same as those for distilled water when the temperature increased to 40 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of distilled water decreased from 76.8 Hz to 46.9 Hz and 65.8 Hz after nano-materials and calcium chloride were added, respectively. Besides, the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 131.6 Hz after calcium citrate was added, while the 17O NMR line-width of distilled water increased from 76.8 Hz to 77.2 Hz after calcium gluconate was added. The 17O NMR line-width of water with calcium chloride increased while the other three water samples were nearly stable as the temperature increased from 30 °C to 85 °C. The 17O NMR line-width of water with nano-materials kept steady while the 17O NMR line-width of the other three water samples all increased in 42 days.

Yan, Ying; Ou, Xiao-xia; Zhang, Hui-ping

2014-09-01

278

Superoxide generated by pyrogallol reduces highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt to produce a soluble formazan: a simple assay for measuring superoxide anion radical scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Superoxide anion radical (O2(?-)) plays an important role in several human diseases. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase system is frequently utilized to produce O2(?-). However, false positive results are easily got by using this system. The common spectrophotometric probes for O2(?-) are nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) and cytochrome c. Nevertheless, the application of NBT method is limited because of the water-insolubility of NBT formazan and the assay using cytochrome c lacks sensitivity and is not suitable for microplate measurement. We overcome these problems by using 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) as O2(?-)-generating system and a highly water-soluble tetrazolium salt, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium sodium salt (WST-1) which can be reduced by superoxide anion radical to a stable water-soluble formazan with a high absorbance at 450 nm. The method is simple, rapid and sensitive. Moreover, it can be adapted to microplate format. In this study, the O2(?-) scavenging activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), L-ascorbic acid, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), albumin from human serum, flavonoids and herbal extracts were assessed by using this method. Meanwhile, the activities of tissue homogenates and serum were determined by using this validated method. This method, applicable to tissue homogenates, serum and herbal extracts, proved to be efficient for measuring O2(?-) scavenging activities of biological and abiological samples. PMID:23953206

Xu, Chen; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui; Liu, Shuying

2013-09-01

279

Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T(1), T(2)(*) and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T(2)(*) decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ("myelin water" and "rest") with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T(2)(*) curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a TE(max) of approx. 40ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including à priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T(1), T(2)(*), total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. PMID:22019512

Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker; Schenk, Jochen; Neeb, Heiko

2012-06-01

280

Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T1, T*2 and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T*2 decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T*2 curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T Emax of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T1, T*2, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
281

Enhancing Rice Salt Stress Tolerance by Priming with Validamycin A  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A possible survival strategy of plants under saline conditions is to use some compounds that could alleviate salt stress. Application of validamycin A, a potent inhibitor of trehalase as seed soaking prior to sowing in saline soil with salinity level (EC 10.06 dS m-1 to Rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars (cv. salt sensitive Sakha 103 and salt tolerance Agami M5 was investigated. Salinity stress decreased starch and total soluble protein contents concomitantly with increasing total soluble sugars, proline and free amino acids in both cultivars. Validamycin A decreased the activity of trehalase which leads to the accumulation of trehalose in both cultivars of rice plants. Raising trehalose level in the plant tissues was accompanied by increasing the starch and protein content and appearance of new protein pattern of both cultivars. The results indicated that application of validamycin A increased grain yield, 1000 grain weight and filled-grain percentage for both rice cultivars under saline field conditions. Soaking rice seeds with 30 ?M of validamycin A could alleviate the harmful effects of salinity stress.

T.A. Hathout

2014-01-01

282

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Torreya grandis cv. Merrillii Seedlings by Activating Photosynthesis and Enhancing Antioxidant Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Salt stress is a major factor limiting plant growth and productivity. Salicylic acid (SA) has been shown to ameliorate the adverse effects of environmental stress on plants. To investigate the protective role of SA in ameliorating salt stress on Torreya grandis (T. grandis) trees, a pot experiment was conducted to analyze the biomass, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll content, net photosynthesis (Pn), gas exchange parameters, relative leakage conductivity (REC), malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) of T. grandis under 0.2% and 0.4% NaCl conditions with and without SA. Methodology/Principal Findings The exposure of T. grandis seedlings to salt conditions resulted in reduced growth rates, which were associated with decreases in RWC and Pn and increases in REC and MDA content. The foliar application of SA effectively increased the chlorophyll (chl (a+b)) content, RWC, net CO2 assimilation rates (Pn), and proline content, enhanced the activities of SOD, CAT and POD, and minimized the increases in the REC and MDA content. These changes increased the capacity of T. grandis in acclimating to salt stress and thus increased the shoot and root dry matter. However, when the plants were under 0% and 0.2% NaCl stress, the dry mass of the shoots and roots did not differ significantly between SA-treated plants and control plants. Conclusions SA induced the salt tolerance and increased the biomass of T. grandis cv. by enhancing the chlorophyll content and activity of antioxidative enzymes, activating the photosynthetic process, and alleviating membrane injury. A better understanding about the effect of salt stress in T. grandis is vital, in order gain knowledge over expanding the plantations to various regions and also for the recovery of T. grandis species in the future. PMID:25302987

Du, Xuhua; Tang, Hui; Shen, Chaohua; Wu, Jiasheng

2014-01-01

283

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, fast electrical resistivity tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross section. With this imaging, complete mixing can be verified. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide a possible guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross section. A water multi-sampling system prototype aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability is also proposed and tested. The results reported in the paper show that FERT provides a three-dimensional image of the dissolved salt plume and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-08-01

