WorldWideScience

Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Correlation Between Soil Water Retention Capability and Soil Salt Content

    2000-01-01

    The soil moisture retention capability of Chao soil and coastal saline Chao soil in Shandong and Zhejiang provinces were measured by pressure membrane method. The main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability were studied by the methods of correlation and path analyses. The results indicated that < 0.02mm physical clay and soil salt content were the main factors influencing soil moisture retention capability. At soil suction of 30~50 kPa, the soil salt content would be the dominant factor.

  2. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.36±0.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.32±1.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.33±0.30 mg and 33±44 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  3. A novel methyl pyridinium salt for the detection of water content in organic solvents

    ZHANG Mingyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel pyridinium salt,TM was synthesized from 2,6-dimethylpyridin.TM exhibits pronounced negative solvatochromism and possesses high absorption spectral sensitivities to water content changes.TM could be used to measure the water content in organic solvents such as THF,1,4-dioxane,acetone,and methanol.The detection limit was 0.04% for THF.The calibration curve for the determination of water in THF was obtained.TM exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity in the absorbance detection of water in organic solvents.

  4. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chlorid...

  5. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  6. Salt tolerance of Beta macrocarpa is associated with efficient osmotic adjustment and increased apoplastic water content.

    Hamouda, I; Badri, M; Mejri, M; Cruz, C; Siddique, K H M; Hessini, K

    2016-05-01

    The chenopod Beta macrocarpa Guss (wild Swiss chard) is known for its salt tolerance, but the mechanisms involved are still debated. In order to elucidate the processes involved, we grew wild Swiss chard exposed to three salinity levels (0, 100 and 200 mm NaCl) for 45 days, and determined several physiological parameters at the end of this time. All plants survived despite reductions in growth, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance in plants exposed to salinity (100 and 200 mm NaCl). As expected, the negative effects of salinity were more pronounced at 200 mm than at 100 mm NaCl: (i) leaf apoplastic water content was maintained or increased despite a significant reduction in leaf water potential, revealing the halophytic character of B. macrocarpa; (ii) osmotic adjustment occurred, which presumably enhanced the driving force for water extraction from soil, and avoided toxic build up of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the mesophyll apoplast of leaves. Osmotic adjustment mainly occurred through accumulation of inorganic ions and to a lesser extent soluble sugars; proline was not implicated in osmotic adjustment. Overall, two important mechanisms of salt tolerance in B. macrocarpa were identified: osmotic and apoplastic water adjustment. PMID:26588061

  7. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  8. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  9. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  10. Variation in Salt Content of Heavily-textured Coastal Saline Soils Leached by Brackish Water%微咸水淋洗重壤质滨海盐土的盐分变化研究

    廉晓娟; 李明悦; 王艳; 张余良; 王立艳; 王正祥

    2011-01-01

    In order to save fresh water resource, it was necessary to explore and utilize reasonably brackish water replacing fresh water to improve saline soils, the author investigated the desalination effect of heavily-textured coastal saline soils leached by brackish water in field plot experiment. The results showed that in the well drained soils, using the brackish water with salinity of 3.5 g/L could lead to a fast and mark desalination effect. Taking saving water and desalination effect into account, the author suggested that an optimal leaching method was to sequentially leaching soil for three times with 1200 m3/hm2 brackish water. This method could decreased total salt content of soil (0-60 cm) to 3 g/kg and even below, make the desalination ratio to 60%, so that soil salt content met the requirement of common landscape plants.%为了节约淡水资源,合理开发利用微咸水代替淡水来改良盐碱地土壤.采用野外小区试验的方法,对不同灌水条件下滨海盐土土壤的脱盐效果进行分析.结果表明:在良好的排水条件下,采用矿化度约3.5 g/L的微咸水淋洗滨海盐土,能使土壤迅速脱盐,脱盐效果明显.综合节水和脱盐效果双重考虑,微咸水淋洗重壤质滨海盐土,以淋洗量1200 m3/hm2,连续淋洗3次为适宜的淋洗方式,能使0~60 cm土壤剖面的全盐量降低到3 g/kg以下,脱盐率达60%以上,土壤盐分含量达到一般绿化植物的生长要求.

  11. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    Guðjónsdóttir, María; Traoré, Amidou; Jónsson, Ásbjörn;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical...... analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained...... spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps...

  12. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m3 and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially

  13. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

    2013-04-01

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  14. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  15. Effect of water phase salt content and storage temperature on Listeria monocytogenes survival in chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe and caviar (ikura).

    Shin, Joong-Han; Rasco, Barbara A

    2007-06-01

    Salmon caviar, or ikura, is a ready-to-eat food prepared by curing the salmon roe in a brine solution. Other seasonings or flavorants may be added, depending upon the characteristics of the product desired. Listeria monocytogenes growth is a potential risk, since it can grow at high salt concentrations (>10%) and in some products at temperatures as low as 3 degrees C. Ikura was prepared from chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) roe by adding food-grade NaCl to yield water phase salt contents (WPS) of 0.22% (no added salt), 2.39%+/- 0.18%, 3.50%+/- 0.19%, and 4.36%+/- 0.36%. A cocktail containing L. monocytogenes (ATCC 19114, 7644, 19113) was incorporated into the ikura at 2 inoculum levels (log 2.4 and 4.2 CFU/g), and stored at 3 or 7 degrees C for up to 30 d. L. monocytogenes was recovered by plating onto modified Oxford media. Aerobic microflora were analyzed on plate count agar. Samples were tested at 0, 5, 10, 20, and 30 d. L. monocytogenes did not grow in chum salmon ikura held at 3 degrees C during 30 d at any salt level tested; however, the addition of salt at these levels did little to inhibit Listeria growth at 7 degrees C and counts reached 5 to 6 logs CFU/g. Components in the salmon egg intracellular fluid appear to inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes. Total aerobic microflora levels were slightly lower in products with higher salt contents. These results indicate that temperature control is critical for ikura and similar products, but that products with lower salt contents can be safe, as long as good refrigeration is maintained. PMID:17995738

  16. Effect of temperature, water-phase salt and phenolic contents on Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation of secondary models.

    Cornu, M.; Beaufort, A.; Rudelle, S; Laloux, L.; Bergis, H.; Miconnet, N; Serot, T.; Delignette-Muller, M. L.

    2006-01-01

    Salting and smoking are ancient processes for fish preservation. The effects of salt and phenolic smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were investigated through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked salmon at 4 degrees C and 8 degrees C, and a survey of the literature. Estimated growth rates were compared to predictions of existing secondary models, taking into account the effects of temperature, water phase salt content, ...

  17. Determining salt concentrations for equivalent water activity in reduced-sodium cheese by use of a model system.

    Grummer, J; Schoenfuss, T C

    2011-09-01

    The range of sodium chloride (salt)-to-moisture ratio is critical in producing high-quality cheese products. The salt-to-moisture ratio has numerous effects on cheese quality, including controlling water activity (a(w)). Therefore, when attempting to decrease the sodium content of natural cheese it is important to calculate the amount of replacement salts necessary to create the same a(w) as the full-sodium target (when using the same cheese making procedure). Most attempts to decrease sodium using replacement salts have used concentrations too low to create the equivalent a(w) due to the differences in the molecular weight of the replacers compared with salt. This could be because of the desire to minimize off-flavors inherent in the replacement salts, but it complicates the ability to conclude that the replacement salts are the cause of off-flavors such as bitter. The objective of this study was to develop a model system that could be used to measure a(w) directly, without manufacturing cheese, to allow cheese makers to determine the salt and salt replacer concentrations needed to achieve the equivalent a(w) for their existing full-sodium control formulas. All-purpose flour, salt, and salt replacers (potassium chloride, modified potassium chloride, magnesium chloride, and calcium chloride) were blended with butter and water at concentrations that approximated the solids, fat, and moisture contents of typical Cheddar cheese. Salt and salt replacers were applied to the model systems at concentrations predicted by Raoult's law. The a(w) of the model samples was measured on a water activity meter, and concentrations were adjusted using Raoult's law if they differed from those of the full-sodium model. Based on the results determined using the model system, stirred-curd pilot-scale batches of reduced- and full-sodium Cheddar cheese were manufactured in duplicate. Water activity, pH, and gross composition were measured and evaluated statistically by linear mixed model

  18. Limitations of amorphous content quantification by isothermal calorimetry using saturated salt solutions to control relative humidity: alternative methods.

    Khalef, Nawel; Pinal, Rodolfo; Bakri, Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Despite the high sensitivity of isothermal calorimetry (IC), reported measurements of amorphous content by this technique show significant variability even for the same compound. An investigation into the reasons behind such variability is presented using amorphous lactose and salbutamol sulfate as model compounds. An analysis was carried out on the heat evolved as a result of the exchange of water vapor between the solid sample during crystallization and the saline solution reservoir. The use of saturated salt solutions as means of control of the vapor pressure of water within sealed ampoules bears inherent limitations that lead in turn to the variability associated with the IC technique. We present an alternative IC method, based on an open cell configuration that effectively addresses the limitations encountered with the sealed ampoule system. The proposed approach yields an integral whose value is proportional to the amorphous content in the sample, thus enabling reliable and consistent quantifications. PMID:19774655

  19. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana B.; Popović Milka B.; Bijelović Sanja V.; Velicki Radmila S.; Torović Ljilja D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food...

  20. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-15

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  1. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    Møller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.; Andersen, Simon Ulf;

    2012-01-01

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphyloc......Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and...... Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of...

  2. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  3. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion

    Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excreti...

  4. Can the water content of highly compacted bentonite be increased by applying a high water pressure?

    A great many laboratory investigations have shown that the water uptake in highly compacted MX-80 clay takes place by diffusion at low external pressure. It means that wetting of the clay buffer in the deposition holes of a KBS-3 repository is very slow if the water pressure is low and that complete water saturation can take several tens of years if the initial degree of water saturation of the buffer clay and the ability of the rock to give off water are low. It has therefore been asked whether injection of water can raise the degree of water saturation and if a high water pressure in the nearfield can have the same effect. The present report describes attempts to moisten highly compacted blocks of MX-80 clay with a dry density of 1510 kg/m3 by injecting water under a pressure of 650 kPa through a perforated injection pipe for 3 and 20 minutes, respectively. The interpretation was made by determining the water content of a number of samples located at different distances from the pipe. An attempt to interpret the pattern of distribution of injected uranium acetate solution showed that the channels into which the solution went became closed in a few minutes and that dispersion in the homogenized clay gave low U-concentrations. The result was that the water content increased from about 9 to about 11-12 % within a distance of about 1 centimeter from the injection pipe and to slightly more than 9 % at a distance of about 4-5 cm almost independently of the injection time. Complete water saturation corresponds to a water content of about 30 % and the wetting effect was hence small from a practical point of view. By use of microstructural models it can be shown that injected water enters only the widest channels that remain after the compaction and that these channels are quickly closed by expansion of the hydrating surrounding clay. Part of the particles that are thereby released become transported by the flowing water and cause clogging of the channels, which is

  5. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.)

  6. Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo

    The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    There are few types of nuclear probes that measure the soil water content. The aim of this study is to develop a new nuclear probe, optimise its geometry using the code MCNP4C and calibrate it. This nuclear probe is constituted by a 60 keV gamma radiation source, a soil sample and a plastic scintillator. A beam of radiation coming from the source reaches the sample and is scattered by Compton effect. The scintillator then detects this scattered radiation. Its optimization is made using the MCNP4C adjusting the three parameters: distance between the source and the scintillator, dimensions of soil sample and source's energy. After choosing the optimized system, small amount of water is progressively added into the soil sample until its saturation, what permits correlate counts with water content. The results showed the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. (author)

  8. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  9. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered γ ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

  10. Salt Content Impacts Food Preferences and Intake among Children

    Bouhlal, Sofia; Chabanet, Claire; Issanchou, Sylvie; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-su...

  11. Salt content impacts food preferences and intake among children.

    Sofia Bouhlal

    Full Text Available Decreasing dietary sodium intake, which can be achieved by reducing salt content in food, is recommended. Salt contributes to the taste of foods and makes them more enjoyable. Whether a food is liked or disliked is an important determinant of food intake, especially among children. However, the role of salt in children's food acceptance has received little attention. The impact of salt content on children's hedonic rating and intake of two foods was investigated in children. Using a within-subject crossover design, we recruited 75 children (8-11 years to participate in five lunches in their school cafeteria. The target foods were green beans and pasta. The added salt content was 0, 0.6 or 1.2 g/100 g. The children's intake (g of all lunch items was measured. The children provided their hedonic rating of the food, a preference ranking and a saltiness ranking in the laboratory. Children could rank the foods according to salt content, and they preferred the two saltier options. A food-specific effect of salt content on intake was observed. Compared to the intermediate level (0.6 g salt/100 g, not adding salt decreased green bean intake (-21%; p = 0.002, and increasing the salt content increased pasta intake (+24%; p<0.0001. Structural Equation Modeling was used to model the relative weights of the determinants of intake. It showed that the primary driver of food intake was the child's hunger; the second most important factor was the child's hedonic rating of the food, regardless of its salt content, and the last factor was the child's preference for the particular salt content of the food. In conclusion, salt content has a positive and food-specific effect on intake; it impacted food preferences and intake differently in children. Taking into account children's preferences for salt instead of their intake may lead to excessive added salt.

  12. Water ingestion by rats fed a high-salt diet may be mediated, in part, by visceral osmoreceptors.

    Manesh, Reza; Hoffmann, Myriam L; Stricker, Edward M

    2006-06-01

    After surgical removal of all salivary secretions ("desalivation"), rats increase their consumption of water while eating dry laboratory chow. In the present experiments, desalivated rats drank even more water while they ate "powdered" high-salt food (i.e., water intake. A presystemic osmoregulatory signal likely stimulated thirst because the Na+ and water contents of the gastric chyme computed to a solution approximately 150 mM NaCl. In contrast, desalivated rats drank much smaller volumes of water while eating "pulverized" high-salt food (i.e., 60-140-mg food particles), and the fluid mixture in the gastric chyme computed to approximately 280 mM NaCl solution. These and other findings suggest that the NaCl ingested in the powdered high-salt diet was dissolved in the gastric fluid and that duodenal osmoreceptors (or Na+-receptors) detected when the concentration of fluid leaving the stomach was elevated after each feeding bout, and promptly stimulated thirst, whereupon rats drank water until the gastric fluid was diluted back to isotonicity. However, when rats ate the pulverized high-salt diet, much of the NaCl ingested may have been embedded in the gastric chyme and therefore was not accessible to visceral osmoreceptors once it emptied from the stomach. Consistent with that hypothesis, fluid intakes were increased considerably when desalivated rats drank 0.10 M NaCl instead of water while eating either powdered or pulverized high-salt food. PMID:16455760

  13. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  14. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  15. Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl−, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ∼98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. (paper)

  16. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content) affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Daskalov Hristo; Fejzullah Fejzulla; Stoyahchev Todora

    2013-01-01

    Commission Regulation (EC) 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw), salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period ...

  17. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Viegas, C.A.C.L .; Torgal, J.; Graça, Pedro; Oliveira Martins, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumersapos; perceptions about salt. Methods Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by...

  18. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Cláudia Alexandra Colaço Lourenço Viegas; Jorge Torgal; Pedro Graça; Maria do Rosário Oliveira Martins

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a...

  19. Determination of alkyllead salts in water and whole eggs by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection

    Forsyth, D.S.; Marshall, W.D.

    1983-11-01

    Alkyllead salts (R/sub 3/Pb/sup +/ and R/sub 2/Pb/sup 2 +/, R = Methyl or Ethyl) are recovered from water or whole eggs by complexometric extraction with dithizone. The dithizonates are phenylated and speciated by capillary column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The method is sensitive to low parts per billion levels of lead salts in 2.5 g egg homogenate. At these levels methyllead salts (but not ethyllead salts) interact strongly with the sample matrix. Treatment of the matrix with lipases and proteases releases them. 4 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Quaternary diffusion coefficients in a protein-polymer-salt-water system determined by rayleigh interferometry.

    Annunziata, Onofrio; Vergara, Alessandro; Paduano, Luigi; Sartorio, Roberto; Miller, Donald G; Albright, John G

    2009-10-01

    We have experimentally investigated multicomponent diffusion in a protein-polymer-salt-water quaternary system. Specifically, we have measured the nine multicomponent diffusion coefficients, D(ij), for the lysozyme-poly(ethylene glycol)-NaCl-water system at pH 4.5 and 25 degrees C using precision Rayleigh interferometry. Lysozyme is a model protein for protein-crystallization and enzymology studies. We find that the protein diffusion coefficient, D(11), decreases as polymer concentration increases at a given salt concentration. This behavior can be quantitatively related to the corresponding increase in fluid viscosity only at low polymer concentration. However, at high polymer concentration (250 g/L), protein diffusion is enhanced compared to the corresponding viscosity prediction. We also find that a protein concentration gradient induces salt diffusion from high to low protein concentration. This effect increases in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol). Finally, we have evaluated systematic errors associated with measurements of protein diffusion coefficients by dynamic light scattering. This work overall helps characterize protein diffusion in crowded environments and may provide guidance for further theoretical developments in the field of protein crystallization and protein diffusion in such crowded systems, such as the cytoplasm of living cells. PMID:19746957

  1. Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages

    Daskalov Hristo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ≤ 0,92 and pH ≥ 4,4 or pH ≥ 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

  2. Determination of Water Content of Water-soluble Paints by Gas Chromatography

    顾润南; 钦维民; 肖舸

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the determination of water content of water-soluble paints by gas chromatography. The water in paints is extracted by dimethyl formamide (DMF) as a solvent.Isopropanol is used as an internal standard. The mixture is separated by low-speed centrifugation.Then a 1-uL sample of the supernatant from the prepared solution is injected into the gas chromatograph. The water content is determined by internal standard calibration curve. The rate of recovery of added standard of this method is more than 98%. Relative mean deviation is less than 3‰.The linearity of calibration curve is good and relativity coefficient is higher than 0.998.

  3. Complex polyion-surfactant ion salts in equilibrium with water: changing aggregate shape and size by adding oil.

    Bernardes, Juliana S; Norrman, Jens; Piculell, Lennart; Loh, Watson

    2006-11-23

    The phase behavior of ternary mixtures containing an alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate complex salt, water, and a nonpolar "oil" (n-decanol, p-xylene or cyclohexane) is investigated. The complex salts were prepared with short or long polyacrylates (30 or 6000 repeating units) and with hexadecyltrimethylammonium or dodecyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions. Phase diagrams and structures were determined by visual inspection and small-angle X-ray scattering analyses. Systems containing decanol display a predominance of lamellar phases, while hexagonal phases prevail in systems containing p-xylene or cyclohexane. The difference is interpreted as a result of the different locations of the oils within the surfactant aggregates. Decanol is incorporated at the aggregate interface, leading to a decrease in its curvature, which favors the appearance of lamellar structures. p-Xylene and cyclohexane, on the other hand, are mostly incorporated in the interior of the cylindrical aggregate, as reflected by its swelling as the oil content increases. The comparison of these results with those reported for similar systems with monovalent (bromide) counterions indicates a much more limited swelling of the lamellar phases with polymeric counterions by water. This limited swelling behavior is predominantly ascribed to bridging due to the polyions. PMID:17107195

  4. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background A high salt (=NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109), and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71). Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers) to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages) with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased. PMID:20305749

  5. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  6. Treatment of Sewer Water Using Alum Salt

    Qaid M. Saleem; Yousif Mohamed Algamal; Majed H. Shtaiwi; Mohammad S. Aldahmashi

    2014-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of addition of different concentrations of alum salt used in the treatment of sewer water of the pond and also to study the physico-chemical parameters such as pH ,electrical conductivity ,salinity and total sediments besides that the bacteriological analysis such as total viable count (TVC) or standard plate count (SPC) and total coliform count (MPN) content were analysed in the water sample collected from the pond estimation of viable...

  7. When do water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complex salts "redissolve" by added excess surfactant?

    dos Santos, Salomé; Gustavsson, Charlotte; Gudmundsson, Christian; Linse, Per; Piculell, Lennart

    2011-01-18

    The redissolution of water-insoluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes by added excess of surfactant has systematically been investigated in experimental and theoretical phase equilibrium studies. A number of stoichiometric polyion-surfactant ion "complex salts" were synthesized and they consisted of akyltrimethylammonium surfactant ions of two different alkyl chain lengths (C(12)TA(+) and C(16)TA(+)) combined with homopolyions of polyacrylate of two different lengths (PA(-)(25) and PA(-)(6000)) or copolyions of acrylate and the slightly hydrophobic nonionic comonomers N-isopropylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-NIPAM) or N,N-dimethylacrylamide (PA(-)-co-DAM). The complex salts were mixed with water and excess alkyltrimethylammonium surfactant with either bromide or acetate counterions (C(n)TABr or C(n)TAAc). Factors promoting efficient redissolution were (i) very short polyions, (ii) a large fraction of NIPAM or DAM comonomers, and (iii) acetate, rather than bromide, as the surfactant counterion. Added C(12)TAAc gave an efficient redissolution of C(12)TAPA(25) but virtually no redissolution of C(12)TAPA(6000). A very efficient redissolution by added C(12)TAAc was obtained for PA(-)-co-NIPAM with 82 mol % of NIPAM. The C(12)TAPA-co-NIPAM/C(12)TAAc/H(2)O ternary phase diagram closely resembled the corresponding diagram for the much-studied pair cationic hydroxyethyl cellulose-(sodium) dodecyl sulfate. The simple Flory-Huggins theory adopted for polyelectrolyte systems successfully reproduced the main features of the experimental phase diagrams for the homopolyion systems, including the effect of the surfactant counterion. The efficient redissolution found for certain copolyion systems was explained by the formation of soluble polyion-surfactant ion complexes carrying an excess of surfactant ions through an additional hydrophobic attraction. PMID:21166446

  8. Shear-induced starch-gluten separation at very low water content aided by xylanases

    Hardt, N.A.; Chauhan, H.; Boom, R.M.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of extremely low water content on shear-induced starch–gluten separation and how endoxylanases influence the separation by releasing water associated with arabinoxylan. Shearing was performed at a water content ranging from 34% to 43.5% (w/w). It was possible to con

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts

    Jing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA as electron donor and eosin Y (EY as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON reached 148 (H2/Co in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene.

  10. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  11. Titanium for salt water service

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  12. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  13. Structure Evolution of Ordered Mesoporous Carbons Induced by Water Content of Mixed Solvents Water/Ethanol.

    Li, Peng; Liang, Shujun; Li, Zhenzhong; Zhai, Yan; Song, Yan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, mesostructure evolution of ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) from the 2-D hexagonal (space group p6mm) to the discontinuous cubic [Formula: see text], then towards the face-centered cubic lattice [Formula: see text], and finally, to the simple cubic Pm3n is achieved by simply adjusting the cosolvent water content of the mixed solvents water/ethanol in the presence of a reverse nonionic triblock copolymer and low molecular resin by evaporation-induced self-assembly method. Experimental results demonstrate that both the cosolvent and the reverse triblock copolymer play a key role in the mesophase transitions of OMCs. Furthermore, the OMCs with Pm3n symmetry are reported for the first time. Finally, the mechanism of mesostructure transition was discussed and proposed. PMID:27518232

  14. Quantifying Microbial Utilization of Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Salt Marsh Sediments by Using the 13C Content of Bacterial rRNA▿

    Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William D.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2007-01-01

    Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we took a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the 13C-enriched C4 grass Spartina alterniflora and 13C-depleted petroleum to monitor changes in the 13C content of biomass. Magnetic bead capture methods for selective recovery...

  15. STUDY ON DESALINATION OF SALT WATER BY THE RE FRIGERATION METHOD.%盐水冷冻淡化研究

    乌志明; 邓小川

    2001-01-01

    进行了低浓度盐溶液的冷冻及含盐冰的部分融化实验,实验表明柴达木盆地盐湖区的盐水可通过自然冷冻实现浓淡分离,盐溶液自然冷冻以及含盐冰部分融化的脱盐效果都有相应的最适宜温度范围,所以随着冷季温度的变化处理相应浓度的盐水才能取得最佳效果。%The experiments of the refrigeration of diluted salt water and the partial melting of salt - containing ice to acquire fresh water have been done. The results indicate that the salt water in the lake areas of the Chaidam Basin can be desalinated. To achieve ideal effects for the desalination by the natural refrigeration - partial melting method,the optimum range of temprature must be provided. Therefore, processing certain concentration of salt water in accordance with the variation of temperature in the freezing weather, the best separation results can be obtained.

  16. Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (ρb) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ρb as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (ρb and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

  17. Research of the Activity of Earthquakes Induced by Water Injection of Salt Mining in Changning County, Sichuan Province

    Ruan Xiang; Cheng Wanzheng; Zhang Yongjiu; Li Jun; Chen Yin

    2009-01-01

    According to information from on-the-spot investigations, the tectonics of salt mining areas and digital seismic records, we studied the activity of earthquakes induced by water pumping in and out of the salt mines in Shuanghe town, Changning county, Sichuan Province. The study found that the rates of water injection and extraction in the Shuanghe salt mining region were evenly matched before April 2006 and earthquake activity was stable. On the other hand, shallow small and moderate earthquake numbers increased sharply after the water injection rate became much larger than the water extraction rate. Large injection over a long time may causes the permeation of water through pre-existing small fractures and micro-cracks in the Changning anticlinal and accelerate the rupture of micro tectonic formations in nearby regions, inducing small earthquake swarm activity. The Q value calculated by using digital earthquake records indicates a relatively inhomogeneous medium in this area. The results of the accurate location of small earthquakes show that sources are relatively shallow and are concentrated at a depth of 2km to 3km. Focal mechanism solutions reveal a normal dip-slip character of shallow earthquakes. All of these show certain characteristics of earthquake activity induced by water injection.

  18. Simulation of detection of total content of N, P in water using PGNAA by MCNP code

    The total content of N, P is an important index of water quality detection. The content of a special element in a water sample could be determined by prompt γ rays neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) quickly. The process, γ rays were emitted while the water sample was irradiated by neutron beam, was simulated by a model set up MCNP code and a pulse neutron generator as neutron source. The total content of N, P of class Ⅳ-Ⅴ water demanded by the surface water environment quality standard were used as basis. So that detection limit of N, P using PGNAA could be gained. If the total content of N, P in the water sample were small, the detection precision could be improved by increasing the neutron flux or concentrating the water sample. For contaminated water, the total content of N, P can be obtained quickly by PGNAA so that related departments could take measures to deal with polluted water in time when emergency of water pollution takes place. (authors)

  19. “Inexhaustible” source of hydrogen may be unlocked by salt water

    Logan, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    A grain of salt or two may be all that microbial electrolysis cells need to produce hydrogen from wastewater or organic by-products, without adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or using grid electricity, according to engineers in the USA at The Pennsylvania State University. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  1. Salt-Water Transport in Unsaturated Soils Under Crop Planting: Dynamics and Numerical Simulation

    XU Li-Gang; YANG Jing-Song; ZHANG Qi; LIU Guang-Ming

    2005-01-01

    A laboratory salt-water dynamics experiment using unsaturated soils in packed silt loam and clay soil columns with different soil texture profiles and groundwater levels under crops were conducted to study the changes of salt-water dynamics induced by water uptake of crops and to propose the theoretical basis for the regulation and control of saltwater dynamics as well as to predict salinity levels. The HYDRUS 1D model was applied to simulate the one-dimensional movement of water and salt transport in the soil columns. The results showed that the salts mainly accumulated in the plow layer in the soil columns under crops. Soil water and salt both moved towards the plow layer due to soil water absorption by the crop root system. The salt contents in the column with lower groundwater were mostly greater than those with high groundwater. The water contents in the soil columns increased from top to the bottom due to plant root water uptake. The changes in groundwater level had little influence on water content of the root zone in the soil columns with crop planting. Comparison between the simulated and the determined values showed that model simulation results were ideal, so it is practicable to do numerical simulation of soil salt and water transport by the HYDRUS 1D model.Furthermore, if the actual movement of salt and water in fields is to be described in detail, much work needs to be done.The most important thing is to refine the parameters and select precise boundary conditions.

  2. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  3. Effects of Saline Ice Water Irrigation on Distribution of Moisture and Salt Content in Coastal Saline Soil%咸水冻融灌溉对重度盐渍土壤水盐分布的影响

    张越; 杨劲松; 姚荣江

    2016-01-01

    Saline ice water irrigation must go through two processes:saline ice melting and melt-water infiltration,which determine the effect of irrigation together. An in-lab saline ice melting experiment was conducted using saline water,two in salinity(7.5 g L-1 and 15 g L-1)to investigate changes in quantity, quality and ion composition of the saline water during the ice melting process,and a simulated soil column irrigation experiment designed to have four treatments in irrigation water:Treatment FW(irrigation with fresh water),Treatment SW(irrigation with saline water 7.5 g L-1 in salinity),Treatment SIW(7.5) (irrigation with saline ice melted water 7.5 g L-1 in salinity),and Treatment SIW(15)(irrigation with saline ice-melted water 15 g L-1 in salinity),and two treatments in irrigation mode(irrigation with water directly and irrigation with ice),was also conducted to explore effects of irrigation with saline melt water on water and salt movements in the coastal saline soil(silt loam in texture). Results show that saline ice, regardless of salinity level,melted similarly in melting process with melt water higher in volume,salinity and sodium adsorption ration(SAR)at the initial melting stage and lower in the late stage,and ion content and electrical conductivity(EC)of the melt water displayed a similar pattern. Only about 25.46% and 32.78% of the melt water flowing out from saline ice,7.5 g L-1and 15 g L-1 in salinity,respectively,during its thawing process was less than 3 g L-1,which was critical in soil salt elution. In Treatment FW of the soil column experiment,soil water and salt movement lasted the longest,soil hydraulic conductivity dropped the fastest and soil water content in the surface soil layer after the irrigation water completely infiltrated into the soil was the highest,reach 33.88%,followed by 30.16% in Treatment SIW(15),29.40% in Treatment SIW(7.5)and 28.64 in Treatment SW. In the four treatments,mean soil salt content reached 2.32 g kg-1 in Treatment

  4. Salt Contents in Soils Under Plastic Greenhouse Gardening in China

    2001-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted on three main soils, brown soil, meadow soil and cinnamon soil, of Shandong Province to study the effect of plastic greenhouse gardening on soil salt contents. As compared to the open fields, the soil nutrient contents in the fields under plastic greenhouse gardening all increased significantly. The organic matter, quickly available N and P increases were extremely significant and the quickly available K increase was also significant. Along with the nutrient increases the soil salt contents increased clearly in all the soils investigated not only in the top layer but also in the deeper layers, being extremely significant in the 0~10 cm layer and significant in the 10~40 cm layers. The salt contents in the plastic greenhouses had significant correlations with the soil available nitrogen and phosphorous. Soils with longer plastic greenhouse gardening time tended to have more salt. The plastic greenhouse soils contained less CO32- and much more NO3- than the open soils, which indicated a higher influence of human intervention in plastic greenhouses. Among the constituent ions, Cl-, NO3-, Ca2+ and Mg2+ had positive while HCO3- had negative significant or extremely significant correlations with total salt, with correlation coefficients being 0.66*, 0.80**, 0.92**, 0.80** and -0.64*, respectively. Nitrate decreased from the top to deeper layers both in the plastic greenhouses and in the open fields. The plastic greenhouse soils contained much more nitrate than the open fields in every layer and even the nitrate contents of the 80~100 cm layer were still several times those of the top layer in the open fields. The main reason for the salt increases was considered to be the inappropriate fertilization and selective absorption of nutrients by plants in the plastic greenhouses. The methods recommended to avoid soil salt increase in the plastic greenhouses were to apply fertilizers rationally according to the soils, vegetables and

  5. Protoplast water content of bacterial spores determined by buoyant density sedimentation.

    Lindsay, J A; Beaman, T C; Gerhardt, P

    1985-01-01

    Protoplast wet densities (1.315 to 1.400 g/ml), determined by buoyant density sedimentation in Metrizamide gradients, were correlated inversely with the protoplast water contents (26.4 to 55.0 g of water/100 g of wet protoplast) of nine diverse types of pure lysozyme-sensitive dormant bacterial spores. The correlation equation provided a precise method for obtaining the protoplast water contents of other spore types with small impure samples and indicated that the average protoplast dry densi...

  6. Investigation of iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along the coast of Zhejiang, China

    LU Ying-li; WANG Ning-jian; ZHU Lan; WANG Guo-xing; WU Hui; KUANG Lin; ZHU Wen-ming

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We aim to describe the environment iodine concentration in salt, water and soil along Zhejiang Province coast in the China foreland. It will be helpful for us to judge whether this area is insufficient in iodine and universal iodized salt is necessary or not. Methods: We collected iodized salt samples, drinking water samples (tap water in the towns, and well water or spring water in the villages), water samples from different sources (ditches, lakes, rivers) and soil samples through random sampling in June, 2005. Salt, water and soil iodine was detected by arsenic-cerium redox method. Statistical analysis was expressed as mean±SEMby Windows SPSS 13.0. Results: (1) The iodine concentration in salt was 27.9±4.33 mg/kg (n=108). (2) Seventy-five water samples were collected. The water iodine value was 0.6~84.8 μg/L (mean of 11.66 μg/L). The watershed along the Qiantang River has significantly higher iodine content than the water in Lin'an in mountain area (P<0.01). The iodine content and mean iodine content of tap water, well or spring water and natural water sources were 4.30±2.43 μg/L (n=34), 23.59±27.74 μg/L (n=19)and 12.72±10.72 μg/L (n=22) respectively. This indicated that among environmental water sources, the ditch iodine content was the highest with river water iodine being the lowest (P<0.01). (3) Soil iodine value was 0.11~2.93 mg/kg (mean of 1.32 mg/kg).Though there was no statistical difference of soil iodine in different districts (P=0.131), soil iodine content correlated positively with water iodine content. Conclusion: Iodine concentration in salt accords with national policy of adding iodine in salt. Foreland has more iodine in water than mountain area. The data reflected that water and soil iodine in foreland area was not high, which suggests universal iodized salt should be necessary. Environment iodine has relatively close association with pollution.

  7. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    Preeti Tiwari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining half cubes were cast and cured with salt water. The concrete cubes were cured for 7,14 and 28 days respectively. The result of the average compressive strength of concrete obtained using fresh water ranges from 27.12 - 39.12N/mm2 and using salt water ranges from 28.45 – 41.34N/mm2

  8. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten;

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For...... the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in- house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total...

  9. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with inhouse catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly sele...

  10. Water content of acacia honey dertermined by two established methods and by optothermal window

    Szopos, S.; Doka, O.; Bicanic, D.D.; Ajtony, Z.

    2008-01-01

    The major objective of the research study described here was to explore the potential of the optothermal window (OW) technique as a new approach towards a simple, rapid determination of water content in honey. Water, major component of foods, influences their physical and chemical properties. Single

  11. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

  12. Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography

    Computed tomography (CT) is a promising tool that may help provide measurements needed to obtain finer resolution in soil-water content and bulk density for water uptake studies or detailed investigation of root-soil interactions. Research was conducted on soil collected from the A horizon of Mexico silt loam (Udollic Ochraqualfs) and the B2t horizon of Crider silt loam (Typic Paleudalfs) to evaluate the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids and water. Air-dry soil (3 and CT slices or tomographs were taken before and after water was added. The relationship between attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids was linear for both of the soils evaluated. Parameter values for the Mexico soil compared favorably with those determined on previous data collected from Metea fine sandy loam (Arenic Hapludalfs). Differences in the parameter values for the Mexico and Crider soils were attributed to differences in Fe content. An experiment with Fe added to the Mexico soil was conducted that verified the effect of Fe content on the attenuation coefficients. Approximately 98% of the variation between the attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil water was accounted for by using linear regression relationships after correction for swelling. Results from this study indicate that it may be possible to develop a universal relationship for computed tomography data vs. soil bulk density and water content; however, more research is needed to characterize the influence of sample size on the calibration relationship

  13. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Döll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10 m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12 m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and

  14. Using advanced oxidation treatment for biofilm inactivation by varying water vapor content in air plasma

    Ryota, Suganuma; Koichi, Yasuoka

    2015-09-01

    Biofilms are caused by environmental degradation in food factories and medical facilities. The inactivation of biofilms involves making them react with chemicals including chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, and ozone, although inactivation using chemicals has a potential problem because of the hazardous properties of the residual substance and hydrogen peroxide, which have slow reaction velocity. We successfully performed an advanced oxidation process (AOP) using air plasma. Hydrogen peroxide and ozone, which were used for the formation of OH radicals in our experiment, were generated by varying the amount of water vapor supplied to the plasma. By varying the content of the water included in the air, the main product was changed from air plasma. When we increased the water content in the air, hydrogen peroxide was produced, while ozone peroxide was produced when we decreased the water content in the air. By varying the amount of water vapor, we realized a 99.9% reduction in the amount of bacteria in the biofilm when we discharged humidified air only. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25630104.

  15. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    Preeti Tiwari; Rajiv Chandak

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining ha...

  16. Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses

    Gyura Julianna F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

  17. Water-in-crude oil emulsion formation and stability for crude oils in fresh, brackish and salt water. Volume 2

    Crude oil spilled at sea is subjected to weathering. The main physical process of weathering are water-in-oil emulsification, evaporation, dispersion, dissolution and oil-sediment interaction. For medium to heavy oils, evaporation and dispersion are less important, and the onset of water-in-oil emulsion formation becomes the most important weathering process for spill response. Emulsification involves the incorporation of water droplets into the continuous oil phase. As such, it has a pronounced effect on the physical properties and characteristics of an oil, affecting its behaviour and ultimate fate. Emulsions formed from heavy oils contain higher proportions of asphaltenes and resins and may persist for long periods or indefinitely. This paper provided a direct comparison of stability for emulsions formed from crude oils with both fresh and salt water containing 20 or 33 per cent sodium chloride. Emulsions from 5 crude oil were compared. It was noted that oils that form emulsions in salt water will also form in fresh water, in the same stability class. Stable fresh water emulsions have lower values of the viscoelastic parameters, indicating decreased stability compared to stable salt water emulsions. The difference between stable and meso-stable emulsions formed from water of 20 and 33 per cent salinity was small, but meso-stable emulsions from fresh water could achieve higher levels of water content and have higher initial values of the viscoelastic parameters than with salt water. The nature of stabilizer deficiency determines the form of degraded meso-stable emulsions. It was concluded that since entrained water states are created by a different chemical-physical process or mixing mode, there is no difference in emulsions product due to the ionic content of salt water. However, wax content may be a contributor to the stabilization for entrained water states. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs

  18. The effect of supplementary irrigation with slight salt water and straw returned to field on soil salt content dynamic and grain yield%秸秆还田对微咸水补灌的土壤盐分抑制及作物产量的影响

    许建新; 孙文彦; 李燕青; 段梅堂; 李志杰; 尹红娟

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system in low plain of Northern Shandong province to study the effect of supplementary irrigation with slight salt water and straw returned to field on soil salt content dynamic and grain yield. The results indicated that 1 ~2 times irrigation in wheat growth stage with 2 ~4 g/L salt content water combined straw returned to field had no significant influence on grain yield and soil salt accumulation. Without straw returning, 2 times irrigation with 4 g/L salt water made a significant soil salt accumulation, harmed the wheat growth and decreased the wheat grain yield obviously. After straw returned, the soil plough layer became loose, bulk density improved and soil non-capillary porosity increased significantly. All these could effectively inhibit salt accumulation and make the crop root grow better in soil plough layer. The agricultural strategies of irrigation altering with non-salt water and slight salt water, straw returned to field and leaching top soil salt with summer rain could make the soil profile salt content get balance yearly. Which ensured the safety and high efficiency of supplementary irrigation with slight salt water.%通过田间小区试验,研究了鲁北低平原地区小麦、玉米两熟制下微咸水补灌对土壤盐分与作物产量的影响以及玉米秸秆还田对微咸水灌溉土壤盐分的调控作用.结果表明:麦季利用2 ~4 g/L矿化度的微咸水补灌1~2次,秸秆还田的小区没有发生明显积盐现象,对粮食产量基本无影响.用4 g/L矿化度的微咸水连续补灌2次,没有秸秆还田的小区土壤耕层明显积盐,对小麦生长产生明显危害并影响产量.秸秆还田后的土壤耕层结构疏松,容重降低,非毛管孔隙度显著增加,能有效抑制土壤盐分表聚,使作物主要根系活动层保持较低盐分水平而不影响作物正常生长.利用咸淡水轮灌压盐、秸秆还田抑盐、雨季

  19. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  20. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  1. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  2. Hormonal activity in detached lettuce leaves as affected by leaf water content.

