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1

Trace water content of salt in Louisiana salt domes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The trace water content of salt in six Louisiana salt domes has been determined and has been found to be the lowest of any terrestrial rock type. The average water content of normal domal salt is on the order of 0.003 percent by weight, but anomalous zones within salt stocks can have more than ten times this amount. From the average value, the minimum amount of water in liters, W, available to collect around a radioactive waste repository is given as W = 0.28 r3, where r is the radius in meters of the sphere in which water may be thermally activated to migrate completely to the repository

1981-08-28

2

Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (?) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (?) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (? and ?) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced ? values (P 0.05). ? values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

2014-04-01

3

Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpos [...] e, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

Agustina A., Scambato; Mariela, Echeverria; Pedro, Sansberro; Oscar A., Ruiz; Ana Bernardina, Menéndez.

4

Salt uptake and water loss in hams with different water contents at the lean surface and at different salting temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt uptake homogeneity is crucial in assuring quality in dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the water contents at the lean surface before salting and of the temperature during salting on the salt uptake. Pieces of loin stored at 3°C for 3 days before salting absorbed less salt through a surface that has been dried during storage. A group of raw hams were subjected to different pre-salting storage times (0, 3 and 6 days) and another group subjected to different set room temperatures during salting (-1.0, 0.5 and 4.0°C). The duration of storage before salting and the temperature during salting had a negative and a positive effect on the average salt absorption, respectively. The most important effects appeared after 6 days of storage and at 4°C. No significant differences in salt uptake homogeneity were found between storage times and between salting temperatures. PMID:23896138

Garcia-Gil, Núria; Muñoz, Israel; Santos-Garcés, Eva; Arnau, Jacint; Gou, Pere

2014-01-01

5

Problems in determination of the water content of rock-salt samples and its significance in nuclear-waste storage siting  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in situ water content of rock salt in beds or domes and the exact nature of its occurrence are of considerable importance for the safe design and operation of nuclear-waste storage facilities in salt deposits. Most published determinations of the ''water content'' of salt are not comparable. Many determinations contain serious, and in part systematic, errors. The multiplicity of water sources in salt samples, the methods of sample selection and preparation, and the analytical methods used are such that some of these results may be low by as much as an order of magnitude. There is no panacea, but most of the sources of error can be minimized

1981-01-01

6

Problems in determination of the water content of rock-salt samples and its significance in nuclear-waste storage siting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The in situ water content of rock salt in beds or domes and the exact nature of its occurrence are of considerable importance for the safe design and operation of nuclear-waste storage facilities in salt deposits. Most published determinations of the ''water content'' of salt are not comparable. Many determinations contain serious, and in part systematic, errors. The multiplicity of water sources in salt samples, the methods of sample selection and preparation, and the analytical methods used are such that some of these results may be low by as much as an order of magnitude. There is no panacea, but most of the sources of error can be minimized.

Roedder, E. (U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, VA); Bassett, R.L.

1981-11-01

7

Intracranial infection by Vibrio alginolyticus following injury in salt water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 20-year-old man presented with an epidural abscess 3 months after a seawater diving accident. Cultures of the abscess cavity obtained by surgical drainage revealed a pure culture of Vibrio alginolyticus. Marine vibrios may produce serious intracranial infection after head injury in salt water.

1986-01-01

8

Laboratory investigation of water content within rock salt and its behavior in a temperature field of disposed high-level waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigation of rock salt from different North German salt mines showed that at least three components of water exist within the rock salt. The majority of the water is from water of hydration of the minor minerals in the salt and from intergranular water adsorbed to the crystal boundaries. The amount of water from fluid inclusions in the salt of North German mines is comparatively low. In order to investigate the thermal liberation of the different water components within the rock salt, the loss of weight as a function of time at different constant temperatures between 90 and 6300C was measured. Salt samples from the Asse salt mines from different depths and stratigraphic layers were analyzed for their water content. Water content was not constant but depended on the amount of minor minerals present containing water of hydration. As the majority of the water within the rock salt is associated with the minerals polyhalite and kieserite, the thermal behavior and the liberation of the hydration water from these minerals were analyzed. The liberation temperature of water was found to be dependent on the humidity of the air above the sample. The diffusivity of rock salt samples from the Asse salt mines was measured and was found to decrease with increasing temperature, which meant that it is inversely proportional to the water vapor within the intergranular spaces

1980-11-20

9

Measurement of leaf relative water content by infrared reflectance  

Science.gov (United States)

From basic considerations and Beer's law, a leaf water content index incorporating reflectances of wavelengths from 0.76 to 0.90 microns and from 1.55 to 1.75 microns was developed that relates leaf reflectance to leaf relative water content. For the leaf succulent, Agave deserti, the leaf water content index was not significantly different from the relative water content for either individual leaves or an entire plant. Also, the relative water contents of intact plants of Encelia farinosa and Hilaria rigida in the field were estimated by the leaf water content index; variations in the proportion of living to dead leaf area could cause large errors in the estimate of relative water content. Thus, the leaf water content index may be able to estimate average relative water content of canopies when TM4 and TM5 are measured at a known relative water content and fraction of dead leaf material.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Rock, Barrett N.; Nobel, Park S.

1987-01-01

10

Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

2013-04-18

11

Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

Kaltenecker, P.; Szöllösi, D.; Friedrich, L.; Vozáry, E.

2013-04-01

12

Water uptake by salts during the electrolyte processing for thermal batteries  

Science.gov (United States)

Water uptake of single salts and electrolytes were measured in industrial conditions (dry-room). The water uptake rate ? (g h -1 cm -2) was expressed with respect to the apparent area of contact of the salt with atmosphere of the dry room. The water uptake by potassium-based salts was very low. LiF and LiCl salts were found to behave similarly. For LiBr- and LiI-based salts and mixtures, we pointed out a linear relationship between the water uptake and the elapsed time. Water uptake by magnesium oxide reached a limit after 200 h. This work provides a set of data concerning the rate of water uptake by single salts, salt mixtures and magnesia used in thermal battery electrolytes.

Masset, Patrick; Poinso, Jean-Yves; Poignet, Jean-Claude

13

Relative water content of Spruce needles determined by the leaf water content index  

Science.gov (United States)

Leaf relative water content (RWC) is defined as the volume of water in a leaf divided by the volume at full turgor. Using reflectance factors of wavelengths 0.83 micron and 1.6 microns, a Leaf Water Content Index (LWCI) was derived from the Lambert-Beer Law such that LWCI should equal RWC; LWCI was equal to RWC for Picea pungens, Picea rubens, Liquidambar styraciflua, and Quercus agrifolia. Algebraic manipulation shows that R(1.6)/R(0.83) termed the Moisture Stress Index (MSI), is near-linearly correlated to RWC and to the Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT). Five species tested so far had the same relationship between MSI and EWT, but EWT is not a measure of plant water status.

Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Wong, Sam K. S.; Rock, Barrett N.

1987-01-01

14

Effect of temperature, water-phase salt and phenolic contents on Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation of secondary models  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salting and smoking are ancient processes for fish preservation. The effects of salt and phenolic smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were investigated through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked salmon at 4 degrees C and 8 degrees C, and a survey of the literature. Estimated growth rates were compared to predictions of existing secondary models, taking into account the effects of temperature, water phase salt content, ...

Cornu, M.; Beaufort, A.; Rudelle, S.; Laloux, L.; Bergis, H.; Miconnet, N.; Serot, Thierry; Delignette Muller, M.

2006-01-01

15

Effect of temperature, water-phase salt and phenolic contents on Listeria monocytogenes growth rates on cold-smoked salmon and evaluation of secondary models.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salting and smoking are ancient processes for fish preservation. The effects of salt and phenolic smoke compounds on the growth rate of L. monocytogenes in cold-smoked salmon were investigated through physico-chemical analyses, challenge tests on surface of cold-smoked salmon at 4 degrees C and 8 degrees C, and a survey of the literature. Estimated growth rates were compared to predictions of existing secondary models, taking into account the effects of temperature, water phase salt content, ...

Cornu, M.; Beaufort, A.; Rudelle, S.; Laloux, L.; Bergis, H.; Miconnet, N.; Serot, T.; Delignette-muller, M. L.

2006-01-01

16

Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.).

Awad, M.A.; Belacy, N.; Aly, A.I.M.; Abou El-Nour, F. (Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Research Centre)

1990-01-01

17

Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.)

1990-01-01

18

Weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The weakening of rock salt by water during long-term creep is attributed to the influence of trace amounts of brine. Experiments carried out on dry dilated salt show more or less conventional dislocation creep behaviour, but brine-bearing samples show marked weakening at low strain rates. This is associated with dynamic recrystallization and a change of deformation mechanism to solution transfer creep. Because natural rock salt always contains some brine, these results are relevant to the long-term evolution of salt-based radioactive waste repositories and strategic storage caverns. (U.K.)

1986-12-11

19

Measuring water content of feces by the Karl Fischer method.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a technique for measuring the water content of stools by the Karl Fischer method. The analysis is based on removal of water into a mixture of methanol/chloroform (1/2), after dispersion of the stool by sonication in presence of solvent. An aliquot of the solution thus obtained is placed in themeasuring cell of a Karl Fischer apparatus and then analyzed in the classic way. We further describe the advantages of this method (odorless, precise, reproducible) in contrast to other current methods. In addition the same organic solution can also be used in determining the lipid content of stools. PMID:7368

Jensen, R; Buffangeix, D; Covi, G

1976-08-01

20

Protection against salt water of the AA5083 alloy by treatments based on lanthanides salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AA5083 sheet samples have been pre-treated by full immersion in aqueous solutions of different lanthanide trichlorides salts, namely CeCl3; LaCl3 and SmCl3. The inhibition against uniform and pitting corrosion, in 3.5% NaCl solutions, provided by such surface treatments has been estimated using electrochemical techniques. Protection against pitting has been quantified in terms of the percentage of increase observed for the pitting nucleation resistance. Among all the pretreatments tested, optimum performances have been observed for those carried out in 500 ppm CeCl3 aqueous solutions for fifteen days. However, acceptable protection degrees are observed even after 48 h in this solution. (Author) 16 refs

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-07-01

22

Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

2013-02-24

23

Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes. PMID:18976747

Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R

2009-01-01

24

[Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

25

Chemotechnical treatment of used photographic fixing and developing baths by decomposition into utilizable basic chemicals and waste water with low salt content and CSB value. Final report. Chemisch-technische Aufbereitung von verbrauchten fotografischen Fixier- und Entwickler-Loesungen durch Zerlegung in verwertbare Grundchemikalien und ein salzfrachtarmes Abwasser mit geringem CSB-Wert. Schlussbericht  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is a requirement of the law and of society in general that contemporary methods should be employed in the disposal of used photochemical baths so as to safeguard the general welfare against lasting detriment. Used photochemical processing baths have a volume of 40,000 m[sup 3] per annum in Germany. A large portion of this comes from the black-and-white developing and fixing baths used in the printing and repro sector and from X-ray development in the field of medicine. To date there has been no rentilization method by which these wastes could be decomposed as a whole, without residual substances. The GUW in Mainz has developed a technochemical processing method by which used black-and-white fixing and developing baths can be decomposed into utilizable chemical feedstocks. All that remains is waste water with a low salt content and CSB value. (orig./BBR)

Kuelps, H.J.; Gellermann, S.T.; Neugebauer, H.