284

Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water  

Science.gov (United States)

A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a…

Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

2005-01-01

285

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

286

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

287

Nano-scale structure in a liquid mixture induced by adding salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of adding antagonistic salt composed from hydrophilic cation and hydrophobic anion in a mixture of water and 3 methylpyridine are investigated by optical microscope and small-angle neutron scattering. We have observed that nanometer-scale structures are induced by the solvation effect. These evidences indicate that pairs of ions of antagonistic salt behave as surfactant molecules. (author)

288

MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0-3 and Day 4-7 (p = 0.034) and decreased from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). Water content at Day 4-7 was significantly higher than in controls (p < or = 0.05). At the same time intervals, mean rCBF (SD) was 76 (23); 94 (31); 106 (35); and 64 (26)%, respectively. There was a significant increase in rCBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard in stroke patients.

Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S

1999-01-01

289

Electrokinetic Behavior of Fluoride Salts as Explained from Water Structure Considerations  

Science.gov (United States)

Unlike the other silver halides, silver fluoride is positively charged in its saturated solution as determined by nonequilibrium electrophoresis measurements. In the absence of surface hydrolysis reactions, other fluoride salts (LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 ) also are positively charged in their saturated solutions. Furthermore, the electrokinetic behavior of these fluoride salts is rather insensitive to the fluoride ion activity in neutral or acidic solutions, and reversal of the sign of the surface charge by fluoride addition is not possible. Based on FTIR transmission spectra to describe the water structure of ionic solutions, in situ FTIR/internal reflection spectroscopy (FTIR/IRS) has been used to spectroscopically characterize interfacial water at fluoride salt surfaces. The experimental spectra were examined by consideration of the O-H stretching region (3000-3800 cm-1 ) associated with the vibrational spectra of interfacial water. These results reveal a unique hydration state for fluorides and explain the anomalous electrokinetic behavior of fluoride salts such as LiF, CaF2 , and MgF2 , which show an unexpected insensitivity to the fluoride ion concentration in solution. It appears that this insensitivity is due to the formation of strong hydrogen bonding of the fluoride ions with water molecules. This hydration state prevents the accommodation of excess fluoride ions at surface lattice sites and accounts for the observed electrokinetic behavior. PMID:9241159

Hu; Lu; Veeramasuneni; Miller

1997-06-01

290

Salt Tracer and Area-Velocity Water Discharge  

Science.gov (United States)

Students spend a 50-minute class (or longer) measuring water discharge of a local stream. They use two different techniques: the traditional area-velocity method and a salt-tracer method. In the classroom, each student using Excel or Kaleidagraph to calculate discharge from field measurements. They summarize their results in an essay, and assess differences between the two techniques and potential sources of error. Designed for a geomorphology course Designed for an introductory geology course Addresses student fear of quantitative aspect and/or inadequate quantitative skills

Riihimaki, Catherine

291

UPCONING OF A SALT-WATER/FRESH-WATER INTERFACE BELOW A PUMPING WELL  

Science.gov (United States)

Analytical solutions for the upconing of an abrupt salt-water/fresh-water interface beneath a pumping well and for the concentration profile across a moving interface are developed for two types of upconing problems. The first considers the position of the interface and the salin...

292

[Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (pderivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the responses of high spectral information to St were more sensitive than those of high spectral information to EC(1:5). Accuracy of St predicted from high spectral data was higher than that of EC(1:5) estimated from high spectral data. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis to improve hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring accuracy of soil salinization. PMID:24822430

Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

2014-02-01

293

Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of addition of Lithium Bromide salt in isopropanol -water binary azeotropic mixture using extractive distillation is discussed. As LiBr is a high boiling point salt, it will not appear in the distillate and moreover LiBr is hygroscopic and has a characteristic to give higher boiling point elevation with water which is main cause of its use in this application. Addition of salt (40% of water eliminates azeotrope formation and purity of 99.74% (by wt. is achieved.

Sanket R. Vora, Prof. Suchen B. Thakore, Prof. Nitin Padhiyar, Ameerkhan Pathan

2013-04-01

294

[Effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on soil water and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using mcirolysimeter, a laboratory simulation experiment was conducted to study the effects of the grain size and thickness of dust deposits on the soil water evaporation and salt movement in the hinterland of the Taklimakan Desert. Under the same initial soil water content and deposition thickness condition, finer-textured (water loss and surface soil salt accumulation. The inhibition effect of the grain size of dust deposits on soil water evaporation had an inflection point at the grain size 0.20 mm, i. e., increased with increasing grain size when the grain size was 0.063-0.20 mm but decreased with increasing grain size when the grain size was > 0.20 mm. With the increasing thickness of dust deposits, its inhibition effect on soil water evaporation increased, and there existed a logarithmic relationship between the dust deposits thickness and water evaporation. Surface soil salt accumulation had a negative correlation with dust deposits thickness. In sum, the dust deposits in study area could affect the stability of arid desert ecosystem. PMID:19947210

Sun, Yan-Wei; Li, Sheng-Yu; Xu, Xin-Wen; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Li, Ying

2009-08-01

295

Comparison of measured changes in seasonal soil water content by rainfed maize-bean intercrop and component cropping systems in a semi-arid region of southern Africa  

Science.gov (United States)