    Aharoni, N; Blumenfeld, A; Richmond, A E

    1977-06-01

    The interrelationship between water deficiency and hormonal makeup in plants was investigated in detached leaves of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. ;Hazera Yellow'). Water stress was imposed by desiccating the leaves for several hours in light or darkness at different air temperatures and relative humidity. In the course of desiccation, a rise in abscisic acid content and a decline in gibberellin and cytokinin activity were observed by gas-liquid chromatography, by both the barley endosperm bioassay and radioimmunoassay and by the soybean callus bioassay. Gibberellin activity began to decline in the stressed leaves before the rise in abscisic acid, the rate of this decline being positively correlated with the rate of increase in leaf water saturation deficit. Recovery from water stress was effected by immersing the leaf petioles in water while exposing the blades to high relative humidity. This resulted in a decrease in leaf water saturation deficit, a reduction in abscisic acid content, and an increase in gibberellin and cytokinin activity.Application of abscisic acid to the leaves caused partial stomatal closure in turgid lettuce leaves, whereas treatment with gibberellic acid and kinetin of such leaves had no effect on the stomatal aperture. In desiccating leaves, however, gibberellic acid and kinetin treatment considerably retarded stomatal closure, thus enhancing the increase in leaf water saturation deficit. These results suggest that the effect of desiccation in changing leaf hormonal make-up, i.e. a rapid increase in abscisic acid and a decrease in both cytokinin and gibberellin activity, is related to a mechanism designed to curtail water loss under conditions inducing water deficiency. PMID:16660015

  3. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  4. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts

    Jing Wang; Ke Feng; Hui-Hui Zhang; Bin Chen; Zhi-Jun Li; Qing-Yuan Meng; Li-Ping Zhang; Chen-Ho Tung; Li-Zhu Wu

    2014-01-01

    There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA) as electron donor and eosin Y (EY) as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h,...

  6. Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes

    The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3−, and NO2−) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

  7. METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER

    Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard.The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision.The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

  8. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Giannakoula Anastasia; Ilias I.F.; Dragišić-Maksimović Jelena J.; Maksimović V.M.; Živanović Branka D.

    2012-01-01

    Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl) did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC) was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrom...

  9. Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology

    ZHANG Dongqing; HE Pinjing; SHAO Liming; JIN Taifeng; HAN Jingyao

    2008-01-01

    The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses.

  10. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  11. Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

    2012-10-15

    Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

  12. Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density

    J. Pytka

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

  13. Measuring atomized-water content at flood discharge of dam by nuclear technique

    The working principles of nuclear technique for measuring atomized-water content at flood discharge of dam are described. A 241Am point γ-ray source and a NaI(Tl) scintillator are used for measuring higher water content. A 90Sr plane β-ray source and a plastic scintillator are adopted for determining lower water content. In addition, the laboratory calibrating is studied and the experiment data is assayed. A case study at Lubuge Hydro-power Station in Yunnan Province is presented

  14. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  15. Seasonal Change of Water Absorption Capability and Moisture Content of the Top Salt-crust in Lop Nur Dry Lake%罗布泊干盐湖表层盐壳含水率季节性变化及吸水特征研究

    孔德庸; 李保国; 马黎春; 蒋平安; 武红旗; 刘洪鹏

    2016-01-01

    stronger than that in WOS both under the conditions of high humidity and different temperatures in field test or laboratory simulation test, and the difference of water absorption capability is even more than 10 times, probably caused by the difference of the mineral compositions, such as the content of magnesium sulfate in the two observing sites during the salt-curst formation and development.

  16. Recovery of ZrO{sub 2} by leaching from LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} molten salt in distilled water

    Woo, Mun Sik; Yoo, Jae Hyung; Park, Hyun Soo; Kang, Young Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Han [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    LiF-BeF{sub 2}-ZrF{sub 4} (63-30-7 mol%) molten salt was dissolved up to 0.02 g in 1 ml of distilled water at room temperature. ZrO{sub 2} oxide made from ZrF{sub 4} through pyrohydrolysis was recovered by leaching in distilled water with LiF-BeF{sub 2Z}rF{sub 4} molten salt including it at room temperature. The crystalline sharpness of recovered ZrO{sub 2} oxide was not damaged. (author)

  17. A universal salt model based on under-ground precipitation of solid salts due to supercritical water `out-salting'

    Rueslåtten, H.; Hovland, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    shallow magma-chamber causes a sufficiently high heat-flow to drive a convection cell of seawater. The model shows that salt precipitates along the flow lines within the supercritical region (Hovland et al., 2006). During the various stages of planet Mars’ development, it must be inferred that zones with very high heat-flow also existed there. This meant that water (brine) confined in the crust of Mars was mobilized in a convective manner and would pass into the supercritical water zone during the down-going leg (the recharge leg) of the convective cell. The zones with supercritical out-salting would require accommodation space for large masses of solid salt, as modeled in the Red Sea analogy. However, as the accommodation space for the solid salt fills up, it will pile up and force its way upwards to form large, perhaps layered anticlines, as seen in the Hebes Mensa area of Mars and at numerous locations on Earth, including the Red Sea. Thus, we offer a universal ‘hydrothermal salt model’, which would be viable on all planets with free water in their interiors or on their surfaces, including Mars and Earth. Hovland, et al., 2006. Salt formation by supercritical seawater and submerged boiling. Marine and Petrol. Geol. 23, 855-69

  18. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    García-Pérez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martínez-Escrivá, G.; González, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  19. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.8×10-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is

  20. Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt

    Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-Nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kučerka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2005-01-01

    Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

  1. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  2. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20 mg/L and 0.018 mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  3. Monitoring of water quality around tailing pond at PPGN by chemical and radioactivity content

    This research purpose is to monitor the water quality of soil around the waste pond through measurement of chemical constituents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and U) and water radioactivity. The water quality around tailing pond can be identified by analyzed the water sample from 4 control wells as deep as 20 m located on the fourth side of the pool and 2 comparison wells with a distance of 50 m and 100 m from the tailing pond. The measurement of chemical constituents of control well water and comparison well water was done by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The measurement of Uranium content was done by using UV - VIS Spectrophotometer, whereas measurement of radioactivity was measured by Eberline SPA-1 α detector associated with a counter scalers Ludlum model 1000. Determination of the quality of well water was used Storet method. Measurement result obtained in 2010 : the chemical content water in the control wells; Ca (2.31 - 2.91) mg/l, Mg (0.22 - 0.34) mg/l, Fe (0.024 - 0.033) mg/l, Ni (0.0028 - 0.030) mg/l, Zn (0.0019 - 0.025) mg/l, Cu (0.038 - 0.060) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.041) mg/l, Mn (0.004 - 0.005) mg/l, U (0.051 - 0.298) mg/l, Ni (0.003 - 0.004) mg/l, Zn (0.03 - 0.04) mg/l, Cu (0.004 - 0.004) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.003), Mn (0.005 - 0.021) mg/l, and radioactivity of Uranium was (0.025. 10-3 - 0.028.10-3) Bq/l. The radioactivity of control wells in the first quarter (2.321 - 2.635).10-2 Bq/l, second quarter (2.162 - 2.823).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.424 - 2.931 ).10-2 Bq/l, fourth quarter (2.283 - 2.643).10-2 Bq/l. The radioactivity of comparison well water in the firs quarter was (2.931 - 2.931).10-2 Bq/l., second quarter (2.162 - 2.550).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.931- 2.931 ).10-2, fourth quarter (2.450 - 2.632).10-2 Bq/l. This result showed that there are no pollutant release into the environment. Based on the evaluation result using Storet and US-EP A (Environmental Protection Agency) method, the water quality around tailing pond of

  4. Detection of Salt Water Indicator with Electrolysis%电解用盐水指标检测

    许红霞; 孙微微; 赵新苓

    2012-01-01

    Now the electrolysis is widely used to produce caustic soda in industry,and electrolytic salt solution produces caustic soda,chlorine,hydrogen.Salt dissolved in the crude Salt water contains many impurities,agents need to be refined by adding a variety of fine,and be refined into a qualified salt water,then be sent to the electrolysis process.Before and after sperm preparation is added,indicators of Salt water need to test.This paper examined the content of NaCl in coarse salt water,contents of NaOH and Na2CO3in salt water,and contents of Ca2+,Mg2+,SO42-and iron content in refined salt water.%目前工业生产烧碱普遍采用电解法,电解食盐水溶液产生烧碱、氯气、氢气。原盐溶解后得到的粗盐水含有许多杂质,需要加入各种精制剂进行精制,精制成合格的精盐水后,再送往电解工序。加入精制剂前后需要对盐水的指标进行检测,本文主要检测了粗盐水中NaCl含量,盐水中NaOH、Na2CO3的含量,精盐水中Ca2+、Mg2+、SO42-及铁离子含量。

  5. Water vapor adsorption in activated carbon modified with hydrophilic organic salts

    姚小龙; 李立清; 李海龙; 池东

    2015-01-01

    Five different kinds of hydrophilic organic salts were used to modify commercial activated carbon in order to prepare hydrophilic carbon materials. Properties of the samples were analyzed by surface area analyzer and SEM-EDX. The hydrophilic organic salts with different properties were introduced into activated carbon and significantly affected the properties of the samples. During adsorption experiments, the water vapor adsorption amount in modified samples increases by 0.57−17.12 times in temperature range from 303 to 323 K and at relative pressure below 0.50. Water molecules combined with surface hydrophilic groups through H-bonding exhibit good thermo stability. The effects of temperature, oxygen content and properties of the hydrophilic organic salts on water vapor adsorption were studied. It is indicated that water vapor adsorption in modified samples is mainly affected by the surface oxygen content. The carboxylate radicals in the hydrophilic organic salts greatly affect the micropore structure of the modified samples, while the metal ions in them exhibit limited influence. Different adsorption capacity of modified samples can be explained with the electronegativity of elements presented by Pauling.

  6. New parametric implementation of metamorphic reactions limited by water content, impact on exhumation along detachment faults

    Mezri, L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Wolf, S.; Burov, E.

    2015-11-01

    Metamorphic phase changes have a strong impact on the physical and mechanical properties of rocks including buoyancy (body forces) and rheology (interface forces). As such, they exert important dynamic control on tectonic processes. It is generally assumed that phase changes are mainly controlled by pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions. Yet, in reality, whatever the PT conditions are, phase changes cannot take place without an adequate amount of the main reactant - water. In present day geodynamic models, the influence of water content is neglected. It is generally assumed that water is always available in quantities sufficient for thermodynamic reactions to take place at minimal Gibbs energy for given P and T conditions and a constant chemical composition. If this assumption was correct, no high-grade metamorphic rocks could to be found on the Earth's surface, since they would be retro-morphed to low-grade state during their exhumation. Indeed, petrologic studies point out that water, as a limiting reactant, is responsible for the lack of retrograde metamorphic reactions observed in the rocks exhumed in typical MCC contexts. In order to study the impact of fluid content on the structure of metamorphic core complexes, we have coupled a geodynamic thermo-mechanical code Flamar with a fluid-transport and water-limited thermodynamic phase transition algorithm. We have introduced a new parameterization of Darcy flow that is able to capture source/sink and transport aspects of fluid transport at the scale of the whole crust with a minimum of complexity. Within this model, phase transitions are controlled by pressure temperature and the local amount of free fluid that comes from both external (meteoric) and local (dehydration) sources. The numerical experiments suggest a strong positive feedback between the asymmetry of the tectonic structures and the depth of penetration of meteoric fluids. In particular, bending-stress distribution in asymmetric detachment zones

  7. Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method

    Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H2O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author)

  8. Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications

    Highlights: ► The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ► The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ► A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ► The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ► The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at −196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

  9. Profile of water contents in concrete under dry-absorption repeated condition by neutron radiography

    The authors have examined the moisture content distribution inside concrete, which is closely associated with the durability evaluation of reinforced concrete, using neutron radiography. In particular, they experimentally examined water content distribution in the concrete under environments of repeated drying and water-absorption, and the effects of cracks and temperature on drying. As a result, it was confirmed that moisture was further diffused into the inside and water was accumulated during drying, while generating the increase or decrease of moisture content on the surface. Under the temperature of 20degC, the existence of cracks under 0.05 mm in width did not significantly affect the drying rate of the part within 1 cm from the cracks. The existence of cracks 0.3 mm in width was confirmed to have slightly fastened the drying rate around the cracks. It was also confirmed that under the temperature of 20degC, the change in drying rate was little, and under 50degC, relative moisture content decreased to 60% or less at the position up to 8 cm in depth after 28 days of drying. It was clarified that moisture content was fluctuated inside concrete, and its temporal change was not homogeneous. (A.O.)

  10. Cross-sectional survey of salt content in cheese: a major contributor to salt intake in the UK

    Hashem, Kawther M; He, Feng J.; Jenner, Katharine H; MacGregor, Graham A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the salt (sodium chloride) content in cheese sold in UK supermarkets. Study design We carried out a cross-sectional survey in 2012, including 612 cheeses available in UK supermarkets. Methods The salt content (g/100 g) was collected from product packaging and nutrient information panels of cheeses available in the top seven retailers. Results Salt content in cheese was high with a mean (±SD) of 1.7±0.58 g/100 g. There was a large variation in salt content between diff...

  11. Effect of salts on the interfacial tension of asphaltene-toluene/water interface : prediction by Poisson-Boltzmann modified model and experimental validation

    Se, R.A.G.; Lima, E.R.A.; Nele, M.; Tavares, F.W. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Chemistry; Bostrom, M. [Linkoping Univ., Linkoping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Chemistry and Biology

    2008-07-01

    This study presented new experimental data of interfacial tension of toluene-asphaltene/water systems in the presence of different salts. In order to study the stability of emulsions caused by the presence of salts in produced water, it is important to understand the interaction of ions at the interface. It was simpler to use model systems consisting of asphaltenes dissolved in toluene because of the complexity of the interfacially active components in oil. The study involved a Brazilian crude oil in which asphaltene was precipitated with a 1:15 ratio of n-heptane and solutions of water with salts LiCl, KCl, NaCl, NaI, NaBr and KBr in concentrations of 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 M. The study investigated salt mixtures NaCl/NaBr and NaCl/NaI in the proportions 0.8:0.2, 0.6:0.4, 0.4:0.6, 0.2:0.8 molar. The experimental data was modeled using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation that considered dispersion in order to take into account the influence of ions at the interface.

  12. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Luis Leonardo Sáenz Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  13. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue;

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The...... the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake......, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable....

  14. Indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents by salting-out effect for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Daneshfar, Ali; Khezeli, Tahere

    2014-12-01

    A simple and low-cost method that indirectly suspended droplet microextraction of water-miscible organic solvents (ISDME) by salting-out effect before high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) detection was used for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different samples. The ISDME is a combination of salting-out extraction of water-miscible organic solvent and directly suspended droplet microextraction (DSDME). Ninety-five microliters water-miscible organic solvent (1-propanol) was added to a 500-µL sample. A homogeneous solution was formed immediately. To produce a steady vortex at the top of the solution, the sample was agitated at 700 rpm using a magnetic stirrer. By the addition of ammonium sulfate (saturated solution) to the homogeneous solution, 1-propanol was separated and collected at the bottom of the steady vortex. Finally, 20 µL 1-propanol was injected into HPLC-UV. The effects of important parameters such as water-miscible organic solvent (type and volume), type of salt, and extraction time were evaluated. Under optimum conditions, the method has a good linear calibration range (0.1 µg/L-300 µg/L), coefficients of determination (R(2) > 0.998), low limits of detection (between 0.02 µg/L and 0.27 µg/L), and acceptable recovery (>85.0%). PMID:25242239

  15. Airborne endotoxin associated with particles of different sizes and affected by water content in handled straw.

    Madsen, A M; Nielsen, S H

    2010-07-01

    High exposures to endotoxin are observed in environments where organic materials are handled and lower exposures are found in e.g. indoor air. Inhaled endotoxin contributes significantly to the induction of airway inflammation and dysfunction. The size of an inhaled particle influences the deposition in the airways and the following health symptoms. The objective is to characterise the distribution of endotoxin on airborne particles of different sizes in straw storage halls with high exposure and in other environments with lower exposure levels to endotoxin. Furthermore we have studied the influence of water content of handled straw on the size distribution of endotoxin containing particles. Total, inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin and particles have each been quantified in aerosols from boiler rooms and straw storage halls at 24 power plants, including 21 biofuel plants. Inhalable, thoracic and respirable endotoxin have been quantified in aerosols from offices and outdoor air. The endotoxin concentration was higher in airborne thoracic dust than in airborne 'total dust'. The median respirable fraction in the straw storage halls, boiler rooms at biofuel plants, boiler rooms at conventional plants, offices and outdoors was respectively 42%, 9%, 19%, 24% and 34%. Thoracic endotoxin per number of thoracic particles was higher than respirable endotoxin per number of respirable particles at the biofuel plants. In straw storage halls the fraction of endotoxin of respirable size was highest on the days with lowest water content in the received straw. Furthermore the exposures to all endotoxin fractions were highest on days with the lowest water content in the received straw. In conclusion the highest exposures and concentrations of endotoxin occur or tend to occur from thoracic dust. A high variation in endotoxin concentrations and in fractions of respirable or thoracic size is found in the different working areas. This is important in the risk assessment and

  16. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (PH2O) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, PH2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  17. Water Content of Earth's Continental Mantle Is Controlled by the Circulation of Fluids or Melts

    Peslier, Anne; Woodland, Alan B.; Bell, David R.; Lazarov, Marina; Lapen, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    A key mission of the ARES Directorate at JSC is to constrain models of the formation and geological history of terrestrial planets. Water is a crucial parameter to be measured with the aim to determine its amount and distribution in the interior of Earth, Mars, and the Moon. Most of that "water" is not liquid water per se, but rather hydrogen dissolved as a trace element in the minerals of the rocks at depth. Even so, the middle layer of differentiated planets, the mantle, occupies such a large volume and mass of each planet that when it is added at the planetary scale, oceans worth of water could be stored in its interior. The mantle is where magmas originate. Moreover, on Earth, the mantle is where the boundary between tectonic plates and the underlying asthenosphere is located. Even if mantle rocks in Earth typically contain less than 200 ppm H2O, such small quantities have tremendous influence on how easily they melt (i.e., the more water there is, the more magma is produced) and deform (the more water there is, the less viscous they are). These two properties alone emphasize that to understand the distribution of volcanism and the mechanism of plate tectonics, the water content of the mantle must be determined - Earth being a template to which all other terrestrial planets can be compared.

  18. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger; Binning, Philip John

    2014-01-01

    present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water...... production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters are determined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical...... very demanding because many simulations runs are needed to get an appropriate statistical accuracy. A possible way to handle the complexity and uncertainties with acceptable computational costs is by running MC simulations with a reduced model using a model reduction technique called arbitrary...

  19. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic

  20. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  1. Improvement of water use efficiency in rice by expression of HARDY, an Arabidopsis drought and salt tolerance gene

    Karaba, A.; Dixit, S.A.; Greco, Raffaella; Aharoni, A.; Trijatmiko, K.R.; Marsch-Martinez, N.; Krishnan, A; Nataraja, K.N.; Udayakumar, M.; A.B. Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Freshwater is a limited and dwindling global resource; therefore, efficient water use is required for food crops that have high water demands, such as rice, or for the production of sustainable energy biomass. We show here that expression of the Arabidopsis HARDY (HRD) gene in rice improves water use efficiency, the ratio of biomass produced to the water used, by enhancing photosynthetic assimilation and reducing transpiration. These drought-tolerant, low-water-consuming rice plants exhibit i...

  2. Filling and sealing of shafts in salt mines necessitated by an inrush of water or brine into a shaft

    Within the investigations for the underground disposal of radioactive waste in the Federal Republic of Germany also the possibilities of sealing a flooded shaft have been studied. If it seems not practical to safe the mine by pumping from the shaft sump or by closing the shaft with a large valve, the shaft has to be filled and sealed. For this purpose several layers of different materials are placed in the shaft. Tests have been started to find out the most suitable binder for plugs in rock salt strata. Some results of laboratory tests with three kinds of cement are published

  3. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Paradelo Pérez, Marcos;

    2016-01-01

    -and-eighty-seven undisturbed soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were sampled from six conventionally managed agricultural fields in Denmark. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay contents and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 kg kg-1 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg-1, respectively...... (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curve (BTC), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the......Solute transport through the soil matrix is heterogeneous and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. Hundred...

  4. The Significance of Interfacial Water Structure in Soluble Salt Flotation Systems.

    Hancer, M.; Celik, M. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2001-03-01

    Flotation of soluble salts with dodecyl amine hydrochloride (DAH) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) collectors has demonstrated that the interfacial water structure and hydration states of soluble salt surfaces together with the precipitation tendency of the corresponding collector salts are of considerable importance in explaining their flotation behavior. In particular, the high concentration of ions in these soluble salt brines and their hydration appear to modify the bulk and interfacial structure of water as revealed by contact angle measurements and this effect is shown to be an important feature in the flotation chemistry of soluble salt minerals including alkali halide and alkali oxyanion salts. Depending on characteristic chemical features (salt type), the salt can serve either as a structure maker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is facilitated, or as a structure breaker, in which intermolecular hydrogen bonding between water molecules is disrupted. For structure making salts the brine completely wets the salt surface and no contact angle can be measured. For structure breaking salts the brine does not completely wet the salt surface and a finite contact angle is measured. In this regard it has been found that soluble salt flotation either with the cationic DAH or anionic SDS collector is possible only if the salt is a structure breaker. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11237454

  5. The estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbons content in waste water by IR spectrometry with multivariate calibrations.

    Vershinin, Viacheslav I; Petrov, Sergey V

    2016-02-01

    Alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes have rather different sensitivities to IR-spectrometric determination, leading to high relative uncertainty (δc) for the total petroleum hydrocarbon index (TPH) in natural and waste waters. Another source of TPH uncertainty is the mismatch of group composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in the sample and in the standard substance used for one-dimensional calibration. Increasing the number of wavelengths and using of multivariate calibrations permit the reduction of δc to <10% rel. These calibrations may be constructed from IR-spectra and findings of extracts from aqueous solutions with known content of hydrocarbons. The method takes into account the losses of hydrocarbons during sample preparation. The accuracy of TPH estimations for this method is much better than for standard methods based on one-dimensional calibration with Simard mixture. This new method is useful in produced waste water analysis. PMID:26653437

  6. EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION OF RADISH RED PIGMENT FROM A WASTE WATER OF SALTING RADISH BY D61 RESIN

    ZhouXiaohua; KangJajie; 等

    1996-01-01

    Extraction and separation of Radish red pigment from a waste water of salting Radish was studied on D61 resin.The exchange capacity of adsorption the pigment was equal to 60.91mg·g-1 wet resin,and the equilibium time only 40mins.All Radish red pigment adsorbed on D61 resin was eluted using a eluent in which concentraction of HCl or alcohol was 0.1mol·L-1 or 80% at 50℃ when the flow rate was at 2BV·hm-1.Stability of D61 resin was very well,and while the resin was recycled fifteen times, the exchange capacity was only decreased 11.9%,and the exchange capacity didn′t changed.Because of negative ion of mustard oil,it could′t be adsorbed on the resin.Finally, a paste product with yield of 1.96mg·100ml-1 waste water was obtained after alcohol evaporation and vacuum drying.

  7. Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2008-01-01

    Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P 0.30 m deeper (P atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

  8. Errors in determination of soil water content using time-domain reflectometry caused by soil compaction around wave guides

    Ghezzehei, T.A.

    2008-05-29

    Application of time domain reflectometry (TDR) in soil hydrology often involves the conversion of TDR-measured dielectric permittivity to water content using universal calibration equations (empirical or physically based). Deviations of soil-specific calibrations from the universal calibrations have been noted and are usually attributed to peculiar composition of soil constituents, such as high content of clay and/or organic matter. Although it is recognized that soil disturbance by TDR waveguides may have impact on measurement errors, to our knowledge, there has not been any quantification of this effect. In this paper, we introduce a method that estimates this error by combining two models: one that describes soil compaction around cylindrical objects and another that translates change in bulk density to evolution of soil water retention characteristics. Our analysis indicates that the compaction pattern depends on the mechanical properties of the soil at the time of installation. The relative error in water content measurement depends on the compaction pattern as well as the water content and water retention properties of the soil. Illustrative calculations based on measured soil mechanical and hydrologic properties from the literature indicate that the measurement errors of using a standard three-prong TDR waveguide could be up to 10%. We also show that the error scales linearly with the ratio of rod radius to the interradius spacing.

  9. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  10. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  11. The poisoning of 201 x 7 resin by humic acid (salt) in recovery of uranium from mine water and its mechanism

    The strong-base ion exchange resin 201 x 7 is used to recover uranium from the nearly neutral and weak alkaline mine water of three mines A, B and C. The poisoning of resin is found very serious. The results of investigation by using infrared spectrometry and others show that the poisoning of the resin originates from the humic acid (salt). The decreasing of speed of ion exchange is the main feature, but there is no significant effect on ion exchange capacity of the resin. The mechanism of the poisoning is also explored and the model of poisoning is given as follows: the humic acid (salt) stops up the vacant sites of the resin as a sponge and occupies a lot of them

  12. The Receptacle Model of Salting-In by Tetramethylammonium Ions

    Hribar–Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-01-01

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the MB + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series’ as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  13. Receptacle model of salting-in by tetramethylammonium ions.

    Hribar-Lee, Barbara; Dill, Ken A; Vlachy, Vojko

    2010-11-25

    Water is a poor solvent for nonpolar solutes. Water containing ions is an even poorer solvent. According to standard terminology, the tendency of salts to precipitate oils from water is called salting-out. However, interestingly, some salt ions, such as tetramethylammonium (TMA), cause instead the salting-in of hydrophobic solutes. Even more puzzling, there is a systematic dependence on solute size. TMA causes the salting-out of small hydrophobes and the salting-in of larger nonpolar solutes. We study these effects using NPT Monte Carlo simulations of the Mercedes-Benz (MB) + dipole model of water, which was previously shown to account for hydrophobic effects and ion solubilities in water. The present model gives a structural interpretation for the thermodynamics of salting-in. The TMA structure allows deep penetration by a first shell of waters, the dipoles of which interact electrostatically with the ion. This first water shell sets up a second water shell that is shaped to act as a receptacle that binds the nonpolar solute. In this way, a nonpolar solute can actually bind more tightly to the TMA ion than to another hydrophobe, leading to the increased solubility and salting-in. Such structuring may also explain why molecular ions do not follow the same charge density series as atomic ions do. PMID:21028768

  14. Protection against flashback by backfilling with rock salt gruss

    If wastes are disposed of in deep geological formations, e.g. in salt domes, radiolytically produced hydrogen may escape from the waste forms into the boreholes, forming an inflammable mixture with air. Complementary to part I (Report Juel-Spez--573), here the protection against flashback by salt gruss backfillings, the volume and form of the flammability range are examined. It was found out that salt gruss backfillings, under certain conditions, can prevent flashbacks in hydrogen-air mixtures, the most important condition being that the backfillings contain trickling material of the finest particle size of between 0 and 2 mm. Unfractional backfillings drilled in the domes of rock salt formations meet this requirement in their dry state. Their water content must not exceed 2 mass per cent. For flashback, the flammability point referred to as 'near' is more critical than the one referred to as 'far'. The length-diameter ratio of the hollow space where the mixture is ignited only has a secondary influence on the flashback. It hardly plays a role either whether the surfaces of the flammability ranges are rough or smooth. (orig./BBR)

  15. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines

  16. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of −40 to −80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  17. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

  18. Salt minerals and waters from soils in Konya and Kenya

    Vergouwen, L.

    1981-01-01

    This study deals with the relation between the mineralogical composition of salt assemblages and the composition of groundwaters from which these salts precipitated. A comparison was made between salts and waters sampled in the Konya Basin in Turkey and waters sampled in three different regions in Kenya.The chemical composition of waters from rivers entering the Konya Basin is different from the composition of those from rivers in Kenya. The initial composition of these rivers determines the ...

  19. Salt—Water Dynamics in Soils:II.Effect of Precipitation on SaltWater Dynamics

    YOUWEN-RUI; MENGFAN-HUA

    1992-01-01

    Through a simulation test carried out with soil columns (61.8cm in diameter),the effect of precipitation on salt-water dynamics in soils was studied by in-situ monitoring of salt-water dynamics using soil salinity sensors and tensioneters.The results show that in the profile of whole silty loam soil,the surface runoff volume due to precipitation and the salt-leaching role of infiltrated precipitation increased with the depth of ground water;and in the profile with an intercalated bed of clay or with a thick upper layer of clay,the amount of surface runoff was greater but the salt-leaching role of precipitation was smaller than those in the profile of whole silty loam soil.In case of soil water being supplemented by precipitation,the evaporation of groundwater in the soil columns reduced,resulting in a great decline of salt accumulation from soil profile to surface soil.The effect of precipitation on the water regime of soil profile was performed via both water infiltration and water pressure transfer.The direct infiltration depth of precipitation was less than 1m in general,but water pressure transfer could go up to groundwater surface directly.

  20. Water and solute transport in agricultural soils predicted by volumetric clay and silt contents

    Karup, Dan; Moldrup, Per; Paradelo, Marcos; Katuwal, Sheela; Norgaard, Trine; Greve, Mogens H.; de Jonge, Lis W.

    2016-09-01

    Solute transport through the soil matrix is non-uniform and greatly affected by soil texture, soil structure, and macropore networks. Attempts have been made in previous studies to use infiltration experiments to identify the degree of preferential flow, but these attempts have often been based on small datasets or data collected from literature with differing initial and boundary conditions. This study examined the relationship between tracer breakthrough characteristics, soil hydraulic properties, and basic soil properties. From six agricultural fields in Denmark, 193 intact surface soil columns 20 cm in height and 20 cm in diameter were collected. The soils exhibited a wide range in texture, with clay and organic carbon (OC) contents ranging from 0.03 to 0.41 and 0.01 to 0.08 kg kg- 1, respectively. All experiments were carried out under the same initial and boundary conditions using tritium as a conservative tracer. The breakthrough characteristics ranged from being near normally distributed to gradually skewed to the right along with an increase in the content of the mineral fines (particles ≤ 50 μm). The results showed that the mineral fines content was strongly correlated to functional soil structure and the derived tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs), whereas the OC content appeared less important for the shape of the BTC. Organic carbon was believed to support the stability of the soil structure rather than the actual formation of macropores causing preferential flow. The arrival times of 5% and up to 50% of the tracer mass were found to be strongly correlated with volumetric fines content. Predicted tracer concentration breakthrough points as a function of time up to 50% of applied tracer mass could be well fitted to an analytical solution to the classical advection-dispersion equation. Both cumulative tracer mass and concentration as a function of time were well predicted from the simple inputs of bulk density, clay and silt contents, and applied tracer

  1. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites

  2. Assessment of Soil Water Content in Field with Antecedent Precipitation Index and Groundwater Depth in the Yangtze River Estuary

    XIE Wen-ping; YANG Jing-song

    2013-01-01

    To better understand soil moisture dynamics in the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and predict its variation in a simple way, a field monitoring experiment was carried out along the north branch of the Yangtze River, where seawater intrusion was strong and salt-water variation is one of the limiting factors of local agriculture. In present paper, relation between antecedent precipitation index (API) and soil water content is studied, and effects of groundwater depth on soil water content was analyzed. A relatively accurate prediction result of soil water content was reached using a neural network model. The impact analysis result showed that the variation of the API was consistent with soil water content and it displayed significant correlations with soil water content in both 20 and 50 cm soil layer, and higher correlation was observed in the layer of 20 cm. Groundwater impact analysis suggested that soil moisture was affected by the depth of groundwater, and was affected more greatly by groundwater at depth of 50 cm than that at 20 cm layer. By introducing API, groundwater depth and temperature together, a BP artificial network model was established to predict soil water content and an acceptable agreement was achieved. The model can be used for supplementing monitoring data of soil water content and predicting soil water content in shallow groundwater areas, and can provide favorable support for the research of water and salt transport in estuary area.

  3. Improved tolerance to salt and water stress in Drosophila melanogaster cells conferred by late embryogenesis abundant protein.

    Marunde, Matthew R; Samarajeewa, Dilini A; Anderson, John; Li, Shumin; Hand, Steven C; Menze, Michael A

    2013-04-01

    Mechanisms that govern anhydrobiosis involve the accumulation of highly hydrophilic macromolecules, such as late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. Group 1 LEA proteins comprised of 181 (AfLEA1.1) and 197 (AfLEA1.3) amino acids were cloned from embryos of Artemia franciscana and expressed in Drosophila melanogaster cells (Kc167). Confocal microscopy revealed a construct composed of green fluorescent protein (GFP) and AfLEA1.3 accumulates in the mitochondria (AfLEA1.3-GFP), while AfLEA1.1-GFP was found in the cytoplasm. In the presence of mixed substrates, oxygen consumption was statistically identical for permeabilized Kc167 control and Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. Acute titrations of permeabilized cells with NaCl up to 500 mM led to successive drops in oxygen flux, which were significantly ameliorated by 18% in Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells compared to Kc167 controls. Mitochondria were isolated from both cell types and resuspended in a sucrose-based buffer solution. The purified mitochondria from Kc167 control cells showed significantly larger reductions in respiratory capacities after one freeze-thaw cycle (-80°C) compared to mitochondria isolated from Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells. When cultured in the presence of a non-permeant osmolyte (50-200 mM sucrose) cells expressing AfLEA1.3 showed significantly improved viability (10-15%) during this hyperosmotic challenge as compared to Kc167 controls. Furthermore, Kc167-AfLEA1.3 cells survived desiccation by convective air drying in presence of 200 mM extracellular trehalose to lower final moisture contents than did control Kc167 cells (0.36 g H2O/g DW vs.1.02 g H2O/g DW). Thus, AfLEA1.3 exerts a protective influence on mitochondrial function and increases viability of Kc167 cells during water stress. PMID:23376561

  4. Comparison of soil thermal properties in cultivated fields determined using soil water content measured by two methods

    Kossowski J.; Usowicz B.

    1999-01-01

    Results of the measurements of water content in the topsoil layer (1-6 cm) in fields with various crops obtained by gravimetric and reflectometric (TDR) methods have been used for the calculations of soil volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity. Calculation values of individual soil thermal properties obtained in the two ways were then analysed by means of statistical and geostatistical methods and compared (correlation coefficients, regression equations, difference di...

  5. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52μmolL(-1) for DSi and 7.1μmolL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. PMID:26755416

  6. Separation of alcohol-water mixtures using salts

    Card, J. C.; Farrell, L. M.

    1982-04-01

    Use of a salt (KF or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) to induce phase separation of alcohol-water mixtures was investigated in three process flowsheets to compare operating and capital costs with a conventional distillation process. The process feed was the Clostridia fermentation product, composed of 98 wt % water and 2 wt % solvents (70% 1-butanol, 27% 2-propanol, and 3% ethanol). The design basis was 150 x 10/sup 6/ kg/y of solvents. Phase equilibria and tieline data were obtained from literature and experiments. Three separation-process designs were developed and compared by an incremental economic analysis (+-30%) with the conventional separation technique using distillation alone. The cost of salt recovery for recycle was found to be the critical feature. High capital and operating costs make recovery of salt by precipitation uneconomical; however, a separation scheme using multiple-effect evaporation for salt recovery has comparable incremental capital costs ($1.72 x 10/sup 6/ vs $1.76 x 10/sup 6/) and lower incremental operating costs ($2.14 x 10/sup 6//y vs $4.83 x 10/sup 6//y) than the conventional separation process.

  7. Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS

    T. Flury

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94 with a seasonal cycle of ~1–2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December–January-February, DJF. Studying the A-Train CALIPSO cirrus and MLS water vapor measurements, we find that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=−0.9 anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during DJF. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the high anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone. The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=−0.91 and our results support the hypothesis that the total water is roughly constant in the TTL at 100 hPa. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  8. Projected Impact of Climate Change on the Water and Salt Budgets of the Arctic Ocean by a Global Climate Model

    Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.

    1996-01-01

    The annual flux of freshwater into the Arctic Ocean by the atmosphere and rivers is balanced by the export of sea ice and oceanic freshwater. Two 150-year simulations of a global climate model are used to examine how this balance might change if atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) increase. Relative to the control, the last 50-year period of the GHG experiment indicates that the total inflow of water from the atmosphere and rivers increases by 10% primarily due to an increase in river discharge, the annual sea-ice export decreases by about half, the oceanic liquid water export increases, salinity decreases, sea-ice cover decreases, and the total mass and sea-surface height of the Arctic Ocean increase. The closed, compact, and multi-phased nature of the hydrologic cycle in the Arctic Ocean makes it an ideal test of water budgets that could be included in model intercomparisons.

  9. The salt content of products from popular fast-food chains in Costa Rica.

    Heredia-Blonval, Katrina; Blanco-Metzler, Adriana; Montero-Campos, Marielos; Dunford, Elizabeth K

    2014-12-01

    Salt is a major determinant of population blood pressure levels. Salt intake in Costa Rica is above levels required for good health. With an increasing number of Costa Ricans visiting fast food restaurants, it is likely that fast-food is contributing to daily salt intake. Salt content data from seven popular fast food chains in Costa Rica were collected in January 2013. Products were classified into 10 categories. Mean salt content was compared between chains and categories. Statistical analysis was performed using Welch ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer HSD tests. Significant differences were found between companies; Subway products had lowest mean salt content (0.97 g/100 g; p KFC had the highest (1.57 g/100 g; p < 0.05). Significant variations in mean salt content were observed between categories. Salads had a mean salt content of 0.45 g/100 g while sauces had 2.16 g/100 g (p < 0.05). Wide variation in salt content was also seen within food categories. Salt content in sandwiches ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 g/100 g. The high levels and wide variation in salt content of fast food products in Costa Rica suggest that salt reduction is likely to be technically feasible in many cases. With an increasing number of consumers purchasing fast foods, even small improvements in salt levels could produce important health gains. PMID:25171851

  10. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3·cm−3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dS·m−1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 20–60 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation

  11. Effects of Soil and Water Content on Methyl Bromide Oxidation by the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea†

    Duddleston, Khrystyne N.; Bottomley, Peter J; Porter, Angela; Arp, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    Little information exists on the potential of NH3-oxidizing bacteria to cooxidize halogenated hydrocarbons in soil. A study was conducted to examine the cooxidation of methyl bromide (MeBr) by an NH3-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrosomonas europaea, under soil conditions. Soil and its water content modified the availability of NH4+ and MeBr and influenced the relative rates of substrate (NH3) and cosubstrate (MeBr) oxidations. These observations highlight the complexity associated with characterizi...

  12. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  13. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Michael P Greenwood

    Full Text Available Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH or 4% high salt food (HSD altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions.

  14. Salt appetite is reduced by a single experience of drinking hypertonic saline in the adult rat.

    Greenwood, Michael P; Greenwood, Mingkwan; Paton, Julian F R; Murphy, David

    2014-01-01

    Salt appetite, the primordial instinct to favorably ingest salty substances, represents a vital evolutionary important drive to successfully maintain body fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. This innate instinct was shown here in Sprague-Dawley rats by increased ingestion of isotonic saline (IS) over water in fluid intake tests. However, this appetitive stimulus was fundamentally transformed into a powerfully aversive one by increasing the salt content of drinking fluid from IS to hypertonic saline (2% w/v NaCl, HS) in intake tests. Rats ingested HS similar to IS when given no choice in one-bottle tests and previous studies have indicated that this may modify salt appetite. We thus investigated if a single 24 h experience of ingesting IS or HS, dehydration (DH) or 4% high salt food (HSD) altered salt preference. Here we show that 24 h of ingesting IS and HS solutions, but not DH or HSD, robustly transformed salt appetite in rats when tested 7 days and 35 days later. Using two-bottle tests rats previously exposed to IS preferred neither IS or water, whereas rats exposed to HS showed aversion to IS. Responses to sweet solutions (1% sucrose) were not different in two-bottle tests with water, suggesting that salt was the primary aversive taste pathway recruited in this model. Inducing thirst by subcutaneous administration of angiotensin II did not overcome this salt aversion. We hypothesised that this behavior results from altered gene expression in brain structures important in thirst and salt appetite. Thus we also report here lasting changes in mRNAs for markers of neuronal activity, peptide hormones and neuronal plasticity in supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus following rehydration after both DH and HS. These results indicate that a single experience of drinking HS is a memorable one, with long-term changes in gene expression accompanying this aversion to salty solutions. PMID:25111786

  15. Soil water content and yield variability in vineyards of Mediterranean northeastern Spain affected by mechanization and climate variability

    Ramos, M. C.