1990-01-01

26

Clear salt water versus clear pure water  

Science.gov (United States)

A controlled experiment allows an investigator to conduct the experiment by changing only one single factor while keeping all other variables constant. The factor that was changed in this experiment, called the independent variable, was the type of water used: pure water or salt water.

Nancy Pelaez (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2007-08-17

27

Study on factors (pH, water activity, salt content affecting the growth of Listeria Monocytogenes in raw dried cured sausages  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Commission Regulation (EC 2073:2005 considers the factors which can support or inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenesin ready-to-eat foods. The aim of the experiments was to examine the values of pH, water activity (aw, salt content and level of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from June 2006 till May 2008. 81 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 5 different meat producing plants during the period of study. Average water activity level of the tested sausages was 0,87 ± 0,035; pH level - 5,61 ± 0,59 and salt content - 4,12 ± 1,11%. Four specimens contained Listeria spp. (two samples L.monocytogenes, one L.welshimeri and one L.innocua. All contaminated raw dried cured sausages had aw bellow ? 0,92 and pH ? 4,4 or pH ? 5. After 3 months of storage of the same contaminated samples at 40C, in three of them Listeria spp. (two L.monocitogenes and L.welshimeri survived and was detected. Salt content of the samples varied from 2,46 to 6,28% and was not able to affect the growth of L.monocytogenes.Data showed that the detected levels of aw could support the growth of L.monocytogenes in only 6 (7,4% of the tested samples. pH values lower than 5 were presented in three samples and only the combination with low aw was able to inhibit the growth of L.monocytogenes. The detected levels of salt content did not affect the presence and growth of L.monocytogenes. ‘Microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenescan be applied to 75 (92,6% of the tested sausages.

Daskalov Hristo

2013-09-01

28

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem And Hussein Abdel-aal

2013-01-01

29

ASU testing of water in salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stable isotope measurements have been used to determine the origin of water leaking into salt mines in the Gulf Coast salt domes. Water ''pockets'' are found around the periphery of the domes and in association with sediment inclusions. Isotopic data indicate that these waters are formation waters that have been mechanically wrapped into the domes during diapiric rise of the salt. Meteoric waters are actively leaking into the Avery Island salt mine. These leaks represent penetration of the salt by external waters. The mechanism of brine movement is unknown. A third water type in domal salt appears to be connate brines evaporated to potash facies. These brines are so concentrated that they turn to a gel at liquid nitrogen temperatures; they will not freeze. Isotopic analyses of fluid inclusions in the bedded salts of the Palo Duro Basin indicate that the trapped water is mainly connate evaporate water dating back to the time of salt deposition. In the Avery Island salt dome, observations include ghost grain boundaries defined by curviplanar arrays of fluid inclusions within coarse halite crystals. These are either former grain boundaries or fracture surfaces. Parallel planes of intracrystalline fluid inclusions clearly indicate natural fracturing of salt with consequent movement of brine. Water appears to have migrated upwards of 50 meters from localized water ''pockets'' via these mechanisms

1987-03-01

30

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-01-01

31

SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

2013-02-01

32

Electromotive Force Generation with Hydrogen Release by Salt Water Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By considering an electrolyte solution in motion in a duct under a transverse magnetic field, we notice that a so called Faraday voltage arises because of the Lorentz force acting on anions and cations in the fluid. When salt water is considered, hydrogen production takes place at one of the electrodes if an electric current, generated by Faraday voltage, flows in an external circuit. The maximum amount of hydrogen production rate is calculated by basic electrochemical concepts.

Roberto De Luca

2011-10-01

33

Mobility of Pb in salt marshes recorded by total content and stable isotopic signature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total lead and its stable isotopes were analysed in sediment cores, leaves, stem and roots of Sacorconia fruticosa and Spartina maritima sampled from Tagus (contaminated site) and Guadiana (low anthropogenic pressure) salt marshes. Lead concentration in vegetated sediments from the Tagus marsh largely exceeded the levels in non-vegetated sediments. Depth profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb showed a decrease towards the surface ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.160-1.167) as a result of a higher proportion of pollutant Pb components. In contrast, sediments from Guadiana marsh exhibited low Pb concentrations and an uniform isotopic signature ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.172+/-0.003) with depth. This suggests a homogeneous mixing of mine-derived particles and pre-industrial sediments with minor inputs of anthropogenic Pb. Lead concentrations in roots of plants from the two marshes were higher than in leaves and stems, indicating limited transfer of Pb to aerial parts. A similar Pb isotopic signature was found in roots and in vegetated sediments, indicating that Pb uptake by plants reflects the input in sediments as determined by a significant anthropogenic contribution of Pb at Tagus and by mineralogical Pb phases at Guadiana. The accumulation in roots from Tagus marsh (max. 2870 microg g(-1) in S. fruticosa and max. 1755 microg g(-1) in S. maritima) clearly points to the dominant role of belowground biomass in the cycling of anthropogenic Pb. The fraction of anthropogenic Pb in belowground biomass was estimated based on the signature of anthropogenic Pb components in sediments ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.154). Since no differences exist between Pb signature in roots and upper sediments, the background and anthropogenic levels of Pb in roots were estimated. Interestingly, both background and anthropogenic Pb in roots exhibited a maximum at the same depth, although the proportion of anthropogenic Pb was relatively constant with depth (83+/-4% for S. fruticosa and 74+/-8% for S. maritima). PMID:17320933

Caetano, Miguel; Fonseca, Nuno; Cesário Carlos Vale, Rute

2007-07-15

34

Determination of the Water Content of Snow by Dielectric Measurements.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dielectric properties of wet and dry natural snow were studied in the frequency range of 50 Hz to 1 00 kHz to determine whether measurements made in this frequency range might prove useful in evaluating the water content of snow. Dielectric heating at...

P. R. Camp D. R. LaBrecque

1992-01-01

35

Salt, Water, and Athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

Smith, Nathan J.

36

Soil water management: evaluation of infiltration in furrow irrigarion systems, assessing water and salt content spatially and temporally in the Parc Agrari del Baix Llobregat area.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sustainability of irrigated agriculture is a growing concern in the Baix Llobregat area. Although irrigated land accounts for a substantial proportion of food supply to the local market, it has been, and still is increasingly degraded by poor agricultural management. This dissertation focuses on ways to evaluate furrow irrigation and to assess soil water content and soil salinity (temporally and spatially) under usual farmers's management practices.

Aljoumani, Basem

2012-01-01

37

Exceptionally Fast Water Desalination at Complete Salt Rejection by Pristine Graphyne Monolayers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise to solve the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics si...

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-01-01

38

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na(+), Cl(-), Mg(2+), K(+) and Ca(2+), at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ~98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems. PMID:24285308

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-20

39

Exceptionally fast water desalination at complete salt rejection by pristine graphyne monolayers  

Science.gov (United States)

Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise of solving the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics simulations and first principles modeling that pristine graphyne, one of the graphene-like one-atom-thick carbon allotropes, can achieve 100% rejection of nearly all ions in seawater including Na+, Cl-, Mg2+, K+ and Ca2+, at an exceptionally high water permeability about two orders of magnitude higher than those for commercial state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membranes at a salt rejection of ˜98.5%. This complete ion rejection by graphyne, independent of the salt concentration and the operating pressure, is revealed to be originated from the significantly higher energy barriers for ions than for water. This intrinsic specialty of graphyne should provide a new possibility for the efforts to alleviate the global shortage of freshwater and other environmental problems.

Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

2013-12-01

40

Evaluation of water content in hardened cement paste by neutron radiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research is to obtain the basic data for evaluate quantitatively the water contents of the hardened cement paste using neutron radiography. The experiments were performed by using water, ceramic specimen and hardened cement paste with varying water content and different water-cement ratio, in order to investigate the relationship between neutron intensity and water contents. As a result, we could evaluate the water content and distribution qualitatively by computer tomography imaging. In addition, the mass attenuation coefficients obtained. Moreover, behavior of water loss in hardened cement paste was evaluated on drying condition. (author)

2011-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.8±1.8 g per meal and 14.7±5.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.8±1.2 g per meal and 14.4±6.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.8±2.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.3±4.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.8±3.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

Sisse Fagt

2010-03-01

42

Hydrochlorothiazide-induced "1"3"1I excretion facilitated by salt and water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt intake is restricted under clinical conditions for which thiazide diuretics are customarily used. Dietary iodide intake offsets any effect of thiazide on iodide loss. However, our correlation coefficients relating Na+ to Cl- to I- excretion indicate that as thiazide administration or sodium chloride intake increases renal Na+ and Cl- excretion, I- reabsorption by the nephron coordinately decreases. Increased sodium chloride and water intake by the dog doubled I-excretion rates. Hydrochlorothiazide increased the sodium chloride and water enhanced I-excretion rate as much as eight-fold. Without added NaCl, hydrochlorothiazide increased the excretion rate of 131I by three- to eightfold, acutely. Within five to seven days after 131I oral administration, hydrochlorothiazide (1 or 2 mg/kg twice daily) doubled the rate of 131I disappearance from plasma, reduced the fecal output of 131I, and increased its rate of renal excretion. When hydrochlorothiazide was administered, as much 131I was excreted in the first 24 hours as occurred in 48 hours when sodium chloride and water were given without hydrochlorothiazide. Thiazide administration in customary clinical dosage twice a day with substantial sodium chloride and water for the first two days after exposure to 131I, should therefore facilitate the safe excretion of 131I. This accelerated removal of 131I might be enhanced even more if thyroid uptake of 131I is blocked by administration of potassium iodide, as judged by the greater 131I recovery from thyroidectomized dogs

1981-01-01

43

Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes  

Science.gov (United States)

Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

2013-12-01

44

DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN INTERSTITIAL WATER OF FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS BY IE-HPLC  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english An ionic exchange high resolution liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method for determination of cations and anions in interstitial water of sediments, affluent and effluent of dams is proposed in this paper. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, CO3(2-), NO3- and SO4(2-) were analyzing by [...] IE-HPLC method. Optimized analytical conditions were validated in terms of accuracy, recovery and detection limit. The method of flame spray atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used as an additional method for the determination of Ca and Mg. It must be indicated that cations may be analyzed by several analytical methods such as AAS, ICP, etc., but there are not enough methods to analyze anions; IE-HPLC methods are good alternative to determine these ions. The aim of this study was to determine ions in interstitial water in the affluent and effluent of the Chilean dams Cogotí, Corrales, La Paloma, Rapel and Recoleta in order to determine if the water is suitable for irrigation or human consumption and estimate the effect of dams on water quality. The results indicate that the highest concentrations observed were for the cations: Ca2+ (mean 43.5 mgL-1), Na+ (mean 16.4 mgL-1), Mg2+ (mean 12.6 mgL-1), and K+ (mean 2.3 mgL-1). The highest concentration of anions was found for CO3(2-) (mean 55.9 mgL-1); the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3- reached 59.3 mgL-1, 12.8 mgL-1 and 27.0 mgL-1, respectively. The results indicate that although the origin of soluble salts is lithogenic, the high concentrations of these salts found in some places indicate anthropogenic effect, either by direct or indirect discharges or by diffuse pollution. These high concentrations may be significant, considering that these waters are used mainly for irrigation, which would affect the quality of agricultural soils irrigated with this moderately saline water.