Seasonal water content fluctuation within the effective root zone was monitored during the growing season for a maize-bean intercrop (IMB), sole maize (SM) and sole bean (SB) in Free State Province, Republic of South Africa. Comparisons were undertaken for progressive depths of extraction 0-300 mm; 300-600 mm and 600-900 mm respectively. These enabled the understanding of water extraction behavior of the cropping systems within the different soil layers including the topsoil surface normally influenced by soil surface evaporation. Additive intercrops have been known to conserve water, largely due to the early high leaf area index and the higher total leaf area. In this study, the combined effect of the intercrop components seemed to lower the total water demand by the intercrop compared to the sole crops. During the two seasons (2000/2001 and 2001/2002) the drained upper limit (DUL) and crop lower limits (CLL) were determined. The maize-bean intercrop, sole maize and sole bean had CLL of 141 mm/m, 149 mm/m and 159 mm/m respectively. The DUL was 262 mm/m for the site and therefore the potential plant extractable soil water for the cropping systems were: 121 mm/m (IMB); 114 mm/m (SM) and 103 mm/m (SB). Overall, the intercrop did not have significantly different total soil water extraction during both seasons, although it was additive, showing that it had higher water to biomass conversion.

Ogindo, H. O.; Walker, S.

296

The water, deuterium, gas and uranium content of tektites  

Science.gov (United States)

The water content, deuterium concentration of the water, total gas and uranium contents were determined on tektite samples and other glass samples from Texas, Australia, Philippine Islands, Java, French Indo-China, Czechoslovakia, Libyan Desert, Billiton Island, Thailand, French West Africa, Peru, and New Mexico. The water content ranges from 0.24 per cent for the Peru tektite, to 0.0002 per cent for a moldavite. The majority of the tektites have less than 0.05 per cent water, and average 0.005 per cent H2O by weight. No other gases were detected, the lower detection limit being about 1 p.p.m. by weight. The deuterium content of the water in tektites is in the same range as that in terrestrial waters, and varies from 0.010 mole per cent to 0.0166 mole per cent deuterium. The uranium content is about from 1 to 3 p.p.m. The possible origin of tektites is discussed. The experimental data presented favour their being originally terrestrial, but produced by some catastrophic event. An extra-terrestrial source is not ruled out. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.

1958-01-01

297

Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content  

CERN Document Server

We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

2014-01-01

298

Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

2013-12-01

299

Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate  

Science.gov (United States)

The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA). No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%). The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

Wu, Z. J.; Nowak, A.; Poulain, L.; Herrmann, H.; Wiedensohler, A.

2011-12-01

300

Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

Z. J. Wu

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
301

Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study  

Science.gov (United States)

In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

2009-04-01

302

Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

2013-04-01

303

[Effects of salt stress on the growth and Na+ and K+ contents in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].  

Science.gov (United States)

After seedlings of Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux were treated with different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mmol/L) for 17 days, some physiological indexs were measured. With an increase in NaCl concentration, the growth of A. littoralis was inhibited gradually. There was no optimum salt concentration, and the shoots were more sensitive than the roots. The proportion of organic dry weight in total dry weight increased, which implies that the contribution of organic matter to osmotic adjustment increased with salinity. After being treated with the inhibitor--benzene-sulphuric acid choline which could inhibit the salt glands to secrete the salinity outside the body. The Na(+) and K(+) contents of leaves increased, while the amount of Na(+) and K(+) decreased in the secretion, and the growth was severely inhibited. After being treated with NaCl 100 mmol/L, the relative Na(+) contents in the cap cells and basal cells determined by X-ray microanalysis were from about one to more than triple those of the epidermis and mesophyllous cells, it shows that the salt glands could effectively collect Na(+) from other cells and secrete them outside the body to keep normal physiological function. PMID:15961907

Liu, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Ke-Fu

2005-06-01

304

Varietal differences in growth vigor, water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of two wheat varieties grown under seawater stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Effect of seawater salinity (10% and 25% on growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of two wheat cultivars (Salt sensitive var., Gemmieza-9 and salt resistant var., Sids-1 during grain-filling was investigated. In general, seawater at 10% and 25% caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations (RWC & SWD , protein and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content of both varieties during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by seawater stress in both wheat cultivars. The magnitude of reduction was more obvious at higher salinity levels than the lower one particularly in Gemmieza-9.

Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

2012-04-01

305

WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

Carlos G. Musso

2010-01-01

306

The effect of ultrasonic salting on protein and water-protein interactions in meat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of power ultrasound (US) treatment (4.2, 11 or 19 W cm(-2) for 10, 25 or 40 min) on water-protein interactions during the salting of pork. All US treatments increased the protein extraction above that of the control (pmeat matrix were evident by light microscopy. Findings indicate that US salting could be a surface phenomenon which can accelerate mass transfer and extract protein but denature myosin at high power inputs. Potential could exist for US to enhance conventional curing techniques. PMID:24206713

McDonnell, C K; Allen, P; Morin, C; Lyng, J G

2014-03-15

307

Effects of Salinity on Seedling Biomass Production and Relative Water Content of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of salinity on fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris varieties at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. Data analysis was carried out using jmp 5 (version 5.0 and SPSS (version 12 statistical softwares. Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW, Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW, Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW were measured; and seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC and seedling Root Relative Water Content (RRWC were calculated. The two ways ANOVA for varieties found statistically insignificant with respect to Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW, seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC and seedling root relative water content (RRWC (p>0.05 but it was significant with respect to Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW, Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW (p0.05 with respect to the entire parameters. Varieties such as Awash-1, Argene, Chore, Mexican 142 and Awash Melka were found to be salt tolerant during seedling biomass production and in Relative Water Content (RWC. On the other hand, varieties Red Kidney (DRK, Dimtu, Gofta, Cranscope and Sinkinesh were found to be salt sensitive during seedling biomass production and in RWC. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production and Relative Water Content (RWC.

Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

2011-07-01

308

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides ({sup 210}Po, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 226,228}Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L{sup -1} over the salinity range of 100-370 g L{sup -1}; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of {sup 226,228}Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb along with their activity ratios ({sup 210}Po/{sup 210}Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes.

Yadav, D.N. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Back-End Technology Development Division, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)], E-mail: dny@barc.gov.in; Sarin, M.M. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380 009 (India)

2009-01-15

309

On monitoring of boron content in coolant of a water-cooled and water-moderated reactor by registration of the instantaneous gamma quanta of 7Li nuclei  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The article deals with measurability of 10B content in WWER-1000 reactor coolant by detecting 477.7 keV prompt gamma quanta emitted by 7Li excited nuclei, which are formed in the coolant as a result of 10B(n,?)7Li reaction under the effect of 17N neutron radioactivity. To substantiate the feasibility of the proposed approach, 17N and 7Li activities in WWER-1000 reactor were calculated. The proposed method can be realized on the basis of introduced systems of on-line coolant radioactivity monitoring

310

Design of phosphonium-type zwitterion as an additive to improve saturated water content of phase-separated ionic liquid from aqueous phase toward reversible extraction of proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

2013-01-01

311

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

312

Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

1997-02-09

313

Salt stress effect on epinasty in relation to ethylene production and water relations in tomato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A pool of genetic variability is a prerequisite for any practical approach to improving crop salt tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine how epinasty, a morphological response of tomato to salt stress, can be used as a measure of salt tolerance and how it is related to ethylene production and water relations in tomato. Three Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (Edkawy, Ramy, and Vemar) and one Lycopersicon sheesmanii accession were subjected to four levels of salt stress at the...

El-iklil, Youssef; Karrou, Mohammed; Benichou, Mohamed

2000-01-01

314

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

Science.gov (United States)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01

315

Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: Ion pairing in water  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Hückel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and molecular organization are still not completely mastered.

Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

2007-09-01

316

Elasticidade do solo em função da umidade e do teor de carbono orgânico / Soil elasticity as affected by water and organic carbon content  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O acúmulo de carbono orgânico (CO) observado em solos sob sistema de semeadura direta pode resultar em aumento de sua elasticidade, levando a maior resistência à compactação. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da umidade e do enriquecimento de CO sobre a elasticidade de dois solos, send [...] o um Nitossolo Vermelho distrófico latossólico e um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico arênico. Amostras superficiais de solo, coletadas no Argissolo e no Nitossolo, com variação significativa do teor de CO, foram equilibradas em quatro diferentes tensões de água e, então, submetidas a carregamentos e descarregamentos em uma prensa de compressão uniaxial, determinando-se o coeficiente de descompressão (Cd), o índice de recuperação do índice de vazios (Ir) e a redução da densidade (Re), após remoção das cargas aplicadas. Os resultados demonstram que o Ir variou de 11,4 a 16,4 % no Nitossolo e de 14 a 23,4 % no Argissolo, dependendo da tensão de água e do teor de CO da amostra. O teor de CO das amostras afetou significativamente o Cd e, conseqüentemente, a Re após a retirada das cargas. A Re média observada variou de 0,023 a 0,059 Mg m-3 e de 0,018 a 0,078 Mg m-3, respectivamente para o Argissolo e o Nitossolo. A elasticidade do solo é sensivelmente afetada pela variação no teor de água e de CO. Abstract in english The organic carbon accumulation observed in soils under no-till system can increase the soil elasticity, resulting in a higher resistance to soil compaction. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of water content and soil organic carbon (SOC) enrichment on soil elasticity. Samples of a [...] Hapludalf and a Typic Hapludox in southern Brazil, both with a significant variation in SOC content, were equilibrated at four different water tensions, and then loaded and unloaded on a uniaxial apparatus. The decompression coefficient (Cd), the recovery index (Ir) of the void ratio and the density rebound (Re) after load removal were determined. Results demonstrate that Ir varied from 11.4 to 16.4 % in the Hapludox and from 14 to 23.4 % in the Hapludalf, depending on the water tension and SOC content. The SOC content affected Cd significantly and, consequently, the rebound after load removal. The observed mean rebound varied from 0.023 to 0.059 Mg m-3 and from 0.018 to 0.078 Mg m-3, respectively, for the Hapludalf and the Hapludox. Soil elasticity is affected by variations in the water and SOC content.

João Alfredo, Braida; Jose Miguel, Reichert; Dalvan Jose, Reinert; Letícia, Sequinatto.