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper was to analyse the combined influence of the Mediterranean climate variability (particularly the irregular rainfall distribution throughout the year) and the land transformations carried out in vineyards of northeastern Spain on soil water content evolution and its influence on grape production. The study was carried out in a commercial vineyard located in the Anoia-Alt Penedès region (Barcelona province, northeastern Spain), which was prepared for mechanization with important land transformations. Two plots were selected for the study: one with low degree of transformation of the soil profile, representing a non-disturbed situation, and the second one in which more than 3 m were cut in the upper part of the plot and filled in the lower part, representing the disturbed situation. Soil water content was evaluated at three positions along the slope in each plot and at three depths (0-20, 20-40, 40-60 cm) during the period 1999-2001, years with different rainfall characteristics, including extreme events and long dry periods. Rainfall was recorded in the experimental field using a pluviometer linked to a data-logger. Runoff rates and yield were evaluated at the same positions. For the same annual rainfall, the season of the year in which rainfall is recorded and its intensity are critical for water availability for crops. Soil water content varies within the plot and is related to the soil characteristics existing at the different positions of the landscape. The differences in soil depth created by soil movements in the field mechanization give rise to significant yield reductions (up to 50%) between deeper and shallow areas. In addition, for the same annual rainfall, water availability for crops depends on its distribution over the year, particularly in soils with low water-storage capacity. The yield was strongly affected in years with dry or very dry winters.

  16. Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment

    Hashad, Mostafa F.; Sharma, Surabhi; Nies, Loring F.; Alleman, James E.

    2006-01-01

    This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and Turbidity. For the COD tests, wastewater was tes...

  17. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current

  18. Influence of High Water Contents on Pavement Layers Stiffness Caused by Flooding

    Rokitowski Przemysław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Moisture inside the construction of road pavements is the problem for road engineers all around the world. This issue is mentioned in many European or the US papers and studies, but still it needs to be developed. From the road engineers’ point of view, very important for solving above problems are the studies on the influence of water and moisture inside the construction of road pavement during deflection measurements using Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD. The paper raises this issue by showing a short review of Polish and foreign literature and presenting the first step of research work at the test site on Voivodeship Road 933 in Poland.

  19. Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents

    The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

  20. Influence of Salts on the Partitioning of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Water/MIBK.

    Mohammad, Sultan; Held, Christoph; Altuntepe, Emrah; Köse, Tülay; Sadowski, Gabriele

    2016-04-28

    This study investigates the influence of electrolytes on the performance of extracting 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from aqueous media using methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). For that purpose, liquid-liquid phase equilibria (LLE) of quaternary systems containing HMF, water, MIBK and salts were measured at atmospheric pressure and 298.15 K. The salts under investigation were composed of one of the anions NO(3-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), or CH3COO(-) and of one of the alkali cations Li(+), Na(+), or K(+). On the basis of these LLE data, the partition coefficient of HMF between the aqueous and the MIBK phase KHMF was determined. It could be shown that KHMF significantly depends on the kind and concentration of the added salt. Weak electrolytes (e.g., sulfates, acetates) caused salting-out, whereas nitrates caused salting-in of HMF to the aqueous phase. Unexpectedly, LiCl caused salting-out at low LiCl concentrations and salting-in at LiCl concentrations higher than 3 mol/kgH2O. The model electrolyte perturbed-chain SAFT (ePC-SAFT) was used to predict the salt influence on the LLE in the quaternary systems water/MIBK/HMF/salt in good agreement with the experimental data. On the basis of ePC-SAFT, it could be concluded that the different salting-out/salting-in behavior of the various salts is mainly caused by their different tendency to form ion pairs in aqueous solutions. PMID:27027570

  1. Chosen thermodynamic experiments: depression of the freezing point of water with salt and supercooled water

    Krnc, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The diploma thesis presents two interesting thermodynamic experiments which were executed and described by Joseph Black in 18th Century. These are: depression of the freezing point of water with salt and supercooled water. We meet water in three states of matter in nature: in the state of ice, liquid water, and water steam. Phase crossing from water to ice (and vice versa from ice to water) is done with normal air pressure with the state temperature of 0°C. If we add certain matters to wat...

  2. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    Bernardo Murillo-Amador

    Full Text Available Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1 proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2 ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

  3. Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

  4. Sobre os efeitos vasomotôres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas soluções anisotonicas de clorêto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Antonio Augusto Xavier

    1939-01-01

    Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  5. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  6. An operations research study on salt consumption behaviour with respect to its iodine content.

    Bansal, R K

    1995-01-01

    In India, a cross-sectional operations research study was conducted on salt consumption behavior with respect to iodine content in Borsad, Israma, Karamsad, Patlad, Rangaipura, and Sandeshar communities in Borsad, Petland, and Anand talukas of Kheda district. Only 32 (3%) of the 1084 families used iodized salt. Its use was not correlated with family income or literacy. The cost of iodized salt was much greater than non-iodized salt (Rs. 2-3.5 vs. Rs. 0.75-1). Consumers, shop-owners, and manufacturers did not know the advantages of iodized salts and the range of iodine deficiency diseases. Thus, they bought and/or sold the cheaper non-iodized salt. No health personnel or agency had ever told them about the advantages of iodized salt. When they heard about the advantages during the study, however, some immediately purchased iodized salt. 5.3% and 15.6% of iodized salt samples at shops and in families, respectively, had an iodine content less than the recommended level of 15 parts per million. The prevalence of iodine deficiency disorder in Gujarat ranges from about 5% to 68%. These findings reflect the need for health education for consumers, health workers, national health officials, shop-keepers, and salt manufacturers about the advantages of iodized salt. The iodine content of salt samples should be tested and effectively monitored at the source, distribution points, and in the kitchen. Shop-keepers and salt manufacturers need to be convinced to sell iodized salts simultaneously, which should bring down the cost of iodized salt, a constraint to consumption. PMID:12346503

  7. Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content by liquid scintillation counting: Set-up of high sensitivity and emergency procedures

    Full text: Assessment of drinking water radioactivity content is a main topic both in normal and in emergency situations, as those arising from accidental and terroristic events. The evaluation of gross alpha/beta and individual radionuclides concentrations usually requires specific sample treatments, purification and measuring techniques. In our institute a step by step procedure has been developed to measure the radioactivity content of drinking water by a single radiometric technique, namely low level liquid scintillation counting (LSC). LSC was equipped with an alpha-beta discrimination device and has been coupled to quick radiochemical procedures. In emergency situations, a gross activity screening is carried out without any sample treatment by a single and quick liquid scintillation counting. A few becquerel per liter alpha and beta activity can be checked in 24 hours in more than one hundred samples. More sensitive gross alpha and beta measurement can be performed on water samples after preconcentration by evaporation under controlled conditions. This procedure allows the determination of the actual gross alpha and beta activity of most drinking waters. Total and isotopic uranium content is measured by selective extraction followed LSC. This procedure is less cumbersome than the traditional one (chemical separation followed by electrodeposition and alpha spectrometry) and allows evaluation of 234U/238U ratio. Then a quick check of depleted uranium contamination in a wide number of samples is also possible. 226Ra and 228Ra can be directly measured in a few mBq/l concentrations after specific concentration and purification steps. The procedure has proven to be quick and highly specific. Our emergency screening procedure has been adopted by all district laboratories of Lombardia Environmental Protection Agency to face both accidental and intentional drinking water contaminations. High sensitivity gross alpha and beta, uranium and radium analytical procedures

  8. Granule characterization during fluid bed drying by development of a near infrared method to determine water content and median granule size

    Nieuwmeyer, Florentine J. S.; Damen, Michiel; Gerich, Ad; Rusmini, Federica; van der Voort, Kees Maarschalk; Vromans, Herman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose. Water content and granule size are recognized as critical process and product quality parameters during drying. The purpose of this study was to enlighten the granule behavior during fluid bed drying by monitoring the major events i.e. changes in water content and granule size. Methods. NIR

  9. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  10. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nøhr, S;

    1999-01-01

    water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders......The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce...

  11. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10 μm was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  12. The fluoride content of bottled drinking waters.

    Toumba, K J; Levy, S; Curzon, M E

    1994-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking waters in the United Kingdom have tripled over the last 5 years. The fluoride content of 12 bottled waters purchased from two Leeds supermarkets was determined by both the direct and acid diffusion methods and found to vary from 0.10-0.80 mg/l fluoride (ie ppm fluoride). This article shows that bottled drinking waters contain differing concentrations of fluoride. There is no apparent difference between the direct and acid diffusion methods for the determination of fluoride concentrations of drinking waters. The manufacturers' labelling of fluoride concentrations are mainly inaccurate. Dentists should be aware of the fluoride concentrations of the drinking water of their child patients, be they municipal or bottled drinking water, when prescribing fluoride supplements. Also, some parents are using bottled waters to prepare baby milk formulations which themselves may contain high levels of fluoride and subject their children to the risk of dental fluorosis. PMID:8186036

  13. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 μg L{sup −1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  14. Isotopic study of water origin in salt mines in Poland

    The most important results of isotopic analyses carried out so far in salt mines in Wieliczka, Bochnia, Klodawa, Wapno and Inowroclaw are presented. Discussion of these results for individual leakages proofs that isotopic methods are fully useful in determining of the origin of water appearing in salt mines. (author)

  15. Secondary Confinement of Water Observed in Eutectic Melting of Aqueous Salt Systems in Nanopores.

    Meissner, Jens; Prause, Albert; Findenegg, Gerhard H

    2016-05-19

    Freezing and melting of aqueous solutions of alkali halides confined in the cylindrical nanopores of MCM-41 and SBA-15 silica was probed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). We find that the confinement-induced shift of the eutectic temperature in the pores can be significantly greater than the shift of the melting temperature of pure water. Greatest shifts of the eutectic temperature are found for salts that crystallize as oligohydrates at the eutectic point. This behavior is explained by the larger fraction of pore volume occupied by salt hydrates as compared to anhydrous salts, on the assumption that precipitated salt constitutes an additional confinement for ice/water in the pores. A model based on this secondary confinement effect gives a good representation of the experimental data. Salt-specific secondary confinement may play a role in a variety of fields, from salt-impregnated advanced adsorbents and catalysts to the thermal weathering of building materials. PMID:27124392

  16. Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)

    Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering

  17. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Bin Dong; Ying Xu; Senmin Lin; Xiaohu Dai

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon conte...

  18. Degradation products of different water content sevoflurane in carbon dioxide absorbents by gas chromatogpy-mass spectromerty analysis

    LI Yue; LI Yi-cong; ZHANG Yi-nan; LIU Shu-jie; ZHOU Yan-mei; WANG Chang-song; GONG Yu-lei; LI En-you

    2011-01-01

    Background Sevoflurane is currently used as a volatile inhalation anesthetic with many clinical advantages. A representative degradation product,compound A,was quantitatively measured to investigate whether there are different reactions between two kinds of water content sevoflurane formulations with different carbon dioxide (CO2) absorbents.Methods A closed-circle breathe bag with the Dr(a)ger Fabius GS anesthesia apparatus was used as an artificial rubber lung. The experiments were grouped according to different sevoflurane formulations:group A:higher-water sevoflurane (Ultane);group B:lower-water sevoflurane (Sevoness). During the experiment,CO2 (200 ml/min) was continually perfused to keep the end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PETCO2)at 35-45 mmHg. The artificial ventilation was set to 6 L/min,and the breathing rate at 12 breaths/min. The circuit was operated with constant fresh gas flow rate (1 L/min) and the sevoflurane concentration was kept at 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for 240 minutes. At 0,10,20,30,60,90,120,180 and 240 minutes,gas was collected from the Y-piece. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)was used to quantify the major degradation product,compound A,with different water content sevoflurane. PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentration,and the temperature of the canister were continuously monitored during the experiment.Results There were no significant differences in PETCO2 and sevoflurane concentrations between the two groups.Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus produced the highest concentrations of compound A compared with other sodalimes,and Sevoness in Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus generated more compound A than Ultane (P <0.05). There were significant differences in the peak and average compound A concentrations between Ultane and Sevoness with Dr(a)gersorb 800 plus (P <0.05),while the compound A concentration produced by Sodasorb grase and sofonolime in the two groups showed no significant difference (P >0.05). In the same group,the peak and

  19. Saltiness enhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulated salt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulated salt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt

  20. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  1. 原子吸收分光光度法测定多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量%Determination of Arsenic Salt Content in Polyene Phosphatidyl Choline by Atomic Absorption Spectryphotometry

    丘文嘉; 张玉英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To innovatively establish an atomic absorption spectrophotometric method for determining the arsenic salt content in polyene phosphatidyl choline. Methods After the sample digestion by mized acid,the atomic absorption spectrophotometric method was adopted to detect arsenic at the characteristic absorption wavelength of arsenic element(193. 7 nm). Results The mass concentration of arsenic demonstrated a good linear relationship with the absorption in the range of 0-20 ng/mL,r=0. 999 4( n=5),and the adding standard recovery rate was good. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate with little interference,and can be used for the deter-mination of arsenic salt content in polyene phosphatidyl choline.%目的:创新性地建立测定多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量的原子吸收分光光度法。方法样品经混合酸消解后,采用原子吸收分光光度法在砷元素的特征吸收波长(193.7 nm)处测定砷。结果砷的质量浓度在0~20 ng/mL范围内与吸光度线性关系良好,r=0.9994( n=5),加样回收率良好。结论该方法操作简便、准确、干扰少,可用于多烯磷脂酰胆碱中砷盐含量的测定。

  2. Ply Thickness Fiber Glass on Windmill Drive Salt Water Pump

    Sifa, Agus; Badruzzaman; Suwandi, Dedi

    2016-04-01

    Factors management of salt-making processes need to be considered selection of the location and the season is very important to support the efforts of salting. Windmills owned by the farmers are still using wood materials are made each year it is not effectively done and the shape of windmills made not in accordance with the requirements without considering the wind speed and the pumping speed control influenced by the weight and size of windmill, it affects the productivity of salt. to optimize the function of windmills on pumping salt water by change the material blade on the wheel by using a material composite, composite or fiberglass are used for blades on windmills made of a material a mixture of Epoxy-Resin and Matrix E-Glass. The mechanical characteristics of the power of his blade one of determining the materials used and the thickness of the blade, which needed a strong and lightweight. The calculation result thick fiberglass with a composition of 60% fiber and 40% epoxy, at a wind speedof area salt fields 9 m/s, the drag force that occurs at 11,56 kg, then the calculation result by 0,19 mm thick with a layer of 10, the total thickness of 1,9 mm, with a density of 1760 kg/m3, mechanical character of elongated elastic modulus of 46200 MPa, modulus of transverse elasticity of 10309,6 MPa, shear modulus of 3719 MPa and Poisson ratio of 0,31, then the calculation using the finite element ABAQUS obtained critical point at the confluence of the blade to the value of Von Mises tension was happening 1,158e9 MPa maximum and minimum 2,123e5 MPa, for a maximum value of displacement occurred condition at the tip of the blade. The performance test results windmills at a wind speed of 5,5 m/s wind power shows that occur 402,42 watts and power turbines produced 44,21 watt, and TSR 0,095 and the value Cp of 0,1, test results windmill in salt fields in the beginning rotation windmill lighter, able to move above wind speed of 5.5 m/s.

  3. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely ‘Niewdam Gs. no. 00621’ (salt tolerant and ‘KKU-LLR-039’ (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  4. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ∼ 150 μg of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ► Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a μg/kg basis, ∼ 5 × higher than those of mothers. ► Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ► Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  5. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  6. Geoelectrical Monitoring for Observation of Changes in Water Content in the Slope of an Embankment Caused By Heavy Rain Using a Large-Scale Rainfall Simulator

    Takakura, S.; Yoshioka, M.; Ishizawa, T.; Sakai, N.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring the temporal variation of water content along a slope is important for predicting and preventing slope disasters. We conducted repeated monthly geoelectrical surveys since February 2011 on one slope of an embankment in the large-scale rainfall simulator of the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). In order to confirm the relationship between water content and resistivity changes in the slope due to heavy rain, we conducted seven artificial rain experiments at the embankment, controlling the total amount and intensity of rainfall using the mobile rainfall simulator. We observed soil water content and conducted geoelectrical measurements on the slope of the embankment before, during and after the artificial rains. It is difficult to obtain the rapid change of resistivity structure due to the rain because the analysis of resistivity structure requires measurement by much electrode array combination. Therefore, we performed only a continuous measurement using a Wenner array with "a" spacing of 0.5 m and 1 m. The changes in analyzed resistivity took place almost simultaneously with changes in water content. The fall of resistivity accelerates as the intensity of rainfall increases. The resistivity changed significantly with a rapid change in water content. The change in resistivity is slightly earlier than the change in volumetric water content at the same depth. These facts indicate that geoelectrical monitoring is effective for observing changes in the water content of the slope of an embankment caused by heavy rain.

  7. On the salt-induced activation of lyophilized enzymes in organic solvents: Effect of salt kosmotropicity on enzyme activity

    Ru, M.T.; Hirokane, S.Y.; Lo, A.S.; Dordick, J.S.; Reimer, J.A.; Clark, D.S.

    2000-03-01

    The dramatic activation of enzymes in nonaqueous media upon co-lyophilization with simple inorganic salts has been investigated as a function of the Jones-Dole B coefficient, a thermodynamic parameter for characterizing the salt's affinity for water and its chaotropic (water-structure breaking) or kosmotropic (water-structure making) character. In general, the water content, active-site content, and transesterification activity of freeze-dried subtilisin Carlsberg preparations containing >96% w/w salt increased with increasing kosmotropicity of the activating salt. Degrees of activation relative to the salt-free enzyme ranged from 33-fold for chaotropic sodium iodide to 2,480-fold for kosmotropic sodium acetate. Exceptions to the general trend can be explained by the mechanical properties and freezing characteristics of the salts undergoing lyophilization. The profound activating effect can thus be attributed in part to the stabilizing (salting-out) effect of kosmotropic salts and the phenomenon of preferential hydration.

  8. Correlation among Cirrus Ice Content, Water Vapor and Temperature in the TTL as Observed by CALIPSO and Aura-MLS

    Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

    2012-01-01

    Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a local radiative cooling effect. As a source for ice in cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. Using NASA A-Train satellite measurements of CALIPSO and Aura/MLS we calculated the correlation of water vapor, ice water content and temperature in the TTL. We find that temperature strongly controls water vapor (correlation r =0.94) and cirrus clouds at 100 hPa (r = -0.91). Moreover we observe that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r =-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during December-January-February. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the strong anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r = -0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water at 100 hPa is roughly constant. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

  9. Saltinessenhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt

    Noort, M.W.J.; Bult, J.H.F.; Stieger, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulatedsalt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulatedsalt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt r

  10. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  11. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Bijelović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  12. Characteristics of Salt Affected Soil and Its Amelioration by Trees

    2009-01-01

    Salt-affected soils extensively distribute on the earth.Although the causes are various,generally speaking salinization occurrence results from the accumulation of free salts to an extent that causes degradation of vegetation and soils.Besides,irrational human practices have increased soil salinity by allowing excess recharging of groundwater to change the natural balance of the water cycle in the landscape. This reduces the suitability to plant growth and increases the potential for other forms of land ...

  13. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two...... clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring....

  14. Narrowly size-distributed cobalt salt containing poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) particles by inverse miniemulsion.

    Cao, Zhihai; Wang, Zhuo; Herrmann, Christine; Ziener, Ulrich; Landfester, Katharina

    2010-05-18

    Cobalt-containing hybrid particles have been prepared through the encapsulation of cobalt tetrafluoroborate hexahydrate (CoTFB) via inverse miniemulsion polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). We systematically varied the amount and type of cosolvent (water, methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol), apolar continuous phase (cyclohexane, isooctane, isopar M, hexadecane), amount of cobalt salt, and molecular weight of the polymeric surfactant. The influence of those parameters on the particle size, size distribution, and particle morphology were investigated. Narrowly size-distributed hybrid particles with good colloidal stability could be obtained in a wide range of cobalt content between 5.7 and 22.6 wt % salt relative to the monomer. The addition of a cosolvent such as water not only promotes the loading of metal salt but also has a positive influence on narrowing the particle size distribution. We assume that generally narrowly size-distributed particles can be obtained for a large variety of combinations of polar/apolar phase by adjusting the balance between osmotic and Laplace pressure via the solubility of the metal salt in the continuous phase and lowering the interfacial tension by adjusting the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) value of the surfactant. The results show a significant advantage of the inverse miniemulsion over the direct system with respect to the variability and total amount of metal salt without losing the narrow particle size distribution and colloidal stability. PMID:20112941

  15. Local variation in absolute water content of human and rabbit eye lenses measured by Raman microspectroscopy

    Huizinga, Alex; Bot, Annet C.C.; Mul, de Frits F.M.; Vrensen, Gijs F.J.M.; Greve, Jan

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra were obtained from fresh, fixed and sliced rabbit lenses and from human lens slices. For all lenses and lens slices the ratio R, defined as the Raman intensity at 3390 cm−1 divided by the Raman intensity at 2935 cm−1, was measured at different locations along the visual and equatorial

  16. Effect of infiltrated by fresh and saline water alternately on water -salt distribution properties%咸淡组合淋洗对土壤水盐分布特征的影响

    吴忠东; 王卫华; 张照录; 黄汝高; 栗涛; 张振华

    2014-01-01

    为了缓解干旱半干旱地区淡水资源紧缺问题,最大限度地利用浅层地下微咸水,以全部淡水和全部咸水为对照,采用两咸一淡组合淋洗的方法对垂直土柱淋洗后土壤剖面的水、盐分布规律及土壤理化性质的变化进行研究,结果表明在累积入渗量相同的前提下,咸淡组合次序对土壤大孔隙的形成有影响,导致土壤透水性不同,通过入渗进入土壤的总盐量是土壤含盐量的主要影响因素;入渗历时的延长有助于提高土壤剖面脱盐深度,淡—咸—咸的组合次序洗盐效果最好;各种咸淡组合次序均导致20 cm 深度处的钠吸附比较初始值增大,尤其是全部咸水入渗会降低土壤的渗透性,有可能导致土壤发生次生盐渍化。该研究为微咸水的田间合理利用提供了依据。%In order to solve the problem of freshwater shortage,utilize water resource sustainably in arid and semiarid region,and make the best use of saline water in shallow ground water,saline -fresh water alternately continuous infiltration,contrast with all freshwater and all saline water,was taken to study the water -salt distribution in soil profile and soil physicochemical properties.It showed that, the alternate sequence affected the formation of the macropores and lead to the difference of water per-meability of soil,the amount of salt which comes from irrigation water is the main factor of soil salt;the extension of irrigation time help to improve the desalting depth of soil profile,the infiltration sequence fresh -saline -saline is the best to salt-leaching effect;it makes the sodium adsorption ratio in 20 cm depth increase under each kind of fresh -saline water combination,the soil permeability will be decreased especially infiltrated all by saline water,it will probably lead to the soil secondary salinization, this study provides an basis to the reasonable utilization of saline water.

  17. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  18. A derivatization approach using pyrylium salts for the sensitive and simple determination of sulfide in spring water by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Rembisz, Żaneta; Bzdurska, Dorota; Obiedzińska, Justyna; Martínez-Máńez, Ramón; Zakrzewski, Robert

    2015-08-14

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method based on pre-column derivatization with the pyrylium salts (4-[p-(N,N-dimethylamino)phenyl]-2,6-diphenylpyrylium perchlorate (LN1) and 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium tetrafluoroborate (L1)) has been developed for the determination of sulfide. After the reaction of sulfide ions with LN1 or L1 aiming at the formation of the corresponding thiopyrylium derivatives LN3 or L3, they were separated on a C18 column using phosphate buffer and acetonitrile as eluent, and afterwards detected with a UV/vis detector. By using the described method, sulfide ions can be determined in the range of 5.12-486.4 μg·L(-1) or 1.024-20.48 μg·L(-1) by means of L1 or LN1, respectively. In our experiments, the relative standard deviation was not higher than 2% and the recovery coefficient was in the range of 88-102%. The proposed method was applied to the determination of sulfide in spring water samples from Busko Zdrój and Uniejów health resorts located in Poland. PMID:26163932

  19. Landfill CH4 oxidation by mineralized refuse: Effects of NH4+-N incubation, water content and temperature

    Mineralized refuse, excavated from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that had been closed for more than 10 years, was incubated in livestock wastewater for 150 d to accumulate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and also co-oxidize methane (CH4). The extent of CH4 oxidation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the incubated mineralized refuse (IMR) were investigated to assess its applicability as a bio-cover material at landfill sites for minimizing total greenhouse gas emission equivalents. From the initial 200 mg nitrogen (N) kg−1 incubated for 120 h, the nitrate-N content produced in the IMR was twice (P 4 concentration of approximately 10% by volume in the headspace, CH4 consumption and net emission of CO2 from the soil, IMR and OMR all agreed well with first-order and zero-order kinetics models for a 120-h incubation (R2 = 0.667 and R2 = 0.995, respectively). Similar to N turnover, the rate of consumption of CH4 by the mineralized refuse was some 50.0% higher than for soil (P 2 generation, the CH4 oxidation rate by IMR was 14.2% (P > 0.05) greater than for OMR and 56.1% (P > 0.05) higher than for soil. Variation of water content and temperature produced substantially higher CH4 consumption rates by IMR than by either OMR or soil. After treatment by livestock wastewater, the CH4 oxidation capacity of mineralized refuse was moderately improved, due to the enhancement of CH4 adsorption by retained suspended solids and the subsequent co-oxidation by the accumulated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. By correlation analysis for the three experimental materials, CH4 oxidation rate was significantly correlated with specific surface area and organic matter content (P 2 generation, NH4+-N nitrification and NO3–-N generation rate (P > 0.05). - Highlights: ► Mineralized refuse was improved through NH4+-N incubation. ► Ammonia oxidizing bacteria were accumulated for methane oxidation. ► Mineralized refuse was very tolerated to extreme climatic conditions.

  20. Estimation of soil clay content from hygroscopic water content measurements

    Wuddivira, Mark N.; Robinson, David A.; Lebron, Inma; Brechet, Laëtitia; Atwell, Melissa; De Caires, Sunshine; Oatham, Michael; Jones, Scott B.; Abdu, Hiruy; Verma, Aditya K.; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Soil texture and the soil water characteristic are key properties used to estimate flow and transport parameters. Determination of clay content is therefore critical for understanding of plot-scale soil heterogeneity. With increasing interest in proximal soil sensing, there is the need to relate obtained signals to soil properties of interest. Inference of soil texture, especially clay mineral content, from instrument response from electromagnetic induction and radiometric methods is of subst...

  1. Freezing avoidance by supercooling in Olea europaea cultivars: the role of apoplastic water, solute content and cell wall rigidity.

    Arias, Nadia S; Bucci, Sandra J; Scholz, Fabian G; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2015-10-01

    Plants can avoid freezing damage by preventing extracellular ice formation below the equilibrium freezing temperature (supercooling). We used Olea europaea cultivars to assess which traits contribute to avoid ice nucleation at sub-zero temperatures. Seasonal leaf water relations, non-structural carbohydrates, nitrogen and tissue damage and ice nucleation temperatures in different plant parts were determined in five cultivars growing in the Patagonian cold desert. Ice seeding in roots occurred at higher temperatures than in stems and leaves. Leaves of cold acclimated cultivars supercooled down to -13 °C, substantially lower than the minimum air temperatures observed in the study site. During winter, leaf ice nucleation and leaf freezing damage (LT50 ) occurred at similar temperatures, typical of plant tissues that supercool. Higher leaf density and cell wall rigidity were observed during winter, consistent with a substantial acclimation to sub-zero temperatures. Larger supercooling capacity and lower LT50 were observed in cold-acclimated cultivars with higher osmotically active solute content, higher tissue elastic adjustments and lower apoplastic water. Irreversible leaf damage was only observed in laboratory experiments at very low temperatures, but not in the field. A comparative analysis of closely related plants avoids phylogenetic independence bias in a comparative study of adaptations to survive low temperatures. PMID:25737264

  2. 冬季覆海冰对台田盐渍土壤水分和盐分的影响%Effects of Covering Sea Ice on Platform Field on Soil Water and Salt Content in Coastal Saline Soil of Bohai Bay

    陶军; 顾卫; 林叶彬; 许映军; 卜丹阳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the building technology of platform field, sea ice was covered on soil surface of the field in Bohai Bay of China, because sea ice had lower salts than seawater in winter.The change of soil water and salt in melting processes of sea ice was determined at different stages.The present studies showed that the large amount of ice-melting water infiltrated into the soil and increased soil water content at all depths, especially top soil (0-20 cm).In later stages, soil water content of 0-40 cm layer was reduced with increasing of air temperature and value of other soil layers stabilized.At March 8, soil salt content of 0-20 cm and 20 -40 cm layer were lower 70% and 22.22% than the value at primary time, whereas soil salt content of other layers slightly increased.At March 14, sea ice was completely melt and soil salt content of all layers continued to decrease in platform field.During later sampling stages, soil salt content of 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm layer stabilized (1.5~2.0 g/kg and 3.5%, respectively) and soil desalting rate of them was 80%~85% and 22.22 %, respectively.While soil salt content of deeper layer had no changes compared to their value of primary time.These results indicated that the combination of platform field and covering sea ice on soil surface decreased 0-40 cm layer soil salt content and there was no salt accumulation in deeper soil layers.%在渤海湾滨海地区,以台田修建技术为基础,将冬季海水(或咸水)冻结而形成较低盐度的海冰(或咸水冰)覆盖至台田土壤表面.研究覆冰的融化过程中台田土壤水分和盐分的时空变化.结果表明:随着覆冰融化,大量的冰融水进入土壤,台田不同土层土壤的含水量得到增加,尤其是表层土壤.当覆冰完全融化,气温的上升,台田0-20 cm土壤含水量迅速降低,而深层土壤的含水量趋于稳定.在覆冰完全融化前(3月8日),0-20 cm和20-40 cm土壤含盐量较初始值分别降低了70%和22.22%;

  3. Novel wireless health monitor with acupuncture bio-potentials obtained by using a replaceable salt-water-wetted foam-rubber cushions on RFID-tag.

    Lin, Jium-Ming; Lu, Hung-Han; Lin, Cheng-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a bio-potential measurement apparatus including a wireless device for transmitting acupuncture bio-potential information to a remote control station for health conditions analysis and monitor. The key technology of this system is to make replaceable foam-rubber cushions, double-side conducting tapes, chip and antenna on the radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. The foam-rubber cushions can be wetted with salt-water and contact with the acupuncture points to reduce contact resistance. Besides, the double-side conducting tapes are applied to fix foam-rubber cushions. Thus, one can peel the used cushions or tapes away and supply new ones quickly. Since the tag is a flexible plastic substrate, it is easy to deploy on the skin. Besides, the amplifier made by CMOS technology on RFID chip could amplify the signals to improve S/N ratio and impedance matching. Thus, cloud server can wirelessly monitor the health conditions. An example shows that the proposed system can be used as a wireless health condition monitor, the numerical method and the criteria are given to analyze eleven bio-potentials for the important acupunctures of eleven meridians on a person's hands and legs. Then a professional doctor can know the performance of an individual and the cross-linking effects of the organs. PMID:25227072

  4. Changes of hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus by water extracts of Azadirachta indica

    Shori; Amal Bakr

    2012-01-01

    Presently,there is a growing interest in herbal remedies.Neem (Azadirachta indica) has been used in traditional medicine over centuries.In the present study,the effects of water extracts of Azadirachta indica seeds,stems,flowers and bark on the changes of hemoglobin content (Hb) and glucose levels in the blood of Rattus norvegicus were investigated.Different doses of A.indica water extracts of seeds,stems,flowers and bark were injected to the tested animals every 48 h for 14 days.Significant decrease in both hemoglobin content and glucose levels in the blood samples in all groups of injected rats were compared to control group.However,in all groups higher decrease was shown in the rats injected with 1 g·mL-1 ofA.indica water extracts.In addition,the present study showed no significant relationship between decreased hemoglobin content and glucose levels in blood samples,and increased doses injected.In conclusion,A.indica has the potential to decrease both hemoglobin content and blood glucose levels.

  5. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    S. Vincenzi; R. Santangelo; Pugnaghi, S.; M. R. Rivasi; Menziani, M.

    1996-01-01

    A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results ...

  6. Effect of agricultural activity in the salt content in soils of Murcia: comparison with other land uses

    Salinization is one of the main problems of soil degradation in arid and semiarid areas, causing a reduction of soil quality, declining yield and productivity, and even land abandonment. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different land uses, particularly agricultural use in the salt content in soil. The study area is located in the surroundings of Murcia city (SE Spain), with an surface of 100 km2, with high agricultural productivity. In order to determine salt content in soil, E. C. was measured in the 1:5 ratio. The results showed that the study area is saline, being the salinity higher when anthropogenic activity is more severe. Agricultural lands present the widest range of data, probably due to the application of poor quality irrigation water, fertilizers and livestock waste. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. Prediction of Soil Moisture Content and Soil Salt Concentration from Hyperspectral Laboratory and Field Data

    Chi Xu; Wenzhi Zeng; Jiesheng Huang; Jingwei Wu; Willem J. D. van Leeuwen

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the simultaneous retrieval of surface soil moisture and salt concentrations using hyperspectral reflectance data in an arid environment. We conducted laboratory and outdoor field experiments in which we examined three key soil variables: soil moisture, salt and texture (silty loam, clay and silty clay). The soil moisture content models for multiple textures (M_SMC models) were based on selected hyperspectral reflectance data located around 1460, 1900 and 2010 nm and res...

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    García-Pérez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Pérez-Muelas, N.; Cárcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  9. Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths

    Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

  10. Determination of moisture content in steams and variation in moisture content with operating boiler level by analyzing sodium content in steam generator water and steam condensate of a nuclear power plant using ion chromatographic technique

    Dry steam with moisture content less than <1% is the stringent requirements in a steam generator for good health of the turbine. In order to confirm the same, determination of sodium is done in steam generator water and steam condensate using Flame photometer in ppm level and ion chromatograph in ppb level. Depending on the carry over of sodium in steam along with the water droplet (moisture), the moisture content in steam was calculated and was found to be < 1% which is requirements of the system. The paper described the salient features of a PHWR, principle of Ion Chromatography, chemistry parameters of Steam Generators and calculation of moisture content in steam on the basis of sodium analysis. (author)

  11. Water content in the anodization electrolyte affects the electrochemical and electronic transport properties of TiO2 nanotubes: a study by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    The TiO2 nanotube system has attracted much interest for applications in photoelectrochemical water splitting. Optimization of their photoelectrochemical properties may be carried out by modifying the water content of the anodization electrolyte, but a rigorous understanding of the underlying electronic and electrochemical properties responsible for the differences in the photocurrent efficiency remain elusive. In this paper, we used electrochemical impedance methods to determine that while TiO2 nanotubes formed in low (2 vol%) and high (11 vol%) water content electrolytes have similar electrical conductivity and charge transfer resistances, the presence of a lower density of deep level defect states contributes to increase the photoelectrochemical performance of TiO2 nanotubes formed from high water content electrolytes. Passivation of these defect states may lead to an improved photoelectrochemical performance

  12. Solubility estimation of inorganic salts in supercritical water

    Highlights: • A pragmatic approach to estimate solubility of inorganic salts in SCW is employed. • R-HKF, Density and SAA models are used to evaluate chemical equilibrium constant. • Models predictability in estimating solubility of inorganic salts is evaluated. • A simplified SAA model competes well with a complex R-HKF in solubility estimation. - Abstract: Presence of minute amount of inorganic salts in supercritical water (SCW) can cause equipment scaling, erosion and corrosion, reaction disturbance and process malfunctions. Thermodynamic modeling reduces experimental measurements; hence, solubility of several inorganic salts with available empirical solubility data (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and MgSO4) within temperature and pressure ranges of (623–823) K and (9.0–25.0) MPa, respectively, is estimated following determination of the dissociation constant, K, in SCW using three known models, namely, R-HKF, Sue–Adschiri–Arai (SAA) and Density model. Results obtained are compared with the experimental data to assess the suitability of the models in predicting the solubility of these inorganic salts in SCW, which indicate that R-HKF model is satisfactorily capable of correlating solubility for these salts. In almost every case except NaCl, SAA has provided similar estimation to R-HKF model. The Density model however, has offered the least accurate estimation in all cases

  13. Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring

    Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure 180 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO2, followed by the determination of the 180 content of the CO27 and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H20 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO2 produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same 180 content as that of the original H20 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of [180] H20 was placed in a PCl5 reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl5 was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N2, and diluting with CHCl3. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated 180 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl5 introduces four oxygens from water into the H3P04, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H3P04 should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl5 hydrolysis. 2 tables

  14. Query by Image Content

    S. R. Bharamagoudar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The amount of images or the pictorial data is growing day by day with the expansion of internet services. As the network and development of multimedia technologies are becoming more popular, users are not satisfied with the traditional information retrieval techniques. So nowadays the content based image retrieval are becoming a source of exact and fast retrieval. . It is very difficult for the users to retrieve the required images using a operative and efficient mechanism. There are many techniques which are used to retrieve the images depending upon the requirement of different applications. This paper provides an extensive review of various latest research work and methodologies applied in the field of CBIR. Images are retrieved on the basis of automatically derived features such as, texture, shape and color which is generally referred to as Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR. Content based image retrieval is an important research area in image processing, with a vast domain of applications like recognition systems i.e. finger, face, biometrics, medical sciences etc. However, the technology still lacks maturity, and is not yet being used on a significant scale. In the absence of hard evidence on the effectiveness of CBIR techniques in practice, opinion is still sharply divided about their usefulness in handling real-life queries in large and diverse image collections. The concepts which are presently used for CBIR system are all under research.

  15. Increased cerebral water content in hemodialysis patients.

    Kathrin Reetz

    Full Text Available Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.4±2.2 hours, and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuropsychological testing revealed mainly attentional and executive cognitive dysfunction in HD. Voxel-based-morphometry showed only marginal alterations in the right inferior medial temporal lobe white matter in HD compared to controls. Marked increases in global brain water content were found in the white matter, specifically in parietal areas, in HD patients compared to controls. Although the global water content in the gray matter did not differ between the two groups, regional increases of brain water content in particular in parieto-temporal gray matter areas were observed in HD patients. No relevant brain hydration changes were revealed before and after hemodialysis. Whereas longer duration of dialysis vintage was associated with increased water content in parieto-temporal-occipital regions, lower intradialytic weight changes were negatively correlated with brain water content in these areas in HD patients. Worse cognitive performance on an attention task correlated with increased hydration in frontal white matter. In conclusion, long-term HD is associated with altered brain tissue water homeostasis mainly in parietal white matter regions, whereas the attentional domain in the cognitive dysfunction profile in HD could be linked to increased frontal white matter water content.

  16. Interaction of ionic liquid with water with variation of water content in 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6])/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions monitored by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 and coumarin 490

    Seth, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Anjan; Setua, Palash; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of water with room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) [bmim][PF6] has been studied in [bmim][PF6]/TX-100/water ternary microemulsions by solvent and rotational relaxation of coumarin 153 (C-153) and coumarin 490 (C-490). The rotational relaxation and average solvation time of C-153 and C-490 gradually decrease with increase in water content of the microemulsions. The gradual increase in the size of the microemulsion with increase in w0 (w0=[water]/[surfactant]) is evident from dynamic light scattering measurements. Consequently the mobility of the water molecules also increases. In comparison to pure water the retardation of solvation time in the RTIL containing ternary microemulsions is very less. The authors have also reported the solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6]. The solvation time of C-490 in neat [bmim][PF6] is bimodal with time constants of 400ps and 1.10ns.

  17. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  18. Modulation of collagen by addition of Hofmeister salts.

    Oechsle, Anja Maria; Landenberger, Markus; Gibis, Monika; Irmscher, Stefan Björn; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Collagen can be modified by addition of chaotropic or kosmotropic salts of the reversed Hofmeister series. Hence, telopeptide-poor collagen type I was suspended in H2SO4 (pH 2) and 0.05-0.5 M KCl and KNO3 (chaotropes), as well as KI and KSCN (kosmotropes). Rheological parameters, including storage and loss modulus, intrinsic viscosity, and critical overlap concentration, were assessed and the microstructure was characterized by applying confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The addition of up to 0.1 M KCl and 0.05 M KNO3 increased the intrinsic viscosity from 1.22 to 1.51 L/g without salt to a maximal value of 1.74 L/g and decreased the critical overlap concentration from 0.66 to 0.82 g/L to a minimal value of 0.57 g/L. Higher salt concentrations increased the collagen-collagen interactions due to ions withdrawing the water from the collagen molecules. Hence, 0.1 M KSCN delivered the largest structures with the highest structure factor, area value and the highest critical overlap concentration with 17.6 L/g. Overall, 0.5 M salt led to salting out, with chaotropes forming fine precipitates and kosmotropes leading to elastic three-dimensional networks. The study demonstrated that collagen entanglement and microstructure depend strongly on the ionic strength and type of salt. PMID:26014138

  19. Tensile properties and translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester resin composites aged in distilled and salt water

    Sugiman, Gozali, M. Hulaifi; Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi

    2016-03-01

    Glass fiber reinforced polymer has been widely used in chemical industry and transportation due to lightweight and cost effective manufacturing. However due to the ability to absorb water from the environment, the durability issue is of interest for up to days. This paper investigated the water uptake and the effect of absorbed water on the tensile properties and the translaminar fracture toughness of glass fiber reinforced unsaturated polyester composites (GFRP) aged in distilled and salt water up to 30 days at a temperature of 50°C. It has been shown that GFRP absorbed more water in distilled water than in salt water. In distilled water, the tensile strength of GFRP tends to decrease steeply at 7 days and then slightly recovered for further immersion time. In salt water, the tensile strength tends to decrease continually up to 30 days immersion. The translaminar fracture toughness of GFRP aged in both distilled and salt-water shows the similar behavior. The translaminar fracture toughness increases after 7 days immersion and then tends to decrease beyond that immersion time. In the existence of ionics content in salt water, it causes more detrimental effect on the mechanical properties of fiberglass/unsaturated polyester composites compared to that of distilled water.