SYLVIA. V, COPAJA; VESNA, NÚÑEZ S; DAVID, VÉLIZ.

45

Energy storage by salt hydration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A process and apparatus for energy storage wherein thermal energy from solar or waste heat derived sources is passed in thermal exchange relation with a hydrated inorganic salt, such as calcium sulfate, endothermically dehydrating the salt thereby storing chemical energy and releasing the stored energy as heat by passing water under hydration conditions in contact with the salt exothermically hydrating the salt. The released thermal energy is substantially isothermal and available for any desired use involving thermal energy input. The process and apparatus of this invention is particularly suited to utilization of solar derived thermal energy.

Pangborn, J.B.

1981-12-01

46

U contents in various water samples of Kanpur as determined by fission track technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The determination of uranium (U) content is of considerable interest to geologists oceanographers, nuclear scientists and health physicists for various reasons viz., searching for a new fuel in sea waters, developing new technique for uranium exploration in river waters, collecting information for public health services in the case of mineral and tap waters. In this paper the U contents in various water samples of Kanpur is determined by fission track technique. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

1995-01-01

47

Determination of copper in salt cooling water by anodic stripping voltammetry to optimise condenser performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Successful management of the ferrous chloride dosing system and the Taprogge ball condenser tube cleaning system at Eraring Power Station (EPS), NSW, Australia, relies on measurements of copper in the salt cooling water prior to and after each condenser pass. However, obtaining an accurate copper measurement in the challenging matrix of salt water used has proven difficult. EPS conducted trials of two methods for the measurement of copper in natural waters, differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV) and graphite furnace (electrothermal) atomic absorption spectroscopy. This paper discusses the results of copper measurements from the various trials undertaken on the condenser systems. Based on the trials of this instrument, DPASV was chosen as the preferred method of analysis for the purposes of optimising condenser performance and efficiency, minimising ferrous chloride chemical dosing and tube corrosion, and maximising heat transfer. (orig.)

Cudmore, Natasha

2010-10-15

48

Analysis of Rn-222 Water Contents of the Environmental Waters by UsingLiquid Scintillation Counter  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rn-222 water contents of drinking water, well water, river water andground water samples has been analyzed. This investigation has been carriedout for monitoring radioactivity level of environment water, besides it isuseful for controlling the possible internal radiation hazards to the peopleand the environment. The measurement of the soluble Rn-222 in the toluene hasbeen done after equilibrium state about 21 days using Packard TR- 2700/TRLiquid Scintillation Counter respectively. The detection limit of this methodis 1.35 Bq/L with 80.21 efficiency. From measurement and calculation, theRn-222 concentration in well water samples are various below the detectionlimit until 8.03 Bq/L, ground water below the detection limit until 4.11Bq/L, all of river water samples are below the detection limit and thedrinking water is 8.26 - 11.5 Bq/L. (author)

2000-07-25

49

Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (?b) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ?b as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (?b and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

2007-01-01

50

Amelioration of cardio-renal injury with aging in dahl salt-sensitive rats by H2-enriched electrolyzed water  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Recent studies have revealed the biological effects of H2 in suppressing organ injuries due to acute inflammation and oxidative stress. Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats naturally develop elevated blood pressure (BP) and kidney injury with aging. The present study examined the effect of long-term supplementation of H2 in drinking water on age-related changes. Four-week-old male Dahl SS rats were fed 3 types of water (n?=?30 each) for up to 48 weeks: filtered water (FW), water with a high H2 content (492.5 ppb) obtained with water electrolysis (EW), or dehydrogenated EW (DW). Animals were subjected to histological analysis at 16, 24, and 48 weeks. The FW group showed progressive BP elevation and increases in albuminuria and cardiac remodeling during the course of treatment. Histologically, there were significant changes as a function of aging, i.e., glomerular sclerosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidney, and increased cardiomyocyte diameter with interstitial fibrosis in the heart at 48 weeks. These changes were related to the enhanced inflammation and oxidative stress in the respective organs. However, there were no striking differences in BP among the groups, despite histological alterations in the EW group being significantly decreased when compared to FW and DW in both organs, with concurrently lower oxidative stress and inflammatory markers at 48 weeks. Conclusion Long-term ad libitum consumption of H2-enriched electrolyzed water can ameliorate the processes of kidney injury and cardiac remodeling with aging in Dahl SS rats by suppressing, at least partly, elevated inflammation and oxidative stress.

2013-01-01

51

Electrolysis of Salt Water  

Science.gov (United States)

This is a hands-on lab activity about the chemical composition and conductivity of water. Working in groups, learners will: conduct an experiment involving the process of electrolysis, prepare an experiment to better understand the process of ion exchange, discuss and research the "softness" and "hardness" of water, and use the periodic table to identify elements and learn their characteristics. Background information, a glossary and more is included. Materials needed for each student group include a 9-volt battery, two electrodes (e.g. copper strips, or two #2 pencils sharpened at both ends), electrical wire and glass beakers or ceramic saucers. This activity is part of the Aquarius Hands-on Laboratory Activities.

52

Analysis of the HDO content in heavy water by ATR-FTIR  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The applicability of ATR-FTIR for the determination of the HDO content in heavy water (D2O) was investigated. Two groups of calibration standard solutions, of low contents (0-1 n% H2O in heavy water) and of higher contents (0-10 n% H2O in heavy water) were prepared by adding properly calculated amount of H2O to D2O by weight. The absorbances at 3400 cm-1 (?, O-H) against the calibration standards were measured five times using two kinds of interchangeable IREs (1 bound and 9 bound reflections). And four calibration curves were obtained by linear least square fit of the measured absorbances for the four different measurement conditions, which are (1) for low contents group using 1 bound reflection, (2) for low contents group using 9 bound reflections, (3) for higher contents group using 1 bound reflection, (4) for higher contents group using 9 bound reflections. Determined contents (c0) of each calibration standards for the four measurement conditions were obtained by the calibration curves and compared to the calculated contents (ccal). The uncertainty sources were considered when the HDO in heavy water is determined according to the procedure of this work. The uncertainties u(c0) of the determined contents (c0) for the four different measurement conditions were calculated. (author)

2011-03-01

53

Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

1985-01-01

54

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60%) for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite s...

Mehrabanian, Mehran; Nasr-esfahani, Mojtaba

2011-01-01

55

Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

2005-01-01

56

Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: Mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, which were contributed almost entirely by D2O rather than hydrogen–deuteron exchange on the protein. The results indicate that the timescale of motion for residual water molecules on the biocatalyst,...

Eppler, Ross K.; Komor, Russell S.; Huynh, Joyce; Dordick, Jonathan S.; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Clark, Douglas S.

2006-01-01

57

Automated determination of salts in water-soluble certifiable color additives by ion chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A previously developed ion chromatographic method for the determination of salts in water-soluble certifiable color additives was automated, using a Model 12 Dionex ion chromatograph equipped with a program controller and programmable computing integrator. Programs were written for the program controller for continuous automated analysis of up to 59 samples in about 20 h, with periodic regeneration of the suppressor column and automatic shut-down. All data were processed through the integrator, programmed to give results in weight/weight percent. Recoveries were performed on 4 anions: chloride, phosphate, bromide, and sulfate. Twenty-five color additives could be analyzed by the method. Standard deviations in the determinations ranged from 0.01 to 0.16 at addition levels of 0.20-9.45% with 6 replications. Recoveries for addition levels of 0.2-5.0% with 2 replications fell within the range of 84.0-105.0%. Approximate lower limits of detection for each anion were as follows: chloride, 0.07%; phosphate, 0.10%; bromide, 0.06%; sulfate, 0.07%. PMID:7400089

Fratz, D D

1980-07-01

58

Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 ± 5.7% and 63.3 ± 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 ± 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

Vilma Mota da Silva

2008-01-01

59

Water Uptake By Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation Of Stable Aqueous Solutions On Mars Using Raman Microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

To understand the formation of briny aqueous solutions on Mars, a salt analog was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory aboard the Phoenix Lander. ';Instant Mars' is a salt analog developed to fully encompass the correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Using environmental Raman microscopy, we have studied the water uptake by the Instant Mars analog as a function of temperature and relative humidity. Water uptake was monitored using Raman spectroscopy in combination with optical microscopy. A MicroJet droplet generator was used to generate 30 ?m diameter particles that were deposited onto a quartz disc. The particles undergo visual transformations as the relative humidity (RH) is increased and the presence of water uptake is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. At -30° C, water uptake begins at ~ 35% RH as humidity is increased. The water uptake is marked by the growth of a sulfate peak at 990 cm-1, an indicator that sulfate has undergone a phase transition into an aqueous state. As the RH continues to increase, the peak in the O-H region (~3500 cm-1) broadens as more liquid water accumulates in the particles. The Instant Mars particles achieve complete deliquescence at 68% RH, indicated both visually and with Raman spectroscopy. The gradual water uptake observed suggests that deliquescence of the Instant Mars particles is not an immediate process, but that it occurs in steps marked by the deliquescence of the individual salts. Perhaps of even more significance is the tendency for the Instant Mars particles to remain aqueous at low humidity as RH is decreased. Raman spectra indicate that liquid water is present as low as 2% RH at -30° C. Ongoing work will examine the phase of Instant Mars particles under simulated Martian surface and subsurface conditions to gain insight into the possibility for aqueous solutions on Mars today via water uptake.

Nuding, D.; Gough, R. V.; Jorgensen, S. K.; Tolbert, M. A.

2013-12-01

60

Water Imbibition into Rock as Affected by Sample Shape, Pore, Conductivity, and Antecedent Water Content  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infiltration is often presumed to follow Philip's equation, I = st{sup 1/2}, where I is cumulative infiltration, s is sorptivity, and t is time. This form of the equation is appropriate for short times, and/or for negligible gravitational effects. For a uniform soil, this equation describes a plot of log(mass imbibed) versus log(time), with a slope (imbibition exponent) of 1/2. The equation has also been applied to low-porosity rocks, where the extremely small pores render gravitational forces negligible. Experiments recently performed on a wide variety of rocks produced imbibition exponents from 0.2 to 0.5. Many rock types showed initial imbibition proceeding as I {approx} t{sup 1/4}, then later switched to ''normal'' (t{sup 1/2}) behavior. The distance to the wetting front that corresponds to this cross-over behavior was found to be related to the sample shape: tall thin samples are more likely to exhibit the exponent 1/4, and to cross over to 1/2-type behavior later, while short, squat samples are less likely to display the 1/4-type behavior at all. Additionally, the exponents are sensitive to antecedent water content, with initially wetter samples having smaller values. In this study, we present the experimental data, and provide a consistent and physically-based explanation using percolation theory. The analogy between imbibition and diffusion is used to model imbibition into samples with low pore connectivity, with the exponents and their crossover behavior emerging from a random walk process. All laboratory phenomena--different exponents, crossover behavior, and effects of sample shape and antecedent water content--are reproduced by the model, with similar patterns across experiment and simulation. We conclude both that diffusion is a useful and powerful conceptual model for understanding imbibition, and also that imbibition experiments, being simpler than diffusion measurements, can be used to examine diffusive behavior in rock.