2008-04-01

317

Nuclear-waste repository impaired by effects of sub-surface salt dissolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty alkaline lake basins are underlain by Permian salt in West Texas-eastern New Mexico. Early workers thought the basins were created by solution of Permian salt, causing surface collapse. It wasn't until studies by Gustavson and others (1980-85) that salt dissolution beneath several basins was confirmed. Study of alkaline lake basins 240 km south of the main area worked by Gustavson and others (1980-85) shows basins associated and not associated with salt dissolution. Basins associated with salt dissolution are often underlain by Cretaceous formations which are either horizontal or displaced. Thus, evidence indicates many of the large lake basins are antecedent to salt dissolution, that salt dissolution results from infiltration of lake water, and that a certain amount of dissolution occurs before propagation of the cavity to surface. Areas of unusually thick Cretaceous rocks around several lake basins in the central Southern High Plains and unusually thick sections of Tertiary Ogallala in the Northern High Plains indicate regional dissolution of Permian salt beds prior to Cretaceous deposition. Therefore, dissolution of Permian salt in West Texas has been of long-term, regional extent, and formation of sinks, faults and the solute discharge of streams east of the Southern High Plains indicates salt dissolution continues. It therefore follows that the geologic integrity of any high-level nuclear-waste repository site in the Permian salt beds may be seriously impahe Permian salt beds may be seriously impaired, and that the geologic suitability of bedded salts for high-level nuclear-waste storage anywhere by seriously questions

318

The deuterium content of water in some volcanic glasses  

Science.gov (United States)

The deuterium-hydrogen composition (relative to Lake Michigan water = 0.0) of water extractsd from coexisting perlite and obsidian from eleven different localities was determined. The water content of the obsidians is generally from 0.09 to 0.29 per cent by weight, though two samples from near Olancha, California, contain about 0.92 per cent. The relative deuterium concentration is from -4.6 to -12.3 per cent. The coexisting perlite contains from 2.0 to 3.8 per cent of water with a relative deuterium concentration of -3.1 to -16.6 per cent. The deuterium concentration in the perlites is not related to that in the enclosed obsidian. The deuterium concentration in the perlite water is related to the deuterium concentration of the modern meteoric water and the perlite water contains approximately 4 per cent less deuterium than does the groundwater of the area in which the perlites occur. The above relations hold true for perlites from northern New Mexico, east slope of the Sierra Nevada. California Coast Range, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and New Zealand. As the water in the obsidian is unrelated to meteoric water, but the enclosing perlite water is related, we believe that this is evidence for the secondary hydration of obsidian to form high water content perlitic glass. ?? 1958.

Friedman, I.; Smith, R. L.

1958-01-01

319

Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one possible option to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The assessment of the risks related to CO2 storage is an important task. Events such as CO2 leakage and brine displacement and infiltration could result in hazards for human health and the environment and therefore have to be investigated in detail. In this work numerical simulations are performed to estimate the risk related to the displacement of brine. The injected CO2 will displace the brine that is initially present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters aredetermined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical uncertainty is investigated for three parameters: the well distance, the water production rate, and the permeability of the aquifer. One possible way of estimating statistical uncertainties and providing probabilities is performing numerical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The MC approach is computationally very demanding because many simulations runs are needed to get an appropriate statistical accuracy. A possible way to handle the complexity and uncertainties with acceptable computational costs is by running MC simulations with a reduced model using a model reduction technique called arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing. Depending on the applied grid the numerical dispersion strongly influence the results as well. The distance of the well is a key parameter that influences the salt concentration at the well, thus the time that the salt has for mixing until reaching the well is relevant. References [1] Oladyshkin, S. und W. Nowak: Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 106 (2012) 179–190.

Walter, Lena; Class, Holger

2014-01-01

320

In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Water budget and water-surface fluctuations, Great Salt Lake, Utah  

Science.gov (United States)

The water-budget equation for Great Salt Lakes is: Inflow = Outflow + or - Storage change. The average annual inflow for the period 1931-76 was about 2.9 million acre-feet; 1.9 million acre-feet from surface sources, about 900,000 acre-feet from direct precipitation, and about 75,000 acre-feet from ground water. The average annual outflow for the same period, all be evaportion, also was about 2.9 million acre-feet. Storage changes are computed on the basis of changes in the surface level of the lake. During the period of historic record, 1847-1978, the lake surface has fluctuated within a range of about 20 feet but has shown little overall change. The lake surface would have been about 5 feet higher in 1978 than it was in 1947 had there been no consumptive use of water caused by man 's activities in the lake basin. Since 1959 the lake has been divided into two parts by a railroad causeway, which has restricted the natural circulation. This has resulted in a difference of salinity and of surface level across the causeway. The difference in surface level between the two parts of the lake varies seasonally and annually and has been as much as 2.35 feet. (USGS)

Arnow, Ted

1978-01-01

322

Water and Salt Balance of Great Salt Lake, Utah, and Simulation of Water and Salt Movement through the Causeway.  

Science.gov (United States)

The report presents the results of the study that was done to modify the causeway model developed by Waddell and Bolke (1973). The main body of this report contains the results of the study, and the appendixes contain the details pertaining to the modific...

S. R. Wold, B. E. Thomas, K. M. Waddell

1998-01-01

323

Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD) levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk...

Oad, F. C.; Abro, Z. A.; Siyal, A. G.; Oad, N. L.; Siyal, A. A.