  20. Salt water infiltration in two artificial sea inlets in the Belgian dune area

    Vandenbohede, A.; Lebbe, L.; Gysens, S.; Delecluyse, K.; DeWolf, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the dune area of the Westhoek Nature Reserve, situated in the western Belgian coastal plain, two artificial tidal inlets were made aiming to enhance biodiversity. The infiltration of salt water in these tidal inlets was carefully monitored because a fresh water lens is present in the phreatic dune aquifer. This forms an important source of fresh water which is for instance exploited by a water company. The infiltration was monitored over a period of two years by means of electromagnetic bo...

  1. Water requirement model for salt gradient solar ponds

    Batty, J.C.; Riley, J.P.; Panahi, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A model for predicting the salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) area that could be maintained with a given water supply is presented together with several specific applications. For example, based on 30-year average water flows, the model predicts that 1.93 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (477,000 acres) of solar ponds, 1.02 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (253,000 acres) of evaporation ponds to recycle salt, and 0.51 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (125,000 acres) of freshwater storage reservoirs could be maintained at the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Water use requirements per unit of electrical energy from solar ponds are calculated as 600,000 m/sup 3//MW x yr. This is roughly 30 times the water evaporated per unit of electrical energy from coal-fired generating plants using wet cooling towers, but substantially less than water evaporation losses per unit of electrical energy produced from typical hydropower dams and reservoirs. It is concluded that water use requirements for solar ponds, although not necessarily prohibitive, are substantial; and in many locations may be the physical factor that limits solar pond development. 9 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and γ-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

  3. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  4. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  5. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

    2014-05-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

  6. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 60±10 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 °C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 °C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  7. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt stress-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosyntheses of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system. PMID:27066020

  8. Nitric oxide mitigates salt stress by regulating levels of osmolytes and antioxidant enzymes in chickpea

    Parvaiz eAhmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. plants. SNAP (50 μM was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl. Salt stress negatively affected growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity increased electrolyte leakage, carotenoid content and the levels of osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine, soluble proteins and soluble sugars, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA, as well as the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, and glutathione reductase (GR in chickpea plants. Expression of the representative SOD, CAT and APX genes examined was also up-regulated in chickpea plants by salt stress. On the other hand, exogenous application of NO to salinized plants enhanced the growth parameters, LRWC, photosynthetic pigment production and levels of osmolytes, as well as the activities of examined antioxidant enzymes which is correlated with up-regulation of the examined SOD, CAT and APX genes, in comparison with plants treated with NaCl only. Furthermore, electrolyte leakage, H2O2 and MDA contents showed decline in salt-stressed plants supplemented with NO as compared with those in NaCl-treated plants alone. Thus, the exogenous application of NO protected chickpea plants against salt-induced oxidative damage by enhancing the biosynthesis of antioxidant enzymes, thereby improving plant growth under saline stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that NO has capability to mitigate the adverse effects of high salinity on chickpea plants by improving LRWC, photosynthetic pigment biosyntheses, osmolyte accumulation and antioxidative defense system.

  9. Mathematical optimisation of drainage and economic land use for target water and salt yields

    Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Land managers in upper catchments are being asked to make expensive changes in land use, such as by planting trees, to attain environmental service targets, including reduced salt loads in rivers, to meet needs of downstream towns, farms and natural habitats. End-of-valley targets for salt loads have sometimes been set without a quantitative model of cause and effect regarding impacts on water yields, economic efficiency or distribution of costs and benefits among stakeholders. This paper pre...

  10. 盐胁迫下三色苋甜菜碱及有关酶含量的变化%Changes in Glycine Betaine and Related Enzyme Contents in Amaranthus tricolor Under Salt Stress

    王羽梅; 孟玉玲; 新居直佑

    2004-01-01

    三色苋(Amaranthus tricolor)不同器官中的甜菜碱(GB)含量显著不同.除子叶外,根、茎和叶的GB含量和茎、叶中的胆碱单加氧酶(CMO)含量都因300 mmol/L的NaCl处理而增加.甜菜碱醛脱氢酶(BADH)的表达无论盐处理与否在所有器官中都能检测到,其含量变化不大.当种子发芽时,具备合成GB的能力,CMO含量增加;在此之前未能检测到CMO,也不能合成GB.研究结果表明三色苋响应盐胁迫而合成GB的关键酶是CMO.%The glycine betaine (GB) and related enzymes contents, i.e., choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), of seeds, roots, stems, cotyledons, leaves, and flowers in Amaranthus tricolor under salt stress were determined. GB content varied significantly among different organs. GB content in the leaves was higher at the beginning of unfolding stage and decreased during maturation and senescence. GB content in the roots was very low through the life of plant. GB content in the roots, stems, leaves and flowers increased by exposure to NaC1 300 mmol/L, except in the cotyledon where it was low and remained unchanged under salt stress. Induction of GB increase by salt stress was greater in mature and old leaves than in younger leaves.CMO protein content was low in the all organs, but that in stems and leaves was significantly increased by the addition of NaC1 300 mmol/L, and was concomitant with the accumulation of GB in their tissues. BADH protein was detected in all organs. But, the levels of BADH protein did not always vary among different organs as a result of salt stress. The effect of salt stress on BADH protein content was small and in consistent in mature and old leaves. Seeds after being soaked in water for 24 h were unable to synthesize GB. When the seeds started to germinate after being in water for 48 h, they showed an ability to synthesize GB under salt stress. This was accompanied with an increase in their CMO protein content, whereas their

  11. Dietary salt loading and ion-poor water exposure provide insight into the molecular physiology of the rainbow trout gill epithelium tight junction complex.

    Kolosov, Dennis; Kelly, Scott P

    2016-08-01

    This study utilized dietary salt loading and ion-poor water (IPW) exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to further understand the role of fish gill epithelium tight junction (TJ) physiology in salt and water balance. Gill morphology, biochemistry and molecular physiology were examined, with an emphasis on genes encoding TJ proteins. Fish were either fed a control or salt-enriched diet (~10 % NaCl) for 4 weeks prior to IPW exposure for 24 h. Serum [Na(+)], [Cl(-)] and muscle moisture content were unaltered by salt feeding, but changed in response to IPW irrespective of diet. Dietary salt loading altered the morphology (reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase-immunoreactive cell numbers and surface exposure of mitochondrion-rich cells), biochemistry (decreased vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase activity) and molecular physiology (decreased nkaα1a and cftrII mRNA abundance) of the gill in a manner indicative of reduced active ion uptake activity. But in control fish and not salt-fed fish, gill mRNA abundance of nkaα1c increased and nbc decreased after IPW exposure. Genes encoding TJ proteins were typically either responsive to salt feeding or IPW, but select genes responded to combined experimental treatment (e.g. IPW responsive but only if fish were salt-fed). Therefore, using salt feeding and IPW exposure, new insights into what factors influence gill TJ proteins and the role that specific TJ proteins might play in regulating the barrier properties of the gill epithelium have been acquired. In particular, evidence suggests that TJ proteins in the gill epithelium, or the regulatory networks that control them, respond independently to external or internal stimuli. PMID:27083431

  12. Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes

    The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

  13. Monitoring the oleuropein content of olive leaves and fruits using ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction optimized by response surface methodology and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Ismaili, Ahmad; Heydari, Rouhollah; Rezaeepour, Reza

    2016-01-01

    A novel and rapid ultrasound- and salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography has been optimized by response surface methodology for the determination of oleuropein from olive leaves. Box-Behnken design was used for optimizing the main parameters including ultrasound time (A), pH (B), salt concentration (C), and volume of miscible organic solvent (D). In this technique, a mixture of plant sample and extraction solvent was subjected to ultrasound waves. After ultrasound-assisted extraction, phase separation was performed by the addition of salt to the liquid phase. The optimal conditions for the highest extraction yield of oleuropein were ultrasound time, 30 min; volume of organic solvent, 2.5 mL; salt concentration, 25% w/v; and sample pH, 4. Experimental data were fitted with a quadratic model. Analysis of variance results show that BC interaction, A(2) , B(2) , C(2) , and D(2) are significant model terms. Unlike the conventional extraction methods for plant extracts, no evaporation and reconstitution operations were needed in the proposed technique. PMID:26530030

  14. [Alleviation of salt stress during maize seed germination by presoaking with exogenous sugar].

    Zhao, Ying; Yang, Ke-jun; Li, Zuo-tong; Zhao, Chang-jiang; Xu, Jing-yu; Hu, Xue- wei; Shi, Xin-xin; Ma, Li-feng

    2015-09-01

    The maize variety Kenyu 6 was used to study the effects of exogenous glucose (Glc) and sucrose (Suc) on salt tolerance of maize seeds at germination stage under 150 mmol · L(-1) NaCl treatment. Results showed that under salt stress condition, 0.5 mmol · L(-1) exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could promote seed germination and early seedling growth. Compared with the salt treatment, Glc presoaking increased the shoot length, radicle length and corresponding dry mass up to 1.5, 1.3, 2.1 and 1.8 times, and those of the Suc presoaking treatment increased up to 1.7, 1.3. 2.7 and 1.9 times, respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking resulted in decreased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content of maize shoot under salt stress, which were lowered by 24.9% and 20.6% respectively. Exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR) and induce glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity of maize shoot under salt stress. Compared with the salt treatment. Glc presoaking increased the activity of SOD, APX, GPX, GR and G6PDH by 66.2%, 62.9%, 32.0%, 38.5% and 50.5%, and those of the Suc presoaking increased by 67.5%, 59.8%, 30.0%, 38.5% and 50.4%, respectively. Glc and Suc presoaking also significantly increased the contents of ascorbic acid (ASA) and glutathione (GSH), ASA/DHA and GSH/GSSG. The G6PDH activity was found closely related with the strong antioxidation capacity induced by exogenous sugars. In addition, Glc and Suc presoaking enhanced K+/Na+ in maize shoot by 1.3 and 1.4 times of water soaking salt treatment, respectively. These results indicated that exogenous Glc and Suc presoaking could improve antioxidation capacity of maize seeds and maintain the in vivo K+/Na+ ion balance to alleviate the inhibitory effect of salt stress on maize seed germination. PMID:26785556

  15. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (Pwater velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This

  16. COBALT SALTS PRODUCTION BY USING SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    Liudmila V. Dyakova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the extracting cobalt salts by using mixtures on the basis of tertiary amine from multicomponent solutions from the process of hydrochloride leaching of cobalt concentrate. The optimal composition for the extraction mixture, the relationship between the cobalt distribution coefficients and modifier’s nature and concentration, and the saltingout agent type have been determined. A hydrochloride extraction technology of cobalt concentrate yielding a purified concentrated cobalt solution for the production of pure cobalt salts has been developed and introduced at Severonikel combine.

  17. Investigation of Solubility and Phase Equilibria of NaCl – BaCl2 – H2O Triple Water-Salt System at 25oC Temperature by Isothermic Method

    KUL, Ali Rıza; ERGE, Hasan; MEYDAN, İsmet

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, solubility, density, conductivity and phase equilibria of Na2Cl2-BaCl2-H2O triple system existing in Na+, Ba+2/Cl-, (H2PO2)-H2O quadrangular mutual water-salt system were investigated by using physicochemical analysis methods. In the first place, 100 mL distilled water was added into a 100 mL volumetric flask and each time 6-7 g NaCl was added until solubility point of NaCl. Each additionwas followed by mixing two hours and leaving one hour. Having established solubil...

  18. New methods for recovery of inorganic salts from waste water in the petroleum industry / Lydia Oosthuizen

    Oosthuizen, Lydianna Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study three novel methods for the removal/recovery of inorganic salts from aqueous solution were explored to make a contribution to ongoing efforts by the petroleum industry to upgrade waste water for reuse by immobilising and removing inorganic substances from such contaminated water. These methods were targeted precipitation, supercritical treatment and eutectic freeze crystallisation. The feasibility of these methods for waste water treatment was investigated by u...

  19. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase transformations in water

    Palash Sanphui; Ashwini Nangia

    2014-09-01

    Theobromine, a xanthine derivative analogous to caffeine and theophylline, is an effective central nervous system stimulant. It has lower aqueous solubility than caffeine and theophylline. Salts of theobromine with hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and -toluenesulfonic acid were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding (LAG). Proton transfer from the strong acid to the weak base imidazole N resulted in N+-H…O− hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies of theobromine salts. The mesylate salt is polymorphic with amide N-H…O dimer and catemer synthons for the theobromine cations. A variable stoichiometry for phosphate salts (1:3 and 1:2.5) were observed with the latter being more stable. All new salts were characterized by FT-IR, PXRD, DSC and finally single crystal X-ray diffraction. In terms of stability, these salts transformed to theobromine within 1 h of dissolution in water. Remarkably, the besylate and tosylate salts are 88 and 58 times more soluble than theobromine, but they dissociated within 1 h. In contrast, theobromine co-crystals with gallic acid, anthranilic acid and 5-chlorosalicylic acid were found to be stable for more than 24 h in the aqueous slurry conditions, except malonic co-crystal which transformed to theobrominewithin 1 h.Water mediated phase transformation of theobromine salts and co-crystalmay be due to the incongruency (high solubility difference) between the components. These results suggest that even though traditional salts are highly soluble compared to co-crystals, co-crystals can be superior in terms of stability.

  20. Effect of Silicon on Leaf Ultrastructure,Chlorophyll Content and Photosynthetic Activity of Barley Under Salt Stress

    LIANGYONGCHAO

    1998-01-01

    Two contrasting cultivars of barley(Hordeum vulgare L.):Kepin No.7(salt sensitive),and Jian 4(salt tolerant)were grown in a hydropon ics system with 2 NaCl levels:60 mmol NaCl L-1 and 120 mmol NaCl L-1 ,and 3 Si levels:0 mmol Si L-1 ,0.5 mmol Si L-1 and 1.0 mmol Si L-1 (as silicic acid).Compared with the plants treated with 60 mmol NaCl L-1 alone,the leaf chlorophyll contents of plants rreated with salt and Si increased significantly ofr salt-sensitive cultivar at tillering stage,but for alt-tolerant cultivar,the addition of Si resulted in an obivous increase in the leaf chlorophyll content of plants exposed to 120 mmol NaCl L-1 ,However,this Si-enhancement of leaf chlorophyll content was also observed in the salttolerant plants at joninting stage,but not in the salt-sensitive plants.Moreover,leaf chlorophyll content was consistently higher for the salt-tolerant cultivar than for the salt-sensitive cultivar irrespective of salt and/or Si treatment .Compared with the plants treated with sal alont ,net CO2 assimilation rate in plant leaves increased significantly for both cultivars when treated with salt and Si, Teh addition of Si to the salt teatment was found to improve the cell ultrastructure of leaves.Under salt stress condition,the double membranes of chloroplasts disappeared,but membrane integrity was markedly improved in the salt treatment supplemented with Si.Silicon was also found to ameliorate the damage to the ultrasturcture of chloroplast granae which appeared to be disintegrated and vague in salt treatments without added Si.The results support previous work which showed that Si decreases the permeability of plasma membranes of salt-stressed barley,thus mitigating salt damage.

  1. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Lana Matijević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  2. Protic Salt Polymer Membranes: High-Temperature Water-Free Proton-Conducting Membranes

    Gervasio, Dominic Francis [University of Arizona

    2016-09-12

    ambient pressures. Synthesis and processing of these protic salts into proton-conducting membrane is far from optimized. This protic salt approach has great promise for more improvements in proton conducting membranes for making practical compact, lightweight and inexpensive fuel cells with uses ranging from small electronics (Power = 1 to 100 Watts) to transportation (kiloWatts) to stationary applications (>100 kiloWatts). This work clearly showed that proton can be conducted without water using protoic ionic liquids which are Bronsted salts which contain a proton and whose acid and base moieties have pK separated by more than 4 units and less than 14. A key finding is that the base used should be significantly different than the basicity of water or else water displaces the base and an ordinary acid membrane is left behind. This is the case where the acid moiety is sulfonic acid found on perfluorinated polymeric membranes. This PI suggests that a fruitful route for attaining highly proton-conductive stable protic salt membranes is to use the STABLE poly-phosphazene (-P=N-) polymer backbone with electrochemically STABLE pendant acid or base units on the phosphorous of poly-phosphazene and with suitable pK so the base is NOT the same pK as water. From this work this should give stable water-free proton conductors which should allow for stable fuel cells with Pt catalysts and possible with non-platinum catalyst for the hydrogen anode and oxygen cathode.

  3. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  4. The impact of the absence of aliphatic glucosinolates on water transport under salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Mcarmen eMartinez-Ballesta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Brassicaceae are known for their contents of nutrients and health-promoting phytochemicals, including glucosinolatesExposure to salinity increases the levels of several of these compounds, but their role in abiotic stress response is unclear. The effect of aliphatic glucosinolates on plant water balance and growth under salt stress, involving aquaporins, was investigated by means of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants impaired in aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthesis, which is controlled by two transcription factors: Myb28 and Myb29. The double mutant myb28myb29, completely lacking aliphatic glucosinolates, was compared to wild type Col-0 (WT and the single mutant myb28. A greater reduction in the hydraulic conductivity of myb28myb29 was observed under salt stress, when compared to the WT and myb28; this correlated with the abundance of both PIP1 and PIP2 aquaporin subfamilies. Also, changes in root architecture in response to salinity were genotype dependent. Treatment with NaCl altered glucosinolates biosynthesis in a similar way in WT and the single mutant and differently in the double mutant. The results indicate that short-chain aliphatic glucosinolates may contribute to water saving under salt stress

  5. Estimation of Canopy Water Content by Means of Hyperspectral Indices Based on Drought Stress Gradient Experiments of Maize in the North Plain China

    Feng Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted drought stress gradient experiments of maize, and used ten water content related vegetation indices (VIs to estimate widely variable canopy water content (CWC and mean leaf equivalent water thickness at canopy level (\\({\\overline{EWT}}\\ based on in situ measurements of Lambertian equivalent reflectance and important biological and environmental factors during the 2013−2014 growing seasons in the North China Plain. Among ten VIs, the performances of green chlorophyll index (CIgreen, red edge chlorophyll index (CIred edge, and the red edge normalized ratio (NRred edge were most sensitive to the variations of CWC and \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\. Simulated drought in two differently managed irrigation years did not affect the sensitivities of VIs to the variations in CWC and \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\. However, the relationships between CWC and VIs were more noticeable in 2014 than in 2013. In contrast,  \\({\\overline{EWT}}\\ and VIs were more closely related in 2013 than in 2014. CWC and relative soil water content (RSWC obviously exhibited a two-dimensional trapezoid space, which illustrated that CWC was determined not only by soil water status but also by crop growth and stage of development. This study demonstrated that nearly half of the variation in CWC explained by spectral information was derived from the variation in leaf area index (LAI.

  6. Salt rejection and water transport through boron nitride nanotubes.

    Hilder, Tamsyn A; Gordon, Daniel; Chung, Shin-Ho

    2009-10-01

    Nanotube-based water-purification devices have the potential to transform the field of desalination and demineralization through their ability to remove salts and heavy metals without significantly affecting the fast flow of water molecules. Boron nitride nanotubes have shown superior water flow properties compared to carbon nanotubes, and are thus expected to provide a more efficient water purification device. Using molecular dynamics simulations it is shown that a (5, 5) boron nitride nanotube embedded in a silicon nitride membrane can, in principle, obtain 100% salt rejection at concentrations as high as 1 M owing to a high energy barrier while still allowing water molecules to flow at a rate as high as 10.7 water molecules per nanosecond (or 0.9268 L m(-2) h(-1)). Furthermore, ions continue to be rejected under the influence of high hydrostatic pressures up to 612 MPa. When the nanotube radius is increased to 4.14 A the tube becomes cation-selective, and at 5.52 A the tube becomes anion-selective. PMID:19582727

  7. A comparison of the coupled fresh water-salt water flow and the Ghyben-Herzberg sharp interface approaches to modeling of transient behavior in coastal aquifer systems

    Essaid, H.I.

    1986-01-01

    A quasi-three dimensional finite difference model which simulates coupled, fresh water and salt water flow, separated by a sharp interface, is used to investigate the effects of storage characteristics, transmissivity, boundary conditions and anisotropy on the transient responses of such flow systems. The magnitude and duration of the departure of aquifer response from the behavior predicted using the Ghyben-Herzberg, one-fluid approach is a function of the ease with which flow can be induced in the salt water region. In many common hydrogeologic settings short-term fresh water head responses, and transitional responses between short-term and long-term, can only be realistically reproduced by including the effects of salt water flow on the dynamics of coastal flow systems. The coupled fresh water-salt water flow modeling approach is able to reproduce the observed annual fresh water head response of the Waialae aquifer of southeastern Oahu, Hawaii. ?? 1986.

  8. Effects of Drip System Uniformity and Irrigation Amount on Water and Salt Distributions in Soil Under Arid Conditions

    GUAN Hong-jie; LI Jiu-sheng; LI Yan-feng

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of water and salt in soil were monitored in the 2010 and 2011 growing seasons of cotton to evaluate the salinity risk of soil under drip irrigation in arid environments for different management practices of drip system uniformity and irrigation amount. In the experiments, three Christiansen uniformity coefficients (CU) of approximately 65, 80, and 95%(referred to as low, medium, and high uniformity, respectively) and three irrigation amounts of 50, 75, and 100%of full irrigation were used. The distribution of the soil water content and bulk electrical conductivity (ECb) was monitored continuously with approximately equally spaced frequency domain reflectometry (FDR) sensors located along a dripline. Gravimetric samples of soil were collected regularly to determine the distribution of soil salinity. A great fluctuation in CU of water content and ECb at 60 cm depth was observed for the low uniformity treatment during the irrigation season, while a relatively stable variation pattern was observed for the high uniformity treatment. The ECb CU was substantially lower than the water content CU and its value was greatly related to the water content CU and the initial ECb CU. The spatial variation of seasonal mean soil water content and seasonal mean soil bulk electrical conductivity showed a high dependence on the variation pattern of emitter discharge rate along a dripline for the low and medium uniformity treatments. A greater irrigation amount produced a significantly lower soil salinity at the end of the irrigation season, while the influence of the system uniformity on the soil salinity was insignificant at a probability level of 0.1. In arid regions, the determination of the target drip irrigation system uniformity should consider the potential salinity risk of soil caused by nonuniform water application as the influence of the system uniformity on the distribution of the soil salinity was progressively strengthened during the growing season of crop.

  9. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the Hα line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an Hα velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  10. Sea Water Ageing of GFRP Composites and the Dissolved salts

    Chakraverty, A. P.; Mohanty, U. K.; Mishra, S. C.; Satapathy, A.

    2015-02-01

    This paper houses the effect of sea water immersion on glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. The major sources of interest are study of sea water absorption, penetration of the dissolved salts, details of chemical and physical bonds at the interface, variations of mechanical properties and study of failure mechanisms as revealed through SEM fractographs. Eighteen ply GFRP composites are immersed in sea water for a period of one year in steps of two months durations. It is revealed that the moisture absorption transforms from a Fickian to non-Fickian behavior with lapse of time. The dissolved salt 'K' shows highest depth of penetration after one year of immersion while 'Na' shows a least depth of penetration, as revealed from the EDS spectra. It is also revealed that 'Ca' seems to have a sudden burst in the rate of penetration even surpassing that of 'K'. This trend can be attributed to the combined effect of ionic mobility of the various dissolved salts and the probable interaction between 'K' and the -OH group of epoxy resin. This interaction between dissolved 'K' and the -OH group in the polymer could have arrested the further advancement of 'K' salts in the polymer, resulting in comparatively high rates of 'Ca' penetration. The mechanical properties such as inter laminar shear stress (ILSS), stress and strain at rupture, glass transition temperature (Tg) and elastic modulus show a decreasing trend with the increased duration of immersion. As revealed from the SEM fractographs pot- holing, fiber pull-out, matrix crack etc. are seen to be the major reason for failure of the immersed samples under load.

  11. Highway deicing salt dynamic runoff to surface water and subsequent infiltration to groundwater during severe UK winters.

    Rivett, Michael O; Cuthbert, Mark O; Gamble, Richard; Connon, Lucy E; Pearson, Andrew; Shepley, Martin G; Davis, John

    2016-09-15

    Dynamic impact to the water environment of deicing salt application at a major highway (motorway) interchange in the UK is quantitatively evaluated for two recent severe UK winters. The contaminant transport pathway studied allowed controls on dynamic highway runoff and storm-sewer discharge to a receiving stream and its subsequent leakage to an underlying sandstone aquifer, including possible contribution to long-term chloride increases in supply wells, to be evaluated. Logged stream electrical-conductivity (EC) to estimate chloride concentrations, stream flow, climate and motorway salt application data were used to assess salt fate. Stream loading was responsive to salt applications and climate variability influencing salt release. Chloride (via EC) was predicted to exceed the stream Environmental Quality Standard (250mg/l) for 33% and 18% of the two winters. Maximum stream concentrations (3500mg/l, 15% sea water salinity) were ascribed to salt-induced melting and drainage of highway snowfall without dilution from, still frozen, catchment water. Salt persistance on the highway under dry-cold conditions was inferred from stream observations of delayed salt removal. Streambed and stream-loss data demonstrated chloride infiltration could occur to the underlying aquifer with mild and severe winter stream leakage estimated to account for 21 to 54% respectively of the 70t of increased chloride (over baseline) annually abstracted by supply wells. Deicing salt infiltration lateral to the highway alongside other urban/natural sources were inferred to contribute the shortfall. Challenges in quantifying chloride mass/fluxes (flow gauge accuracy at high flows, salt loading from other roads, weaker chloride-EC correlation at low concentrations), may be largely overcome by modest investment in enhanced data acquisition or minor approach modification. The increased understanding of deicing salt dynamic loading to the water environment obtained is relevant to improved

  12. 不同灌水方式淋洗下滨海盐土的水盐运移特征%Water and Salt Transporting Features of Coastal Saline Soil with Leaching by Different Irrigation Methods

    王艳; 吴勇; 廉晓娟; 王正祥; 张余良; 贺宏达

    2012-01-01

    为了合理有效地利用水资源,快速改良滨海盐土,通过室内土柱试验探讨了不同灌水方式淋洗下滨海盐土的水盐运移特征.结果表明:咸水的入渗速率要明显高于咸淡交替和淡水入渗.在灌水淋洗后,土壤盐分含量均大幅下降,以先用咸水再用淡水灌水淋洗方式脱盐效果最好,脱盐速度最快,淡水淋洗方式脱盐速度最慢.脱盐后,3个处理土壤的pH值均上升,淡水淋洗土壤pH上升幅度最大,先咸后淡灌水淋洗土壤pH上升幅度最小.采用先咸后淡灌水方式淋洗滨海盐土的综合效果最好,为淡水资源短缺,咸水资源丰富的盐碱地区的盐土淋盐改良提供了科学的方法.%In order to make rational and effective use of water resources, the rapid improvement of coastal saline soil, an indoor soil column experiment was carried out to investigate the water and salt transporting characteristics of coastal saline soil, which was leached with different irrigation methods. The results indicated that the soil infiltration rate of saline water was obviously higher than that of saline-fresh water alternate and fresh water. The soil salinity descended significantly after irrigation. The soil desalinization effect was the best and the soil desalinization rate was the fastest which with the method of leaching first by saline water then by fresh water. The soil desalinization rate by leaching with fresh water was the slowest. After irrigation, soil pH increased in the three treatments soil, leaching by fresh water increased greatly and increase of minimum was leaching first by saline water then by fresh water. Among the three irrigation methods, the method of leaching first by saline water then by fresh water had the best comprehensive effect of leaching coastal saline soil. The research could provide the scientific method to leach salt and improve the saline soil in the saline-alkali areas which had shortage of fresh water resources and abundance

  13. Hydrogen Bonding in Liquid Water and in the Hydration Shell of Salts.

    Dagade, Dilip H; Barge, Seema S

    2016-03-16

    A near-IR spectral study on pure water and aqueous salt solutions is used to investigate stoichiometric concentrations of different types of hydrogen-bonded water species in liquid water and in water comprising the hydration shell of salts. Analysis of the thermodynamics of hydrogen-bond formation signifies that hydrogen-bond making and breaking processes are dominated by enthalpy with non-negligible heat capacity effects, as revealed by the temperature dependence of standard molar enthalpies of hydrogen-bond formation and from analysis of the linear enthalpy-entropy compensation effects. A generalized method is proposed for the simultaneous calculation of the spectrum of water in the hydration shell and hydration number of solutes. Resolved spectra of water in the hydration shell of different salts clearly differentiate hydrogen bonding of water in the hydration shell around cations and anions. A comparison of resolved liquid water spectra and resolved hydration-shell spectra of ions highlights that the ordering of absorption frequencies of different kinds of hydrogen-bonded water species is also preserved in the bound state with significant changes in band position, band width, and band intensity because of the polarization of water molecules in the vicinity of ions. PMID:26749515

  14. Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5°C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation.......The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of...... a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 – 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a...

  15. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  16. Effects of water application intensity of microsprinkler irrigation on water and salt environment and crop growth in coastal saline soils

    CHU Lin-lin; KANG Yao-hu; WAN Shu-qin

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory and ifeld experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of water application intensity (WAI) on soil salinity management and the growth ofFestuca arundinacea (festuca) under three stages of water and salt management strategies using microsprinkler irrigation in Hebei Province, North China. The soil water content (è) and salinity of homogeneous coastal saline soils were evaluated under different water application intensities in the laboratory experiment. The results indicated that the WAI of microsprinkler irrigation inlfuenced theè, electrical conductivity (ECe) and pH of saline soils. As the WAI increased, the average values ofè and ECe in the 0–40 cm proifle also increased, while their average values in the 40–60 cm proifle decreased. The pH value also slightly decreased as depth increased, but no signiifcant differences were observed between the different treatments. The time periods of the water redistribution treatments had no obvious effects. Based on the results forè, ECe and pH, a smaler WAI was more desirable. The ifeld experiment was conducted after being considered the results of the technical parameter experiment and evaporation, wind and leaching duration. The ifeld experiment included three stages of water and salt regulation, based on three soil matric potentials (SMP), in which the SMP at a 20-cm depth below the surface was used to trigger irrigation. The results showed that the microsprinkler irrigation created an appropriate environment for festuca growth through the three stages of water and salt regulation. The low-salinity conditions that occurred at 0–10 cm depth during the ifrst stage (−5 kPa) continued to expand through the next two stages. The average pH value was less than 8.5. The tiler number of festuca increased as SMP decreased from the ifrst stage to the third stage. After the three stages of water and salt regulation, the highly saline soil gradualy changed to a low-saline soil. Overal, based on the

  17. Reducing the content of alloying elements in high-speed steel during heating in salt baths

    Barium chloride salt baths are primarily used for the high-temperature quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed steels. If the barium chloride melt should have a decarbonizing effect on the surface components that are heated in it, the authors maintain that it may also affect the content of alloying elements in the surface layers of high-speed-steel components that are heated in it. Commercial salt baths with a rectifier -- chemically pure magnesium fluoride -was used for the investigation. Cooling was accomplished in a caustic melt. Analysis of the results of investigation of the molybdenum, tungsten, and cobalt distributions in steel R9M4K8 as well as the tungsten and cobalt distributions in steel R9K5 indicated that the cobalt content does not diminish on heating to 12300C. A decrease in molybdenum content occurs in the surface layers during the quench heating of a tool formed from high-speed tungsten-molybdenum steel in a barium chloride salt bath after the required heating time, while a decrease in the tungsten content takes place with more prolonged hold times. It is shown to be possible to reduce or completely eliminate loss of alloying elements in the surface layers of a high-speedsteel tool during heat treatment when magnesium fluoride in combination with silicon carbide additives is used as a rectifier

  18. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  19. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  20. Multiphase CFD modelling of water evaporation and salt precipitation in micro-pores

    Twerda, A.; O’Mahoney, T.S.D.; Velthuis, J.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The precipitation of salt in porous reservoir rocks is an impairment to gas production, particularly in mature fields. Mitigation is typically achieved with regular water washes which dissolve the deposited salt and transport it in the water phase. However, since the process of salt precipitation is

  1. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth.

  2. Explicit-water theory for the salt-specific effects and Hofmeister series in protein solutions

    Kalyuzhnyi, Yuriy V.; Vlachy, Vojko

    2016-06-01

    Effects of addition of salts on stability of aqueous protein solutions are studied theoretically and the results are compared with experimental data. In our approach, all the interacting species, proteins, ions, and water molecules, are accounted for explicitly. Water molecules are modeled as hard spheres with four off-center attractive square-well sites. These sites serve to bind either another water or to solvate the ions or protein charges. The ions are represented as charged hard spheres, and decorated by attractive sites to allow solvation. Spherical proteins simultaneously possess positive and negative groups, represented by charged hard spheres, attached to the surface of the protein. The attractive square-well sites, mimicking the protein-protein van der Waals interaction, are located on the surface of the protein. To obtain numerical results, we utilized the energy route of Wertheim's associative mean spherical approximation. From measurable properties, we choose to calculate the second virial coefficient B2, which is closely related to the tendency of proteins to aggregate and eventually crystalize. Calculations are in agreement with experimental trends: (i) For low concentration of added salt, the alkali halide salts follow the inverse Hofmeister series. (ii) At higher concentration of added salt, the trend is reversed. (iii) When cations are varied, the salts follow the direct Hofmeister series. (iv) In contrast to the colloidal theories, our approach correctly predicts the non-monotonic behavior of B2 upon addition of salts. (v) With respect to anions, the theory predicts for the B2 values to follow different sequences below and above the iso-ionic point, as also confirmed experimentally. (vi) A semi-quantitative agreement between measured and calculated values for the second virial coefficient, as functions of pH of solution and added salt type and concentration, is obtained.

  3. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  4. [Quivira National Wildlife Refuge water quality data : Big and Little Salt Marsh, June 1991

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Water quality results from samples taken June 18th, 1991 at Quivira National Wildlife Refuge from Big Salt Marsh, Little Salt Marsh, and from a small wetland pool...

  5. Salting the landscapes in Transbaikalia: natural and technogenic factors

    Peryazeva, E. G.; Plyusnin, A. M.; Chinavlev, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Salting the soils, surface and subsurface waters is widespread in Transbaikalia. Hearths of salting occur within intermountain depressions of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic age both in the steppe arid and forest humid landscapes. Total water mineralization reaches 80 g/dm3 in lakes and 4-5 g/dm3 in subsurface waters. The waters belong to hydrocarbonate sodium and sulfate sodium types by chemical composition. The soda type of waters is widely spread through the whole area. Sulfate waters are found in several hearths of salting. Deposition of salts takes place in some lakes. Mirabilite and soda depositions are most commonly observed in muds of salt lakes. Deposition of salts occurs both as a result of evaporative concentrating and during freezing out the solvent. In the winter period, efflorescences of salts, where decawater soda is main mineral, are observed on ice surface. Solonchaks are spread in areas of shallow ground waters (1-2m). Soil salting is most intense in the lower parts of depressions, where surface of ground waters is at depth 0.5-1.0m. In soil cover of solonchaks, salt horizon is of various thicknesses, and it has various morphological forms of occurrence, i.e. as thick deposits of salts on soil surface and salting the surficial horizons. The soil has low alkaline reaction of medium and is characterized by high content of exchangeable bases with significant content of exchangeable sodium in the absorbing complex. Total amount of salts varies from 0.7 to 1.3%. Their maximal quantity (3.1%) is confined to the surficial layer. Sulfate-sodium type of salting is noted in the solonchak upper horizons and sulfate-magnesium-calcium one in the lower ones (Ubugunov et al, 2009). Formation of salting hearths is associated with natural and technogenic conditions. The Mesozoic depressions of Transbaikalia are characterized by intense volcanism. Covers of alkaline and moderately alkaline basalts that are enriched in potassium, sodium, carbon dioxide, fluorine, chlorine

  6. Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer

    Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

  7. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T1, T*2 and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T*2 decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T*2 curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T Emax of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T1, T*2, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  8. 金属盐改性活性炭吸附去除水中苯酚实验研究%Experimental study on adsorption performance of phenol in water with activated carbon by metal salts modified

    杨英; 孟红旗; 李素敏

    2012-01-01

    Activated carbon modified by Metal salts has broad application prospects in water purification. The modified activated carbons from five salts( Al^3+ , H ^+ ,Zn^2+ , Cu^2+ , Mn^7+ ) were respectively prepared using the impregnation method, and the adsorption performance of phenol solution by a filtration process was investigated with different modified activated carbon. The results showed that the adsorption performance on modified acti- vated carbons by these different salts gradually decreased in the direction: Al^3+ 〉 H ^+ 〉Zn^2+ 〉 Cu^2+〉 Mn^7+ . The filter bed of modified activated carbons had a stronger resistance impact on phenol solution. In a lower filtration rate, the purification capacity of modified activated carbon by aluminum salts achieved more than 99% in dealing with low concentrations of phenol solution, and the effluent concentration was lower than 1 mg/L. Overall. The effect of this kind activated carbon was superior to the other kind by hydrochloric acids. Therefore, in the depth of water treatment, aluminum salts can be used as one of the main direction of the ac- tivated carbon modified.%金属盐改性活性炭在净水处理中具有广阔的应用前景.利用浸渍法制备了5种(Al3+,H+,Zn2+,Cu2+,Mn7+)改性活性炭,用过滤手段对改性活性炭吸附去除苯酚的性能进行了研究.结果表明,各种改性活性炭过滤去除苯酚性能的高低顺序为:Al3+〉H+〉Zn2+〉CK〉Cu2+〉Mn7+;活性炭滤柱对苯酚原水具有较强的耐冲击性能,在较低滤速下,铝盐改性活性炭滤柱对中低质量浓度苯酚水的净化能力达99%以上,出水质量浓度低于1 mg/L,整体上优于盐酸活化炭滤柱.在净水深度处理中,铝盐可作为活性炭改性的主要方向之一.

  9. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.;

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of...... manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...

  10. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B;

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...

  11. Study on Salt-Containing Extractive Distillation for the 2-Propanol/Water System

    Fu Jiquan

    2008-01-01

    The salt-containing extractive distillation column and the salt-containing agent recovery column for the 2-propanol/water/ethanediol/KAc system were simulated by the NRTL model and the modified Rose Relaxation method. The simulation results showed that prediction of the salt effect in vapor-liquid equilib-rium and the correlation method (TDCM) of NRTL parameters were suitable for the said system. Four different distillation technology processes were investigated; the results showed that the salt-containing extractive distillation process was the best one. The simulating design of the extractive distillation column was performed under the conditions of different total stage number, feeding location, reflux ratio, amount of mixed agent and concentration of KAc. The results showed that such factors as 17 stages, a feeding location at the 9th stage, a reflux ratio of 1.2, and a mixed agent feeding rate of 1.141 kmol/h, might be the best suited operating conditions. The simulating design was also done for the column for recovering the salt-containing agent. The simulation method of the salt-containing extractive distillation is simple and effective in this work.

  12. Calcium and bromide contents of natural waters

    Anderson, R.J.; Graf, D.L.; Jones, B.F.

    1966-01-01

    The linear relation observed in a log Ca++ versus log Br - plot for subsurface Cl- waters is attributed to ultrafiltration by shale of sea water and fresh water that have passed through sedimentary rocks since their formation. Reactions between these solutions and sedimentary minerals, particularly dolomitization, must have contributed additional Ca+ + to solution.