R.P. Ewing

2005-08-29

 
 
 
 
61

Insights into Protein Aggregation by NMR Characterization of Insoluble SH3 Mutants Solubilized in Salt-Free Water  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Protein aggregation in vivo has been extensively associated with a large spectrum of human diseases. On the other hand, mechanistic insights into protein aggregation in vitro were incomplete due to the inability in solubilizing insoluble proteins for high-resolution biophysical investigations. However, a new avenue may be opened up by our recent discovery that previously-thought insoluble proteins can in fact be solubilized in salt-free water. Here we use this approach to study the NMR struct...

Liu, Jingxian; Song, Jianxing

2009-01-01

62

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the ''hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO2) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO2 so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, ''Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer?'' is answered experimentally

1990-01-01

63

Effects of de-icing salt on ground water characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of "road salt" on the characteristics of Massachusetts drinking water supplies has been significant and cumulative rather than transient or seasonal. De-icing salt is essentially all sodium chloride. Calcium chloride accounted for only three percent of the total salt used. However, hardness content, as well as sodium ion concentration, has increased greatly in ground waters in the past decade. The changing composition of our water supplies has agricultural, economic, and public health implications. This study attempts to quantify the stoichiometry of these changes in concentration, which are in part due to an ion-exchange mechanism in the soil. PMID:238830

O'Brien, J E; Majewski, J C

1975-01-01

64

Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-09-15

65

Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind  

Science.gov (United States)

Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan

2013-04-01

66

Alleviation of the Harmful Effects of Soil Salt Stress on Growth, Yield and Endogenous Antioxidant Content of Wheat Plant by Application of Antioxidants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out during the two growing seasons (2005/2006; 2006/2007 to investigate the role of some plant antioxidant materials such as ascorbic acid, glutathione, ?-tocopherol and spermine in alleviating the harmful effects caused by soil salt levels (3840 and 6080 mg L-1 on wheat plant. The grains were pre-soaked then the plants sprayed with any of antioxidants used. Moreover, the data showed that 6080 mg L-1 soil salt level alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the activity of total peroxidase, ascorbic peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in wheat leaves. In addition, salinity level (6080 mg L-1 alone or in combination with any of applied antioxidants increased the endogenous contents of ascorbic acid and glutathione and total phenols but decreased carotenoids. It could be concluded that salt soil stress depressed all of growth parameters and yield components. The data also revealed that the different antioxidants could partially alleviate the harmful effect of salinity stress which reflected on growth and yield of wheat plant.

M.T. Sakr

2009-01-01

67

Preconcentration and speciation of chromium in waters by coprecipitation with lead salts and neutron activation-#betta#-spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromium species are preconcentrated from water samples by coprecipitation with lead salts and measured in situ after neutron activation. Both chromium(III) and chromium(VI) are coprecipitated with lead phosphate. If only chromium(VI) is collected in a separate sample with lead sulfate, the individual species can be quantified. The 320.1 keV #betta#-ray peak of 51Cr (tsub(1/2) = 27.7 d) is used for measurement. The procedure has a detection limit of 0.1 ?g l-1 for chromium in sea water when 800 ml samples are used. (Auth.)

1983-05-01

68

Study on salt water intrusion and dispersion in coastal aquifers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to estimate salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers, a numerical analysis method has been studied using the simultaneous equations, which is composed of the unsaturated groundwater flow equation and the dispersion salt transport equation. In applying the present method, the steady-state fresh-salt water interface and the seaward flow rate of fresh water were in fairly good agreement with those measured by the experiemnt of confined aquifer. According to the numerical solution of the velocity distribution in the aquifer, it was shown that in the steady-state on salt water intrusion and dispersion, the inflow of salt into fresh-salt water boundary from the wedge point of salt water is flowed out to the seaward along the fresh-salt water interface with the land fresh water. About one year after the construction of the underground cavern, the severe groundwater pollution due to salt water intrusion occured in the aquifer of the sea side from the center of the cavern. In unconfined aquifer, the order of the permeability near the ground surface is 10/sup -4/cm/s. In the real two-layered aquifer, in which the order of the permeability of the lower layers is 10/sup -6/cm/s, it can be said that the movement of saline water is relatively slow even five years after the construction of the cavern, and that the problem of groundwater pollution will not arise. (11 figs, 4 refs)

Momii, kazuro; Jinno, Kenji; Ueda, Toshihiko; Hosokawa, Tosao; Ito, Toshiaki

1988-08-30

69

The uptake of zinc-65 by oats in relation to soil water content and root growth  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effects of water content of the topsoil on root growth and 65Zn absorption by oats were measured. Seminal roots of oats grew through a labelled uptake layer that had been initially wetted to various water contents. The uptake layer was separated from adjacent layers of wet sand or soil by a thin layer of wax. When the uptake layer was wetted initially and allowed to dry during the uptake period, water content affected root growth and 65Zn uptake similarly. 65Zn absorption by unbranched seminal roots decreased lineraly as soil water suction increased from 0.3 to 5 bar. Nevertheless significant amounts of 65Zn were absorbed (40% of that from wet soil) even when the soil water suction exceeded 15 bar, with negligible concomitant uptake of water. Provided the roots had access to water in a subjacent layer, rates of 65Zn absorption from dry soil increased with the age of plants. The exudation of mucilage from the root was enhanced locally where the soil was dry. The mucilage may facilitate the transfer of zinc to the root in dry soil. (author)

1976-01-01

70

Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining half cubes were cast and cured with salt water. The concrete cubes were cured for 7,14 and 28 days respectively. The result of the average compressive strength of concrete obtained using fresh water ranges from 27.12 - 39.12N/mm2 and using salt water ranges from 28.45 – 41.34N/mm2

Preeti Tiwari

2014-04-01

71

Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 ?g/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations 95%)

2007-05-08

72

Determination of the Liquid Water Content of Snow by the Dye Dilution Technque.  

Science.gov (United States)

The liquid water content (LWFR) of snow has been determined using an india ink dye solution. The transmissivity at 700 nm of the diluted solution is compared to that of an undiluted solution giving LWFR to an accuracy of 1 - 2% by mass. Results from the 1...

T. C. Grenfell

1986-01-01

73

METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard).The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard) measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standar...

2012-01-01

74

Utilization of stainless steels in salt water heat exchangers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Stainless steels are relatively little used in exchangers cooled by salt water. It is shown, that providing certain precautions are taken in the choice of grade of steel, the design of the appliances and the operation of the facilities, stainless steels can be quite valid solutions, economically and technically, to the problems posed by salt water exchangers

1977-12-09

75

Substitution of lead salts for aluminium salts in the determination of sucrose content in molasses  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the sugar industry analytical practice it is necessary to remove nonsucrose compounds from samples in order to determine sucrose content by polarimetric procedure. These mentioned compounds are removed by sedimentation after adding lead salts. Lead is considered as one of outstandingly strong pollutant of human environment and the living world as a whole. Ways of its environment presence are various. Some industrial branches are very close to this top including on this level even the sugar factories. Toxic effects of lead salts and the intensified concern for protecting the environment imposed the need for finding new sedimentation agents. In this work the influence of molasses quality on nonsucrose compounds sedimentation by aluminium-sulphate was examined. Optimum values of the parameters influencing the sedimentation process were determined. Best results were obtained with aluminium-sulphate at concentration of 0.1227 mol Al/dm3 and pH 6.0.

Gyura Julianna F.

2002-01-01

76

Comparison of Water Content-Pressure Head Data Obtained by Equilibrium, Steady State and Unsteady State Methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water content-pressure head relationship for a small, well-confined, rectangular sample of fine sand was obtained under different water flow conditions. Water contents were measured by a gamma system and pressure heads were measured by a tensiometer-p...

G. C. Topp A. Klute D. B. Peters

1966-01-01

77

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mehran Mehrabanian1, Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani21Member of Young Researchers Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different n-HA contents (40%, 60% for scaffold fabrication were synthesized and tested. The composite scaffolds thus obtained were characterized for their microstructure, mechanical stability and strength, and bioactivity. The microstructure of the composite scaffolds possessed a well-developed interconnected porosity with approximate optimal pore size ranging from 200 to 500 µm, ideal for bone regeneration and vascularization. The mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds were evaluated by compressive strength and modulus tests, and the results confirmed their similarity to cortical bone. To characterize bioactivity, the composite scaffolds were immersed in simulated body fluid for different lengths of time and results monitored by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis to determine formation of an apatite layer on the scaffold surface.Keywords: scaffold, nanohydroxyapatite, nylon 6,6, salt-leaching/solvent casting, bioactivity

Mehrabanian M

2011-08-01

78

Influence of mono- and divalent salts on water loss and properties of dry salted cod fillets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Salted cod is a product highly appreciated by consumers, especially in Southern Europe and Latin America. In recent years there has been increasing consumer demand for products with low sodium content, and this has led the salting industry to seek new salt mixtures to help to reduce Na+ levels without producing alterations in the properties of the final product. In this study, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) was initially brined with various mixtures of salts based on NaCl, at various pH levels a...

2013-01-01

79

Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper ‘Papri new-E-red’ by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit quality attributes, and fruit mineral compositions were evaluated at five different ages of fruits at 25 Days after fruit set (DFS, 35 DFS, 45 DFS, 55 DFS, and 65 DFS. Results revealed that capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit quality, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper increased with increasing rate of nigari compared to the control. Furthermore, capsaicin, and ?-carotene increased linearly with the advancement of fruit ages, but not ascorbic acid. Exceptionally, ascorbic acid increased until the turning of fruit maturity at 45 DFS and after that decreased drastically. Total soluble solid (oBrix and titratable acidity (TA were higher at 45 DFS, although an increasing trend was found for most of the mineral contents with maturing fruits. We concluded that a higher amount of antioxidant and improved fruit quality with higher yield and moderate mineral contents in fruits could be achieved by application of 2 mL L-1 nigari to sweet pepper in soilless culture. We can also suggest harvesting sweet pepper fruits between 45 to 55 DFS.

M. J. Rahman

2012-08-01

80

[Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

Lü, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
81

Towards a robust water content determination of freeze-dried samples by near-infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possibility for determination of the water content in pharmaceutical samples by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been more widely investigated in the past few years. However, many studies claim that changes in sample composition will require the establishment of a new method. The aim of this study was several fold: firstly to investigate validation aspects of water content determination in samples with varying composition and furthermore to see if a model based solely on freeze-dried mannitol-sucrose mixtures can be established that will be able to predict water contents for samples containing proteins, excipients or having a lower density of freeze-dried solids. Samples were measured by NIR, standard normal variate (SNV) corrected and the obtained spectra were compared with the results from a conventional Karl-Fischer titration by means of multivariate analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLS). For the overall sample set, a highly linear correlation between the NIR and the Karl-Fischer method with a slope of 1.00, an R(2) value of 0.98 and a root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.15% were found. In a second step samples solely consisting of mannitol and sucrose mixtures were used to build a calibration set, which resulted in a RMSECV of 0.16%. The prediction of the remaining samples, which included protein or excipient containing samples, as well as lower density samples, resulted in a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.19%. Thus the present study demonstrated, that a general model for the determination of the water content by NIR could be established, within the limits investigated. PMID:20800739

Grohganz, Holger; Gildemyn, Delphine; Skibsted, Erik; Flink, James M; Rantanen, Jukka

2010-08-31

82

Hot water, fresh beer, and salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the hot chocolate effect'' the best musical scales (those with the finest tone quality, largest range, and best tempo) are obtained by adding salt to a glass of hot water supersaturated with air. Good scales can also be obtained by adding salt to a glass of freshly opened beer (supersaturated with CO{sub 2}) provided you first (a) get rid of much of the excess CO{sub 2} so as to produce smaller, hence slower, rising bubbles, and (b) get rid of the head of foam, which damps the standing wave and ruins the tone quality. Finally the old question, Do ionizing particles produce bubbles in fresh beer '' is answered experimentally.