2002-01-01

324

Determination of potassium concentration in salt water for residual beta radioactivity measurements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High interferences may arise in the determination of potassium concentration in salt water. Several analytical methods were studied to determine which method provided the most accurate measurements of potassium concentration. This study is relevant for radiation protection because the exact amount of potassium in water samples must be known for determinations of residual beta activity concentration. The fitting algorithm of the calibration curve and estimation of uncertainty in potassium determinations were also studied. The reproducibility of the proposed analytical method was tested by internal and external validation. Furthermore, the residual beta activity concentration of several Spanish seawater and brackish river water samples was determined using the proposed method

325

Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2008-12-01

326

Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Liu, Zhi; MØller, Flemming

2011-01-01

327

Laboratory Characterization of Capacitance Sensors for Measuring Soil Water Content  

Science.gov (United States)

Automated sensing of soil water content with capacitance methods is common due to the relative ease of installation and monitoring at multiple sites. The resonant frequency of an inductance-capacitance circuit is a function of the dielectric permittivity of the material surrounding the ring-capacitor sensor. However, limited relationships between resonant frequency and permittivity in the soil water range have been reported. Furthermore, sensor readings and apparent water contents have been shown to vary with temperature in laboratory and field studies in the opposite direction of that expected for free water. We designed laboratory equipment and experiments to improve our fundamental knowledge about the behavior and characterization of such a capacitance sensor (Sentek EnviroSMARTTM). Four sensors are used for resonant frequency readings, while a fifth measures total capacitance directly on an HP Network Analyzer. A solvent-resistant container was designed for water-dioxane mixtures, which provide a complete range of permittivity values from 2.2 to over 80. The sensor readings are sensitive to permittivity changes in the range expected for soils from very dry to fully saturated. Variability between four sensors is reduced by normalization to readings in air and water. Frequency-based permittivity estimates in free water decreased linearly with temperature, as expected, substantiating the field-measured temperature dependence. Next, an expanding metal cylinder was used to interfere with the electrical field in air, water and two dioxane-water mixtures. The change in normalized readings with distance to the metal boundary is approximated by a negative exponential function with a characteristic length of 11 mm. The laboratory results are confirmed with numerical experiments assuming axisymmetric materials. Using the improved capacitance sensor characterization, water content can be estimated directly from permittivity using a universal calibration, and there is now a stronger basis for addressing the temperature-dependence of measurements in soil-air-water systems.

Green, T. R.; Schwank, M.; Flühler, H.

2005-12-01

328

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

329

Does water content or flow rate control colloid transport in unsaturated porous media?  

Science.gov (United States)

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? - ?r)/(?s - ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content. PMID:24588072

Knappenberger, Thorsten; Flury, Markus; Mattson, Earl D; Harsh, James B

2014-04-01

330

[Effects of salt stress on the contents of chlorophyll and organic solutes in Aeluropus littoralis var. sinensis Debeaux].  

Science.gov (United States)

After seedlings of Aeluropus sinensis var. sinensis Debeaux were treated with different NaCl concentrations (0-200 mmol/L) for 14 days, some physiological indexes were measured. The higher the NaCl concentration, the more the growth of A. sinensis was inhibited. The increase in root/shoot ratio suggests that the shoots are more sensitive to salinity than the roots. The diminished leaf area may reduce the transpiration rate, and the root mainly grew longitudinally, which may help the root to reach the water source under the high salinity conditions. Chl a contents increased, so did Chl b, but the Chl a/Chl b ratio declined, which implies the stimulation of Chl a accepted from NaCl is smaller than that of Chl b. After salt treatment, the organic solute contents increased (P<0.05), the proline, amino acids and soluble sugar contents increased more than organic acids, the increase in soluble carbohydrate may inhibit photosynthesis in feedback. The percentage of sucrose in soluble carbohydrates increased too. Although the organic dry weight of whole plant declined, the proportion of organic dry weight in total dry weight increased, and the osmotic potential of plant cell juice declined, which implies that the contribution of organic matter to osmotic adjustment increased with salinity. That is, A. sinensis had ability to tolerate salinity to a certain degree. PMID:17452803

Liu, Zhi-Hua; Shi, Li-Ran; Bai, Li-Rong; Zhao, Ke-Fu

2007-04-01

331

Potential Antioxidant Activities Improve Salt Tolerance in Ten Varieties of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The activity of antioxidative enzymes system is affected by salt stress, chlorophyll content (CHL, leaf relative water content (RWC, Na+ and K+ contents, their ratio and some oxidative stress indices were studied in leaves of ten bread wheat cultivarsSehar-06, Lu-26, NARC-09, BARC-09 and Pirsbak-09’(salt-tolerant and Kaghan-94, Rohtas-90, Soughat-90, Shaheen-94 and Zardana-89’(salt-sensitive, grown under salinity treatments carried out in five levels (1 dS·m-1 as control, 2, 4, 8, 16 dS·m-1 via sodium chloride. Under high salt potency significant increase for activities of antioxidant enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX and guiacol peroxidase (GPX, occured in salt tolerant varieties. Meanwhile, under salinity condition the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and (GPX in sensitive cultivar were lower than control. Regarding (APX activity there was no significant difference between salinity and control situation. Under salt stress membrane stability index (MSI of both cultivars were negatively influenced. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 content of salinity sensitive cultivars was higher than control. Salt tolerant varieties had more amounts of K+ content, K+ and Na+ ratio, relative water content, yield and chlorophyll under salt conditions, and sensitive ones recorded higher Na+ content at tillering stage. The mechanism of salt stress might be achieved due to low lipid peroxidation, assumingly lower changes in membrane stability index and evasion of Na+ combination and amplified activity of antioxidant enzymes.