  13. Production of Polyamines Is Enhanced by Endogenous Abscisic Acid in Maize Seedlings Subjected to Salt Stress

    Jun LIU; Ming-Yi JIANG; Yi-Feng ZHOU; You-Liang LIU

    2005-01-01

    It is known that salt stress and exogenously applied abscisic acid (ABA) can enhance the polyamine content in plants and that salt stress itself can lead to an increase in endogenous ABA production.In the present study, the relationships between salt-induced ABA and polyamine accumulation were investigated using ABA-deficient mutant (vp5/vp5) maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings and ABA and polyamine :biosynthesis inhibitors. The results show that reduced endogenous ABA levels, as a result of either the mutation or by using a chemical inhibitor (sodium tungstate), also reduced the accumulation of polyamines in salt-stressed leaves of maize seedlings. The polyamine synthesis inhibitors D-arginine and αdifluoromethylornithine also reduced the polyamine content of the leaves of maize seedling under salt stress. Both ABA and polyamine enhanced the dry weight accumulation of salt-stressed seedlings and also increased the activities of the two dominant tonoplast membrane enzymes, H+-ATPase and H+-PPase, when plants were under salt stress. The results suggest that salt stress induces an increase in endogenous ABA levels, which then enhances polyamine synthesis. Such responses may increase a plant's tolerance to salt.

  14. Salt Plug Formation Caused by Decreased River Discharge in a Multi-channel Estuary

    Shaha, Dinesh Chandra; Cho, Yang-Ki

    2016-06-01

    Freshwater input to estuaries may be greatly altered by the river barrages required to meet human needs for drinking water and irrigation and prevent salt water intrusion. Prior studies have examined the salt plugs associated with evaporation and salt outwelling from tidal salt flats in single-channel estuaries. In this work, we discovered a new type of salt plug formation in the multi-channel Pasur River Estuary (PRE) caused by decreasing river discharges resulting from an upstream barrage. The formation of a salt plug in response to changes in river discharge was investigated using a conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) recorder during spring and neap tides in the dry and wet seasons in 2014. An exportation of saline water from the Shibsa River Estuary (SRE) to the PRE through the Chunkhuri Channel occurred during the dry season, and a salt plug was created and persisted from December to June near Chalna in the PRE. A discharge-induced, relatively high water level in the PRE during the wet season exerted hydrostatic pressure towards the SRE from the PRE and thereby prevented the intrusion of salt water from the SRE to the PRE.

  15. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  16. Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content

    Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

  17. Radiation methods in soil physics problems with special reference to soil water, salts and nutrients movement studies

    A brief review of some recent developments in the uses of different isotopes and radiation techniques for studies of measurement of soil water content and simultaneous movement of water, salts and nutrient ions in soil is presented. Experimental work using radiotracers to study relative importance of convection and diffusion on the movement of different ions to plant roots and its availability to plants has also been discussed. (author)

  18. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  19. Time lapse imaging of water content with geoelectrical methods: on the interest of working with absolute water content data

    Dumont, Gaël; Pilawski, Tamara; Robert, Tanguy; Hermans, Thomas; Garré, Sarah; Nguyen, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography is a suitable method to estimate the water content of a waste material and detect changes in water content. Various ERT profiles, both static data and time-lapse, where acquired on a landfill during the Minerve project. In the literature, the relative change of resistivity (Δρ/ρ) is generally computed. For saline or heat tracer tests in the saturated zone, the Δρ/ρ can be easily translated into pore water conductivity or underground temperature changes (provided that the initial salinity or temperature condition is homogeneous over the ERT panel extension). For water content changes in the vadose zone resulting of an infiltration event or injection experiment, many authors also work with the Δρ/ρ or relative changes of water content Δθ/θ (linked to the change of resistivity through one single parameter: the Archie's law exponent "m"). This parameter is not influenced by the underground temperature and pore fluid conductivity (ρ¬w) condition but is influenced by the initial water content distribution. Therefore, you never know if the loss of Δθ/θ signal is representative of the limit of the infiltration front or more humid initial condition. Another approach for the understanding of the infiltration process is the assessment of the absolute change of water content (Δθ). This requires the direct computation of the water content of the waste from the resistivity data. For that purpose, we used petrophysical laws calibrated with laboratory experiments and our knowledge of the in situ temperature and pore fluid conductivity parameters. Then, we investigated water content changes in the waste material after a rainfall event (Δθ= Δθ/θ* θ). This new observation is really representatives of the quantity of water infiltrated in the waste material. However, the uncertainty in the pore fluid conductivity value may influence the computed water changes (Δθ=k*m√(ρw) ; where "m" is the Archie's law exponent

  20. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    Carlos G. Musso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

  1. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    Brodersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid...... conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A...

  2. Catalytic Conversion of Dihydroxyacetone to Lactic Acid Using Metal Salts in Water

    Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Fachri, Boy A.; Makertihartha, I. Gusti B. N.; Adisasmito, Sanggono; Heeres, Hero J.

    2011-01-01

    We herein present a study on the application of homogeneous catalysts in the form of metal salts on the conversion of trioses, such as dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glyceraldehyde (GLY) to lactic acid (LA) in water. A wide range of metal salts (26 in total) were examined. Al(III) salts were identified

  3. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation.

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface. PMID:26651708

  4. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  5. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that

  6. Influence of Water Content on the Mechanical Behaviour of Limestone: Role of the Clay Minerals Content

    Cherblanc, F.; Berthonneau, J.; Bromblet, P.; Huon, V.

    2016-06-01

    The mechanical characteristics of various sedimentary stones significantly depend on the water content, where 70 % loss of their mechanical strengths can be observed when saturated by water. Furthermore, the clay fraction has been shown to be a key factor of their hydro-mechanical behaviour since it governs for instance the hydric dilation. This work aims at investigating the correlations between the clay mineral content and the mechanical weakening experienced by limestones when interacting with water. The experimental characterization focuses on five different limestones that exhibit very different micro-structures. For each of them, we present the determination of clay mineral composition, the sorption isotherm curve and the dependences of tensile and compressive strengths on the water content. It emerges from these results that, first, the sorption behaviour is mainly governed by the amount of smectite layers which exhibit the larger specific area and, second, the rate of mechanical strength loss depends linearly on the sorption capacity. Indeed, the clay fraction plays the role of a retardation factor that delays the appearance of capillary bridges as well as the mechanical weakening of stones. However, no correlation was evidenced between the clay content and the amplitude of weakening. Since the mechanisms whereby the strength decreases with water content are not clearly established, these results would help to discriminate between various hypothesis proposed in the literature.

  7. Uranium and thorium contents in bottled mineral waters

    Thirty-four types of mineral waters bottled in Japan and 42 types of foreign mineral waters were analyzed especially for U and Th by ICP-MS. Japanese bottled waters exhibited rather low U concentrations below its detection limit of 2 ng/L up to 1.3 μ g/L. They are all below the Japanese water standard for U concentration. Foreign bottles showed a wide range of U contents up to 16 μ g/L and smaller Th contents up to 30 ng/L. Apparently, some foreign mineral waters contained a large amount of U exceeding the Japanese water standard. In spite of this, such mineral waters may be used as a readily-available uranium (and thorium) sample solution. Other various aquatic samples such as rainwater, lake water, river water, and tap water were also analyzed for U and Th. In Japan, U concentrations are of the order of several to several tens of ng/L for various samples in general, which is in accordance with those of bottled mineral waters. Uranium concentrations may be used as a key for environmental monitoring, as exemplified by water of Ashida River, Hiroshima Prefecture. (author)

  8. Soil Water Content Sensor Response to Organic Matter Content under Laboratory Conditions.

    Fares, Ali; Awal, Ripendra; Bayabil, Haimanote K

    2016-01-01

    Studies show that the performance of soil water content monitoring (SWCM) sensors is affected by soil physical and chemical properties. However, the effect of organic matter on SWCM sensor responses remains less understood. Therefore, the objectives of this study are to (i) assess the effect of organic matter on the accuracy and precision of SWCM sensors using a commercially available soil water content monitoring sensor; and (ii) account for the organic matter effect on the sensor's accuracy. Sand columns with seven rates of oven-dried sawdust (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% and 18% v/v, used as an organic matter amendment), thoroughly mixed with quartz sand, and a control without sawdust were prepared by packing quartz sand in two-liter glass containers. Sand was purposely chosen because of the absence of any organic matter or salinity, and also because sand has a relatively low cation exchange capacity that will not interfere with the treatment effect of the current work. Sensor readings (raw counts) were monitored at seven water content levels (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.08, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, and 0.30 cm³ cm(-3)) by uniformly adding the corresponding volumes of deionized water in addition to the oven-dry one. Sensor readings were significantly (p Sensor readings were strongly correlated with the organic matter level (R² = 0.92). In addition, the default calibration equation underestimated the water content readings at the lower water content range (0.05 cm³ cm(-3)). A new polynomial calibration equation that uses raw count and organic matter content as covariates improved the accuracy of the sensor (RMSE = 0.01 cm³ cm(-3)). Overall, findings of this study highlight the need to account for the effect of soil organic matter content to improve the accuracy and precision of the tested sensor under different soils and environmental conditions. PMID:27527185

  9. States of Salt Water in Polyampholyte Hydrogel Networks at Ice Forming Temperatures

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Li, Xinda; Elliott, Janet A. W.

    The behavior of water in polymers, including ice formation, is of increasing interest. For example, one can achieve improved longevity of water-borne polymeric coatings and aqueous electrolytes that operate at low temperature by understanding the polymer-water interaction. Water molecules that are bound to hydrophilic polymer backbones are known to be non-freezable at extremely low temperatures such as -100°C, whereas non-bound water is still freezable at higher temperatures. Polyampholyte, which contains both cationic and anionic groups in its backbone, is an interesting class of anti-fouling coating material with a hygroscopic nature and self-healing ability. In real operational condition, for example in maritime petroleum production in the arctic climate, multiple species of salt ions can complicate the ice formation, but their effect has not been exhaustively studied. Using a random copolymer of sodium p-styrenesulphonate (NaSS) and 3-(methacryloylamino)propyl-trimethylammonium chloride as a model system to study the phase behavior of NaCl salt in the hydrogel, this work presents (i) intriguing mechanical and electrical properties of polyelectrolytes at low temperature (<-20°C), (ii) differential scanning calorimetry studies on the effects of salt concentration, polymer chain density, degree of polymerization, and (iii) effect of dialysis on microstructure and phase water behavior in the polyampholyte hydrogel.

  10. Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity

    The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L-1 over the salinity range of 100-370 g L-1; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes

  11. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, β expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, γs expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  12. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including

  13. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    Qi, Wencai [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Zhang, Liang [College of Life Science, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007 (China); Xu, Hangbo; Wang, Lin [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Jiao, Zhen, E-mail: jiaozhen@zzu.edu.cn [Henan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ion Beam Bio-engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2014-07-25

    Highlights: • 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. • The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. • Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. • Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. • Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings.

  14. Complexation and extraction of halogenoacetates in ternary systems salt-water-extractant

    Consideration is given to results of investigations into uranyl halogenacetates, acetat and nitrate in ternary systems salt-water-extractant (diethyl ether or tributyl phosphate) at 25 deg C. Reciprocal solubility diagrams for uranyl salt systems are presented. Relationship between the character of phase diagram and anion properties at the fixed cation and extractant was revealed. Tendency to formation of the closed binodal curve correlates with hydration number and is connected with electron-donor ability. Deviations are explained satisfactorily by the difference in solvation numbers, which seems to be connected with steric effects. The data obtained show that relationship between anion characteristics and salt extraction ability is ambiguous. Edwards parameter should be used to obtain more accurate evaluations

  15. Infrared spectroscopy of aqueous ionic salt mixtures at low concentrations: ion pairing in water.

    Max, Jean-Joseph; Chapados, Camille

    2007-09-21

    The analysis by infrared spectroscopy of aqueous mixtures of NaI and CsCl was made in order to obtain information at the molecular level of the mixing of these two salts taken as model systems of strong electrolytes in water. In previous papers [J.-J. Max and C. Chapados, J. Chem. Phys. 115, 2664 (2001) and J.-J. Max et al., ibid. 126, 184507 (2007)] it was reported that a pure salt in water forms pairs of monoions to which are attached a fixed number of water molecules, giving solvated water species. Due to their interaction with the ion pairs, the solvated water molecules are strongly perturbed, modifying the IR water spectrum being monitored. After taking the IR spectrum of pure water, a small volume of NaI 2M was added and the IR spectrum taken. Then a small volume of CsCl 2M was added and a new IR spectrum taken. This procedure was repeated to obtain a series of 38 spectra in the 0.05M-0.83M concentration range. Factor analysis made on the series revealed the presence of three types of water: pure water and two salt solvated waters. The number of solvated water molecules on the two salts taken together is ten. Since NaI and CsCl have, respectively, 3.5 and 3.0 solvated water molecules, it was concluded that a reaction occurred in the solutions forming NaCl and CsI that have, respectively, five water molecules each for a total of ten. The analysis of the spectra of the orthogonal factors supports this attribution. These results provide additional proof of ion pairing in water. Furthermore, comparing the band displacements and intensity variations observed on the solvated water species to that of pure water indicates that the dielectric milieu surrounding the ion pairs is not constant. These results do not support the classical view of Debye-Huckel that considers that the ions are independent and the dielectric milieu constant. The present results give some in situ information on the reaction that goes on in "simple" electrolyte systems whose reactivity and

  16. Salt marsh ecohydrological zonation due to heterogeneous vegetation - groundwater - surface water interactions

    Moffett, K. B.; Gorelick, S.; McLaren, R.; Sudicky, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Among the most fundamental characteristics of intertidal salt marshes are distinctive vegetation zonation and tidally-forced hydrology. Vegetation zones often correlate with tidal hydrology and plant water use is significant in the wetland balance; however, specific links between vegetation zonation, plant water use, and spatiotemporally variable intertidal hydrology have eluded thorough characterization. This investigation developed the first comprehensive salt marsh ecohydrology models integrating the transient, 3D, coupled surface water and groundwater flow and plant water use of an intensively studied salt marsh field site. The physics-based modeling demonstrated that superimposing heterogeneous sediment hydraulic properties, evapotranspiration rates, and rooting depths, together with tidal dynamics, induced surprising spatial variations in root zone hydraulics: variations pronounced enough to constitute wholly different root zone habitats with different pressure heads, saturations, and vertical groundwater velocities. These diverse habitats were apparent only when both hydraulic and vegetative influences were accounted for, leading to their definition as discrete "ecohydrological zones." We distinguished five different ecohydrological zones (EHZs) by distinct combinations of sediment hydraulic properties and evapotranspiration rates and two EHZs by topography. The hydraulic variations among EHZs were masked shortly after a flooding tide, but again became prominent during prolonged marsh exposure. Boundaries between EHZs exhibited large gradients in head, saturation, and vertical flow magnitude and direction due to a combination of vegetation and sediment effects. We suggest that ecohydrological zones, combining spatially-variable topographic, sediment, and vegetation influences, are the fundamental spatial habitat units comprising the salt marsh ecosystem. This perspective contrasts with historical emphasis on vegetation zones as the foremost unit of habitat

  17. Isotopic and chemical investigation of ground water salinization in upper part of Chaj Doab

    Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salts in upper part of Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaporation, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. no evidence for mixing with connate marine water could be found. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as the dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

  18. Models for coupling of salt and water transport; Proximal tubular reabsorption in Necturus kidney.

    Sackin, H; Boulpaep, E L

    1975-12-01

    Models for coupling of salt and water transport are developed with two important assumptions appropriate for leaky epithelia. (a) The tight junction is permeable to both sale and water. (b) Active Na transport into the lateral speces is assumed to occur uniformly along the length of the channel. The proposed models deal specifically with the intraepithelial mechanism of proximal tubular resbsorption in the Necturus kidney although they have implications for epithelial transport in the gallbladder and small intestine as well. The first model (continuous version) is similar to the standing gradient model devised by Diamond and Bossert but used different boundary conditions. In contrast to Diamond and Bossert's model, the predicted concentration profiles are relatively flat with no sizable gradients along the interspace. The second model (compartment version) expands Curran's model of epithelial salt and water transport by including additional compartments and considering both electrical and chemical driving forces for individual Na and Cl ions as well as hydraulic and osmotic driving forces for water. In both models, ion and water fluxes are investigated as a function of the transport parameters. The behavior of the models is consistent with previously suggested mechanisms for the control of net transport, particularly during saline diuresis. Under all conditions the predicted ratio of net solute to solvent flux, or emergent concentration, deviates from exact isotonicity (except when the basement membrane has an appreciable salt reflection coefficient). However, the degree of hypertonicity may be small enough to be experimentally indistinguishable from isotonic transport. PMID:1104761

  19. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 μg/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 μg/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 μg/day). (author)

  20. Effects of subfornical organ extracts on salt-water balance in the rat

    Summy-Long, J. Y.; Crawford, I. L.; Severs, W. B.

    1976-01-01

    The subfornical organ (SFO) is a circumventricular structure located at the junction of the lamina terminalis and the tela choroidea of the third cerebral ventricle. SFO is histologically regarded as a neurosecretory structure, although the physiological effects or biochemical nature of such secretions are not yet ascertained. Results are presented for an experimental study designed to determine whether SFO extracts alter parameters associated with salt-water balance in the rat. The data obtained support the conclusion that SFO contains some water-soluble substance(s), easily released by incubation, dialyzable and heat stable, which influences the salt-water balance after injection into ventricular cerebrospinal fluid. Whether other brain tissues or plasma contains the same or similar material is not yet convincingly established. The observation that one or more active constituents are easily released from SFO upon incubation in potassium-enriched medium may be of value.

  1. Effects of water regulation methods on soil salt, nutrient content and its distribution in overlying saline wasteland%水分调控对盐碱地土壤盐分与养分含量及分布的影响

    王若水; 康跃虎; 万书勤; 孙甲霞

    2014-01-01

    为给新疆地区盐碱地开发利用提供合理的灌溉指导,该文研究了滴灌条件下内陆干旱区重度盐碱地水分调控对土壤盐分与养分的影响,2008-2010年连续3 a设置了滴头正下方20 cm处5个土壤基质势下限控制灌溉:-5 kPa(S1)、-10 kPa(S2)、-15 kPa(S3)、-20 kPa(S4)和-25 kPa(S5),每个处理重复3次,按随机区组布置,于2008年试验前和2008-2010年试验后采集土壤样品(0~5、5~10、10~20、20~30和30~40 cm),测定土壤盐分(电导率、钠吸附比)以及土壤养分(速效N、P、K,全N、全P,有机质)含量。结果表明:3 a试验结束后,各处理0~40 cm土层土壤电导率与钠吸附比均显著(p<0.05)降低,其中-5 kPa(S1)处理土壤电导率降至5.3 dS/m,降低幅度最大,为89%;速效N、P、K,全N、全P以及有机质含量较试验前均有显著升高,升高幅度均在20%以上,且与土壤基质势下限成正比。各处理速效养分均在滴头周围形成累积区,且随与滴头距离的增加而减少,养分全量与有机质含量在土壤剖面垂直分布差异显著。各处理土壤C/N均较第1年播种前降低,且降低率(4.3%~13.5%)随土壤基质势下限的降低而升高。综合土壤盐分的淋洗效果以及土壤养分的改良程度,滴头正下方20 cm处土壤水基质势控制下限-5 kPa可以作为内陆干旱区前3 a盐碱地水分调控的指导灌溉制度。%Drip irrigation with its characteristic of applying water at low discharge rate and high frequency over a long period of time can maintain constant and high soil water contents in the root zone, and reduce salinity in soil water by leaching, particularly near the drip emitters. Recently, numerous studies have evaluated the use of different levels of soil matric potential (SMP) to trigger drip irrigation in arid and semiarid regions and have successfully reclaimed saline and saline

  2. [Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

  3. Relationship of 2 100-2 300 nm Spectral Characteristics of Wheat Canopy to Leaf Area Index and Leaf N as Affected by Leaf Water Content

    ZHAO Chun-Jiang; WANG Ji-Hua; LIU Liang-Yun; HUANG Wen-Jiang; ZHOU Qi-Fa

    2006-01-01

    The effects of leaf water status in a wheat canopy on the accuracy of estimating leaf area index (LAI) and N were determined in this study using extracted spectral characteristics in the 2 000-2 300 nm region of the short wave infrared (SWI) band. A newly defined spectral index, relative adsorptive index in the 2 000-2 300 nm region (RAI2000-2300), which can be calculated by RAI2000-2300 = (R2224 - R2054) (R2224 + R2054)-1 with R being the reflectance at 2 224 or2 054 nm, was utilized. This spectral index, RAI2000-2300, was significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with green LAI and leaf N concentration and proved to be potentially valuable for monitoring plant green LAI and leaf N at the field canopy scale. Moreover, plant LAI could be monitored more easily and more successfully than plant leaf N. The study also showed that leaf water had a strong masking effect on the 2 000-2 300 nm spectral characteristics and both the coefficient between RAI2000-2300 and green LAI and that between RAI2000-2300 and leaf N content decreased as leaf water content increased.

  4. Efficient partical removal during the treatment of water from Lake Constance by dosing of small amounts of ferric salts; Effiziente Partikelentfernung bei der Aufbereitung von Bodenseewasser mit geringen Mengen an Fe(III)-Salzen

    Winzenbacher, R.; Faisst, M.; Schick, R.; Stabel, H.H. [ZV Bodensee-Wasserversorgung, Betriebs- und Forschungslabor, Sipplingen (Germany)

    1998-03-01

    Ferric salt was used as coagulant in treatment experiments aiming on the enhancement of the removal efficiency of particles suspended in raw water from Lake Constance. The tests were performed in the laboratory scale, by use of a pilot plant, and in the drinking water treatment plant. As revealed by a particle counter high removal rates (>99% reduction of particle numbers) were obtained by application of very small coagulant doses (i.e. ca. 0.1 mg/l) in a combined process, where the iron salt solution was injected following microstraining and ozonation (0.8 to 1.0 mg/l) of the raw water and before rapid sandfiltration. Compared to other treatment processes combining coagulation, precipitation, and filtration as described in the literature, such low dosages are uncommon and the experimental results cannot be explained by well known theories. The interactions between ferric species, natural organic matter and filter media seem to be responsible for the observed high removal rates. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Versuchsaufbereitung von Bodenseewasser wurde Eisen(III)-Salz als Flockungsmittel vor einer nachfolgenden Sandfiltration eingesetzt, um eine weitergehende Partikelentfernung zu erreichen. Versuche im Labormassstab, an einer Technikumsanlage und an einer Grossanlage im Wasserwerk nach Mikrosiebung und Ozonung (Dosierung: 0,8-1,0 mg/l) zeigten, dass bereits sehr geringe Fe-Zugabemengen (ca. 0,1 mg/l) zur Entfernung von ueber 99% der nach Mikrosiebung noch vorhandenen Partikel ausreichten. Da die niedrigen Flockungsmittelkonzentrationen deutlich unterhalb der bei bestehenden Flockungsfiltrationsprozessen angewendeten Dosiermengen liegen, koennen die bei diesem Aufbereitungsprozess ablaufenden Mechanismen nicht mit den bekannten theoretischen Ansaetzen erklaert werden. Es wird diskutiert, dass Wechselwirkungen zwischen dem Filtermaterial, den Fe(III)-Spezies und natuerlichen organischen Substanzen die hohe Partikelrueckhalterate bewirken. (orig.)

  5. Remote sensing of vegetation water content using shortwave infrared reflectances

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Yilmaz, M. Tugrul

    2007-09-01

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter for estimation of soil moisture from microwave radiometers. One of the objectives of the Soil Moisture Experiments in 2004 (SMEX04) and 2005 (SMEX05) were to develop and test algorithms for a vegetation water content data product using shortwave infrared reflectances. SMEX04 studied native vegetation in Arizona, USA, and Sonora, Mexico, while SMEX05 studied corn and soybean in Iowa, USA. The normalized difference infrared index (NDII) is defined as (R 850 - R 1650)/(R 800 + R 1650), where R 850 is the reflectance in the near infrared and R1650 is the reflectance in the shortwave infrared. Simulations using the Scattering by Arbitrarily Inclined Leaves (SAIL) model indicated that NDII is sensitive to surface moisture content. From Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper and other imagery, NDII is linear with respect to foliar water content with R2 = 0.81. The regression standard error of the y estimate is 0.094 mm, which is equivalent to about a leaf area index of 0.5 m2 m -2. Based on modeling the dynamic water flow through plants, the requirement for detection of water stress is about 0.01 mm, so detection of water stress may not be possible. However, this standard error is accurate for input into the tau-omega model for soil moisture. Therefore, NDII may be a robust backup algorithm for MODIS as a standard data product.

  6. Fast and simple method for determination of iodide in human urine, serum, sea water, and cooking salt by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Křivánková, Ludmila

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 25, 7-8 (2004), s. 1102-1110. ISSN 0173-0835 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/0023; GA ČR GA203/01/0401; GA AV ČR IAA4031103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * cooking salt * human serum Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.743, year: 2004

  7. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant

  8. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    López-López, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Cañeque, V.; Díaz, M. Teresa; López, O.; Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  9. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  10. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  11. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  12. Relating salt marsh pore water geochemistry patterns to vegetation zones and hydrologic influences

    Moffett, Kevan B.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-03-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological factors influence vegetation zonation in salt marshes and other wetlands, but connections among these factors could be better understood. If salt marsh vegetation and marsh pore water geochemistry coorganize, e.g., via continuous plant water uptake and persistently unsaturated sediments controlling vegetation zone-specific pore water geochemistry, this could complement known physical mechanisms of marsh self-organization. A high-resolution survey of pore water geochemistry was conducted among five salt marsh vegetation zones at the same intertidal elevation. Sampling transects were arrayed both parallel and perpendicular to tidal channels. Pore water geochemistry patterns were both horizontally differentiated, corresponding to vegetation zonation, and vertically differentiated, relating to root influences. The geochemical patterns across the site were less broadly related to marsh hydrology than to vegetation zonation. Mechanisms contributing to geochemical differentiation included: root-induced oxidation and nutrient (P) depletion, surface and creek-bank sediment flushing by rainfall or tides, evapotranspiration creating aerated pore space for partial sediment flushing in some areas while persistently saturated conditions hindered pore water renewal in others, and evapoconcentration of pore water solutes overall. The concentrated pore waters draining to the tidal creeks accounted for 41% of ebb tide solutes (median of 14 elements), including being a potentially toxic source of Ni but a slight sink for Zn, at least during the short, winter study period in southern San Francisco Bay. Heterogeneous vegetation effects on pore water geochemistry are not only significant locally within the marsh but may broadly influence marsh-estuary solute exchange and ecology.

  13. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for...... bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for...

  14. Water uptake of multicomponent organic mixtures and their influence on hygroscopicity of inorganic salts.

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Jing, Bo; Guo, Yucong; Li, Junling; Tong, Shengrui; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2016-07-01

    The hygroscopic behaviors of atmospherically relevant multicomponent water soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) and their effects on ammonium sulfate (AS) and sodium chloride were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA) in the relative humidity (RH) range of 5%-90%. The measured hygroscopic growth was compared with predictions from the Extended-Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM) and Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) method. The equal mass multicomponent WSOCs mixture containing levoglucosan, succinic acid, phthalic acid and humic acid showed gradual water uptake without obvious phase change over the whole RH range. It was found that the organic content played an important role in the water uptake of mixed particles. When organic content was dominant in the mixture (75%), the measured hygroscopic growth was higher than predictions from the E-AIM or ZSR relation, especially under high RH conditions. For mass fractions of organics not larger than 50%, the hygroscopic growth of mixtures was in good agreement with model predictions. The influence of interactions between inorganic and organic components on the hygroscopicity of mixed particles was related to the salt type and organic content. These results could contribute to understanding of the hygroscopic behaviors of multicomponent aerosol particles. PMID:27372129

  15. Soil water content and water balance simulation of Caragana korshinskii Kom. in the semiarid Chinese Loess Plateau

    Jian, Shengqi; Zhao, Chuanyan; Fang, Shumin; Yu, Kai

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, to evaluate the hydrological effects of Caragana korshinskii Kom., measured data were combined with model-simulated data to assess the C. korshinskii soil water content based on water balance equation. With measured and simulated canopy interception, plant transpiration and soil evaporation, soil water content was modeled with the water balance equation. The monthly variations in the modeled soil water content by measured and simulated components (canopy interception, plant tra...

  16. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain

  17. Induced maize salt tolerance by rhizosphere inoculation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9.

    Chen, Lin; Liu, Yunpeng; Wu, Gengwei; Veronican Njeri, Kimani; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Nan; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Salt stress reduces plant growth and is now becoming one of the most important factors restricting agricultural productivity. Inoculation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) has been shown to confer plant tolerance against abiotic stress, but the detailed mechanisms of how this occurs remain unclear. In this study, hydroponic experiments indicated that the PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9 could help maize plants tolerate salt stress. After exposure to salt stress for 20 days, SQR9 significantly promoted the growth of maize seedlings and enhanced the chlorophyll content compared with the control. Additional analysis showed that the involved mechanisms could be the enhanced total soluble sugar content for decreasing cell destruction, improved peroxidase/catalase activity and glutathione content for scavenging reactive oxygen species, and reduced Na(+) levels in the plant to decrease Na(+) toxicity. These physiological appearances were further confirmed by the upregulation of RBCS, RBCL, H(+) -PPase, HKT1, NHX1, NHX2 and NHX3, as well as downregulation of NCED expression, as determined by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. However, SQR9 counteracted the increase of abscisic acid in response to salt stress. In summary, these results show that SQR9 confers plant salt tolerance by protecting the plant cells and managing Na(+) homeostasis. Hence, it can be used in salt stress prone areas, thereby promoting agricultural production. PMID:26932244

  18. Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine

    The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K2Ca2Mg(SO4).42H2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2β, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 1000C, 1500C, 2000C, 2300C and 2700C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 2300C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 2300C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 2000C

  19. [Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].

    Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2014-04-01

    Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

  20. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  1. Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content

    Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate

  2. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B; Petersen, P

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r......CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0...

  3. Isotherms and Kinetics of Water Vapor Sorption/Desorption for Surface Films of Polyion-Surfactant Ion Complex Salts.

    Gustavsson, Charlotte; Piculell, Lennart

    2016-07-14

    Thin films of "complex salts" (CS = ionic surfactants with polymeric counterions) have recently been shown to respond to humidity changes in ambient air by changing their liquid crystalline structure. We here report isotherms and kinetics of water sorption/desorption for ∼10-100 μm films of alkyltrimethylammonium polyacrylate CS, measured in a dynamic gravimetric vapor sorption instrument over a 0-95% relative humidity (RH) range. The sorption per ion pair was similar to that observed for common ionomers. A kinetic model for the water exchange is presented, assuming that the "external" transport between the vapor reservoir and the film surface is rate-determining. The model predicts that the water content, after a small stepwise change of the reservoir RH, should vary exponentially with time, with a time constant proportional to both the slope of the sorption isotherm and the film thickness. These predictions were confirmed for our films over large RH ranges, and the external mass transfer coefficient in our setup was calculated from the experimental data. Expressions derived for the Biot number (ratio of characteristic times for internal and external water transport) for the considered limiting case strongly indicate that external water transport should quite generally affect, or even dominate, the measured kinetics for similarly thin hydrated films. PMID:27327628

  4. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.1. Some uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition

    Present article is devoted to various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. Various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition were described.

  5. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Stimmel, J.; Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.; Brock, J. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Heslop, M. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (United States). Indian Head Div.; Wernly, K. [Molten Salt Oxidation Corp. (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible {sup 238}Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and NaAsO{sub 2} or Na{sub 3}AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the {sup 238}Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox.

  6. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  7. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  8. Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Non-Destructive System for Measurements of Water and Salt Levels in Food Products Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    Masot, Rafael; Alcañiz, Miguel; Fuentes, Ana; Campos, Franciny; Barat, José M.; Gil, Luis; Labrador, Roberto H.; Soto, Juan; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón

    2009-05-01

    The IQMA and the DTA have developed a low-cost system to determinate the contents of water and salt in food products as cured ham or pork loin using non-destructive methods. The system includes an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of impedance spectroscopy and an electrode. The electrode is a concentric needle which allows carrying out tests in a non-destructive way. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between the water and salt contents and the module and phase of the impedance of the food sample in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

  9. Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential

  10. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Galan-del-Castillo, Elena [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Velazquez, Esther, E-mail: evelalo@upo.e [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  11. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    Elena, Galan-del-Castillo [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Esther, Velazquez [Pablo de Olavide University, Department of Economics, Crta. Utrera, Km.1, 41013 Seville (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  12. Linear modeling of the soil-water partition coefficient normalized to organic carbon content by reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography.

    Andrić, Filip; Šegan, Sandra; Dramićanin, Aleksandra; Majstorović, Helena; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2016-08-01

    Soil-water partition coefficient normalized to the organic carbon content (KOC) is one of the crucial properties influencing the fate of organic compounds in the environment. Chromatographic methods are well established alternative for direct sorption techniques used for KOC determination. The present work proposes reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography (RP-TLC) as a simpler, yet equally accurate method as officially recommended HPLC technique. Several TLC systems were studied including octadecyl-(RP18) and cyano-(CN) modified silica layers in combination with methanol-water and acetonitrile-water mixtures as mobile phases. In total 50 compounds of different molecular shape, size, and various ability to establish specific interactions were selected (phenols, beznodiazepines, triazine herbicides, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons). Calibration set of 29 compounds with known logKOC values determined by sorption experiments was used to build simple univariate calibrations, Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) models between logKOC and TLC retention parameters. Models exhibit good statistical performance, indicating that CN-layers contribute better to logKOC modeling than RP18-silica. The most promising TLC methods, officially recommended HPLC method, and four in silico estimation approaches have been compared by non-parametric Sum of Ranking Differences approach (SRD). The best estimations of logKOC values were achieved by simple univariate calibration of TLC retention data involving CN-silica layers and moderate content of methanol (40-50%v/v). They were ranked far well compared to the officially recommended HPLC method which was ranked in the middle. The worst estimates have been obtained from in silico computations based on octanol-water partition coefficient. Linear Solvation Energy Relationship study revealed that increased polarity of CN-layers over RP18 in combination with methanol-water mixtures is the key to better modeling of

  13. Adsorption behavior of radionuclide in water containing sea salts

    Waste water caused by the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Reactor accident contains high level radioactive material with impurities of sea water origin, such as chloride, sodium and magnesium. These impurities have the potential to inhibit the adsorption reaction of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents. We have studied adsorption behavior of radioactive cesium and strontium to adsorbents to measure distribution coefficients (Kd) in the condition of different sea water concentrations. For cesium adsorption, the dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration was affected by the adsorption mechanism of adsorbent; the adsorbents which adsorbed cesium by intercalation showed less dependence of Kd on the sea water concentration, while those adsorbed cesium by ion exchange had smaller Kd with increasing the sea water concentration. For strontium adsorption, Kd decreased as the sea water concentration increased for both adsorbents which adsorbed strontium by intercalation and by ion exchange. The inhibition of intercalation and ion exchange reaction of strontium by calcium ion, that exists high concentration in sea water (400 ppm) and similar hydrated ionic radius with strontium, will cause the decrease of Kd for strontium in the sea water with higher concentration. (author)

  14. Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into the deep basins of the Baltic Sea

    Neumann, T.; Christiansen, C.; Clasen, S.;

    1997-01-01

    observations of salt-water ingressions. The sediment record of the dated core is marked by seven Mn/Fe-excursions and suggests that major inflows terminating longer stagnation periods have occurred more frequently during the last 250 years. This in turn suggests the more frequent generation of low......The estuarine circulation system of the Baltic Sea promotes stable stratification and bottom water anoxia in sedimentary basins of the Baltic proper. Ingressions of saline, oxygen-rich waters from the North Sea replace the oxygen depleted deep water. Timing and extent of the ingressions vary on...... time-scales of years to decades, and are largely determined by wind-strength and storm frequency over the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe. Mn/Fe-ratios in sediments from a dated sediment core of the Gotland Deep (250 m water depth) record variations in redox conditions that can be linked to historical...

  15. The Occurrence of Trihalomethane Compounds in Salt Lake City and Ogden, Utah, Drinking Water Supplies

    Peters, Thomas; Adams, V. Dean; George, Dennis B.

    1981-01-01

    A purge and trap, gas chromatography system was developed to analyze for trihalomethane (THMs) compounds at the ppb (parts per billion) level in drinking water. Monthly influent and effluent samples were taken from three Weber Basin Water Conservancy Distrcit treatment plants, three Salt Lake City water treatmetn platns, and one Slat Lake Metropolitan water treatment plant. In addition tap water samples were taken...

  16. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  17. Drinking water contributes to high salt consumption in young adults in coastal Bangladesh.

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Malek, Abdul; Khan, Sheela; Chu, Cordia

    2016-04-01

    Increasing salinity of freshwater from environmental and anthropogenic influences is threatening the health of 35 million inhabitants in coastal Bangladesh. Yet little is known about the characteristics of their exposure to salt (sodium), a major risk factor for hypertension and related chronic diseases. This research examined sodium consumption levels and associated factors in young adults. We assessed spot urine samples for 282 participants (19-25 years) during May-June 2014 in a rural sub-district in southwestern coastal Bangladesh and measured sodium levels of their potable water sources. The significant factors associated with high sodium consumption were determined from logistic regression analyses. Mean sodium content in tube-well water (885 mg/L) was significantly higher than pond water (738 mg/L) (P = 0.01). Fifty three percent of subjects were consuming sodium at levels above the WHO recommended level (≥2 g/day). The users of tube-well water were more likely to consume sodium above this recommended level than pond water users. Salinity problems are projected to increase with climate change, and with large populations potentially at risk, appropriate public health and behavior-change interventions are an urgent priority for this vulnerable coastal region along with targeted research to better understand sodium exposure pathways and health benefits of alternative water supplies. PMID:27105414

  18. Measurement of intravesicular volumes by salt entrapment.

    Gruber, H J; Wilmsen, H U; Schurga, A; Pilger, A; Schindler, H

    1995-12-13

    Internal volume is a very sensitive parameter of vesicle morphology. Measurement of captured volumes by solute entrapment is legitimate for most types of vesicles (Perkin, W.R. et al. (1993) Chem. Phys. Lipids 64, 197-217). In this study chloride was selected as the most convenient marker ion because the ubiquity of Cl- in physiological buffers eliminates prelabeling with exogenous markers and because minute concentrations of trapped chloride are well detectable in the presence of large extravesicular nitrate concentrations. Perfect exchange of external chloride for nitrate was shown to be accomplished by gel filtration, dialysis, or sucrose gradient flotation-but only after significant technical improvements and/or elimination of experimental pitfalls. Reliability was cross-checked by simultaneous entrapment of Cl- and K+. Diafiltration and ion exchange chromatography appeared inapplicable for exchange of extravesicular salt. When a representative variety of vesicle preparations was analyzed for internal volume (as well as for external surface and size) unexpected features of vesicle morphology were discovered. This emphasizes the genuine role of macroscopic vesicle characterization in complementing information from electron microscopy. PMID:8541298

  19. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    Wido Schreiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction on account of the stable reactive intermediates in the reduction of SO2. In the presence of NaNO3 or Na2S, the amount of sulfur incorporated was in the molar ratio Na:S = 3 ± 0.3, and the XPS spectra of the residual carbon showed an increase of ca. 9% of the non-oxidized form of sulfur in the intermediates. In the absence of salt, it is proposed that after the adsorption of SO2 on the carbon, a 1,3,2-dioxathiolane or 1,2-oxathietene 2-oxide are formed and that decompose to produce CO2 and atomic sulfur. The non-oxidized sulfur intermediate would be an episulfide 3, formed from the reaction of the atomic sulfur with the nearest double bond and followed by consecutive reactions of insertion of atomic sulfur to form a trisulfide. Extrusion of S2 from the trisulfide would regenerate the episulfide, establishing a sulfidedisulfide-trisulfide equilibrium that worked as a capture-release cycle of sulfur. In the presence of salt, the results are consistent with the assumption that the episulfide 3 reacts with the corresponding sulfide anion to form a disulfide anion, which upon reaction with atomic sulfur forms a trisulfide anion that decomposes releasing diatomic sulfur S2, transporting the sulfur and generating a thiolate that is part of the catalytic cycle.

  20. The use of airborne electromagnetic for efficient mapping of salt water intrusion and outflow to the sea

    Auken, Esben; Kirkegaard, Casper; Ribeiro, Joana;

    2010-01-01

    not only the salt-fresh water boundary in the coastal zone, but also the mixing of fresh-salt-water on the seaside. Even freshwater layers under several meters of brackish water can be mapped. Sufficient depth of investigation is obtained by time domain methods as they have a significant higher......Airborne electromagnetic (AEM) is an efficient tool for mapping groundwater resources in sedimentary environments. AEM delivers a very high data coverage and results in high-resolution electrical images of the subsurface. In particular the time domain methods (TEM) are well suited for mapping o0f...