Crawford, F.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (USA) Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (USA))

1990-11-01

83

METHOD VALIDATION FOR THE DETERMINATION OF WATER CONTENT OF METERED DOSE INHALER BY KARL FISCHER COULOMETER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to validation of water content determination method of inhaler by Karl Fischer Coulometer to outline a simple procedure. The system suitability test was performed by injecting standard solution (0.1% water standard.The average % recovery was found 99% which is within the acceptance limit of 95% to 105%. From the specificity study, it was observed that there was no response in case of blank (without sample or standard measurement, and the spike sample (with 0.1%water standard showed positive response. In the linearity study the squared correlation coefficient was found to be 0.999, which indicated that the method was linear. It was observed that %RSD of system precision, repeatability, and intermediate precision were 3%, 6% and 7% respectively which was within the acceptance limit (5% for system precision and 10% for repeatability and intermediate precision.The result of accuracy in terms of average % recovery of water was 99% with average %RSD 1% and 95% confidence interval was 97.58 to 99.98. The method was found to be robust for changing titrant source, titrant volume and rotation of stirrer. The titrant was found to be stable up to 24 hours. So, it can be a good alternative to existing methods for water content determination.

Momin Mohammad Abdul Motalib

2012-07-01

84

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

Novotny, Eric V.; Murphy, Dan [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States); Stefan, Heinz G. [University of Minnesota, Department of Civil Engineering, St. Anthony Falls Laboratory, 2 Third Avenue SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414, 612-625-2810 (United States)], E-mail: stefa001@umn.edu

2008-11-15

85

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

2008-11-15

86

Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds. PMID:18762321

Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

2008-11-15

87

Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

2014-04-01

88

Soil Profile Water Content in Pepper Crop Production as Affected by Different Weed Infestation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to evaluate the soil water status and pepper water use efficiency under irrigated and rainfed conditions as affected by different weed infestation in a semiarid environment. The experiment was carried out in 2008 and 2009 in Southern Italy. Two water regimes were imposed to compare water competitive effects under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Weeds were studied within a naturally occurring weed population in a pepper field, where a rainfed treatment was compared to a full irrigated one corresponding to the restoration of 100% of the maximum crop evapotranspiration. Leaf water potential, soil water content, water use efficiency, maximum Leaf Area Index, dry matter and pepper yield were measured. Results revealed that all parameters differed significantly due to irrigated and rainfed treatments. Weed infestation reduced the pepper yield and interaction between irrigation regime with weed interference was highly significant. In 2008 weed-free pepper yield of irrigated treatment was equal to 36.5 t ha-1, while it was 43.4 t ha-1 in 2009. Lower yield was obtained in rainfed weedy treatment in both years, 0.2 and 0.5 t ha-1, respectively. In semiarid environment, different weed population had a great impact on pepper growth and yield, both in rainfed and irrigated conditions. Results showed that a weed-free agrosystem, especially in a drought condition, is necessary to maximize production and water use efficiency.

S. Lovelli

2013-01-01

89

Experimental and large eddy simulation results for the purging of salt water from a cavity by an overflow of fresh water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical investigation of a flow in which salt water is purged from a square cavity by an overflow of fresh water. Two numerical simulations are presented, one two-dimensional simulation and one three-dimensional large eddy simulation. The results are used to describe the important transport mechanisms that occur during the purging process. In particular, we propose a mechanism for the formation of the streamers observed in the experiment. We also discuss the performance of the numerical models for flows of this type. (author)

Kirkpatrick, M.P.; Armfield, S.W. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering

2005-01-01

90

Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ) treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum), were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest ...

Shokoofeh Hajihashemi; Khadijeh Kiarostami

2007-01-01

91

Increased cellular activity in rat insular cortex after water and salt ingestion induced by fluid depletion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Insular cortex (IC) receives inputs from multiple sensory systems, including taste, and from receptors that monitor body electrolyte and fluid balance and blood pressure. This work analyzed metabolic activity of IC cells after water and sodium ingestion induced by sodium depletion. Rats were injected with the diuretic furosemide (10 mg/kg body wt), followed 5 min later by injections of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (5 mg/kg body wt). After 90 min, some rats received water and 0.3 M NaCl to drink for 2 h while others did not. A third group had access to water and saline but was not depleted of fluids. All rats were killed for processing of brain tissue for Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir). Nondepleted animals had weak-to-moderate levels of Fos-ir within subregions of IC. Fluid-depleted rats without fluid access had significantly increased Fos-ir in all areas of IC. Levels of Fos-ir were highest in fluid-depleted rats that drank water and sodium. Fos-ir levels were highest in anterior regions of IC and lowest in posterior regions of IC. These results implicate visceral, taste, and/or postingestional factors in the increased metabolic activity of cells in IC. PMID:12505866

Pastuskovas, Cinthia V; Cassell, Martin D; Johnson, Alan Kim; Thunhorst, Robert L

2003-04-01

92

Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

Gratacós-Cubarsí, M; Sárraga, C; Castellari, M; Guàrdia, M D; Regueiro, J A García; Arnau, J

2013-11-01

93

Biodrying of municipal solid waste with high water content by combined hydrolytic-aerobic technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high water content of municipal solid waste (MSW) will reduce the efficiency of mechanical sorting, consequently unfavorable for beneficial utilization. In this study, a combined hydrolytic-aerobic biodrying technology was introduced to remove water from MSW. The total water removals were proved to depend on the ventilation frequency and the temporal span in the hydrolytic stage. The ventilation frequency of 6 times/d was preferable in the hydrolytic stage. The hydrolytic span should not be prolonged more than 4 d. At this optimal scenario, the final water content was 50.5% reduced from the initial water content of 72.0%, presenting a high water removal efficiency up to 78.5%. A positive correlation was observed between the organics losses and the water losses in both hydrolytic and aerobic stages (R = 0.944, p < 0.01). The evolutions of extracellular enzyme activities were shown to be consistent with the organics losses. PMID:19209645

Zhang, Dongqing; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Jin, Taifeng; Han, Jingyao

2008-01-01

94

Certification of the reference material of water content in water saturated 1-octanol by Karl Fischer coulometry, Karl Fischer volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Certified reference materials (CRMs) of water content are widely used in the calibration and validation of Karl Fischer coulometry and volumetry. In this study, the water content of the water saturated 1-octanol (WSO) CRM was certified by Karl Fischer coulometry, volumetry and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (Q NMR). The water content recovery by coulometry was 99.76% with a diaphragm-less electrode and Coulomat AG anolyte. The relative bias between the coulometry and volumetry results was 0.06%. In Q NMR, the water content of WSO is traceable to the International System (SI) of units through the purity of internal standard. The relative bias of water content in WSO between Q NMR and volumetry was 0.50%. The consistency of results for these three independent methods improves the accuracy of the certification of the RM. The certified water content of the WSO CRM was 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:23442697

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jia; Sun, Guohua; Li, Hongmei

2012-10-15

95

Effect of Pre-Dried History and Initial Water Content on Soil Slaking and Desalinization  

Science.gov (United States)

An efficient and low cost method is required to improve the saline soils. Soil slaking has long been studied from the stand point of stability of aggregates. However, it has not been studied from that of salt removal. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of slaking to desalinization of soil accompanied by land drying practice. A slaking test was carried out for evaluating the efficiency of slaking and their impacts on salt removal of salinized soil under various water contents. We prepared natural/virgin and air-dried soils to give different intensity of pre-drying. Those soils were resaturated (for air-dry soil) and well-mixed, then dried to different moisture contents (60, 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10% by weight). After 24 hours immersion in water, the soils never slaked at 60 and 50% moisture contents in natural soil whereas 88-89% of the specimens were slaked in air-dry soil under the same moisture contents. The slaking rate was highest under 30% moisture contents in natural soil. In air-dry soil 30 and 20% showed the higher slaking rate in compared to other water contents. The proportion of salt released into equilibrated water after 24 hours immersion was also high at the same water contents. Since the natural soil did not slake until 40%, drying below 30% moisture content will be effective for the removal of salt from these soils.

Shamim, Abul Hasnat Md.; Akae, Takeo

96

Water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles supported by using ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene: preparation and catalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold nanoparticles (1 nm in size) stabilized by ammonium salts of hyperbranched polystyrene are prepared. Selection of the R groups provides access to both water- and organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. The resulting gold nanoparticles are subjected to studies on catalysis in solution, which include reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride, aerobic oxidation of alcohols, and homocoupling of phenylboronic acid. In the reduction of 4-nitrophenol, the catalytic activity is clearly dependent on the size of the gold nanoparticles. For the aerobic oxidation of alcohols, two types of biphasic oxidation are achieved: one is the catalyst dispersing in the aqueous phase, whereas the other is in the organic phase. The catalysts are reusable more than four times without loss of the catalytic activity. Selective synthesis of biphenyl is achieved by the homocoupling of phenylboronic acid catalyzed by organo-dispersible gold nanoparticles. PMID:24115377

Gao, Lei; Nishikata, Takashi; Kojima, Keisuke; Chikama, Katsumi; Nagashima, Hideo

2013-12-01

97

Determination of water content in snow, soil and air by the cosmic ray neutron attenuation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Principles resume of measuring water content in natural materials based on the attenuation of cosmic ray neutron component. Measurement accuracies, calibration aspects, instrumentation features, in particular concerning the distant-type snow gauge system DSS-2 tested on the interdepartamental basis are discussed. Results of measuring for several years water content in snow in a mountain river basin are presented. Experimental determination of soil moisture is performed. Relationship between neutron flux and precipitation intensity is analyzed

1986-01-01

98

Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

2007-01-01

99

Independent estimation of attenuation and rain water content by passive and active multi-frequency sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

Rain water content is an important parameter for the characterization of precipitating clouds, however its estimation might be significantly affected by unknowns on the drop size distribution and attenuation. The latest might be estimated for the rain layer by means of radar polarimetric methods. On the other hand, the passive microwave radiometer ADMIRARI is able to retrieve rain and cloud integrated water content as well as path integrated attenuation simultaneously at three frequencies (10.7, 21.0 and 36.5 GHz). Since last year the Jülich Research Center in Germany has became a test-bed for multi sensor observations, with a X-band polarimetric radar and the radiometer ADMIRARI as a main instrumental suit. This allows to have a synergistic observation of rain events at the radiometer's field of view. In this work, independent methods to estimate attenuation are validated and its corresponding uncertainties will be put into consideration. This study pave the way to develop an optimal estimation theory framework for a foresee passive and active retrieval approach. Its application on rain measurements collected at the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Ground Validation field campaigns will also be presented.