Aurangzeb Rao

2013-06-01

332

Water Quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming, 1998-2001  

Science.gov (United States)

This report contains the major findings of a 1998-2001 assessment of water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in terms of local, State, and regional issues. Conditions in a particular basin or aquifer system are compared to conditions found elsewhere and to selected national benchmarks, such as those for drinking-water quality and the protection of aquatic organisms. This report is intended for individuals working with water-resource issues in Federal, State, or local agencies, universities, public interest groups, or in the private sector. The information will be useful in addressing a number of current issues, such as the effects of agricultural and urban land use on water quality, human health, drinking water, source-water protection, hypoxia and excessive growth of algae and plants, pesticide registration, and monitoring and sampling strategies. This report is also for individuals who wish to know more about the quality of streams and ground water in areas near where they live, and how that water quality compares to water quality in other areas across the Nation. The water-quality conditions in the Great Salt Lake Basins summarized in this report are discussed in detail in other reports that can be accessed at http://ut.water.usgs.gov. Detailed technical information, data and analyses, collection and analytical methodology, models, graphs, and maps that support the findings presented in this report in addition to reports in this series from other basins can be accessed at the national NAWQA Web site http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa.

Waddell, Kidd M.; Gerner, Steven J.; Thiros, Susan A.; Giddings, Elise M.; Baskin, Robert L.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Albano, Christine M.

2004-01-01

333

Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate

334

Copper ions interfere with the reduction of the water-soluble tetrazolium salt-8.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metabolic activity as a measure of cell viability is frequently determined using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt 2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-8), commercially available as CCK-8 reagent. In this study, CCK-8 was investigated with respect to its suitability for investigating nano- and microscale copper oxide (CuO NP and CuO MP) as well as water-soluble copper chloride (CuCl2). The results were compared to cell number and colony forming ability. Our data demonstrate that the CCK-8 assay overestimates the loss of metabolic activity by CuCl2 and CuO NP, because of interference by copper ions with the reduction of the dye. PMID:24380418

Semisch, Annetta; Hartwig, Andrea

2014-02-17

335

Effect of active water-soluble organic compounds of petroleum on salt deposits in petroleum equipment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-soluble acid compounds of oil that are highly active precipitants of calcium, magnesium and other ions were separated from salt deposits formed on the surface of petroleum equipment from an oil-water-gas medium. The influence of those compounds on salt deposition is demonstrated. 6 references, 2 tables.

Akhmetshina, I.Z.; Kagan, Ya.M.; Babalyan, G.A.; Maksimov, V.P.; Marinin, N.S.

1977-01-01

336

Streaming potential dependence on water-content in Fontainebleau sand  

Science.gov (United States)

The electrokinetic potential results from the coupling between the water flow and the electrical current because of the presence of ions within water. The electrokinetic coefficient is well described in fluid-saturated media, however its behaviour under unsaturated flow conditions is still discussed. We propose here an experimental approach to investigate streaming potential variations in sand at unsaturated conditions. We present for the first time continuous records of the electrokinetic coefficient as a function of water content. Two drainage experiments have been performed within a column filled with a clean sand. Streaming potential measurements are combined with water pressure and water content measurements every 10 cm along the column. In order to model hydrodymanics during the experiments, we solve Richards equation coupled with an inverse problem to estimate the hydraulic parameters of the constitutive relations between hydraulic conductivity, water pressure and water content. The electrokinetic coefficient C shows a more complex behaviour for unsaturated conditions than it was previously reported and cannot be fitted by the existing models. The normalized electrokinetic coefficient increases first when water saturation decreases from 100 to about 65-80 per cent, and then decreases as the water saturation decreases, whereas all previous works described a monotone decrease of the normalized electrokinetic coupling as water saturation decreases. We delimited two water saturation domains, and deduced two different empirical laws describing the evolution of the electrokinetic coefficient for unsaturated conditions. Moreover, we introduce the concept of the electrokinetic residual saturation, Sr,ekw, which allows us to propose a new model derived from the approach of the relative permeability used in hydrodynamics.

Allègre, V.; Jouniaux, L.; Lehmann, F.; Sailhac, P.

2010-09-01

337

Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the poly(propylene glycol)(400) (PPG(400))-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG(400)-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 ?g L(-1), and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 ?g L(-1). PMID:21241847

Xie, Xueqiao; Wang, Yun; Han, Juan; Yan, Yongsheng

2011-02-14

338

[Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

2014-04-01

339

Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Rice Seedlings by Exogenous Trehalose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synthesis and accumulation of small organic osmolytes is a mechanism which protects plants from damaging effects of abiotic stresses including salinity. The effects of three different osmoprotectants; trehalose (Tre, proline (Pro, and sorbitol (Sor on growth and physiology of rice seedlings subjected to salt stress were compared in this study. Four-day-old seedlings of rice cvs. Pokkali (PK; salt-tolerant and Patumthani 60 (PT60; salt-sensitive were treated with 5 mM and 10 mM Tre, Pro or Sor without and with 170 mM NaCl for 10 days. NaCl inhibited growth, caused a reduction in chlorophyll and K+ and increase Na+ and Na+: K+ ratio and the adverse effects of salt were more pronounced in PT60. Under salt stress, exogenous Tre was capable of alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl by enhancing growth, maintaining chlorophyll content and reducing Na+: K+ ratio. In contrast, Pro exacerbated the effects of NaCl by further reducing plant height, fresh and dry weights, although, it did not have any effects on chlorophyll content and ion accumulation. Exogenous Sor neither alleviated nor exacerbated the effects of NaCl. These results indicated that Tre was the most effective osmoprotectant which offered protective roles for rice seedlings subjected to salt stress and presented a practical implication for rice cultivation in salt-affected soils.