  1. Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance

    Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

  2. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha−1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  3. Jupiter Moon May Have a Salt-Water Ocean

    牟淑一

    2001-01-01

    上帝若有知,也应为人类探索宇宙空间的努力而感动。遥望夜空,星汉灿烂。好像地球在宇宙间并不孤独,然而,当要寻觅外星朋友时,人类便怅然若失!NASA,(美国)国家航空和航天局的伽里略号太空船发回的数据显示:木星最大的卫星,Ganymede(土卫三), may possess a huge salt-water ocean beneath its crusty(有硬壳的)surface. 本文末句发人深省:...but the issue of whether it’s there is different than the issue of whether you can expect to see it clearly in the data. 此言初读有些难,再读,便为科学家的求实精神所染。

  4. Resistance of Liposomal Sunscreen Formulations against Plain Water as well as Salt Water Exposure and Perspiration

    Korting, Hans Christian; Schöllmann, C.

    2011-01-01

    The present in vivo investigation using a total of 30 healthy adult volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin type II examines the persistent efficacy of sunscreens using liposomal suspensions as the vehicle. Based on the COLIPA guidelines, the protective effect of a single application of 4 different liposomal sunscreen formulations (sun protection factors, SPFs: 50+, 30,25 and 15) against sunburn at the recommended amount of 2 mg/cm(2) was determined after exposure of the skin to plain water and salt...

  5. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  6. Experience in the use of salt deposit inhibitors by forcing them into the bottomhole area of the formation

    Marichev, F.N.; Glazkov, A.A.; Kim, V.K.; Kosilov, A.F.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1980-01-01

    Experience in treating the bottomhole area of a formation with a salt deposit inhibitor at ''Belozerneft''' gas and oil administration enterprise which is developing the northeastern section of Samotlor field is examined. Reagents Nos. 2 and 6 were used as the inhibitors. Reagent No. 2 is an organic phosphate, a chelating agent and a crystal destroying agent which dissolves easily in fresh water and also in mineralized water with high calcium content. Depending on intensity of salt deposits the recommended concentration of the reagent is 5-20mg/1. Reagent No. 6 is made on the base of a polymer with small molecular weight and is intended for presenting carbonate and calcium sulfate deposits. It is distinguished by thermal stability, preserves effectiveness and temperatures to 260/sup 0/C. Study of the reagents under field conditions prove their effectiveness even at concentrations of 2-3mg/1 in associated recovery of water. When one used the appropriate technology and maintains periodical forcing in of reagents into the bottomhole area of a formation one can achieve an inter-repair overhaul period of wells of up to 390 days. The authors consider this method the most promising method for controlling salt deposits in oil wells of western Siberia.

  7. Electrochemical characterization of MnO2-based composite in the presence of salt-in-water and water-in-salt electrolytes as electrode for electrochemical capacitors

    Gambou-Bosca, Axel; Bélanger, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the electrolyte on the electrochemical utilization of manganese dioxide as active material for electrochemical capacitor was studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. MnO2-based composite electrodes were characterized in salt-in-water (0.65 M K2SO4, 5 M LiNO3, 0.5 M LiNO3 and 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2) and water-in-salt (5 M LiTFSI (lithium bis-trifluoromethanesulfonimide)) electrolytes. Firstly, no effect of the cation valence on the specific capacitance was observed as similar values were measured in 0.5 M LiNO3 and 0.5 M Ca(NO3)2 aqueous solutions at both low and high scan rate, when a MnO2-based composite electrode was cycled in the pseudocapacitive potential region. Secondly, it was found that in 5 M LiTFSI, a MnO2 electrode is characterized by an extended potential stability window of about 1.4 V and exhibits a high specific capacitance of 239 F g-1 per active material mass at a scan rate of 2 mV s-1. However due to the low ionic conductivity of this solution, the rate capability is limited at high scan rate.

  8. Changes in rock damage parameters due to chemical effects of salt water

    To investigate the effect of the chemical degradation on the mechanical behavior, the rock samples preserved in the 10% salt water and distilled water for 90 days are subjected to the unconfined compression test. The rock samples were obtained from Aespoe HRL in Sweden. The damage parameters were identified from the unconfined compression tests for two types of rock samples. By investigating the change in the damage parameters of the chemically degraded rock, the effect of the chemical degradation was tried to infer. Moreover, the 3-D finite element simulation was carried out using the damage parameters. (author)

  9. Stage-Specific Changes in the Water, Na+, Cl- and K+ Contents of Organelles during Apoptosis, Demonstrated by a Targeted Cryo Correlative Analytical Approach.

    Nolin, Frédérique; Michel, Jean; Wortham, Laurence; Tchelidze, Pavel; Banchet, Vincent; Lalun, Nathalie; Terryn, Christine; Ploton, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated changes in the levels of several ions during apoptosis, but a few recent studies have reported conflicting results concerning the changes in water content in apoptotic cells. We used a correlative light and cryo-scanning transmission electron microscopy method to quantify water and ion/element contents simultaneously at a nanoscale resolution in the various compartments of cells, from the onset to the end of apoptosis. We used stably transfected HeLa cells producing H2B-GFP to identify the stages of apoptosis in cells and for a targeted elemental analysis within condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, mitochondria and the cytosol. We found that the compartments of apoptotic cells contained, on average, 10% more water than control cells. During mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, we observed a strong increase in the Na+ and Cl- contents of the mitochondria and a strong decrease in mitochondrial K+ content. During the first step in apoptotic volume decrease (AVD), Na+ and Cl- levels decreased in all cell compartments, but remained higher than those in control cells. Conversely, during the second step of AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels increased considerably in the nucleus and mitochondria. During these two steps of AVD, K+ content decreased steadily in all cell compartments. We also determined in vivo ion status during caspase-3 activity and chromatin condensation. Finally, we found that actinomycin D-tolerant cells had water and K+ contents similar to those of cells entering apoptosis but lower Na+ and Cl- contents than both cells entering apoptosis and control cells. PMID:26866363

  10. Stage-Specific Changes in the Water, Na+, Cl- and K+ Contents of Organelles during Apoptosis, Demonstrated by a Targeted Cryo Correlative Analytical Approach.

    Frédérique Nolin

    Full Text Available Many studies have demonstrated changes in the levels of several ions during apoptosis, but a few recent studies have reported conflicting results concerning the changes in water content in apoptotic cells. We used a correlative light and cryo-scanning transmission electron microscopy method to quantify water and ion/element contents simultaneously at a nanoscale resolution in the various compartments of cells, from the onset to the end of apoptosis. We used stably transfected HeLa cells producing H2B-GFP to identify the stages of apoptosis in cells and for a targeted elemental analysis within condensed chromatin, nucleoplasm, mitochondria and the cytosol. We found that the compartments of apoptotic cells contained, on average, 10% more water than control cells. During mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, we observed a strong increase in the Na+ and Cl- contents of the mitochondria and a strong decrease in mitochondrial K+ content. During the first step in apoptotic volume decrease (AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels decreased in all cell compartments, but remained higher than those in control cells. Conversely, during the second step of AVD, Na+ and Cl- levels increased considerably in the nucleus and mitochondria. During these two steps of AVD, K+ content decreased steadily in all cell compartments. We also determined in vivo ion status during caspase-3 activity and chromatin condensation. Finally, we found that actinomycin D-tolerant cells had water and K+ contents similar to those of cells entering apoptosis but lower Na+ and Cl- contents than both cells entering apoptosis and control cells.

  11. Double-diffusive Fluxes of Salt and Heat in the Upper Layer of North Pacific Intermediate Water

    YOU Yuzhu

    2005-01-01

    Almost half of the oceanic water columns exhibit double-diffusion. The importance of double-diffusion in global oceans' salt and heat fluxes, water-mass formation and mixing, and circulation is increasingly recognized. However, such an important physical process in the ocean has not been well studied. One of the reasons is the difficulty of parameterizing and quantifying the processes. The paper presented here attempts to quantify the double-diffusive fluxes of salt and heat in the ocean. Previous qualitative analysis by applying the water-mass Turner angle, mTu, to the North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) layer showed a favorable condition for salt-fingering in the upper NPIW due to the overlying warm/salty water above the cold/fresh NPIW core, and a doubly-stable condition in the lower NPIW where potential temperature decreases with depth while salinity increases, inducing double stratification with respect to both potential temperature and salinity.The present study gives a quantitative estimate of double-diffusive fluxes of salt and heat contributed by salt-fingering in the upper NPIW layer.

  12. STUDY ON DECANTATION WAYS OF ROCK SALT BRINES AND THEIR EFFECTIVE USE

    E. Hodo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock salt from Dhrovjani mine (Delvina is characterized by a very high content of insoluble in water matter (around 20%. Nevertheless, it has been used for more than 20 years in some industrial areas, particularly in soda ash production at the Vlora plant. The use of this kind of salt is accompanied by large amount generation of solid waste, and also by limited decantation rate of raw brines prepared, in particular during the wet seasons (when the salt moisture content exceeds 2.5%. The study was undertaken in relation to this rocky salt, as well as to the possibility of decantation rate increasing of the crude brines.

  13. Effects of negative pressure irrigation with saline water on tomato yield and soil salt%咸水负压渗灌对番茄生长和土壤盐分的影响

    刘胜尧; 范凤翠; 李志宏; 石玉芳; 贾建明; 张立峰; 孟建

    2013-01-01

    matric potential, and the root weight could be expressed by a conicoid relationship. The concentration salt at whole growth period has significant effects on the root weight, and there is a significant interaction between the concentration salt and the soil matric potential. Only the concentration of salt has significant effects on the root weight at the blooming period, and there is a parabolic relation between the concentration of salt and the tomatoes’ root weight. The effect of the tomatoes’ root weight is not significant at the fruit enlargement period and the harvest period. The positive linear relationship is shown between the soil salinity and the concentration of salt, the soil matric potential in all growth stages. The salt content would be increased 50%-400%by using the brackish water resources with a mineral concentration between 3~9 g/L to irrigate. Salt water irrigation will result in soil salt accumulation in green house production systems. The water consumption of irrigating tomatoes is positively correlated with the soil matric potential at every growth period, however, it is negatively correlated with the concentration of salt. Hence, the effect of salt water irrigation on plant growth appeared in the"from control to promotion"regulating trends when a moderate amount is chosen, which will help reduce water consumption and improve tomato yield and WUE. As a result, based on the characteristics of salt tolerance of tomatoes at different growth periods, the use of a certain concentration of salt water irrigation can not only replace fresh water, but also improve WUE.%该研究旨在探讨日光温室条件下咸水灌溉对番茄生长发育和土壤盐分积累的影响。试验采用负压渗灌设备在番茄不同生育期(全生育期、花果期、果实膨大期、采收期)、使用不同质量浓度咸水(淡水、3、5、7、9 g/L)和土壤基质势(0、-40、-80 hPa)下进行咸水灌溉,研究咸水灌溉对番茄产量、根

  14. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  15. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media

  16. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  17. Bile acid salt binding with colesevelam HCl is not affected by suspension in common beverages.

    Hanus, Martin; Zhorov, Eugene

    2006-12-01

    It has been previously reported that anions in common beverages may bind to bile acid sequestrants (BAS), reducing their capacity for binding bile acid salts. This study examined the ability of the novel BAS colesevelam hydrochloride (HCl), in vitro, to bind bile acid sodium salts following suspension in common beverages. Equilibrium binding was evaluated under conditions of constant time and varying concentrations of bile acid salts in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). A stock solution of sodium salts of glycochenodeoxycholic acid (GCDC), taurodeoxycholic acid (TDC), and glycocholic acid (GC), was added to each prepared sample of colesevelam HCl. Bile acid salt binding was calculated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Kinetics experiments were conducted using constant initial bile acid salt concentrations and varying binding times. The affinity, capacity, and kinetics of colesevelam HCl binding for GCDC, TDC, and GC were not significantly altered after suspension in water, carbonated water, Coca-Cola, Sprite, grape juice, orange juice, tomato juice, or Gatorade. The amount of bile acid sodium salt bound as a function of time was unchanged by pretreatment with any beverage tested. The in vitro binding characteristics of colesevelam HCl are unchanged by suspension in common beverages. PMID:16937334

  18. Calibrating a Salt Water Intrusion Model with Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick; Nenna, Vanessa;

    2013-01-01

    Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be...... obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of...... errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are...

  19. Comment on the paper: "Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete- the possibility of NDE". Ultrasonic 38(2000) 546-552 by Etsuzo Ohdaira and Nobuyoshi Masuzawa

    Gonzalez, Manuel Rodriguez; Caceres, Rolando Bonal

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental application of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method (UPV) in the study of concrete, consist in the analysis and estimation of the mechanical properties (compressive strength). The precission of the estimation may be dependent on the incidence of various factors, one of which is the water content acquired by the sample of concrete. In [Etsuzo] a lineal dependence of the UPV in terms of the water content for different dosifications of concrete is proposed. This paper presents an...

  20. Clear salt water above sediment-laden fresh water: Interfacial instabilities

    Schulte, B.; Konopliv, N.; Meiburg, E.

    2016-05-01

    The stability of an interface separating less dense, clear salt water above from more dense, sediment-laden fresh water below is explored via direct numerical simulations. We find that the destabilizing effects of double diffusion and particle settling amplify each other above the diffusive interface, whereas they tend to cancel each other below. For moderate settling velocities, plumes form both above and below the interface, whereas for large settling velocities plume formation below the interface is suppressed. We identify the dimensionless parameter that determines in which regime a given flow takes place, along with the critical value at which the transition between the regimes takes place.

  1. Salt leaching leads to drier soils in disturbed semiarid woodlands of central Argentina.

    Marchesini, Victoria A; Fernández, R J; Jobbágy, E G

    2013-04-01

    Disturbances in semiarid environments have revealed a strong connection between water, salt and vegetation dynamics highlighting how the alteration of water fluxes can drive salt redistribution process and long-term environmental degradation. Here, we explore to what extent the reciprocal effect, that of salt redistribution on water fluxes, may play a role in dictating environmental changes following disturbance in dry woodlands. We assessed salt and water dynamics comparing soil-solution electrical conductivity, chloride concentration, soil water content (SWC) and soil matric and osmotic water potential (Ψm, Ψos) between disturbed and undisturbed areas. A large pool of salts and chlorides present in undisturbed areas was absent in disturbed plots, suggesting deep leaching. Unexpectedly, this was associated with slight but consistently lower SWC in disturbed versus undisturbed situations during two growing seasons. The apparent paradox of increased leaching but diminishing SWC after disturbance can be explained by the effect of native salt lowering Ψos enough to prevent full soil drying. Under disturbed conditions, the onset of deep drainage and salt leaching would raise Ψos allowing a decline of Ψm and SWC. Soil water storage seems to be modulated by the presence (under natural conditions) and partial leaching (following selective shrub disturbance) of large salt pools. This counterintuitive effect of disturbances may be important in semiarid regions where deep soil salt accumulation is a common feature. Our results highlight the importance of water-salt-vegetation coupling for the understanding and management of these systems. PMID:23015213

  2. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a...... static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water contentwater potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et...

  3. Vertical profiles of soil water content as influenced by environmental factors in a small catchment on the hilly-gully Loess Plateau.

    Bing Wang

    Full Text Available Characterization of soil water content (SWC profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0-20, 20-160, and 160-300 cm, generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (P<0.05. Landform significantly affected SWC in the surface soil layer (0-20 cm before the rainy season but throughout the whole profile after the rainy season, with lower levels on the ridge than in the gully. Altitude only strongly affected SWC after the rainy season. The results indicated that land-use type, gradient, landform, and altitude should be considered in spatial SWC estimation and sustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other

  4. Vertical profiles of soil water content as influenced by environmental factors in a small catchment on the hilly-gully Loess Plateau.

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type, topography and landform) on average SWC within 300 cm depth. Soils were sampled from 101 points across a small catchment before and after the rainy season. Cluster analysis showed that soil profiles with high-level SWC in a stable trend (from top to bottom) were most commonly present in the catchment, especially in the gully related to terrace. Woodland soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in a descending or stable trend. Most abandoned farmland and grassland soil profiles had medium-level SWC with vertical variations in varying trends. No soil profiles had low-level SWC with vertical variations in an ascending trend. Multi-regression analysis showed that average SWC was significantly affected by land-use type in different soil layers (0-20, 20-160, and 160-300 cm), generally in descending order of terrace, abandoned farmland, grassland, and woodland. There was a significant negative correlation between average SWC and gradient along the whole profile (Psustainable water management in these small catchments on the Loess Plateau as well as in other complex terrains with similar settings. PMID:25313829

  5. EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE AMMONIUM SALT ON THE BIOAVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT AND THE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED PHOSPHATASES IN LOAMY SAND

    Maciej Płatkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glyphosatę ammonium salt on the activity of some enzymes involved in the metabolism of phosphorus in the soil: acid phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.2, alkaline phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.1, phosphotrieaterase (EC 3.1.5.1, inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.1.6.1, and a phosphorus content in a form available to plants. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand samples with organic carbon content 8.7 g kg-1. Into soil samples the aqueous solutions of Avans Premium 360 SC (360 g glyphosate ammonium salt in 1 dm3 were added. The amount of introduced glyphosate ammonium salt was 0 (control, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mg·kg-1, on days 0 (1 hour after glyphosate application, 7, 14, 28 and 56 measured parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed that the application of glyphosate ammonium salt resulted in changes of available phosphorus content and the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of this element in loamy sand. The effects glyphosate ammonium salt dosage and effect of day of experiment were ambiguous. Among the determined parameters the most sensitive to the presence of the glyphosate ammonium was alkaline phosphomonoesterase.

  6. Guanidinium-Induced Denaturation by Breaking of Salt Bridges.

    Meuzelaar, Heleen; Panman, Matthijs R; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-12-01

    Despite its wide use as a denaturant, the mechanism by which guanidinium (Gdm(+) ) induces protein unfolding remains largely unclear. Herein, we show evidence that Gdm(+) can induce denaturation by disrupting salt bridges that stabilize the folded conformation. We study the Gdm(+) -induced denaturation of a series of peptides containing Arg/Glu and Lys/Glu salt bridges that either stabilize or destabilize the folded conformation. The peptides containing stabilizing salt bridges are found to be denatured much more efficiently by Gdm(+) than the peptides containing destabilizing salt bridges. Complementary 2D-infrared measurements suggest a denaturation mechanism in which Gdm(+) binds to side-chain carboxylate groups involved in salt bridges. PMID:26490361

  7. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  8. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  9. Heterogeneous oxidation of a phosphocholine on synthetic sea salt by ozone at room temperature.

    Dilbeck, Christopher W; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2013-02-14

    The ozonolysis of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) adsorbed on salt mixtures as models for sea-salt particles was studied in real time using diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (DRIFTS) at room temperature with and without added water vapor. The salt substrates were a mixture of MgCl(2)·6H(2)O with NaCl or a commercially available synthetic sea salt. Ozone concentrations ranged from (0.25 to 3.9) × 10(13) molecules cm(-3) (0.1-1.6 ppm). The major products identified by FTIR and confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry were the secondary ozonide (SOZ) and a phospholipid aldehyde and carboxylic acid formed by scission of the double bond. The reaction probabilities for the two substrates were similar, γ = (6-7) × 10(-7), with an estimated overall uncertainty of a factor of two. The presence of water vapor decreased the yield of SOZ relative to the products formed by C[double bond, length as m-dash]C scission, but also increased the availability of the double bond for reaction, particularly on the less hygroscopic commercial sea-salt substrate. Thus, water not only affects the mechanisms and products, but also the structure of the phospholipid on the salt in a manner that affects its reactivity. The results of these studies suggest that the reactivity and products of oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids on sea-salt particles in air will be very sensitive to the nature and phase of the substrate, the amount of water present, and whether there is phase separation between the organics and the inorganic salt mixture. PMID:23258195

  10. Numerical modeling of water flow and salt transport in bare saline soil subjected to evaporation

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to evaporation, which was simulated using the bulk aerodynamic formulation. As evaporation was assumed to depend on the pore moisture, the evaporation flux evolved gradually causing a gradual increase in the pore salinity. This is in contrast to prior studies where the high salinity was imposed instantaneously on the ground surface. Key factors likely affecting subsurface hydrodynamics were investigated, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, relative humidity in the air, and surrounding groundwater replenishment. The simulations showed two temporal regimes where the first consists of rapid evaporation for a duration of hours followed by slow evaporation, until evaporation ceases. In the absence of surrounding groundwater replenishment, evaporation-induced density gradient generated an upward water flow initially, and then the flow decreased at which time a high density salt "finger" formed and propagated downwards. Capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. The results also suggested that the presence of subsurface water replenishment to the evaporation zone tended to produce a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface.

  11. IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION

    Fercha Azzedine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

  12. Spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals in interstitial water of salt marsh soils

    Soil colonization by plants affected spatial and seasonal variation in heavy metals. - The composition of interstitial water collected from a salt marsh in NW Spain showed clear seasonal and spatial variations associated with redox cycles of Fe and S. In the summer, salinity increased in all soils as a consequence of the increase in evapotranspiration. The pH and concentrations of heavy metals also differed with season, but not all environments showed the same variations. Soils not colonized by plants had the highest pH and lowest heavy metal concentrations in the summer. These results support the idea that higher temperatures lead to an increase in the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria, which in turn leads to an increase in alkalinity and concentration of sulfides in the water. Trace metals tend to precipitate with sulfides under these conditions and are removed from the interstitial water. In contrast, in the soils colonized by Spartina maritima, the oxidation of metal sulfides during the summer led to a decrease in pH and an increase in the metal concentrations in the interstitial water. The results obtained concur with those found for seasonal variations in metal sulfides in soils from the same salt marsh

  13. Influence of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza on Membrane Lipid Peroxidation and Soluble Sugar Content of Soybean under Salt Stress

    Ali Moradi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus, Glomus mosseae, on characteristics of growth, membrane lipid peroxidation and soluble sugar content in the shoots and roots of soybean (Glycine max plants was studied in pot culture under salt stress. The experiment was arranged as a factorial in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with four replications in greenhouse of College of Agriculture, Tehran University, Iran. The plants inoculated with mycorrhiza had significantly greater shoot and root biomass than the nonmycorrhizal plants at all salinity levels. AM symbiosis decreased membrane relative permeability and malondialdehyde content in shoots and roots. The soluble sugar content in roots was higher in mycorrhizal than nonmycorrhizal plants, but there was no significant difference in soluble sugar content in shoots between mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants. The results indicate that the AM fungus is capable of alleviating the damage caused by salt stress on soybean plants by reducing membrane lipid peroxidation and increasing the accumulation of soluble sugar content. Consequently, arbuscular mycorrhiza formation highly enhanced the salinity tolerance of soybean plant, which increased host biomass and promoted plant growth. Normal 0 21 false false false HR X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

  14. Inverse modeling of GPR signal for estimating soil water content

    Lambot, S.; van den Bosch, I.; Slob, E. C.; Stockbroeckx, B.; Scheers, B.; Vanclooster, M.

    2003-04-01

    For a large variety of environmental and agricultural applications, the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) for identifying soil water content is a matter of concern. However, the current state of technology still needs improvements and new developments. Research has focused on the development of an integrated inverse modeling approach including GPR design, GPR signal forward modeling, and GPR signal inversion to estimate simultaneously the depth dependent dielectric constant and electrical conductivity of the shallow subsurface. We propose to use as radar system a stepped frequency continuous wave radar with an ultrawide band dielectric filled TEM horn antenna used in monostatic mode. This configuration is appropriate for real time mapping and allows for a more realistic forward modeling of the radar-antenna-soil system. Forward modeling was based on the exact solution of Maxwell's equations and inversion was formulated by the classical least square problem. Given the inherent complex topography of the objective functions to optimize in electromagnetic inversion problems, we used for the inversion the recently developed global multilevel coordinate search algorithm that we combine sequentially with the local Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm. We applied the method in laboratory conditions on tank filled with sand subject to different water content levels considering a homogeneous water profile. The inverse estimation of the soil dielectric constant was remarkably well in accordance with each water content level and the corresponding theoretical values of the dielectric constant for the sand. Comparison of GPR measurements with estimations from time domain reflectometry (TDR) were also well in close agreement.

  15. Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells

    Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

    1978-08-04

    A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

  16. Both water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption increase brain water content in rats.

    Kozler, P; Riljak, V; Pokorný, J

    2013-01-01

    Our previous experiments revealed that water intoxication and osmotic BBB disruption in the rat allow penetration of high-molecular substances into the brain and that resulting changes in the internal environment of the CNS lead to pathological development, such as the loss of integrity of myelin. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the previously described phenomena are associated with increased water content in the brain. To answer the question following methods were used: a) water intoxication: intraperitoneal administration of distilled water, b) osmotic BBB disruption: application of mannitol (20 %) selectively into the internal carotid artery, c) brain wet weight was measured after decapitation, and subsequently (after six days in thermostat set at 86 °C) the dry weight were estimated d) in animals with 20 % and 30 % hyperhydration the degree of myelin deterioration was estimated e) animal locomotor activity was tested by continuous behavior tracking and analysis. Brain water content after water intoxication and following the administration of mannitol was higher than in the control group. Different degrees of hyperhydration led to different levels of brain water content and to different degrees of myelin impairment. Hyperhydration corresponding to 20 % of the body weight brought about lower locomotor activity. Increased water content in the brain after the BBB osmotic disruption is surprising because this method is frequently used in the clinical practice. PMID:24329706

  17. Alleviation of salt-induced oxidative damage by 5-aminolevulinic acid in wheat seedlings

    Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate how 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), the precursor of chlorophyll compounds, affects the defence mechanisms of wheat seedlings induced by salt stress. To determine the possible stimulative effects of ALA against salinity, 11-day old wheat seedlings were sprayed with ALA at two different concentrations (10 and 20 mg.l-1) and then stressed by exposure to salt (150 mM NaCl). The salt stress led to significant changes in the antioxidant activity. While guaiacol peroxidase activity decreased, the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase markedly increased under salt stress. Compared to the salt stress alone, the application of ALA beforehand further increased the activity of these enzymes. This study is the first time the effects of ALA have been monitored with regard to protein content and the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes. Although the salt stress reduced both the soluble protein content and protein band intensities, pre-treating with ALA significantly mitigated these stress-induced reductions. The data for the isoenzyme profiles of the antioxidant enzymes paralleled that of the ALA-induced increases in antioxidant activity. As a consequence of the high antioxidant activity in the seedlings pre-treated with ALA, the stress-induced elevations in the reactive oxygen species, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide contents and lipid peroxidation levels were markedly diminished. Taken together, this data demonstrated that pre-treating with ALA confers resistance to salt stress by modulating the protein synthesis and antioxidant activity in wheat seedlings.

  18. Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor

    Moore, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Nitric Oxide Mitigates Salt Stress by Regulating Levels of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Enzymes in Chickpea

    Ahmad, Parvaiz; Abdel Latef, Arafat A.; Hashem, Abeer; Abd_Allah, Elsayed F.; Gucel, Salih; Tran, Lam-Son P.

    2016-01-01

    This work was designed to evaluate whether external application of nitric oxide (NO) in the form of its donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) could mitigate the deleterious effects of NaCl stress on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants. SNAP (50 μM) was applied to chickpea plants grown under non-saline and saline conditions (50 and 100 mM NaCl). Salt stress inhibited growth and biomass yield, leaf relative water content (LRWC) and chlorophyll content of chickpea plants. High salinity i...

  20. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  1. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step sol–gel method

    Ramezani, Maedeh, E-mail: m.ramezani@merc.ac.ir [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, Mohammad Reza [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemzadeh, Asghar [Division of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by sol–gel co-precursor process. • Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. • Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. • By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step sol–gel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H{sub 2}O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other sol–gel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH{sub 4}OH, EtOH and H{sub 2}O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission.

  2. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step sol–gel method

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by sol–gel co-precursor process. • Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. • Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. • By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step sol–gel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H2O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other sol–gel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH4OH, EtOH and H2O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission

  3. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ΔP rather than sigma ΔP2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ΔP is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

  4. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    C. Comina; Lasagna, M.; D. A. De Luca; L. Sambuelli

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geoph...

  5. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    Comina, Cesare; Sambuelli, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Salt dilution gauging is a traditional and well-documented technique in this respect. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (...

  6. Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging

    C. Comina; Lasagna, M.; D. A. De Luca; L. Sambuelli

    2014-01-01

    To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncer...

  7. Salt-dependent increase in triterpenoids is reversible upon transfer to fresh water in mangrove plants Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza.

    Basyuni, Mohammad; Baba, Shigeyuki; Kinjo, Yuji; Putri, Lollie A P; Hakim, Luthfi; Oku, Hirosuke

    2012-12-15

    This study examined the salinity dependence of triterpenoid content and triterpenoid synthase gene expression in mangrove plants, Kandelia candel and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (Rhizophoraceae) after long-term exposure to salinity and subsequent re-adaptation. Seedlings of the two mangrove species grown in varying salt concentrations for 4 months were divided into two treatment groups and grown for another 4 months, one group continued under the respective saline condition and the other in fresh water for re-adaptation. The total content of triterpenoids increased with increasing salinity in roots and leaves of K. candel, but only in roots in B. gymnorrhiza. This increase was reversed to a variable extent, depending on the species and organ, after transfer to fresh water. In contrast, the total content of phytosterols showed no correlation with salinity throughout the experiment. The increase in total triterpenoids was accompanied by an up-regulation of several triterpenoid synthase genes: KcMS, a multifunctional triterpenoid synthase, in roots and leaves of K. candel and BgLUS, a lupeol synthase, and BgbAS, a β-amyrin synthase, in roots of B. gymnorrhiza. The expression of root KcCAS, a cycloartenol synthase, which is involved in phytosterol biosynthesis, was not modulated by the salinity conditions but decreased with increasing salinity in leaves, followed by the restoration to the initial level after transfer to fresh water. The concentrations of individual triterpenoids, but not of phytosterols, in the roots positively correlated with the salinity. These results reinforced the importance of triterpenoids in the adaptation of mangroves to withstand salt and/or water stress. PMID:22921677

  8. Elementary Analyses and Heavy Metal Contents of Tap Waters in Konuralp District: Comparison of Mains Water, Spring Water and Zamzam

    Muammer Yılmaz 1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We meet our water needs such as city water supply, natural spring water, Zamzam water was aimed to compare in terms of chemical ion concentration and heavy metal content. Methods: City water from the four regions with different source, Zamzam water and bottled natural spring water in samples, ions and heavy metal values measured. Results have been assessed according to the criteria specified in the United States environmental protection agency (EPA and the World Health Organization (WHO. Results: In the sample of tap water taken from Konuralp, Al and Fe values were found over the EPA-WHO limit value. In the sample of bottled natural spring water, heavy metals are within the limits established. In the sample of Zamzam water Ca+2, Mg+2 values were higher than other samples but not exceeding the limits. In the sample of Zamzam water nitrate (NO3-, and vanadium (V values is very high from samples taken of the city water. Conclusion: Water content may be different with the water supply and environmental effects. More extensive analysis should be done by municipalities to drinking water that contains ions and heavy metal and citizens to know the measurements of the water they drink should be informed periodically of local authority’s websites.

  9. Ion contents, relative electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm seedlings in response to salt stress

    Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Sodium ions, proline content and the percentage of relative electrolyte leakage in seedlings subjected to salt stress increased, depending on the degree of salt concentrations. Sodium ion accumulation in oil palm seedlings grown under 200 mM NaCl was enriched and positively related to membrane injury or relative electrolyte leakage subsequently correlated with total chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (OEPSII) and quantum efficiency of PSII (qP) in the seedlings under salt stress dropped significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth, especially in 200 mM NaCl. A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including sodium ion, relative electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II, Pn and plant dry weight was found. These data may further be applied to establish criteria for salt tolerance screening in oil palm breeding programs. (author)

  10. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

  11. 咸淡水混合灌溉技术应用与实践%Application and Practice of Salt-fresh Water Mixed Irrigation Technology

    王春泽; 张新龙; 齐光建

    2013-01-01

    The irrigation technology of salt water mixed with fresh water, which use two different salinities of the irrigation water, is aimed to reduce the salt content or change its salt composition. The salt water mixed with fresh water for irrigation can not only increase water quality, but also increase the total amount of irrigation water, so that the high-salinity water can be used. According to an experimental study on salt water irrigation conditions in the Xingtai City plain and the technical analysis of salt-fresh water mixed irrigation, the salinity of mixture of salt water and fresh water can be control in the 3 g/L. In recent years, we carried out some practice of salt-fresh water mixed irrigation. The results show that salt-fresh water mixed irrigation can make full use salty water resources, reduce the amount of fresh water exploitation and improve the local ecological environment.%咸水与淡水混合灌溉技术,将两种矿化度不同的灌溉水混合使用,目的是降低灌溉水的含盐量或改变其盐分组成.咸淡水混合灌溉在提高灌溉水水质的同时,也增加了可灌水的总量,使以前不能使用的高盐渍度的咸水得以利用.通过对邢台市平原区咸水灌溉条件的实验研究、咸淡水混合灌溉技术分析,邢台市咸淡水混合后矿化度应控制在3g/L以下.结合近年来开展咸淡水混合灌溉实践,在咸水区开展咸淡水混合灌溉,充分利用咸水资源,既减少了淡水的开采量,又对改善当地的生态环境发挥了重要作用.

  12. Effects of Resources Exploitation on Water Quality: case studies in Salt Water Intrusion and Acid Mine Drainage

    Kralj, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, pressures on water resources are increasing, mainly as a result of human activity. Because of their accessibility, groundwater and surface water are the most used reservoirs. The evaluation of the water quality requires the identification of the interconnections among the water reservoirs, natural landscape features, human activities and aquatic health. This study focuses on the estimation of the water pollution linked to two different environmental issues: salt water...

  13. Quantifying microbial utilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in salt-marsh sediments using the ^(13)C content of bacterial rRNA

    Pearson, Ann; Kraunz, Kimberly S.; Sessions, Alex L.; Dekas, Anne E.; Leavitt, William R.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-01-01

    Natural remediation of oil spills is catalyzed by complex microbial consortia. Here we take a whole-community approach to investigate bacterial incorporation of petroleum hydrocarbons from a simulated oil spill. We utilized the natural difference in carbon-isotopic abundance between a salt marsh ecosystem supported by the ^(13)C-enriched C4 grass, Spartina alterniflora, and the ^(13)C-depleted composition of petroleum to monitor changes in the ^(13)C content of biomass. Magnetic-bead capture ...

  14. Boron content of the Freetown drinking water

    A method is described for the analyses of water samples in the Freetown area of Sierra Leone for their boron concentrations. The method involves alpha counting during thermal neutron irradiation of the samples utilising the 10Ba(n,α)7Li reaction. The alpha counting is via a liquid scintillator which also incorporates the water samples. A detailed outline of the experimental setup is given and the results obtained from measurement on water samples presented. (author)

  15. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Köksal AYDİNŞAKİR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  16. Gas migration through salt rocks

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  17. Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)

    Salehi, M.; Kafi, M.

    2011-07-01

    Kochia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m{sup -}1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m{sup -}1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

  18. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    Bouchabke-Coussa, O.; Quashie, M.L.; Seoane, Jose Miguel;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying...... as a key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results: All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant......'s improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis...

  19. Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands

    Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

    2011-12-01

    Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (θ) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (αi) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured αi values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at θ= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after αi gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum

  20. Modeling the Influence of River Flow and Salt Water Intrusion in the Terengganu Estuary, Malaysia

    Lee, H. L.; Tangang, F.; Hamid, M. R.; Benson, Y.; Razali, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Salinity intrusion is a major concern when the freshwater extraction station is located in the estuary. This paper attempt to predict the salt intrusion length in the upper stretch of estuary, by applying different magnitudes of freshwater discharge at the river regime. The integrated two dimensional hydrodynamics model associated with advection dispersion model was performed to investigate the salinity intrusion. The model was well calibrated and verified by the measured data undertaken during dry season. The maximum salt intrusion length to the threshold of salinity density is 1.00 ppt on the existing condition was predicted at 9.97 km from the river mouth. Moreover, with the magnitude of 100.00 m3s-1 and 30.00 m3s-1 freshwater discharges at the upstream boundary (Kpg Tanggol), it was predicted the maximum salt intrusion length was 11.84 km and 21.41 km, respectively, from the river mouth. Therefore, it was determined the minimum freshwater discharge of approximately 100.00 m3s-1 is required at the Kpg Tanggol river gauging station, in order to maintain the acceptable salinity levels at the Pulau Musang freshwater pump house. However, the actual water discharge at the Kpg Tanggol boundary station should be higher, since the minimum discharge does not take into consideration the amount of water extraction by the Pulau Musang and SATU pump stations. Further analysis is required to execute the consequences of water extraction toward the salinity intrusion in the Terengganu estuary that coupled with projected sea level rise.

  1. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm3. Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  2. VOC emissions of Grey poplar leaves as affected by salt stress and different N sources.

    Teuber, M; Zimmer, I; Kreuzwieser, J; Ache, P; Polle, A; Rennenberg, H; Schnitzler, J-P

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen nutrition and salt stress experiments were performed in a greenhouse with hydroponic-cultured, salt-sensitive Grey poplar (Populus x canescens) plants to study the combined influence of different N sources (either 1 mm NO(3) (-) or NH(4)(+)) and salt (up to 75 mm NaCl) on leaf gas exchange, isoprene biosynthesis and VOC emissions. Net assimilation and transpiration proved to be highly sensitive to salt stress and were reduced by approximately 90% at leaf sodium concentrations higher than 1,800 microg Na g dry weight (dw)(-1). In contrast, emissions of isoprene and oxygenated VOC (i.e. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde and acetone) were unaffected. There was no significant effect of combinations of salt stress and N source, and neither NO(3)(-) or NH(4)(+) influenced the salt stress response in the Grey poplar leaves. Also, transcript levels of 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (PcDXR) and isoprene synthase (PcISPS) did not respond to the different N sources and only responded slightly to salt application, although isoprene synthase (PcISPS) activity was negatively affected at least in one of two experiments, despite high isoprene emission rates. A significant salt effect was the strong reduction of leaf dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) content, probably due to restricted availability of photosynthates for DMADP biosynthesis. Further consequences of reduced photosynthetic gas exchange and maintaining VOC emissions are a very high C loss, up to 50%, from VOC emissions related to net CO(2) uptake and a strong increase in leaf internal isoprene concentrations, with maximum mean values up to 6.6 microl x l(-1). Why poplar leaves maintain VOC biosynthesis and emission under salt stress conditions, despite impaired photosynthetic CO(2) fixation, is discussed. PMID:18211549

  3. Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh

    Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made

  4. Replacement of salt by a novel potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative improves the cardiovascular effects of ramipril.

    Mervaala, E. M.; Paakkari, I.; Laakso, J; Nevala, R.; Teräväinen, T. M.; Fyhrquist, F; Vapaatalo, H.; Karppanen, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. The influence of salt (sodium chloride; NaCl) (an additional 6% in the diet) and that of a novel sodium-reduced, potassium-, magnesium-, and L-lysine-enriched salt alternative on the cardiovascular effects of ramipril was studied in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats in a 6-week study. The intake of sodium chloride was adjusted to the same level by adding the salt alternative at a 1.75 times higher amount than regular salt. 2. Salt produced a marked rise in blood pressure and ind...

  5. Graphene Oxide Nanofiltration Membranes Stabilized by Cationic Porphyrin for High Salt Rejection.

    Xu, Xiao-Ling; Lin, Fu-Wen; Du, Yong; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Jian; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2016-05-25

    Swelling has great influences on the structure stability and separation performance of graphene oxide laminate membranes (GOLMs) for water desalination and purification. Herein, we report cross-linked GOLMs from GO assembled with cationic tetrakis(1-methyl-pyridinium-4-yl)porphyrin (TMPyP) by a vacuum-assisted strategy. The concave nonoxide regions (G regions) of GO are used as cross-linking sites for the first time to precisely control the channel size for water permeation and salt ion retention. Channels around 1 nm are constructed by modulating the assembly ratio of TMPyP/GO, and these cross-linked GOLMs show high salt rejection. PMID:27158976

  6. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd Thin–Long Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; D’Agostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40°C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  7. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L-1 to 1,2 mg.L-1. Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na2SO4) > TR(CaCl2) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand Ps respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the

  8. Vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants (glycols + water + salts)

    The vapour pressures and densities of the mixed-solvent desiccants have been studied for temperatures ranging from (303.15 to 343.15) K. The mixed-solvent desiccants investigated were aqueous-organic systems with salt. The studied organic solvents were diethylene glycol, tetraethylene glycol, and dipropylene glycol. The chosen salts were lithium chloride and lithium bromide. Six ternaries (glycol/water/salt) were selected for this study. For each ternary system, four systems of which (4-25) mass% salt mixed with various glycols (50-80) mass% were investigated. Incorporated with the pseudo-solvent approach, a vapour pressure model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions was used to represent the measured vapour pressure of glycol/water/salt systems. A simplified density equation was applied to model the measured density of glycol/water/salt systems. Satisfactory results were obtained for vapour pressure and density calculations. The vapour pressures of the aqueous-organic systems with salt yield smaller values of vapour pressures compared to the conventionally used liquid desiccants. The properties obtained and presented in this study are, in general, of sufficient accuracy for most engineering-design calculations, such as the design of dehumidifier process using mixed-solvent desiccants as absorbents.