Saavedra, Pablo; Simmer, Clemens

2014-05-01

100

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D. Gil

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
101

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 ºC, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazán; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodríguez; L. A., Caicedo.

102

Recovery of ZrO2 by leaching from LiF-BeF2-ZrO2 molten salt in distilled water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LiF-BeF2-ZrF4 (63-30-7 mol%) molten salt was dissolved up to 0.02 g in 1 ml of distilled water at room temperature. ZrO2 oxide made from ZrF4 through pyrohydrolysis was recovered by leaching in distilled water with LiF-BeF2ZrF4 molten salt including it at room temperature. The crystalline sharpness of recovered ZrO2 oxide was not damaged. (author)

2000-12-01

103

Determination of water content and calorific value of peat by near IR spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Near infrared reflectance (n.i.r.) spectroscopy is used for the determination of water and calorific value in peat. Partial least squares modelling in latent variables (PLS) has been used to correlate n.i.r. spectra to water content and calorific value. Separate calibrations for water and calorific value have been compared with the simultaneous calibration for both properties. The result of the simultaneous calibration for water is better than the result obtained in the separate calibration. This indicates that the inclusion of an extra meaningful variable will stabilize the calibration. 16 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Johansson, E.; Persson, J.A.; Albano, C.

1987-01-01

104

Swelling of phospholipids by monovalent salt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Critical to biological processes such as membrane fusion and secretion, ion-lipid interactions at the membrane-water interface still raise many unanswered questions. Using reconstituted phosphatidylcholine membranes, we confirm here that multilamellar vesicles swell in salt solutions, a direct indication that salt modifies the interactions between neighboring membranes. By varying sample histories, and by comparing with data from ion carrier-containing bilayers, we eliminate the possibility t...

Petrache, Horia I.; Tristram-nagle, Stephanie; Harries, Daniel; Kuc?erka, Norbert; Nagle, John F.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

2006-01-01

105

Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fischer reagent in the same way it reacts with the water (mole of apparent H2O per mole of carbonate is produced). In this case, the carbonate content in the sample is determined and a suitable correction is applied to take into account the apparent water results. In the second method it is performed an extraction of the moisture by adding methanol to the sample in an independent flask. After the decantation, an aliquot of the clear supernatant methanol is taken for the determination of water content by the Karl Fischer reagent method. (author)

1990-01-01

106

Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus® simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to describe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration pr...

Gil, I. D.; Uyaza?n, A. M.; Aguilar, J. L.; Rodri?guez, G.; Caicedo, L. A.

2008-01-01

107

Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce the iodine content of tap water with a high initial iodine concentration. A statistically significant correlation was found between tap water iodine content today and the urinary iodine excretion measured in 41 towns in 1967 (r=0.68, P<0.001). The correlation corresponded to a basic urinary iodine excretion in Denmark of 43 microg/24h excluding iodine in water and a daily water intake of 1.7 l. The iodine content of infant formulas prepared by addition of demineralized water varied from 37 to 138 microg/l (median 57 microg/l, n=18). Hence the final iodine content would depend heavily on the source of water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-May

Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P

1999-01-01

108

Study of cladding hull fixation by low water content ceramic cements  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The investigations of the suitability using portland cement free ceramic cements for the fixation of cladding hulls were started with laboratory experiments. The material chosen exhibits the lowest water content by a sufficient compressive strength of the cured product. To produce void free waste forms (hulls + matrix) mixtures with a water content of 12 weight % are suitable. The investigations with radioactive laboratory samples have shown the practicability of the dehydration of Zry-ceramic samples at temperatures of 100 to 1500C. In this case, a maximum of 0.06% of the inital activity - mainly as HTO - will be released. The thermal release in argon carrier gas at different temperatures was in relative good agreement with measurements with hydraulic and naked KWO-hulls. The yearly release rates were found in the range of 10-5 to 10-6 Ci/Ci. year. The leaching of tritium-, actinides- and fission products at 200C and 900C with H20 and carnalit brine have shown no advantages of ceramic matrix compared with portland cement. The drying of the inactive waste form requires a dry air temperature of 2350C. The thermal decomposition of Na-acetate, which is contained in small amounts in the mixture, begins at 1750C. A calorimeter was developed for the determination of the power of nuclear heat sources in radioactive waste and tested in hot cells. Compared to KORIGEN-calculations the measured values are 20 to 30% lower. The experimental facility MEGA was designed to determine the activity of the volatile fission products and hydrogen concentration

1986-01-01

109

Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHS–water pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 °C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100–110 °C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) – water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

2012-01-01

110

Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since {gamma}-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 {sup 0}C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy.

Hayashi, Yoshihito; Miura, Nobuhiro; Shinyashiki, Naoki; Yagihara, Shin [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2005-02-21

111

A role for nongovernmental organizations in monitoring the iodine content of salt in northern India.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The feasibility of using nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to monitor the iodine content of salt was studied in Uttar Pradesh, northern India, where iodine-deficiency disorders (IDDs) are endemic. Three NGOs already involved in health and development activities in the Gorakhpur, Varanasi, and Dehradun regions collected salt samples monthly from households and shops in selected villages over a 6-month period. A total of 4001 samples were analysed at regional laboratories by trained personne...

Pandav, C. S.; Pandav, S.; Anand, K.; Wajih, S. A.; Prakash, S.; Singh, J.; Karmarkar, M. G.

1995-01-01

112

Determining the Melted Water Content of Snow by Dielectric Measurements (Zur Bestimmung des Schmelzwassergehaltes des Schnees durch Dielektrische Messungen).  

Science.gov (United States)

By measuring the capacity of a plate condenser filled with a mixture of snow and water, one is able to determine the water content of this mixture. Capacity is measured with a bridge in which the condenser to be measured is substituted. The condenser's pl...

W. Ambach

1972-01-01

113

Functional Tests in the Study of Water-Salt Exchange and Renal Function in Cosmonauts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The alteration in the water-salt exchange and renal activities of cosmonauts in polonged space flight was studied. The factors influencing these functions are considered. Tabulated results are presented and include the following: (1) electrolyte content, ...

Y. V. Natochin G. I. Kozyrevskaya A. I. Grigoryev

1973-01-01

114

Hyperosmolarity drives hypertension and CKD-water and salt revisited.  

Science.gov (United States)

An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Mesoamerica is providing new insights into the mechanisms by which salt and water might drive hypertension and CKD. Increasingly, evidence suggests that recurrent dehydration and salt loss might be a mechanism that causes CKD, and experimental studies suggest a key role for increased plasma osmolarity in activating both intrarenal (polyol-fructokinase) and extrarenal (vasopressin) pathways that drive renal injury. Thus, we propose that water and salt might influence blood pressure and kidney disease through the timing and combination of their intake, which affect plasma osmolarity as well as intrarenal and extrarenal mechanisms of renal injury. The type of fluid intake might also be important, as fluids containing fructose can trigger activation of these pathways. Future studies should investigate the effects of salt, sugar and fluid intake on plasma osmolarity as a potential pathogenetic mechanism in renal injury and high blood pressure. PMID:24802066

Johnson, Richard J; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Bernardo; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Nakagawa, Takahiko; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bankir, Lise; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G

2014-07-01

115

HA/nylon 6,6 porous scaffolds fabricated by salt-leaching/solvent casting technique: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mehran Mehrabanian1, Mojtaba Nasr-Esfahani21Member of Young Researchers Club, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran; 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, IranAbstract: Nanohydroxyapatite (n-HA)/nylon 6,6 composite scaffolds were produced by means of the salt-leaching/solvent casting technique. NaCl with a distinct range size was used with the aim of optimizing the pore network. Composite powders with different...

Mehrabanian M; Nasr-Esfahani M

2011-01-01

116

Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K(+) content and K(+)/Na(+) ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

2013-06-19

117

Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (P_H_2_O) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, P_H_2_O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

1997-01-01

118

Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure.

Yokota, Naoto; Aburaya, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kida, Osamu; Eto, Tanenao; Kangawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenjiro (Miyazaki Medical College (Japan)); Minamino, Naoto; Matsuo, Hisayuki (National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka (Japan))

1991-01-01

119

Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure

1991-01-01

120

The influence of salts in carrier water and adjuvants on glyphosate activity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Glyphosate, a non-selective herbicide, is antagonized by salts in the spray carrier and responds to surfactant type and concentration. Glyphosate antagonism by dissolved salts such as calcium and magnesium was verified with natural water carriers and with carriers to which salts were added. Salt antagonism of glyphosate occurred from the formation of complexes that were less absorptive than the formulated isopropylamine glyphosate. Absorption of various salts of glyphosate varied as follows: ...

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

1997-04-01

122

Thermal denitration of high concentration nitrate salts waste water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study investigated the thermodynamic and the thermal decomposition properties of high concentration nitrate salts waste water for the lagoon sludge treatment. The thermodynamic property was carried out by COACH and GEMINI II based on the composition of nitrate salts waste water. The thermal decomposition property was carried out by TG-DTA and XRD. Ammonium nitrate and sodium nitrate were decomposed at 250 .deg. C and 730 . deg. C, respectively. Sodium nitrate could be decomposed at 450 .deg. C in the case of adding alumina for converting unstable Na2O into stable Na2O.Al2O3. The flow sheet for nitrate salts waste water treatment was proposed based on the these properties data. These will be used by the basic data of the process simulation

2003-11-27

123

Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

2004-12-01

124

Quantification of water content and speciation in natural silicic glasses (phonolite, dacite, rhyolite) by confocal microRaman spectrometry  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The determination of total water content (H2OT: 0.1-10 wt%) and water speciation (H2Omolecular/OH) in volcanic products by confocal microRaman spectrometry are discussed for alkaline (phonolite) and calcalkaline (dacite and rhyolite) silicic glasses. Shape and spectral distribution of the total water band (H2OT) at not, vert, similar3550 cm?1 show systematic evolution with glass H2OT, water speciation and NBO/T. In the studied set of silicic samples, calibrations based on internal normaliza...