P. Theerakulpisut

2013-01-01

340

Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2?, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C

 
 
 
 
341

Calibrating a Salt Water Intrusion Model with Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

Herckenrath, Daan; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

2013-01-01

342

Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

1992-01-01

343

Iodine Content of Household Salt and Urinary Iodine of Primary School Pupils in Commercial Towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the iodine content of household salt and urinary iodine of primary school pupils in commercial towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two commercial towns (Orba and Ibagwa-aka in Nsukka senatorial district were purposely selected. Iodine content of salt was measured at household level as well the nutritional iodine status of 200 school aged children (6-12 years was assessed by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Validated questionnaire was used to test the Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Behaviour (KAPB of 40 household salt consumers and 15 salt retailers in the two communities. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data into frequencies, percentages and mean. More than half (58.3% of the household salt at Orba and 70% at Ibagwa-aka were iodized to an adequate level of > 15 ppm, while 12.5% at Orba and 3.7% at Ibagwa-aka, had no iodine (0 ppm. The proportions of the primary school children that were mildly iodine deficient at Orba and Ibagwa-aka were 43.3 and 56.2%, respectively. The factors that affect the iodine status of school children in the study areas include poor use of salt, unhygienic method of handling and storage of salt and cultural practices. There is need to increase awareness of both the retailers and consumers in Orba and Ibagwa-aka regarding the consequences of poor use, unhygienic handling and storage of salt.

Maduabuchi, Adimoranma

2013-01-01

344

Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices  

Science.gov (United States)

Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

Spieker, Andrew Maute

1970-01-01

345

Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

346

Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

347

From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

348

The imprint of land use on water and salt dynamics in the semiarid plains of Argentina  

Science.gov (United States)

As semiarid forests become increasingly replaced by rain-fed annual crops throughout the sedimentary plains of Argentina, changes in the water and salt balance of ecosystem and groundwater are likely to occur. This possibility is suggested by the recent formation of saline seeps and springs in the region and by a large body of observations under similar land cover transitions in other continents. Dry forests worldwide have shown extremely low deep drainage (groundwater recharge) and high vadose salt accumulation. Their cultivation initiated deep drainage, solute displacement, and rising water tables in many cases, affecting the long term viability of agriculture. To explore this possibility we characterized vadose moisture and chloride storage and transport in a sedimentary watershed that started to get cleared and cultivated ~100 years ago, and linked this observation to the sudden formation of salty streams through sediment liquefaction during the last 20 years. Within this watershed we selected 7 paired stands under dry forest and crops and sampled their sediments (n=3) down to 6 m of depth using hand augers. We characterized current surface water and salt export from the new streams at several points along their course and at three dates within a growing season (Jun/2008, Oct/2008 and Apr/2009). A consistently dry and salty zone was found below two meters of depth in dry forest stands, suggesting that they experienced very low to negligible deep drainage. Under cultivated dry forests chloride storage losses were >70% and moisture gains were of >30% more, suggesting a net chloride leaching of 150 to 1600 g m-2 following deforestation. New streams had a discharge of 10 mm yr-1 and salt exports of 6 g m-2 yr-1. Based on the cultivated area of the watershed and the net chloride lost from its soil profiles we estimate that at current water yield rates between 25 to 250 years of stream flow will be necessary to remove the leached salts out from the region. While the steady long term precipitation raise experienced by this region (30% more in in the last 100 years) has been assumed as the ultimate cause triggering the sudden formation of salty streams, dry forests have maintained their vadose salt stock and their typical low deep drainage rates until the present, suggesting that the combination of higher precipitation and extensive clearing of forest are two converging causes of hydrological change.

Santoni, C. S.; Jobbágy, E.; Risio Allione, L.; Llobell, D.; Galvan, M.

2009-12-01

349

Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

1996-01-01

350

Diversity of the predominant spoilage bacteria in water-boiled salted duck during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spoilage microbiota in water-boiled salted duck during storage at 4 degrees C was determined using culture-dependent and independent methods. Analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns of PCR amplicons targeting the V3 region of the 16S rDNA and sequencing of the bands allowed profiling of the microbiota present in the duck. Community DNA extracts were prepared directly from water-boiled salted duck and from culturable bacterial fractions harvested from both MRS and PCA media. The spoilage bacteria mainly consisted of Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Macrococcus caseolyticus, Weissella, Halomonas sp. or Cobetia sp., and Exiguobacterium sp. based on sequencing and homology search of the DGGE bands. It appeared that both the bacterial counts and diversity increased during storage time. By plating method, bacterial counts in MRS agar increased from 10(4) to 10(8) CFU/g from day 1 to 10, while total bacterial counts in PCA agar reached 10(9) CFU/g after 10 d. Total of 14 strains isolated from PCA and MRS agar were identified as M. caseolyticus (2), S. saprophyticus (7), S. sciuri (1), W. paramesenteroides (2), and W. confusa (2) by 16S rDNA sequencing. The identification of the spoilage-related microbiota is helpful to better understand the bacteria ecology in water-boiled salted duck and may lead to the discovery of appropriate preservation strategies. PMID:20629890

Liu, Fang; Wang, Daoying; Du, Lihui; Zhu, Yongzhi; Xu, Weimin

2010-06-01