  9. Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water

    Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

  10. Experiment on Development of 30% Glyphosate Ammonium Salt Water Aqua%30%草甘膦铵盐水剂研制试验

    余洋

    2012-01-01

    30%草甘膦铵盐水剂研制试验结果表明,低含量草甘膦母液通过除甲醛、浓缩制得30%草甘膦铵盐水剂,经测定,研制的样品质量稳定,甲醛含量〈10 g/kg,热贮(54℃±2℃)14 d分解率〈5%,符合国家规定的30%草甘膦铵盐水剂标准。%The experiment on development of 30% glyphosate ammonium salt water aqua results showed that by removing the low content of glyphosate mother liquor of formaldehyde and concentration, 30% ammonium salt glyphosate water aqua was acquired. Storage stability tests showed that the decomposition rate of the active ingredient was less than 5% at (54±2)℃ for 14 days and formaldehyde content was less than 10 g/kg.The physical and chemical properties of the formulated product confirmed to the requirements of EW formulation.

  11. Macrophages regulate salt-dependent volume and blood pressure by a vascular endothelial growth factor-C-dependent buffering mechanism

    Machnik, A.; Neuhofer, W.; Jantsch, J.; Dahlmann, A.; Tammela, T.; Machura, K.; Park, J.H.; Beck, F.X.; Muller, D.; Derer, W.; Goss, J.; Ziomber, A.; Dietsch, P.; Wagner, H.; Rooijen, van N.; Kurtz, A.; Hilgers, K.F.; Alitalo, K.; Eckardt, K.U.; Luft, F.C.; Kerjaschki, D.; Titze, J.

    2009-01-01

    In salt-sensitive hypertension, the accumulation of Na+ in tissue has been presumed to be accompanied by a commensurate retention of water to maintain the isotonicity of body fluids. We show here that a high-salt diet (HSD) in rats leads to interstitial hypertonic Na+ accumulation in skin, resulting

  12. The salt and lipid composition of model cheeses modifies in-mouth flavour release and perception related to the free sodium ion content.

    Boisard, Lauriane; Andriot, Isabelle; Martin, Christophe; Septier, Chantal; Boissard, Vanessa; Salles, Christian; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2014-02-15

    Reducing salt and lipid levels in foodstuffs without any effect on acceptability is a major challenge, particularly because of their interactions with other ingredients. This study used a multimodal approach to understand the effects of changes to the composition of model cheeses (20/28, 24/24, 28/20 lipid/protein ratios, 0% and 1% added NaCl) on sodium ion mobility ((23)Na NMR), in-mouth sodium release and flavour perception. An increase in the salt content decreased cheese firmness and perceived hardness, and increased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release and both saltiness and aroma perception. With the same amount of salt, a lower lipid/protein ratio increased the firmness of the cheeses, perceived hardness, and decreased sodium ion mobility, in vivo sodium release, saltiness and aroma perception. These findings suggest on one hand that it could be possible to increase saltiness perception by varying cheese composition, thus inducing differences in sodium ion mobility and in free sodium ion concentration, leading to differences in in-mouth sodium release and saltiness perception, and on the other hand that the reformulation of foods in line with health guidelines needs to take account of both salt content and the lipid/protein ratio. PMID:24128499

  13. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force…

  14. Intra-abdominal pressure correlates with extracellular water content.

    Wojciech Dąbrowski

    Full Text Available Secondary increase in intra-abdominal pressure (IAP may result from extra-abdominal pathology, such as massive fluid resuscitation, capillary leak or sepsis. All these conditions increase the extravascular water content. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between IAP and body water volume.Adult patients treated for sepsis or septic shock with acute kidney injury (AKI and patients undergoing elective pharyngolaryngeal or orthopedic surgery were enrolled. IAP was measured in the urinary bladder. Total body water (TBW, extracellular water content (ECW and volume excess (VE were measured by whole body bioimpedance. Among critically ill patients, all parameters were analyzed over three consecutive days, and parameters were evaluated perioperatively in surgical patients.One hundred twenty patients were studied. Taken together, the correlations between IAP and VE, TBW, and ECW were measured at 408 time points. In all participants, IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE. In critically ill patients, IAP correlated with ECW and VE. In surgical patients, IAP correlated with ECW and TBW. IAP strongly correlated with ECW and VE in the mixed population. IAP also correlated with VE in critically ill patients. ROC curve analysis showed that ECW and VE might be discriminative parameters of risk for increased IAP.IAP strongly correlates with ECW.

  15. Plant protein kinase genes induced by drought, high salt and cold stresses

    2000-01-01

    Drought, high salt and cold are three different kinds of environment stresses that severely influence the growth, development and productivity of crops. They all decrease the water state of plant cells, and consequently result in the harm of plant from water deficit. Several genes encoding protein kinases and induced by drought, high salt and low temperature have been isolated from Arabidopsis. These protein kinases include receptor protein kinase (RPK), MAP kinases, ribosomal-protein kinases and transcription-regulation protein kinase. The expression features of these genes and the regulatory roles of these protein kinases in stress response and signal transduction are discussed.

  16. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 ev...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies.......Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... coupled mass spectrometry. Results: Iodine in tap water varied from 2.1 to 30.2 mu g/l; the iodine content was in general highest in the eastern part of Denmark and lowest in the western part of Denmark. Organic milk was found to have a lower iodine content than non-organic milk. Conclusions: Large...

  17. Regulation of ion homeostasis by aminolevulinic acid in salt-stressed wheat seedlings

    Türk, Hülya; Genişel, Mucip; Erdal, Serkan

    2016-04-01

    Salinity is regarded as a worldwide agricultural threat, as it seriously limits plant development and productivity. Salt stress reduces water uptake in plants by disrupting the osmotic balance of soil solution. In addition, it creates a damaged metabolic process by causing ion imbalance in cells. In this study, we aim to examine the negative effects of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (20 mg/l) on the ion balance in wheat seedling leaves exposed to salt stress (150 mM). Sodium is known to be highly toxic for plant cells at high concentrations, and is significantly increased by salt stress. However, it can be reduced by combined application of ALA and salt, compared to salt application alone. On the other hand, while the K+/Na+ ratio was reduced by salt stress, ALA application changed this ratio in favor of K+. Manganese, iron, and copper were also able to reduce stress. However, ALA pre-treatment resulted in mineral level increments. Conversely, the stress-induced rise in magnesium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and molybdenum were further improved by ALA application. These data clearly show that ALA has an important regulatory effect of ion balance in wheat leaves.

  18. Extraction of erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium(3) nitrates by the mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate from water-salt solutions

    A study was made on extraction of rare earth nitrates by mixtures of tri-n-butyl phosphate and trialkylmethylammonium nitrate at different component ratios, T = 298.15 K and pH2. It was established that compounds of [Ln(NO3)3L3], (R4N)i[Ln(NO3)3+i] (i = 2, 3), (R4N)2[Ln(NO3)5L], (L - tri-n-butyl phosphate, R4H+-cation of quaternary ammonium base) composition formed in organic phase. The values of extraction constants of homogeneous and mixed solvates of rare earth metal (3) nitrates decrease in metal (3) series: Er > Tm > Yb > Lu. 13 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  19. Study of endogenic abscisic acids and cytokinin content in soybean crops of variable salt sensitivity as well as the effect of exogenically applied abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ translocation. [in German

    Roeb, G.

    1981-05-01

    A study of the phytohormones abscisic acid and cytokinin with respect to plant salt stress and its relationship to genetic control over endogen content. An analysis is made of the acid cytokinin content, and an investigation is made of the influence exerted by exogenic applied synthetic abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ uptake and accumulation. 275 references, 14 figures, 11 tables.

  20. Thermodynamics of binding water and solute to powdered long-chain salts of fatty acids.

    Mahapatra, P K; Chattoraj, D K

    1994-10-01

    Hydration of powdered fatty acids and their salts has been studied both in presence and absence of neutral salts, sucrose and urea using the isopiestic vapour pressure technique. Moles of water vapour adsorbed per mole or kg of soaps like sodium palmitate, sodium stearate, sodium myristate and sodium laurate have been measured in presence and absence of salts and compared with that of detergents (SDS, CTAB, DTAB and MTAB). For each case of positive excess adsorption of water vapour and negative excess adsorption of inorganic salts, urea and sucrose to different soaps, the standard free energy change (delta G degrees) per kg of substrate in bringing the bulk mole fraction from zero to unity have been calculated using an appropriate thermodynamic equation and the values so obtained have been compared critically. PMID:7851944

  1. Effect of post treatments on the corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed duplex stainless steel coating in salt water

    The uniform composition of a thermally sprayed duplex stainless steel coating is essential to ensure its good corrosion resistance in salt water. Stainless steel coatings made by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) always contain pores and oxides accompanied with chromium-depleted zones which destroy the corrosion resistance of such coatings. To reduce porosity and oxidation of the coatings, several post treatments for the coatings sprayed by APS and by APS with gas shielding around the plasma jet (APS/S) were studied including resin impregnation, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), shot peening and vacuum annealing. Electrochemical corrosion tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the APS coatings could not be improved by any post treatments because oxidation during spraying caused chromium-depleted zones in the coating. The best corrosion resistance was obtained by using the shielding gas shroud with APS. Such coatings had a very low oxide content and primarily ferritic structure. The corrosion resistance of these APS/S coatings can be further improved by shot peening to densify the coating or by post annealing, which balances the austenite/ferrite ratio of the coating as well as reduce porosity

  2. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    (average RMSE = 5.0%, ME = 2.4%) prediction of clay contents. However, the model for soils with small OC contents showed only minor improvement when compared with recently published models. Three main sources of prediction errors, namely large OC and silt contents, and a prevalence of 1:1 clay minerals......Soil texture, in particular the clay fraction, governs numerous environmental, agricultural and engineering soil processes. Traditional measurement methods for clay content are laborious and impractical for large-scale soil surveys. Consequently, clay prediction models that are based on water...... for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour...

  3. Changes of Proline Content,Activity,and Active Isoforms of Antioxidative Enzymes in Two Alfalfa Cultivars Under Salt Stress

    WANG Xiao-shan; HAN Jian-guo

    2009-01-01

    The plants of two alfalfa(Medicago sativa L.)cultivars differing in salt tolerance were subjected to three salt treatments,70,140,and 210 mM NaCl for 7 days.Root,shoot,and leaf growths were inhibited by increased salt treatments in both cultivars,and at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments,Zhongmu 1 had significantly higher root,shoot,and leaf dry weights per plant than Defi.The malondialdehyde(MDA)accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1,indicating a higher degree of lipid peroxidation at 140 and 210 mM salt treatments.The changes in the activity and active isoforms of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase(SOD,EC 1.15.1.1),catalase(CAT,EC 1.11.1.6),peroxidase(POD,EC 1.11.1.7),and ascorbate peroxidase(APOX,EC 1.11.1.11),accumulation of free proline,and rate of lipid peroxidation in leaves of two alfalfa cultivars were also investigated.After stress,the activity and active isoforms of antioxidative enzymes were altered and the extent of alteration varied between the cultivar Deft and Zhongmu 1.The proline accumulation in Defi was considerably greater than in Zhongmu 1 at 210 mM salt treatment.This indicated that proline accumulation may be the result,instead of the cause,of salt tolerance.

  4. Betalain rich functional extract with reduced salts and nitrate content from red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) using membrane separation technology.

    Mereddy, Ram; Chan, Adeline; Fanning, Kent; Nirmal, Nilesh; Sultanbawa, Yasmina

    2017-01-15

    An initial laboratory-scale evaluation of separation characteristics of membranes with nominal molecular weight cut-offs (NMWCO) ranging from 30kD down to 0.5kD indicated effective separation of betalains in the 0.5kD region. Subsequent pilot-level trials using 1kD, loose reverse osmosis (LRO) and reverse osmosis (RO) spiral-wound membranes showed LRO membrane to be very efficient with up to 96% salt and 47% other dissolved solids removed while retaining majority of the pigment (∼98%) in the betalain rich extract (BRE). The total betalain content in the BRE increased up to 46%, the highest recovery reported so far at pilot scale level. Interestingly, more than 95% of the nitrates were removed from the BRE after the three diafiltrations. These studies indicate that membrane technology is the most efficient technique to produce BRE with highly reduced amounts of salts and nitrate content. PMID:27542480

  5. High water content in primitive continental flood basalts.

    Xia, Qun-Ke; Bi, Yao; Li, Pei; Tian, Wei; Wei, Xun; Chen, Han-Lin

    2016-01-01

    As the main constituent of large igneous provinces, the generation of continental flood basalts (CFB) that are characterized by huge eruption volume (>10(5) km(3)) within short time span (factors are not mutually exclusive. There are growing evidences for high temperature, decompression and mafic source rocks, albeit with hot debate. However, there is currently no convincing evidence of high water content in the source of CFB. We retrieved the initial H2O content of the primitive CFB in the early Permian Tarim large igneous province (NW China), using the H2O content of ten early-formed clinopyroxene (cpx) crystals that recorded the composition of the primitive Tarim basaltic melts and the partition coefficient of H2O between cpx and basaltic melt. The arc-like H2O content (4.82 ± 1.00 wt.%) provides the first clear evidence that H2O plays an important role in the generation of CFB. PMID:27143196

  6. Investigation of the Ionic Hydration in Aqueous Salt Solutions by Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy.

    Jeyachandran, Y L; Meyer, F; Benkert, A; Bär, M; Blum, M; Yang, W; Reinert, F; Heske, C; Weinhardt, L; Zharnikov, M

    2016-08-11

    Understanding the molecular structure of the hydration shells and their impact on the hydrogen bond (HB) network of water in aqueous salt solutions is a fundamentally important and technically relevant question. In the present work, such hydration effects were studied for a series of representative salt solutions (NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and KBr) by soft X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic soft X-ray scattering (RIXS). The oxygen K-edge XES spectra could be described with three components, attributed to initial state HB configurations in pure water, water molecules that have undergone an ultrafast dissociation initiated by the X-ray excitation, and water molecules in contact with salt ions. The behavior of the individual components, as well as the spectral shape of the latter component, has been analyzed in detail. In view of the role of ions in such effects as protein denaturation (i.e., the Hofmeister series), we discuss the ion-specific nature of the hydration shells and find that the results point to a predominant role of anions as compared to cations. Furthermore, we observe a concentration-dependent suppression of ultrafast dissociation in all salt solutions, associated with a significant distortion of intact HB configurations of water molecules facilitating such a dissociation. PMID:27442708

  7. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type

  8. Stalagmite water content as a proxy for drip water supply in tropical and subtropical areas

    N. Vogel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this pilot study water was extracted from samples of two Holocene stalagmites from Socotra Island, Yemen, and one Eemian stalagmite from southern continental Yemen. The amount of water extracted per unit mass of stalagmite rock, termed "water yield" hereafter, serves as a measure of its total water content. Based on direct correlation plots of water yields and δ18Ocalcite and on regime shift analyses, we demonstrate that for the studied stalagmites the water yield records vary systematically with the corresponding oxygen isotopic compositions of the calcite (δ18Ocalcite. Within each stalagmite lower δ18Ocalcite values are accompanied by lower water yields and vice versa. The δ18Ocalcite records of the studied stalagmites have previously been interpreted to predominantly reflect the amount of rainfall in the area; thus, water yields can be linked to drip water supply. Higher, and therefore more continuous drip water supply caused by higher rainfall rates, supports homogeneous deposition of calcite with low porosity and therefore a small fraction of water-filled inclusions, resulting in low water yields of the respective samples. A reduction of drip water supply fosters irregular growth of calcite with higher porosity, leading to an increase of the fraction of water-filled inclusions and thus higher water yields. The results are consistent with the literature on stalagmite growth and supported by optical inspection of thin sections of our samples. We propose that for a stalagmite from a dry tropical or subtropical area, its water yield record represents a novel paleo-climate proxy recording changes in drip water supply, which can in turn be interpreted in terms of associated rainfall rates.

  9. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in...

  10. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  11. Visualization of the stem water content of two genera with secondary phloem produced by successive cambia through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Robert, E.M.R.; Schmitz, N.; Copini, P.; Gerkema, E.; Vergeldt, F.J.; Windt, C.W.; Beeckman, H.; Koedam, N.; As, van H.

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs and trees with secondary phloem tissue produced by successive cambia mainly occur in habitats characterized by a periodical or continuous lack of water availability. The amount of this secondary phloem tissue in stems of Avicennia trees rises with increasing soil water salinity and decreasing

  12. Na+ and Water Uptake in Relation to the Radial Reflection Coefficient of Root in Arrowleaf Saltbush Under Salt Stress

    Xin-Fu Bai; Jian-Jun Zhu; Ping Zhang; Yan-Hua Wang; Li-Qun Yang; Lei Zhang

    2007-01-01

    The response of halophyte arrowleaf saltbush (Atriplex triangularis Willd) plants to a gradient of salt stress were investigated with hydroponically cultured seedlings. Under salt stress, both the Na+ uptake into root xylem and negative pressures in xylem vessels increased with the elevation of salinity (up to 500 mol/m3) in the root environment. However, the increment in negative pressures in root xylem far from matches the decrease in the osmotic potential of the root bathing solutions, even when the osmotic potential of xylem sap is taken into consideration. The total water potential of xylem sap in arrowleaf saltbush roots was close to the osmotic potential of root bathing solutions when the salt stress was low, but a progressively increased gap between the water potential of xylem sap and the osmotic potential of root bathing solutions was observed when the salinity in the root environment was enhanced. The maximum gap was 1.4 MPa at a salinity level of 500 mol/m3 without apparent dehydration of the tested plants. This discrepancy could not be explained with the current theories in plant physiology. The radial reflection coefficient of root in arrowleaf saltbush decreased with the enhanced salt stress was and accompanied by an increase in the Na+ uptake into xylem sap. However, the relative Na+ in xylem exudates based on the corresponding NaCl concentration in the root bathing solutions showed a tendency of decrease. The results showed that the reduction in the radial reflection coefficient of roots in the arrowleaf saltbush did not lead to a mass influx of NaCl into xylem when the radial reflection coefficient of the root was considerably small; and that arrowleaf saltbush could use small xylem pressures to counterbalance the salt stresses, either with the uptake of large amounts of salt, or with the development of xylem pressures dangerously negative. This strategy could be one of the mechanisms behind the high resistance of arrowleaf saltbush plants to salt

  13. Fitoextração de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hídrico em solo salino sódico Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a extração de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sódico sob condições de estresse hídrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e após seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sódico em quatro níveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo, montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repetições. As altas concentrações de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas à elevada produção de massa seca, caracterizam esta espécie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variáveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases e o carbono orgânico total, permaneceram estáveis entre o início e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sódio trocável diminuíram após o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produção de biomassa e a extração de sais.This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity with a control (soil without plant. The experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species

  14. Hydrogen sulfide regulates salt tolerance in rice by maintaining Na+/K+ balance, mineral homeostasis and oxidative metabolism under excessive salt stress

    Mohammad Golam Mostofa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H2S in enhancement of salt stress tolerance in rice. We show that pretreating rice plants with H2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS clearly improved, but application of H2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, decreased uptake of Na+, decreased Na+/K+ ratio and balanced mineral contents indicated a role of H2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitter like H2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

  15. Viscosities of oxalic acid and its salts in water and binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran at different temperatures

    M L Parmar; M K Guleria

    2005-07-01

    Relative viscosities for the solutions of oxalic acid and its salts, viz. ammonium oxalate, sodium oxalate and potassium oxalate, at different concentrations have been determined in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of tetrahydrofuran (THF) [5, 10, 15 and 20% by weight of THF] at 298.15 K, and in water and in 5% (w/w) THF + water at five different temperatures. The data have been evaluated using the Jones-Dole equation and the obtained parameters have been interpreted in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions. The activation parameters of viscous flow have been obtained which depicts the mechanism of viscous flow. The oxalic acid and its salts behave as structure breakers in water and in binary aqueous mixtures of THF.

  16. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad; Abtahi, F.; M Hooshangi; ST Heydari

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt) and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were select...

  17. Study on the Functional Peptides in Low Salt Sufu Making

    Zhang Xiaofeng; Li Lite; Wang Jiahuai; Masayoshi Saito; Eizo Tatsumi

    2002-01-01

    Sufu in this project was preparedwith Actinomucor elegans (CICC-3118) as thestarter and with soybean as the material.Different with the sufu with 10% salt producedby traditional process, a sufu product with 6%salt was produced in this project by reducingthe salt content in salting process. To determinepeptides, the water-soluble extracts obtainedsaparetly from frozen dried powders of soybean,tofu, pehtze, salted pehtze and sufu ripening for50 days were analyzed by high-pressure lipidchromatography (HPLC). Antioxidative activityand antihypertensive activity of the extract dueto the peptides contained were evaluatedrespectively by radical scavenging ability andangiotensin converting enzyme (ACS) inhibitoryactivity.According to the HPLC patterns, thepeptides content was nearly zero in soybeanand tofu, but increased gradually duringmaturing in the further process of makingpehtze, salted pehtze and final product sufu.Correspondingly, the antioxidative andantihypertensive activities of the extractsstrengthened with maturing. For our product,sufu with 6% salt, the antioxidative andantihypertensive activities reached peak valuesat about 30 d maturing, and still remainedmedium values in final product sufu. Incomarison, the antioxidative and antihypertensiveactivities for the sufu with 10% salt reachedpeack values at 40 d maturing, but remainedmedium values inferior to those for the sufu with6% salt.

  18. Composition for preventing salt depositing

    Mikhaylov, S.A.; Balakin, V.M.; Lezhenin, V.V.; Litvinets, Yu.I.; Marinin, N.S.; Talankin, V.S.; Yaryshev, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A composition is proposed for preventing salt depositing which includes polyethylene-polyamine-N-methyl phosphonic acid or its salt and water. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to improve the degree of prevention of the salt depositing under low temperature conditions, it additionally contains ethylene glycol with the following ratio of components (% by mass): polyethylene polyamine-N-methylphosphonic acid or its salt 5-12; ethylene glycol 30-50; water--the rest.

  19. Tomato salt tolerance: Impact of grafting and water composition on yield and ion relations

    We evaluated the salt tolerance of tomato cv Big Dena under both non-grafted 2 conditions and when grafted on Maxifort rootstock, under a series of 5 salinity levels and two irrigation water composition types. The salinity levels of the irrigation water were -0.03, -0.15, -0.30, -0.45, and -0.60 MPa...

  20. Capacitive deionization coupled with microbial fuel cells to desalinate low-concentration salt water.

    Yuan, Lulu; Yang, Xufei; Liang, Peng; Wang, Lei; Huang, Zheng-Hong; Wei, Jincheng; Huang, Xia

    2012-04-01

    A new technology (CDI-MFC) that combined capacitive deionization (CDI) and microbial fuel cell (MFC) was developed to treat low-concentration salt water with NaCl concentration of 60mg/L. The water desalination rate was 35.6mg/(Lh), meanwhile the charge efficiency was 21.8%. Two desorption modes were investigated: discharging (DC) mode and short circuit (SC) mode. The desalination rate in the DC mode was 200.6±3.1mg/(Lh), 47.8% higher than that in the SC mode [135.7±15.3mg/(Lh)]. The average current in the DC mode was also much higher than that of the SC mode. The energy stored in the CDI cell has been reused to enhance the electron production of MFC by the discharging desorption mode (DC mode), which offers an approach to recover the electrostatic energy in the CDI cell. PMID:22364771

  1. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Bijelović Sanja; Torović Ljilja; Martinov-Cvejin Mirjana; Novaković Budimka; Trajković-Pavlović Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl) in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner) and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kinderg...

  2. The characterisation, improvement and modelling aspects of Frost Salt Scaling of Cement-Based Materials with a High Slag Content

    Copuroglu,O.

    2006-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement concrete is used extensively in a number of countries. In comparison with OPC, it is particularly well known for its excellent performance in marine environments. One dis-advantage of slag cement is its vulnerability to scaling under the combined load of freezing-thawing and de-icing salts. The current investigation was triggered by positive observations regard-ing certain grinding agents used in slag cement production to improve frost salt scaling resistance. The in...

  3. Martian hydrogeology sustained by thermally insulating gas and salt hydrates

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Furfaro, Roberto; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Rodríguez, J. Alexis P.; David R. Montgomery; Gillespie, Alan R.; Marion, Giles M.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2007-01-01

    Numerical simulations and geologic studies suggest that high thermal anomalies beneath, within, and above thermally insulating layers of buried hydrated salts and gas hydrates could have triggered and sustained hydrologic processes on Mars, producing or modifying chaotic terrains, debris flows, gullies, and ice-creep features. These simulations and geologic examples suggest that thick hydrate deposits may sustain such geothermal anomalies, shallow ground-water tables, and hydrogeologic activi...

  4. Stability High Salt Content Waste Using Sol Gel Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 0236

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Mixed waste sludges, soils, and homogeneous solids containing high levels of salt ( ~ greater than 15% by weight ) have proven to be difficult to stabilize due to the soluble nature of the salts. The current stabilization technique for high salt waste, grouting with Portland cement, is limited to low waste loadings. The presence of salts interfere with the hydration and curing of the cement, cause waste form deteriorating mineral expansions, or result in an undesirable separate phase altogether. Improved technologies for the stabilization of salt waste must be able to accommodate higher salt loadings, while maintaining structural integrity, chemical durability, and leach resistance. In a joint collaboration supported by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the Arizona Materials Laboratory (AML) at the University of Arizona have developed a sol-gel (wet-chemical) based, low-temperature-processing route for the stabilization of salt-containing mixed wastes. By blending and reacting liquid precursors at room temperature with salt waste, strong, impermeable “polyceram” matrices have been formed that encapsulate the environmentally hazardous waste components. As depicted by Figure 1, polycerams are hybrid organic/inorganic materials with unique properties derived from the chemical combination of polymer (organic) and ceramic (inorganic) components. For this application, the stabilizing polyceram matrices contain polybutadiene-based polymer components and silicon dioxide (SiO2) as the inorganic component. Polybutadiene (PBD) is a strong, tough, waterresistant plastic and its use in the polyceram promotes these same characteristics in the waste form. The PBD polymer component is modified to increase its reactivity with the SiO2 precursor during sol-gel processing. When combined, the polymer and SiO2 precursors react, gel, solidify, and encapsulate the

  5. Reducing Water Content in PGDN/DBS Solution by Spraying Method%喷雾法降低PGDN和DBS混合溶液中的水含量

    毕晶; 张小红; 王中合; 臧乐丹

    2012-01-01

    To reduce the water content in PGDN( 1 ,2-propanediol dinitrate) /DBS( dibutyl sebacate) mixed solution,the effect of pressure,spraying times, material temperature and ventilation condition on dewatering effect were investigated using spraying method. The stability test was done. The results show that the water content in mixed solution can be reduced from 0.2428% to 0.0614% under the conditions of 100 g mixed solution,pressure of 0.08 Mpa,material temperature of 71 ℃ and ventilation. The mass recovery of mixed solution after spaying is 100%. Abel value of mixed solution after heating for 15 min in water bath at 80 ℃ does not change,indicating that the water content in mixed solution can be reduced greatly according to the optimized parameters and this spraying method does not cause material loss or reduction of the stability of the mixed solution.%为降低1,2-丙二醇二硝酸酯(PGDN)/癸二酸二丁酯(DBS)混合溶液中的水含量,用喷雾法研究了压力、喷雾次数、温度、通风对除水效果的影响.结果表明:在混合溶液量为100 g、压力为0.08 MPa、介质温度为71℃和通风的条件下,混合溶液的水分含量由0.2428%降低至0.0614%,喷雾除水后样品质量回收率为100%.对喷雾除水后的混合溶液在80℃条件下加热15 min进行安定性测试,其阿贝尔值并未变化.结果表明,在优化条件下,可大大降低PGDN/DBS混合溶液体系的水分含量,并且该方法不会造成物料损耗和降低混合溶液的安定性.

  6. Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., isolated from Lonar Lake, a meteorite salt water lake in India.

    Sharma, Trupti K; Mawlankar, Rahul; Sonalkar, Vidya V; Shinde, Vidhya K; Zhan, Jing; Li, Wen-Jun; Rele, Meenakshi V; Dastager, Syed G; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2016-02-01

    A novel alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain NCL716(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from the vicinity of Lonar Lake, an alkaline salt water meteorite lake in Buldhana district of Maharashtra State in India. The strain was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach which confirmed that it belongs to the genus Streptomyces. Growth was observed over a pH range of 7-11 at 28 °C. The cell wall was found to contain LL-diaminopimelic acid and traces of meso-diaminopimelic acid. The major fatty acid components were identified as iso-C16:0 (46.8 %), C17:1 (12.4 %), anteiso-C15:0 (5.1 %) and anteiso-C17:1 (4.8 %). The major polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol. The major menaquinones were determined to be MK-9 (H6) (70.3 %), MK-9 (H4) (15.5 %) and MK-9 (H8) (7.2 %). The G+C content of the DNA of the type strain was determined to be 71.4 mol  %. The 16S rRNA gene sequence has been deposited in GenBank with accession number FJ919811. Although the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain NCL716(T) shares >99 % similarity with that of Streptomyces bohaiensis strain 11A07(T), DNA-DNA hybridization revealed only 33.2 ± 3.0 % relatedness between them. Moreover, these two strains can be readily distinguished by some distinct phenotypic characteristics. Hence, on the basis of phenotypic and genetic analyses, it is proposed that strain NCL716(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces lonarensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is NCL 716(T) (=DSM 42084(T) = MTCC 11708(T) = KCTC 39684(T)). PMID:26597560

  7. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milli was collected at the same time (twice summer and twice winter). Soft drinks, beers and juice were collected from different Danish producers and wine from different countries. All samples were analysed for iodine using inductively......Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...

  8. Three-dimensional spatial and temporal monitoring of soil water content using electrical resistivity tomography

    Zhou, Qi You; Shimada, Jun; Sato, Akira

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a noninvasive method for monitoring three-dimensional (3-D) spatial and temporal variations of soil water content in the field, soil moisture tomography. The basic idea of the method originates from Archie's relationship between soil resistivity and water content. Initially, 88 electrodes were densely buried within a 3.5 m×3.5 m square area, and potentials at the electrodes were measured by pole-pole and Wenner array methods at given time intervals. An inversion calculation of the 3-D soil resistivity was then conducted based on these potential data. Next, 46 soil samples were taken at representative positions in the square, and the parameters in the Archie's relationship were measured in the laboratory. Then, the 3-D distributions of the parameters were obtained by a distance weight interpolation method. Finally, based on Archie's relationship and the 3-D distribution of the soil resistivity and the related parameters, 3-D distributions of soil water content were calculated. To evaluate the obtained water content, the calculated water contents were compared with those measured by heat-probe-type soil moisture sensors, and a comparison between the spatial distribution patterns of calculated water content and soil bulk dry density was conducted. The 3-D variations of the calculated water content during a rainfall event were also analyzed. The results show that there are ±0.10 cm3/cm3 errors in the calculated water content, but between the calculated and the measured water content there exists a good linear relationship. It is possible to use the calculated water content to analyze the very general 3-D distribution characteristics of the soil moisture and investigate the 3-D rainfall infiltration process, the redistribution of soil water after rain, and other hydrological processes in the field. The proposed method is preferred for porous media where the water resistivity is relatively stable.

  9. 微咸水灌溉对斥水土壤水盐运移的影响%Effect of brackish water irrigation on water and salt movement in repellent soils

    刘春成; 李毅; 郭丽俊; 关冰艺; 廖轶群; 王娟

    2011-01-01

    The existence of soil water-repellency had impacts on crop yields. In order to study soil water and salt movements of water-repellent soils irrigated by brackish water, laboratory soil column infiltration experiments were conducted. Impacts of different mineralization degrees and different water-repellency degrees on the movements of soil water and soil salt were compared for two soil textures. The variations of soil water-repellency during infiltration were also discussed. The results showed that infiltration ability of non-water-repellent soils increased with the increase of mineralization degrees. Both the infiltration rates of wettable and repellent soils could be simply fitted by Kostiakov equation. For the water repellent soils, the infiltration ability was largest at mineral degree of lg/L, but decreased with the increase of mineralization degree when mineralization degree were larger than lg/L. There was good linear relationship between cumulative infiltration and the wetting front distance when irrigated by brackish water. Soil water content and soil salt content at the same depth of the water repellent soil profiles were smaller than those of the wettable soil profiles. To some extent, soil water repellency was caused after irrigated by brackish water. This work indicated that brackish water irrigation had some impacts on distributions of soil water and soil salt as well as water-repellency of salinized soil.%土壤斥水性影响着作物的产量,为了研究微成水灌溉对斥水土壤水盐运移的影响,进行了室内土柱微咸水入渗试验.对比了不同矿化度和斥水程度对两种土质水盐运移的影响,探讨了微咸水入渗后土壤斥水性的变化特征.结果表明,不斥水土壤的入渗能力随矿化度的增加而增加.亲水和斥水土壤的入渗率均可采用Kostiakov公式简单模拟.斥水土壤入渗能力在矿化度为1g/L时达到最大,超过1 g/L后则随矿化度的增大而减小.微咸水入渗的

  10. Collimated neutron probe for soil water content measurements

    The use of uncollimated (undirected) neutron moisture meters is common in the biological and geophysical sciences. A collimated neutron probe was designed to enable measurements in specific directions from the access tube. To determine the size and shape of soil volume affecting the neutron counts, experiments were conducted to evaluate: (i) the vertical distance of soil above and below the probe that influences neutron counts, (ii) the horizontal distance away from the probe into the soil that influences neutron counts, (iii) the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator, and (iv) the three-dimensional thermal-neutron density field. The distance and the angular dimensions of the volume of influence were defined as the horizontal distance of neutron penetration from the edge of the probe, the vertical distance above and below the center of the effective measurement of the probe, and the angle from the center of the probe, which would allow the determination of relative water content to within 95%. The vertical distance was approximately 0.5 m, the horizontal distance was approximately 0.2 m, and the angle of soil viewed by the probe from the collimator was approximately 120 degrees. Thermal neutrons detected from distances or angles larger than these values influence the determination of relative water content by 5% or less

  11. Water movement in stony soils: The influence of stoniness on soil water content profiles

    Novak, Viliam; Knava, Karol

    2010-05-01

    WATER MOVEMENT IN STONY SOILS: THE INFLUENCE OF STONINESS ON SOIL WATER CONTENT PROFILES Viliam Novák, Karol Kňava Institute of Hydrology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3, Slovakia, e-mail: novak@uh.savba.sk Soils containing rock fragments are widespread over the world, on Europe such soil account for 30%, 60% in Mediterranean region. In comparison to fine earth soils (soil particles are less then 2 mm) stony soils contain rock fragments characterized by the low retention capacity and hydraulic conductivity. So, for stony soils -in comparison to the fine-earth soils - is typical lower hydraulic conductivity and retention capacity, which lead to the decrease decrease of infiltration rate and low water retention. So, water movement and its modeling in stony soil would differ from fine earth (usually agricultural) soil. The aim of this contribution is to demonstrate the differences in water movement in homogeneous soil (fine earth) and stony soil. The influence of different stoniness on soil water content and soil water dynamics was studied too. Windthrow at High Tatra mountains in Slovakia (November 2004) cleared nearly 12 000 ha of 80 year conifers and this event initiated complex research of windthrow impact on the ecosystem. The important part of this study was water movement in impacted area. Specific feature of the soil in this area was moraine soil consisting of fine earth, characterized as silty sand, with the relative stone content up to 0.49, increasing with depth. Associated phenomenon to the forest clearing is the decrease of rain interception and higher undercanopy precipitation. Conifers interception capacity can be three times higher than low canopy interception, and can reach up to 40% of annual precipitation in Central Europe. Stones in the soil are decreasing infiltration rate, but paradoxically increased understorey precipitation and followingly the increased cumulative infiltration led to the increase of the soil

  12. Effect of gypsum content on soil water retention

    Moret-Fernández, D.; Herrero, J.

    2015-09-01

    Many gypsiferous soils occur in arid lands, where the water retention capacity of the soil is vital to plant life and crop production. This study investigated the effect of gypsum content on the gravimetric soil water retention curve (WRC). We analyzed calcium carbonate equivalent (CCE), equivalent gypsum content (EG), soil organic carbon content (SOC), and electrical conductivity of 43 samples collected from various horizons in soils in the Ebro Valley, NE Spain. The WRC of the fine earth was determined using the pressure-plate method (pressure heads = 0, -33, -100, -200, -500, and -1500 kPa), and the gravimetric water retention curves were fitted to the unimodal van Genuchten function. Soil gypsum content had a significant effect on water retention. Soils that had high gypsum content made WRC with higher water retention at near saturation conditions, and steeper WRC slopes. The EG threshold at which gypsum content had an effect on WRC was about 40%, and EG was positively and negatively correlated with the α and n parameters of the WRC, respectively.

  13. Liver Fibrosis Can Be Induced by High Salt Intake through Excess Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Production.

    Wang, Guang; Yeung, Cheung-kwan; Wong, Wing-Yan; Zhang, Nuan; Wei, Yi-fan; Zhang, Jing-li; Yan, Yu; Wong, Ching-yee; Tang, Jun-jie; Chuai, Manli; Lee, Kenneth Ka Ho; Wang, Li-jing; Yang, Xuesong

    2016-02-24

    High salt intake has been known to cause hypertension and other side effects. However, it is still unclear whether it also affects fibrosis in the mature or developing liver. This study demonstrates that high salt exposure in mice (4% NaCl in drinking water) and chick embryo (calculated final osmolality of the egg was 300 mosm/L) could lead to derangement of the hepatic cords and liver fibrosis using H&E, PAS, Masson, and Sirius red staining. Meanwhile, Desmin immunofluorescent staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that hepatic stellate cells were activated after the high salt exposure. pHIS3 and BrdU immunohistological staining of mouse and chick embryo livers indicated that cell proliferation decreased; as well, TUNEL analyses indicated that cell apoptosis increased in the presence of high salt exposure. Next, dihydroethidium staining on the cultured chick hepatocytes indicated the excess ROS was generated following high salt exposure. Furthermore, AAPH (a known inducer of ROS production) treatment also induced the liver fibrosis in chick embryo. Positive Nrf2 and Keap1 immunohistological staining on mouse liver suggested that Nrf2/Keap1 signaling was involved in high salt induced ROS production. Finally, the CCK8 assay was used to determine whether or not the growth inhibitory effect induced by high salt exposure can be rescued by antioxidant vitamin C. Meanwhile, the RT-PCR result indicated that the Nrf2/Keap1 downsteam genes including HO-1, NQO-1, and SOD2 were involved in this process. In sum, these experiments suggest that high salt intake would lead to high risk of liver damage and fibrosis in both adults and developing embryos. The pathological mechanism may be the result from an imbalance between oxidative stress and the antioxidant system. PMID:26843032

  14. Models of coupled salt and water transport across leaky epithelia.

    Weinstein, A M; Stephenson, J L

    1981-05-15

    A general formulation is presented for the verification of isotonic transport and for the assignment of a degree of osmotic coupling in any epithelial model. In particular, it is shown that the concentration of the transported fluid in the presence of exactly equal bathing media is, in general, not a sufficient calculation by which to decide the issue of isotonicity of transport. Within this framework, two epithelial models are considered: (1) A nonelectrolyte compartment model of the lateral intercellular space is presented along with its linearization about the condition of zero flux. This latter approximate model is shown to be useful in the estimation of deviation from isotonicity, intraepithelial solute polarization effects, and the capacity to transport water against a gradient. In the case of uphill water transport, some limitations of a model of fixed geometry are indicated and the advantage of modeling a compliant interspace is suggested. (2) A comprehensive model of cell and channel is described which includes the major electrolytes and the possible presence of intraepithelial gradients. The general approach to verification of isotonicity is illustrated for this numerical model. In addition, the insights about parameter dependence gained from the linear compartment model are shown to be applicable to understanding this large simulation. PMID:6264088

  15. Salt stabilizer for preventing chlorine depletion and increasing shelf-life of potable water - A concept

    Copeland, E. J.; Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Proposed concept, based on law of mass action uses addition of salt to increase chlorine ions produced in sodium hydrochlorite solutions, thereby increasing solution shelf-life. This technique is not costly. Usefulness will be determined by acceptability of salt in product undergoing long shelf-life.