Di Muro, Andrea; Villemant, Benoit; Montagnac, Gilles; Scaillet, Bruno; Reynard, Bruno

2006-01-01

125

Measurements of Iodine Contents in Some Iodized Salts (Consumer Level) in (Myanmar)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The amount of iodine contents in iodized salt (consumer level) of six brands in Myanmar were measured by means of volumetric method (WHO recommended) and vibrational spectroscopic technique. The results optained from both methods were in good agreement within the statistical error

2004-01-01

126

Atrazine and alachlor transport in claypan soils as influenced by differential antecedent soil water content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased attention to ground water contamination has encouraged an interest in mechanisms of solute transport through soils. Few studies have investigated the effect of the initial soil water content on the transport and degradation of herbicides for claypan soils. We investigated the effect of claypan soils at initial field capacity vs. permanent wilting level on atrazine and alachlor transport. The soil studied was Mexico silt loam (fine, smectitic, mesic Aeric Vertic Epiaqualf) with a subsoil clay content, primarily montmorillonite, of >40%. Strontium bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were applied to plots; half were at field capacity (Wet treatment), and half were near the permanent wilting point (Dry treatment). Soil cores were removed at selected depths and times, and cores were analyzed for bromide and herbicide concentrations. Bromide, atrazine, and alachlor were detected at the 0.90-m depth in dry plots within 15 d after experiment initiation. Bromide was detected 0.15 m deeper (P 0.30 m deeper (P bromide > atrazine > alachlor. The atrazine apparent half-life was significantly longer in the Dry plots compared with the Wet plots. The retardation factor determined from the relative velocity of each herbicide to that of bromide was higher for alachlor than for atrazine. This study identifies the impact that shrinkage cracks have for different moisture conditions on preferential transport of herbicides in claypan soils. PMID:18574193

Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

2008-01-01

127

Rock-salt Zn1-xMgxO epilayer having high Zn content grown on MgO (100) substrate by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy  

Science.gov (United States)

Zn1-xMgxO epitaxial layers with x=0.5 and 0.2 were prepared by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on MgO (100) substrate. X-ray diffraction characterization revealed that both samples retain the rock-salt structure due to the confinement by the substrate lattice with low FWHM values (0.30-0.47°) of the (200) rocking curves. The epilayer surfaces are flat having a root mean square roughness of ˜1.0 nm as measured by atomic force microscopy. According to reciprocal space map and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, the epitaxial strains have been partly relaxed at film thicknesses of 110-130 nm. In fact, a further relaxation of the strain when preparing the TEM specimen from the Zn0.8Mg0.2O epitaxial layer triggers a reverse transformation from the rock-salt structure to the wurtzite one. The bandgap energy of the Zn0.8Mg0.2O epitaxial layer is found to be as low as 4.73 eV.

Lu, C.-Y. J.; Yan, T.; Chang, L.; Ploog, K. H.; Chou, M. M. C.; Chiang, C.-M.

2013-09-01

128

Sewage sludge sanitization by ionizing radiation. Part 2. Water content influence on sludge hygienization process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Decrease of specific filter resistance of anaerobically digested sludge (5% dry matter) is independent up to the dose 3 kGy at dose rate in the range 0.2-2.2 kGy/h when irradiated by /sup 60/Co. Irradiation by 4.5 MeV electrons has almost the same effect. Costs analysis shows that the sludge dewatering by either organic or inorganic flocculants is less expensive than by irradiation. Lowering of microbial concentration remains the main purpose of sludge irradiation. A combination of belt filter press and electron accelerator seems to be technically and economically very promising. The dose dependence of the concentrations of 8 types of bacteria was estimated up to the dose of 12 kGy in sludge with 5.24 and 95% content of dry matter. No distinct differences in the dose dependences by dry matter content were found.

Sedlackova, J.; Vacek, K. (Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Czechoslovakia)); Vorisek, K. (Agronomical Faculty of Agricultural University, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Pardus, I. (Hydroprojekt, Prague (Czechoslovakia))

1981-01-01

129

Sewage sludge sanitization by ionizing radiation. Part 2. Water content influence on sludge hygienization process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Decrease of specific filter resistance of anaerobically digested sludge (5% dry matter) is independent up to the dose 3 kGy at dose rate in the range 0.2-2.2 kGy/h when irradiated by 60Co. Irradiation by 4.5 MeV electrons has almost the same effect. Costs analysis shows that the sludge dewatering by either organic or inorganic flocculants is less expensive than by irradiation. Lowering of microbial concentration remains the main purpose of sludge irradiation. A combination of belt filter press and electron accelerator seems to be technically and economically very promising. The dose dependence of the concentrations of 8 types of bacteria was estimated up to the dose of 12 kGy in sludge with 5.24 and 95% content of dry matter. No distinct differences in the dose dependences by dry matter content were found. (author)

1980-12-08

130

Nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients’ content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients’ content at each time and the nutrients’ accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukey’s test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants’ macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plant’s shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

Cristiaini Kano

2013-09-01

131

Laboratory studies of water transport in rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transport of water through rock salt as a result of heating is examined experimentally and a new model proposed to explain the data. The experiment consists of the measurement of water loss rate as a function of time for three 1 kg blocks of Southeastern New Mexico rock salt. Each block was heated for approximately three days with maximum temperatures ranging from 165 to 250"0C. The resulting data is qualitatively explained by a continuum model of Darcian flow of water vapor from a receding evaporation front. The model includes the prediction of thermal stresses which are calculated to crack the specimens during heater shutdown giving an anomalously high water loss spike in agreement with the data

1979-01-01

132

Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines

1985-01-01

133

Influence of the water content in the synthesis of fructose laurate by immobilized lipase B of Candida antarctica (Novozym 435)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New synthesis conditions for a direct esterification of fructose by lauric acid with Novozym 435 as a catalyst are reported in this paper. With these new conditions, a conversion rate of 72 % was achieved, which is almost the same value as in the case of transesterification where no water as by-product is produced (74.6 %). The conversion rate of these reactions can be modeled as a function of the initial water content by a three-parameter power law for the esterification and by an exponentia...

Olive, Gilles; Torezan, Gabriella; Blecker, Christophe

2012-01-01

134

Influence of the water content in the synthesis of fructose laurate by immobilized lipase B of Candida antarctica (Novozym 435)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

New synthesis conditions for a direct esterification of fructose by lauric acid with Novozym 435 as a catalyst are reported in this paper. With these new conditions, a conversion rate of 72% was achieved, which is almost the same value as in the case of transesterification where no water as by-product is produced (74.6 %). The conversion rate of these reactions can be modeled as a function of the initial water content by a three-parameter power law for the esterification and by an exponential...

Olive, Gilles; Pompeu Torezan, Gabriela A.; Blecker, Christophe

2012-01-01

135

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part I - Madhya Pradesh.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) are endemic in Madhya Pradesh. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Madhya Pradesh under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1984, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Madhya Pradesh. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in Bastar, Dhar, Indore, Morena, Ratlam, Shahdol, Sidhi, Sihore, and Vidisha districts. From each district, more than 7 salt samples were collected from traders in district and block markets. Analysis of a total 108 salt samples using the standard iodometric titration method found that all samples contained some iodine. 35% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292800

Kapil, U; Singh, C; Mathur, A; Ramachandran, S; Yadav, R

1997-01-01

136

Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

2005-11-04

137

Protection against flashback by backfilling with rock salt gruss  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If wastes are disposed of in deep geological formations, e.g. in salt domes, radiolytically produced hydrogen may escape from the waste forms into the boreholes, forming an inflammable mixture with air. Complementary to part I (Report Juel-Spez--573), here the protection against flashback by salt gruss backfillings, the volume and form of the flammability range are examined. It was found out that salt gruss backfillings, under certain conditions, can prevent flashbacks in hydrogen-air mixtures, the most important condition being that the backfillings contain trickling material of the finest particle size of between 0 and 2 mm. Unfractional backfillings drilled in the domes of rock salt formations meet this requirement in their dry state. Their water content must not exceed 2 mass per cent. For flashback, the flammability point referred to as 'near' is more critical than the one referred to as 'far'. The length-diameter ratio of the hollow space where the mixture is ignited only has a secondary influence on the flashback. It hardly plays a role either whether the surfaces of the flammability ranges are rough or smooth. (orig./BBR)

1991-01-01

138

Determining water content in high viscosity oil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Results of research on the effect of adding demulsifier on the water analysis data based on the Dean-Stark method in high viscosity oil containing asphaltene. Oil in several areas in the Tatar ASSR was studied. Separol and OP-7 were used as the demulsifiers. The method of carrying out the tests is described. The results show that adding the demulsifier greatly increases the water content in the oil. Separol was more effective than OP-7. Raising the demulsifier concentration by more than 5 percent was ineffective. The relation varability in water content was determined with and without the demulsifier according to asphaltene concentration in the oil.

Aygistova, S.Kh.; Kharlamov, V.A.; Sadykov, A.N.

1980-01-01

139

Oxidation by metal salts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oxidation of toluene and para-substituted toluenes containing electron acceptor groups: p-toluic acid, p-methyltoluylate and p-nitrotoluene by ammonium cerium (4) nitrate and ammonium cerium (4) sulfate in aqueous solutions of trifluoroacetic acid in the presence of chlorides and bromides of alkali metals is studied. The rate and selectivity of oxidative halogenation in side chain and/or aromatic ring under the conditions studied depend both on the nature of substrate and halogenide-ion and on the reaction conditions and ligand surrounding of cerium (4) atom

1986-01-01

140

Effect of Salting Duration on Lipid Oxidation and the Fatty Acid Content of Dry-Cured Lacon  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We investigated the effects of salting duration (3, 4 or 5 days on lipid oxidation and the total fatty acid content of muscular fat and subcutaneous fat during the manufacturing of dry-cured lacon, a traditional meat product made in NW Spain from pork foreleg. Two batches of lacon were processed using each salting duration. In each batch, samples were analysed at seven different times throughout the manufacturing process. In each sample, the moisture and NaCl contents, and the peroxide value of the fat and the total fatty acid contents were determined in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat. Increasing the salting duration significantly increased lipid oxidation (as indicated by peroxide values, in both the muscular and the subcutaneous fat and at all sampling times throughout the manufacturing process. At the end of the ripening stage, the average peroxide values were 7.69, 17.79 and 21.72 meq. of O2/kg of subcutaneous fat and 10.78, 24.96 and 26.48 meq. of O2/kg of muscular fat, in the batches salted for 3, 4 and 5 days, respectively. Salting duration significantly affected the fatty acid content, particularly that of polyunsaturated fatty acids and the linoleic acid within these. The polyunsaturated fatty acid content of lacon pieces salted for 3 days were significantly higher than those of pieces salted for 4 or 5 days, in both the muscular and subcutaneous fat.

Ruben Garrido

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Correlation among cirrus ice content, water vapor and temperature in the TTL as observed by CALIPSO and Aura/MLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Water vapor in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) has a significant radiative cooling effect on the Earth's climate system. As a source for cirrus clouds, however, it can also indirectly produce infrared heating. The amount of water vapor in the TTL is strongly controlled by temperature (correlation r=0.94) with a seasonal cycle of ~1-2 ppm vmr in amplitude at 100 hPa and minimum values in Northern Hemisphere winter (December-January-February, DJF). Studying the A-Train CALIPSO cirrus and MLS water vapor measurements, we find that the cirrus seasonal cycle is highly (r=-0.9) anticorrelated with the water vapor variation in the TTL, showing higher cloud occurrence during DJF. We further investigate the anticorrelation on a regional scale and find that the high anticorrelation occurs generally in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone). The seasonal cycle of the cirrus ice water content is also highly anticorrelated to water vapor (r=-0.91) and our results support the hypothesis that the total water is roughly constant in the TTL at 100 hPa. Temperature acts as a main regulator for balancing the partition between water vapor and cirrus clouds. Thus, to a large extent, the depleting water vapor in the TTL during DJF is a manifestation of cirrus formation.

Flury, T.; Wu, D. L.; Read, W. G.