  16. Mercury in the Air, Water and Biota at the Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA)

    Peterson, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2008-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake, Utah (USA), is the fourth largest terminal lake on Earth and a stop-over location for 35 million birds on the Pacific Flyway. Recently, the Utah Department of Health and Utah Division of Wildlife Resources issued tissue mercury (Hg) consumption advisories for several species of birds that consume the lake's brine shrimp. Sources of Hg to the lake are the watershed and the atmosphere, and we hypothesized that the chemistry of the air above the Great Salt Lake would facilitate atmospheric deposition of Hg to the water. Because little information was available on Hg at the Great Salt Lake, and to begin to test this hypothesis, we measured atmospheric elemental (Hg0) and reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) concentrations as well as Hg concentrations in water and brine shrimp five times over a year. Surrogate surfaces and a dry deposition model were applied to estimate the amount of Hg that could be input to the lake surface. We found that atmospheric Hg0 and RGM concentrations were comparable to global ambient background values and those measured in rural areas (respectively). Both Hg0 and RGM exhibited regular diel variability, and no consistent seasonal periods of depleted or elevated values were observed. Based on these findings, local factors are thought to be important in generating elevated RGM concentrations that could be deposited to the lake. Model estimated deposition velocities for RGM to the lake ranged from 0.9 to 3.0 cm sec-1, with an estimated 19 kg of Hg deposited annually. Total Hg and methyl Hg concentrations in surface waters of the lake were consistent throughout the year (3.8 ± 0.8 ng L- 1 and 0.93 ± 0.59 ng L-1, respectively) and not significantly elevated relative to natural waters; however, the percent methyl Hg to total Hg was high (25 to 50%). Brine shrimp Hg concentrations were 384 ppb and had a statistically significant increase from early summer to fall. Based on modeled dry deposition and estimated wet deposition, the

  17. Partitioning of Total Dissolved Salts, Boron and Selenium in Pariette Wetland Water, Sediments and Benthic Organisms

    Jacobson, A. R.; Jones, C. P.; Vasudeva, P.; Powelson, D.; Grossl, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Pariette Wetlands located in the Uinta Basin, UT, were developed by the BLM in part to mitigate salinity associated with irrigation drainage and runoff from flowing to the Green River, a tributary of the Colorado River. The wetlands are fed by runoff from upstream agricultural irrigation, and natural subsurface and overland flow through the Uintah formation, which is seleniferous, and saline. Concentrations of Total Dissolved Salts (TDS), boron (B) and selenium (Se) in the wetlands exceed the total maximum daily loads developed to meet the US EPA's water quality planning and management regulations (40CFR 130). This is of concern because the wetlands are home to populations of migratory birds, waterfowl, raptors, and numerous small mammals. A mass balance of the Se concentrations of water flowing into and out of the wetlands indicates that 80% of the Se is stored or lost within the system. Additional data suggest that the majority of the Se is associated with the sediments. Little information is available regarding the TDS and B. Therefore we will determine the whether B and other salts are accumulating in the wetland systems, and if so where. We sampled water, sediment, benthic organisms, and wetland plants, in 4 of the 23 ponds from the flood control inlet to water flowing out to the Green River. Sediments were collected at 3 depths (0-2 cm, 2-7 cm, and 7+ cm) at 3-4 locations within each pond including the inlet, outlet and at least one site near a major wetland plant community. Benthic organisms were sampled from the 0-2 cm and 2-7 cm sediment layers. Sediment and organism samples were digested with HNO3 and HClO4 prior to analysis of total Se by HGAAS. Hot water extractable B and DPTA extractable B were analyzed by ICP-AES. TDS was estimated from EC in the sediment and organisms extracts and direct analysis in the water. Preliminary results found that Se in the sediments decreases with depth. Se concentrations in the benthic organisms is approximately 4

  18. Postharvest peach weight loss, water content, and outer layer firmness

    C. Puchalski

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting of a fruit is the beginning of loss in weight and firmness. Measuring changes in weight require maintaining identity of the fruit and current methods used to measure firmness are usually destructive. Alternative methods are needed which can rapidly and nondestructively sense fruit quality. Three cultivars of peaches were measured during 9 days of storage to obtain fruit having varying weight loss and firmness. The average daily whole fruit weight losses were 1.72, 2.19, and 2.22% for 'Garnet', 'Red Haven', and 'Sentinal', respectively. After 9 days of storage, the water content of the outer layers of a peach were less than at the center. Firmness, slope of the force-deformation curve obtained during 1 mm compression, decreased significantly during the first 3 days of storage and continued to decrease but by a smaller amount thereafter. By eliminating the time variable, firmness exponentially decreased with weight loss with an r of 0.79-0.88. Changes in water content and firmness of the outer layers appear to be good predictors of subsequent changes in the whole fruit.

  19. Preparation of Al-La Master Alloy by Thermite Reaction in NaF-NaCl-KCl Molten Salt

    Jang, Poknam; Li, Hyonmo; Kim, Wenjae; Wang, Zhaowen; Liu, Fengguo

    2015-05-01

    A NaF-NaCl-KCl ternary system containing La2O3 was investigated for the preparation of Al-La master alloy by the thermite reaction method. The solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salt was determined by the method of isothermal solution saturation. Inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were used to consider the content of La2O3 in molten salt and the supernatant composition of molten salt after dissolution of La2O3, respectively. The results showed that the content of NaF had a positive influence on the solubility of La2O3 in NaF-NaCl-KCl molten salts, and the solubility of La2O3 could reach 8.71 wt.% in molten salts of 50 wt.%NaF-50 wt.% (44 wt.%NaCl + 56 wt.%KCl). The XRD pattern of cooling molten salt indicated the formation of LaOF in molten salt, which was probably obtained by the reaction between NaF and La2O3. The kinetic study showed that the thermite reaction was in accord with a first-order reaction model. The main influence factors on La content in the Al-La master alloy product, including molten salt composition, amount of Al, concentration of La2O3, stirring, reduction time and temperature, were investigated by single-factor experimentation. The content of La in the Al-La master alloy could be reached to 10.1 wt.%.

  20. Oxy-combustion of high water content fuels

    Yi, Fei

    As the issues of global warming and the energy crisis arouse extensive concern, more and more research is focused on maximizing energy efficiency and capturing CO2 in power generation. To achieve this, in this research, we propose an unconventional concept of combustion - direct combustion of high water content fuels. Due to the high water content in the fuels, they may not burn under air-fired conditions. Therefore, oxy-combustion is applied. Three applications of this concept in power generation are proposed - direct steam generation for the turbine cycle, staged oxy-combustion with zero flue gas recycle, and oxy-combustion in a low speed diesel-type engine. The proposed processes could provide alternative approaches to directly utilize fuels which intrinsically have high water content. A large amount of energy to remove the water, when the fuels are utilized in a conventional approach, is saved. The properties and difficulty in dewatering high water content fuels (e.g. bioethanol, microalgae and fine coal) are summarized. These fuels include both renewable and fossil fuels. In addition, the technique can also allow for low-cost carbon capture due to oxy-combustion. When renewable fuel is utilized, the whole process can be carbon negative. To validate and evaluate this concept, the research focused on the investigation of the flame stability and characteristics for high water content fuels. My study has demonstrated the feasibility of burning fuels that have been heavily diluted with water in a swirl-stabilized burner. Ethanol and 1-propanol were first tested as the fuels and the flame stability maps were obtained. Flame stability, as characterized by the blow-off limit -- the lowest O2 concentration when a flame could exist under a given oxidizer flow rate, was determined as a function of total oxidizer flow rate, fuel concentration and nozzle type. Furthermore, both the gas temperature contour and the overall ethanol concentration in the droplets along the

  1. Soil water content measured through the use of neutron probes

    With the objective of evaluating and discussing the problem of soil water content measurement through neutron probe, this study initiates the revision of the methodology with the discussion of the sphere of influence in water and in the soil. The problem of soil water content measurement close soil surface is also analysed with respect to spatial variability and thermal neutron escape to the atmosphere.Several probe calibrations are made and discussed for two tropical latosol, one of them being newly introduced in the literature through this work. It involves the correction of the number of thermal neutrons lost to the atmosphere, for measurements performed close to soil. (author)

  2. Geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigations for characterizing the salt water intrusion in the Khanasser valley, northern Syria

    Asfahani, Jamal; Abou Zakhem, Boulos

    2013-04-01

    An integrated approach of geoelectrical and hydrochemical investigation surveys was proposed for indicating contact regions between saline and fresh groundwater in the Khanasser valley region, northern Syria. The qualitative and quantitative interpretations of 34 vertical electrical soundings (VES) enable to characterize the salt water intrusion laterally and vertically. The established iso-apparent resistivity maps for different AB/2 spacings obviously indicate the presence of a lowresistivity (less than 4 Ohm·m) zone related to the salt water intrusion in the Quaternary and Paleogene deposits. The different hydrochemical and geophysical parameters, such as electrical resistivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) and major ions concentrations used to characterize the salt water intrusion gave almost similar results in locating and mapping the different boundaries of the groundwater salinity. The proposed approach is useful for mapping the interface between different groundwater qualities, and can be therefore used to successfully characterize the salt water intrusion phenomenon in other semi-arid regions. The application of such an approach is a powerful tool and can be used for water resource management in the water scarce areas.

  3. Computational and experimental platform for understanding and optimizing water flux and salt rejection in nanoporous membranes.

    Rempe, Susan B.

    2010-09-01

    Affordable clean water is both a global and a national security issue as lack of it can cause death, disease, and international tension. Furthermore, efficient water filtration reduces the demand for energy, another national issue. The best current solution to clean water lies in reverse osmosis (RO) membranes that remove salts from water with applied pressure, but widely used polymeric membrane technology is energy intensive and produces water depleted in useful electrolytes. Furthermore incremental improvements, based on engineering solutions rather than new materials, have yielded only modest gains in performance over the last 25 years. We have pursued a creative and innovative new approach to membrane design and development for cheap desalination membranes by approaching the problem at the molecular level of pore design. Our inspiration comes from natural biological channels, which permit faster water transport than current reverse osmosis membranes and selectively pass healthy ions. Aiming for an order-of-magnitude improvement over mature polymer technology carries significant inherent risks. The success of our fundamental research effort lies in our exploiting, extending, and integrating recent advances by our team in theory, modeling, nano-fabrication and platform development. A combined theoretical and experimental platform has been developed to understand the interplay between water flux and ion rejection in precisely-defined nano-channels. Our innovative functionalization of solid state nanoporous membranes with organic protein-mimetic polymers achieves 3-fold improvement in water flux over commercial RO membranes and has yielded a pending patent and industrial interest. Our success has generated useful contributions to energy storage, nanoscience, and membrane technology research and development important for national health and prosperity.

  4. Ion aggregation in high salt solutions. V. Graph entropy analyses of ion aggregate structure and water hydrogen bonding network

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved ions in water tend to form polydisperse ion aggregates such as ion pairs, relatively compact ion clusters, and even spatially extended ion networks with increasing salt concentration. Combining molecular dynamics simulation and graph theoretical analysis methods, we recently studied morphological structures of ion aggregates with distinctively different characteristics. They can be distinguished from each other by calculating various spectral graph theoretical properties such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors of adjacency matrices of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks, minimum path lengths, clustering coefficients, and degree distributions. Here, we focus on percolation and graph entropic properties of ion aggregates and water hydrogen-bonding networks in high salt solutions. Ion network-forming K+ and SCN- ions at high concentrations show a percolating behavior in their aqueous solutions, but ion cluster-forming ions in NaCl solutions do not show such a transition from isolated ion aggregates to percolating ion-water mixture morphology. Despite that the ion aggregate structures are strikingly different for either cluster- or network-forming ions in high salt solutions, it is interesting that the water structures remain insensitive to the electrostatic properties, such as charge densities and polydentate properties, of dissolved ions, and morphological structures of water H-bonding networks appear to be highly robust regardless of the nature and concentration of salt. We anticipate that the present graph entropy analysis results would be of use in understanding a variety of anomalous behaviors of interfacial water around biomolecules as well as electric conductivities of high electrolyte solutions.

  5. Electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene: implications for the water content of the asthenosphere.

    Dai, Lidong; Karato, Shun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Electrical conductivity of minerals is sensitive to water content and hence can be used to infer the water content in the mantle. However, previous studies to infer the water content in the upper mantle were based on pure olivine model of the upper mantle. Influence of other minerals particularly that of orthopyroxene needs to be included to obtain a better estimate of water content in view of the high water solubility in this mineral. Here we report new results of electrical conductivity measurements on orthopyroxene, and apply these results to estimate the water content of the upper mantle of Earth. We found that the electrical conductivity of orthopyroxene is enhanced by the addition of water in a similar way as other minerals such as olivine and pyrope garnet. Using these new results, we calculate the electrical conductivity of pyrolite mantle as a function of water content and temperature incorporating the temperature and water fugacity-dependent hydrogen partitioning. Reported values of asthenosphere conductivity of 4x10(-2)-10(-1) S/m corresponds to the water content of 0.01-0.04 wt%, a result in good agreement with the petrological model of the upper mantle. PMID:20009379

  6. Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts

    Pinchin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of

  7. The Soil Characteristic Curve at Low Water Contents: Relations to Specific Surface Area and Texture

    Resurreccion, Augustus; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per;

    approaching oven dry condition (~ -800 MPa). Alternatively, the linear Campbell-Rossi-Nimmo (CRN) model for pF (where pF = log (negative of matric potential; cm H2O)) versus volumetric water content (m3 m-3) showed accurate fits to data for all 41 soils from -10 to -800 MPa, and yielded high correlations......Accurate description of the soil-water retention curve (SWRC) at low water contents is important for simulating water dynamics, plant-water relations, and microbial processes in surface soil. Soil-water retention at soil-water matric potential of less than -10 MPa, where adsorptive forces dominate...... that measurements by traditional pressure plate apparatus generally overestimated water contents at -1.5 MPa (plant wilting point). The 41 soils were classified into four textural classes based on the so-called Dexter index n (= CL/OC), and the Tuller-Or (TO) general scaling model describing the water...

  8. Water resources, salinity and salt yields of the rivers of the Bolivian Amazon

    Roche, Michel-Alain; Jauregui, Carlos Fernandez

    1988-06-01

    This is the first time that the water resources, the salinity and the yields of the upper basins of the Madera River have been reported. Formed by the confluence of the Beni and Mamore, the Madera is one of the world's largest rivers: 17,000 m 3s -1, approximately half the discharge of the Congo River. It has a dissolved discharge close to that of the Congo River: 1 ts -1 of ions. Likewise, the Beni and the Mamore Rivers, are also classified as large rivers, greater than the Volga River, the largest in Europe, and the Niger River, the second largest in Africa. The amounts of water involved are considerable. The average dissolved content of these rivers, 57-61 mg l -1 respectively, is relatively low to medium. Many types of water, classified according to their ionic compositions, have been characterized in the Andes, the Amazon Plain, and in the main drainage axis. The slightly mineralized black water of the plain seems the most unique type. Recycling of water vapor in the Amazon Basin is confirmed by the low chloride and sodium contents of the water in the plain. Thus the importance of this phenomenon in the genesis of rainfall throughout the basin is emphasized. The contribution of the Upper Madera River to the Amazon River is 9.7% of the water and 10.9% of ionic load.

  9. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging of water content in the subsurface

    J. Hendricks; T. Yao; A. Kearns

    1999-01-21

    Previous theoretical and experimental studies indicated that surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has the potential to provide cost-effective water content measurements in the subsurface and is a technology ripe for exploitation in practice. The objectives of this investigation are (a) to test the technique under a wide range of hydrogeological conditions and (b) to generalize existing NMR theories in order to correctly model NMR response from conductive ground and to assess properties of the inverse problem. Twenty-four sites with different hydrogeologic settings were selected in New Mexico and Colorado for testing. The greatest limitation of surface NMR technology appears to be the lack of understanding in which manner the NMR signal is influenced by soil-water factors such as pore size distribution, surface-to-volume ratio, paramagnetic ions dissolved in the ground water, and the presence of ferromagnetic minerals. Although the theoretical basis is found to be sound, several advances need to be made to make surface NMR a viable technology for hydrological investigations. There is a research need to investigate, under controlled laboratory conditions, how the complex factors of soil-water systems affect NMR relaxation times.

  10. Quantitative analysis of the hydration of lithium salts in water using multivariate curve resolution of near-infrared spectra.

    Barba, M Isabel; Larrechi, M Soledad; Coronas, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    The hydration process of lithium iodide, lithium bromide, lithium chloride and lithium nitrate in water was analyzed quantitatively by applying multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to their near infrared spectra recorded between 850 nm and 1100 nm. The experiments were carried out using solutions with a salt mass fraction between 0% and 72% for lithium bromide, between 0% and 67% for lithium nitrate and between 0% and 62% for lithium chloride and lithium iodide at 323.15 K, 333.15 K, 343.15 K and 353.15 K, respectively. Three factors were determined for lithium bromide and lithium iodide and two factors for the lithium chloride and lithium nitrate by singular value decomposition (SVD) of their spectral data matrices. These factors are associated with various chemical environments in which there are aqueous clusters containing the ions of the salts and non-coordinated water molecules. Spectra and concentration profiles of non-coordinated water and cluster aqueous were retrieved by MCR-ALS. The amount of water involved in the process of hydration of the various salts was quantified. The results show that the water absorption capacity increases in the following order LiI salt concentration at which there is no free water in the medium was calculated at each one of the temperatures considered. The values ranged between 62.6 and 65.1% for LiBr, 45.5-48.3% for LiCl, 60.4-61.2% for LiI and 60.3-63.7% for LiNO3. These values are an initial approach to determining the concentration as from which crystal formation is favored. PMID:27086095

  11. Water status in winter wheat grown under salt stress

    2001-01-01

    Properties of the soil surface layer, the temporal pattern of the microclimate variables as well as crop condition were combined to analyze the characteristics of the evapotranspiration from winter wheat fields in a saline soil area. In order to accomplish this analysis, evapotranspiration was divided into evaporation from the soil and transpiration from wheat. Moreover, the effect of soil salinity on evapotranspiration was evaluated through the relationship between actual evapotranspiration and potential evapotranspiration (Ea/Eo) and the total soil water potential (ψ) was divided into two components: matric potential (ψM) and osmotic potential (ψo). Two sites with different salinity levels were chosen for this study, located in Hebei Province, China. Measurements were conducted in April-May 1997 and May 1998. The Bowen ratio method was used to estimate the actual evapotranspiration (Ea), whereas potential evapotranspiration (Eo) was estimated using Penman's equation. Measurements of soil evaporation (Es) were obtained with micro-lysimeters, and transpiration was calculated from the difference between Ea and Es. The results show that transpiration comprised on average almost 80 % of total evapotranspiration. Evaporation from the soil differed slightly between years, but this variation was dominated by the leaf area index (LAI), which ranged from 4 to 5 during the study period of 1997 and 1998. Soil electric conductivity (EC), which is directly related to osmotic potential, ranged from 1.9 to 3.5 mS cm-1 in 1997 and was negligible in 1998. Our results indicate that lower osmotic potential decreases the total soil water potential, thus affecting plant transpiration. Hence, it is possible to say that soil salinity actually decreases evapotranspiration from winter wheat fields.

  12. Mitigation of Humic Acid Inhibition in Anaerobic Digestion of Cellulose by Addition of Various Salts

    Samet Azman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Humic compounds are inhibitory to the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass. In this study, the impact of salt addition to mitigate the inhibitory effects of humic compounds was investigated. The experiment was conducted using batch tests to monitor the anaerobic hydrolysis of cellulose in the presence of humic acid. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron salts were tested separately for their efficiency to mitigate humic acid inhibition. All experiments were done under mesophilic conditions (30 °C and at pH 7. Methane production was monitored online, using the Automatic Methane Potential Test System. Methane production, soluble chemical oxygen demand and volatile fatty acid content of the samples were measured to calculate the hydrolysis efficiencies. Addition of magnesium, calcium and iron salts clearly mitigated the inhibitory effects of humic acid and hydrolysis efficiencies reached up to 75%, 65% and 72%, respectively, which were similar to control experiments. Conversely, potassium and sodium salts addition did not mitigate the inhibition and hydrolysis efficiencies were found to be less than 40%. Mitigation of humic acid inhibition via salt addition was also validated by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy analyses, which showed the binding capacity of different cations to humic acid.

  13. Clay modified crushed salt for shaft sealing elements. Material optimization and evaluation in field tests

    Salt-based materials are intended to use for backfill and sealing systems in geotechnical barriers in underground HLW-repositories. Due to the creep of the saliniferous host rock, the salt backfill will be compacted during several hundreds or thousands years of operation to a minimum of porosity resp. permeability. To raise the sealing potential of a salt-based backfill, the porosity after construction should be minimized by optimal material performance and compaction performance. A procedure to optimize the grain size distribution of crushed salt and its water and clay content is described. The optimized salt fraction gets a better compaction behavior than straight mine-run salt. The addition of a filler-like material (e.g. Friedland Clay Powder) reduces the total porosity and permeability. Backfill columns made from crushed salt and clay probably include an instant sealing function.

  14. Clay modified crushed salt for shaft sealing elements. Material optimization and evaluation in field tests

    Glaubach, Uwe; Hofmann, Martin; Gruner, Matthias; Kudla, Wolfram [TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. of Mining and Special Civil Engineering

    2015-07-01

    Salt-based materials are intended to use for backfill and sealing systems in geotechnical barriers in underground HLW-repositories. Due to the creep of the saliniferous host rock, the salt backfill will be compacted during several hundreds or thousands years of operation to a minimum of porosity resp. permeability. To raise the sealing potential of a salt-based backfill, the porosity after construction should be minimized by optimal material performance and compaction performance. A procedure to optimize the grain size distribution of crushed salt and its water and clay content is described. The optimized salt fraction gets a better compaction behavior than straight mine-run salt. The addition of a filler-like material (e.g. Friedland Clay Powder) reduces the total porosity and permeability. Backfill columns made from crushed salt and clay probably include an instant sealing function.

  15. Influence of Water Content on the β-Sheet Formation, Thermal Stability, Water Removal, and Mechanical Properties of Silk Materials.

    Yazawa, Kenjiro; Ishida, Kana; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Hikima, Takaaki; Numata, Keiji

    2016-03-14

    Silk, which has excellent mechanical toughness and is lightweight, is used as a structural material in nature, for example, in silkworm cocoons and spider draglines. However, the industrial use of silk as a structural material has garnered little attention. For silk to be used as a structural material, its thermal processability and associated properties must be well understood. Although water molecules influence the glass transition of silk, the effects of water content on the other thermal properties of silks are not well understood. In this study, we prepared Bombyx mori cocoon raw fibers, degummed fibers, and films with different water contents and then investigated the effects of water content on crystallization, degradation, and water removal during thermal processing. Thermal gravimetric analyses of the silk materials showed that water content did not affect the thermal degradation temperature but did influence the water removal behavior. By increasing the water content of silk, the water molecules were removed at lower temperatures, indicating that the amount of free water in silk materials increased; additionally, the glass transition temperature decreased with increasing water plasticization. Differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering of the silk films also suggested that the water molecules in the amorphous regions of the silk films acted as a plasticizer and induced β-sheet crystallization. The plasticizing effect of water was not detected in silk fibers, owing to their lower amorphous content and mobility. The structural and mechanical characterizations of the silk films demonstrated the silk film prepared at RH 97% realized both crystallinity and ductility simultaneously. Thus, the thermal stability, mechanical, and other properties of silk materials are regulated by their water content and crystallinity. PMID:26835719

  16. Effect of some soil physical properties on water holding capacity, neutron probe calibration and salt movement

    This study was conducted in tow areas representing in silty soil in Southern Syria (Dra'a), loamy and sandy soil in Eastern Syria (Deir Al zour) to compare the soil effect on the calibration of the neutron probe, correlation coefficient, soil characteristics curve, soil solution content of nitrates, potassium and sodium for the estimation of the optimum sampling time of soil solution by porous ceramic cups. Regression analysis results showed that the three soils curves, in which the soil contained the lowest content of clay had a high correlation coefficient and decreased with increasing the clay content. Whereas, the correlation coefficient in sandy soil was 0.96 while decreased to 0.79 in silty soil. The hydraulic head increased with decreasing the water content, which was obvious in the three soils characteristic curves. The NO3 content decreased due to the plants roots absorption and leaching to deeper layers, while the NO3 content in the surfaces layer significantly decreased in the sandy soil. Results showed that equilibrium between the soil solution and the NO3 content in the solution in porous cups occurred within 8 days. (author)

  17. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    Pöyry, Sanja; Róg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko;

    2009-01-01

    membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational diffusion of lipids is slowed down by ions, especially in the case of CaCl(2). In the same spirit, lateral...... diffusion of lipids is slowed down rather considerably for increasing concentration of CaCl(2). Both findings for dynamic properties can be traced to the binding of ions with lipid head groups and the related changes in interaction patterns in the headgroup region, where the binding of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions...

  18. Effect of Temperature, pH and Salt on Fluorescent Quality of Water Extractable Organic Matter in Black Soil

    LI Ming-tang; ZHAO Lan-po; ZHANG Jin-jing

    2013-01-01

    Water erosion is the major reason for the loss of soil organic carbon in the Northeast China, which leads to the soil quality deterioration and adjacent water pollution. In this study, the effect of extraction temperature, pH value, and salt on the water extractable organic matter (WEOM) was determined by means of the UV absorbance, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix, and derived fluorescence indexes. In general, the carbon content and aromaticity of WEOM increased with the increasing of extraction temperature, with the exception that there was no significant difference in the amount at 0 and 20°C. More fluorophores, especially microbially-derived organic matter were extracted at high temperature. The pH values of extractant, including 5, 7, and 10, showed no effect on the carbon amount of WEOM, whereas the aromaticity and microbially-derived component gradually increased with the increasing of pH values. The fluorescence intensity of humic acid-like fluorophore was stronger in neutral and alkali condition than that in acidic condition. The addition of 10 mmol L-1 CaCl2 significantly decreased the carbon amount of recovered WEOM. Moreover, it significantly decreased the aromaticity of WEOM and the quantity of fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like fluorophores, whereas increased the percentage of tyrosine-like and tryptophan-like fluorophores in the total fluorophores and the amount of microbially-derived organic matter. Generally, 10 mmol L-1 KCl showed the same influence trend, but with low influence degree.

  19. Research of measurement errors caused by salt solution temperature drift in surface plasmon resonance sensors

    Yingcai Wu; Zhengtian Gu; YifangYuan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Influence of temperature on measurement of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was investigated.Samples with various concentrations of NaCI were tested at different temperatures. It was shown that if the affection of temperature could be neglected, measurement precision of salt solution was 0.028 wt.-%.But measurement error of salinity caused by temperature was 0.53 wt.-% in average when the temperature drift was 1 ℃. To reduce the error, a double-cell SPR sensor with salt solution and distilled water flowing respectively and at the same temperature was implemented.

  20. Research on Influence Laws of Different Salt Content and Ion Content to Boundary Moisture Content of Soil%不同含盐量及离子含量对土的界限含水率的影响规律研究

    努尔比亚·吾斯曼; 何建新; 苏枋

    2012-01-01

    The influence laws of the total salt content and different ion content(sulfate and chlorine salt) in fine-grained soil to the boundary moisture content of the soil are studied here in detail.Through artificially making the soil samples with different salt content and ion content,the boundary moisture content of the soil is determined,and the influence of salt content on the boundary moisture content of the soil is studied by using projection pursuit regression analysis method.It is found by analysis that when adding sodium chloride,the hydraulic limit and plastic limit of the soil are decreased with salt content increasing,and when adding sodium sulfate,the hydraulic limit and plastic limit of the soil are risen with salt content increasing.At the same time,when size changing,there appears expand phenomenon.When adding each half of the sodium chloride and sodium sulfate,the hydraulic limit of the soil is dropped obviously,and the plastic limit of the soil is changed a little with salt content increasing.%土中含盐量影响土的物理力学性能,研究细粒土中总盐含量及不同离子含量(硫酸盐和氯盐)对认识土的界限含水率的影响规律有重要意义。人工配制不同含盐量、不同离子含量的土样,测定土的界限含水率,并运用投影寻踪回归分析方法研究含盐量对土的界限含水率的影响。研究结果表明:加氯化钠时,随着含盐量的增加,土的液、塑限均有下降;加硫酸钠时,随着含盐量的增加,土的液、塑限均有上升,体积发生变化,出现膨胀现象;各加一半时,随着含盐量的增加,土的液限明显下降,塑限变化不大。

  1. 超声波-脉动压联用快速腌制咸鸭蛋的工艺参数优化%Parameter optimization for quickly salted egg by using ultrasonic-pulsed pressure technology

    王石泉; 王树才; 张益鹏; 张融

    2013-01-01

    the ultrasonic acting time on the salt contents of egg white (EWSC) and salt contents of egg yolk (EYSC) were studied by single factor methods:the efficiency of water cycle pulse ratio on the salted eggs, the efficiency of water cycle time on salted eggs, the efficiency of high pressure value on salted eggs, the efficiency of high pressure pulsation ration on salted eggs, the efficiency of salting time on eggs, and an orthogonal array design methods. The experiment based on a single factor showed that: the various water cycles it played a significant role in increasing salt content of a egg yolk with the time point 1 d, which showed the best efficiency;pulsating pressure has a great promotion effect on the salt content in the egg white and yolk with the range of 120-160 kPa. Under the same condition of salted time, the increase of pressure pulsating will reduce the effect of pulsating pressure. The orthogonal experimental results showed that during the three day salting with a 24%salt solution under 30℃. To obtain optimal quality of salted eggs and the optimum mass transfer rate, a solution was obtained under the following conditions:pulse pressure amplitude was 140 kPa, and high pressure holding time/atmospheric pressure holding time ratio was 4 min:16 min, the ultrasonic acting time point was the first day’s, Ultrasonic pulsation ratio was 2 min:10 min, and the ultrasonic acting time was 132 min. The protein content was 4.61%, the egg yolk salt content was 2.12%, and the difference of salt was only 2.49%. Delicate protein, moderate salty; crispy yolk and the flow yolk oil were evaluated by a sensory method. The production cycle of the traditional salted eggs method was shortened by 90%, and it was conducive to the industrial production of salted duck egg. Because the applied pressure vessel volume is limited, it cannot be used for large quantities of salted duck egg tests. In the future, the egg-salting device can be scaled into the mechanization and automation

  2. Effect of IAA produced by Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 on cotton growth under salt stress.

    Liu, Yan; Shi, Zaiqiang; Yao, Lixia; Yue, Haitao; Li, Hui; Li, Chun

    2013-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca Rs-5 isolated with ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase activity as the sole nitrogen source could obviously promote cotton seedling growth under salt stress and produce phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The amount of IAA produced by the strain Rs-5 was measured, and the effect of IAA on cotton growth under salt stress was studied. Different treatments were set to treat cotton seeds with fermentation broth containing strain Rs-5 (FB), strain Rs-5, fermentation broth with bacteria removed (FB-NB), fermentation broth without bacteria or IAA (FB-NB-NI) and single IAA solutions (SI) according to the IAA concentration after strain Rs-5 culturing of 48, 72 and 120 h. The germination rate, dry weight, plant height, root length and malondialdehyde (MDA), proline and endogenous IAA content in roots were determined. The results showed that both IAA produced by strain Rs-5 and the strain were effective in promoting cotton growth under salt stress. The growth and ability to resist salt stress of cotton seedlings were increased with the enhancement of IAA concentration. The treatment of FB containing bacteria and IAA at 120 h obtained the best state of cotton growth, when the IAA content was the highest in the fermentation broth (42.14 μg·L(-1)). The germination rate, dry weight, plant height and root length were increased by 29.4%, 24.3%, 27.2% and 27.2% , respectively, compared to the saline control. The strain Rs-5 and/or IAA could obviously reduce the MDA and proline content and increase the endogenous IAA content in cotton seedlings. However, the efficacy of other components in the fermentation broth was inconspicuous. PMID:23518519

  3. Leaf Relative Water Content Estimated from Leaf Reflectance and Transmittance

    Vanderbilt, Vern; Daughtry, Craig; Dahlgren, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensing the water status of plants and the water content of canopies remain long term goals of remote sensing research. In the research we report here, we used optical polarization techniques to monitor the light reflected from the leaf interior, R, as well as the leaf transmittance, T, as the relative water content (RWC) of corn (Zea mays) leaves decreased. Our results show that R and T both change nonlinearly. The result show that the nonlinearities cancel in the ratio R/T, which appears linearly related to RWC for RWC less than 90%. The results suggest that potentially leaf water status and perhaps even canopy water status could be monitored starting from leaf and canopy optical measurements.

  4. Extraction and LC determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions.

    Pineros, I; Ballesteros, P; Lastres, J L

    2002-02-01

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-buffer phosphate pH 3.3. Detection was UV absorbance at 252 nm. The precision and accurately of the method were excellent. The established linearity range was 5-60 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.999). Microemulsions samples were dispersed with chloroform and extracted lysine clonixinate salt with water. This easy method employing chloroformic extraction has been done three times. The recovery of lysine clonixinate salt from spiked placebo and microemulsion were >90% over the linear range. PMID:11814716

  5. Ion motion in salt water flowing under a transverse magnetic field

    De Luca R.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The problem of ion motion in an electrolyte solution flowing in a thin rectangular duct with velocity VE in the presence of a transverse magnetic field B0 is studied by means of classical mechanics and electrodynamics. Because of Lorentz force on the ions in the electrolyte solution, a so called Faraday voltage appears at the electrodes orthogonal to both the field B0 and the velocity VE. The dynamics of positive and negative ions (cations and anions, respectively in this classical system is studied by taking into account the viscosity of the fluid and the process of charge accumulation on the opposite walls of the duct. Hydrogen production is seen to take place at one of the electrodes when salt water is taken as the flowing electrolyte.

  6. To detect the content of total hardness in water by Tartaric acid-Sodium carbonate titration%酒石酸-碳酸钠EDTA滴定法测定水中的总硬度

    石允生

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study EDTA titration for total hardness in water than tartaric acid-sodium carbonate mix-ture was medium.Method:the 1.5ml Seignette salt-Sodium carbonate mixture[p(C4O6H4KNa)=100 g/L Up(Na2CO3)=50 g/L]was joined in to the water samples,and then the EDTA was used to be detected the total hardness of the water sample content.Results:The relative standerd deviation (RSD%) was found tobd in the range of 0.12%~1.10%,the average recovery percent in the range of 95%~103%.When the content of total hardness was in 710mg/L less,it was suitable.Conclusion:This method did not generate ammonia,and did not pollute environment,to obtained event was accurate and precision,the method of the EDTA titration detects the content of total hardness when to join tartaric acid-sodium carbonate mixture was Medium.%目的:研究以酒石酸-碳酸钠混合液为介质的测定水体中总硬度的EDTA滴定分析法.方法:首先向50.00 ml待检水样中加入1.5 ml酒石酸钾-碳酸钠混合液[p(C4O6H4KNa)=100 g/L Up(Na2CO3)=50 g/L],然后再以EDTA络合法测定出水样中总硬度的含量.结果:相对标准偏差在0.12%~1.10%,回收率为:95%~103%.本法适宜测定总硬度小于710 mg/L的水样.结论:以酒石酸-碳酸钠混合液为介质的EDTA滴定法测定水样中总硬度的含量,无氨产生,操作安全,不污染环境,结果准确可靠.

  7. Environmental assessment of water-salt regime of irrigated soils in the Central-Chernozem Region of Russia

    Alaeva, Liliia; Negrobova, Elena; Jablonskikh, Lidiia; Rumyantseva, Irina

    2016-04-01

    A large part of Central Chernozem Region is located in the zone of risky agriculture. This led to intensive use of soil in the irrigation system. Therefore, a detailed analysis of water-salt regime of irrigated soils required for ecological state assessment of soils for irrigation. In the investigated area the fone component of the soil cover on the levelled plateau are chernozems. On the slopes formed a meadow-chernozem soils. Parent material is a cover loess-like calcareous non-saline clay. In these soils, our studies found component-quantitative composition of the aqueous extract, the chemism of salinity, which allowed us to make conclusions about the direction of the salinisation process in soils when used in the system of irrigated agriculture. By quantity water extract chernozems are non-saline, the ratio of anions and cations are chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. In the composition of easily soluble salts dominated by Ca(HCO3)2. On sum of toxic salts in the soils are non-saline. This type and chemism of salinity deep brackish groundwater (more than 5 m) can be actively used in the system of rational irrigation. The meadow-chernozem soils formed under conditions of increased surface and soil moisture in the shallow brackish water at a depth of 3-5 m. These soils by quantity water extract are non-saline, anionic-cationic ratio - chloride-sulphate magnesium-calcium salinization. Permanent components of salt associations are Ca(HCO3)2, MgCl2, Na2SO4. On sum of toxic salts in the soil is not saline throughout the profile. The chemism of salinity and the proximity of groundwater at irregular watering can lead to the rise of groundwater level, the development of gleyed and sodium alkalinization. Thus, the introduction of intensive irrigated agriculture on chernozems and hydromorphic analogues may lead to the development in them of negative consequences. The most dynamic indicator is the water-salt regime, the systematic monitoring and control which

  8. Effect of salt and water stresses on growth, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism in Cucumis sativus L. seedlings

    Elżbieta Sacała

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Plants exposed to osmotic stress exhibit changes in their physiology and metabolism. In general, osmotic stress reduces water availability and causes nutritional imbalance in plants. In the present study, we compared the response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var. Władko F-1 to ionic (100 mmol•dm-3 NaCl and osmotic stress (10% PEG 6000. Both stress factors reduced significantly fresh and dry weight of 7-day-old cucumber seedlings. Under PEG treatment reduction of cucumber dry mass was lesser than in fresh mass, whereas under salt stress decrease in dry weight of cucumber shoots was more pronounced than in fresh mass. Salt stress caused severe decrease in nitrate concentration and activity of nitrate reductase (NR. In cotyledons nitrate content declined to 17% of the control and similar reduction in NR activity was observed. In the roots, observed changes were not so drastic but there was also strong interaction between reduction in nitrate content and NR activity. Under 10% PEG both nitrate concentration and NR activity in cucumber roots were significantly higher in comparison to control plants. In cotyledons NR activity was significantly lower than in control plants, while decrease in nitrate content was not statistically significant. Phosphate concentration did not change significantly in cucumber cotyledons but increased in roots treated both NaCl (32% increase and PEG (53% increase. Similar tendencies were observed in acid phosphatase activity. Obtained results indicated that osmotic and salt stresses evoke differential responses, particularly in growth reduction and nitrogen metabolism in cucumber seedlings.

  9. Study on the Funcitonal Peptides in Low Salt Sufu Making

    ZhangXiaofeng; LiLite; WangJiahuai; MasayoshiSaito; EizoTatsumi

    2002-01-01

    Sufu in this project was prepared with Actinomucor elegans (CICC-3318)as the starter and with soybean as the material.Different with the sufu with 10% salt produced by traditional process,a sufu product with 6% salt was produced in this project by reducing the salt content in salting process.To determine peptides,the water-soluble extracts obtained saparetly from frozen dried powders of soybean,tofu,pehtze pehtze and sufu ripening for 50 days were analyzed by high-pressure lipid chromatography (HPLC).Antioxidative activity and antihypertensive activity of the extract due to the peptides contained were evaluated respectively by radical scavenging ability and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACS) inhibitory activity.According to the HPLC patterns,the peptides content was nearly zero in soybean and tofu,but increassed gradually during maturing in the further process of making pehtze,salted pehtze and final product sufu,Correspondingly,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities of the extracts strengthened with maturing.For our product,sufu with 6% salt,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities reached peak values at about 30 d maturing,and still remained medium values in final product sufu.In comarison,the antioxidative and antihypertensive activities for the sufu with 10% salt reached peack values at 40 d maturing,but remained medium values inferior to those for the sufu with 6% salt.

  10. An Improved Frequency Domain Technique for Determining Soil Water Content

    SUN Yu-Rui; MA Dao-Kun; LIN Jian-Hui; P. SCHULZE LAMMERS; L. DAMEROW

    2005-01-01

    For many years a soil water content sensor with low cost, reliability and sufficient accuracy has been desirable. Thus,an improved measurement method based on the frequency domain (FD) principle for determining soil water content was considered. Unlike other measurement principles, a new measurable index, η, which was independent of the output impedance and the amplitude of the oscillator while relying on the electrical impedance of a multi-pin probe, was proposed. Moreover, a model for processing the impedance of the multi-pin soil probe was developed, and several important electrical parameters for establishing their operating ranges applicable to this probe were evaluated. In order to confirm the theoretical analysis, an experiment was conducted with a 4-pin probe. Using the developed model, the relationship between the proposed indexηand soil volumetric water content was shown to be linear (R2 = 0.9921). Thus, as the measurable index, ηseemed satisfactory.

  11. Study of acid-base properties in various water-salt and water-organic solvent mixtures

    Acid-base reactions have been studied in water-salt mixtures and water organic solvent-mixtures. It has been possible to find some relations between the displacement of the equilibria and the numerical value of water activity in the mixture. First have been stud