2011-09-01

142

Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

1988-09-26

143

Simulation of Exterior Conditions in Permanently Closed Soil Chambers by Controlling Air Flow, Soil Water Content, and Temperature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Volatile substances and gases resulting e.g. from degradation processes of chemicals in soils emit into the atmosphere and no chemical mass balance is complete without considering this path. Closed soil chambers allow the evaluation of this transfer to the atmosphere. This study deals with the influence of soil chambers with a glass plate cover on physical soil conditions in the chambers and the possibility to simulate the exterior conditions within the chambers. The water content immediately at the soil surface is an important factor for the microbial activity and the transfer of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere as well. It is monitored by specially designed water content sensors in 1 cm depth in the chamber and as control outside. Funnels with a cross section equal to the soil surface area of the chamber collect the rain water and channel it into the soil chamber. This results in soil water content in the chambers very similar to that outside. For the purpose of analysing 14CO2 and volatile 14C-compounds, air is permanently pumped through the chamber. In order to simulate natural conditions, the wind speed is measured 1 cm above the soil surface outside the chambers. A control circuit adjusts the air flow through the chamber to a value corresponding to the wind speed outside. Temperature measurements in 1 cm depth verify that there is no significant difference between the soil chamber and the control outside

2008-04-01

144

Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of ?40 to ?80 µA were applied to human subjects’ tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, so...

Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

2009-01-01

145

Salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction with water-miscible organic solvents for the determination of carbonyl compounds by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and rapid method has been reported for the determination of carbonyl compounds involving reaction with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and extraction of hydrazones with water-miscible organic solvent acetonitrile when the phase separation occurs by addition of ammonium sulphate, a process called salt-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction. The extract was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection at 360 nm. The procedure has been optimized with respect to solvent suitable for extraction, salt for phase separation between water and organic solvent, reaction temperature and reaction time. The method has been validated when a linear dynamic range was obtained between the amount of analyte and peak area of hydrazones in the range 7 microg-15 mg L(-1), the correlation coefficient over 0.9964-0.9991, and the limit of detection in the range 0.58-3.2 microg L(-1). Spiked water samples have been analyzed with adequate accuracy, and application of the method has been demonstrated in the analysis of benzaldehyde formed as oxidation product in pharmaceutical preparation where benzyl alcohol is used as preservative, and for a keto drug dexketoprofen. PMID:19836515

Gupta, Manju; Jain, Archana; Verma, Krishna K

2009-12-15

146

Profile of iodine content of salt at trader level in the selected districts of India: Part II - Haryana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) are endemic in Haryana state. Since consuming iodized salt is the best way to prevent IDD, the government of Haryana under the National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Control Program (NIDDCP) has followed a policy of universal salt iodization (USI) since 1986, under which the state's population receives only iodized salt. However, despite this policy, the prevalence of IDD remains high in Haryana. UNICEF-PAMM-MI-WHO-ICCIDD recently recommended monitoring the iodine content of salt at the trader level as a means of assessing the quality of salt being consumed by the population. The authors assessed the iodine content and types of iodized salt being sold by traders in 13 of Haryana's 16 districts. Analysis of a total 117 salt samples from 117 traders using the standard iodometric titration method found all but one sample to contain some iodine. 20% of the traders, however, were selling salt containing less than 15 ppm of iodine, below the state government recommended minimum level of salt iodization for the retail level. PMID:12292802

Kapil, U; Nayar, D; Singh, C

1997-01-01

147

Content of toxic and essential metals in recrystallized and washed table salt in Shiraz, Iran  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Table salt is the most commonly used food additive. Since most of the salt consumed in Iran comes from mines, contamination with heavy metals is a health concern. The commonest salt purification method in Iran is washing with water. But recently, some industries have turned to recrystallization method. The present study aimed to determine the level of essential and non-essential heavy metals in the table salt refined with recrystallization and washing methods. Methods Thirty eight pre-packed salt samples were directly collected from retail market in Shiraz (22 samples refined with recrystallization method and 16 with washing method). The level of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt was determined using Voltammetric method. Daily intakes of lead and cadmium as well as their weekly intakes were calculated. Results The levels of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, nickel and cobalt in recrystallized samples were 0. 30 ± 0.26, 0.02 ± 0.02, 0.11 ± 0.06, 0.34 ± 0.22, 0.15 ± 0.19 and 0.008 ± 0.007 ?g/g, respectively, and also 0.37 ± 0.27, 0.017 ± 0.021, 0.19 ± 0.18, 0.37 ± 0.20, 0.13 ± 0.23 and 0.037 ± 0.06 ?g/g in washed salt samples. The calculated weekly intake of lead and cadmium was 0.216 and 0.014 ?g/kg, respectively for the recrystallized and 0.2653 and 0.0119 ?g/kg for the washed salts. Conclusion All values for toxic metals were lower than the permitted maximum for human consumption as prescribed by Codex and Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran. Only 0.8652-1.0612% of lead and 0.17-0.2% of cadmium PTWIs are received via salt consumption weekly.

2014-01-01

148

Mineral content and biochemical variables of Aloe vera L. under salt stress.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study. PMID:24736276

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel Víctor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernández-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; García-Hernández, José Luis

2014-01-01

149

Mineral Content and Biochemical Variables of Aloe vera L. under Salt Stress  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the proven economic importance of Aloe vera, studies of saline stress and its effects on the biochemistry and mineral content in tissues of this plant are scarce. The objective of this study was to grow Aloe under NaCl stress of 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM and compare: (1) proline, total protein, and enzyme phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEP-case) in chlorenchyma and parenchyma tissues, and (2) ion content (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl, Fe, P. N, Zn, B, Mn, and Cu) in roots, stems, leaves and sprouts. Proline and PEP-case increased as salinity increased in both parenchyma and chlorenchyma, while total protein increased in parenchyma and decreased in chlorenchyma, although at similar salt concentrations total protein was always higher in chlorenchyma. As salinity increased Na and Cl ions increased in roots, stems, leaves, while K decreased only significantly in sprouts. Salinity increases typically caused mineral content in tissue to decrease, or not change significantly. In roots, as salinity increased Mg decreased, while all other minerals failed to show a specific trend. In stems, the mineral concentrations that changed were Fe and P which increased with salinity while Cu decreased. In leaves, Mg, Mn, N, and B decreased with salinity, while Cu increased. In sprouts, the minerals that decreased with increasing salinity were Mg, Mn, and Cu. Zinc did not exhibit a trend in any of the tissues. The increase in protein, proline and PEP-case activity, as well as the absorption and accumulation of cations under moderate NaCl stress caused osmotic adjustment which kept the plant healthy. These results suggest that Aloe may be a viable crop for soil irrigated with hard water or affected by salinity at least at concentrations used in the present study.

Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel Victor; Villegas-Espinoza, Jorge Arnoldo; Hernandez-Montiel, Luis Guillermo; Troyo-Dieguez, Enrique; Garcia-Hernandez, Jose Luis

2014-01-01

150

Heat and Salt Content Variability in the Arctic Ocean  

Science.gov (United States)

Arctic Ocean model simulations have revealed that the Arctic Ocean has a basin wide oscillation with cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies (Arctic Ocean Oscillation; AOO) which has a prominent decadal variability (Proshutinsky and Johnson, 1997). This study explores how the simulated AOO affects the Arctic Ocean stratification and its relationship to the sea ice cover variations. The simulation uses the Princeton Ocean Model coupled to sea ice (Hakkinen and Mellor, 1992; Hakkinen 1999). The surface forcing is based on NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis and its climatology, of which the latter is used to force the model spin-up phase of 20years. Primary focus is on the fresh water and heat content variability in association with the cyclonic and anticyclonic circulation anomalies, and how the AOO influence is distributed spatially. Competition between ocean dynamics and ice formation/melt on the fresh water anomalies is investigated to test the hypothesis put forward in Proshutinsky et al. (2002).

Hakkinen, S.; Proshutinsky, A.

2003-04-01

151

Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

2010-02-01

152

Study of Salt Wash Water Toxicity on Wastewater Treatment  

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This research effort focused on evaluating the toxicity of the saline waste water generated from washing of Indiana Department of Transportation (INDOT) deicing trucks and to study the feasibility of discharging it into wastewater treatment plants. Performance of activated sludge treating wastewater under varying levels of salt concentration was studied by measuring the Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), activated sludge oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and Turbidity. For the COD tests, wastewater was tes...

2006-01-01

153

Determination of barium content in ground water by nondestructive neutron activation method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique for instrumental neutron activation determination of barium microquantities in ground waters is described. The water sample (0.3-0.5 l) is evaporated in sand bath at approximately 95 deg C, dry residual is packed in silver foil, it is soldered with standards in a quartz ampule and irradiated during 20 hours in 1.10_1_3 n/cm_2xs thermal neutron flux and it is hold during 10-15 days for decay of interfering radioisotopes Na_2_4, K_4_2, Cl_3_8. Then the sample is repacked and B_1_3_3 and Ba_1_3_1 activities are measured (Tsub(1/2)=10.7 years and 11.5 days respectively) according to 356 and 496 keV gamma-peaks respectively by means of gamma spectrometer with 60-cm_3 Ge(Li)-detector. The sensitivity of barium determination is nx10"-_9 g/ml, relative mean-square error is 10-18%. The efficiency of the method constitutes 20-25 samples per 6-hour working day in calculation for one analyst without account of radiation interval and holding after radiation

1981-01-01

154

PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 ± 2,51 to 70,25 ± 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 ± 8,10 to 87,59 ± 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

Wisnu Cahyadi1

2004-04-01

155

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?¹). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper. PMID:23721848

Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza; Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller; Klein, Roberta Daniele; Cardozo, Janaina Goulart; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães; Bianchini, Adalto

2013-08-15

156

Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs+ ion

2006-09-15

157

Salt and fat contents in preparations at commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sodium and fat contents added to preparations of commercial restaurants in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. It included ‘pay-per-weight’ restaurants with a medium standard menu and having as daily preparations white rice, beans and grilled chicken. Among the establishments with these characteristics, three agreed to participate. The production process of the above-mentioned preparations was accompanied for three non-consecutive days in each establishment. For quantification of sodium and fat added into the preparations, oil and salt were weighed, as well as the finished preparation; the weight of the standard portion and the yield of the preparation expressed in number of portions prepared were settled. From these data, the per capita amount of salt and oil added to cook one portion of each kind of preparation was calculated by dividing the total quantity of salt and oil by the number of prepared portions. Results: The levels of salt (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively and oil (17.0, 11.3, and 11.2 g – restaurant A, B and C, respectively added in the three preparations are superior to the recommendations. Conclusion: The sodium and fat contents in the analyzed restaurants are higher than it is recommended by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. It is essential that commercial restaurants become partners of public policies on health promotion, adopting good nutritional practices, by reducing the sodium and fat contents, to offer healthy meals daily.

Camila Silva Kunert

2013-03-01

158

Use of computed tomography to study raw ham properties and predict salt content and distribution during dry-cured ham production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Varying salt content in hams of equal brand is a major challenge for Norwegian dry-cured ham producers. This study was thus undertaken to test existing computed tomography (CT) calibration models for salt on entire hams, regarding predictability of salt content at different processing times including final ham and to study salt distribution during processing of dry-cured ham. Twenty-six hams were scanned by computed tomography (CT) 11 times during dry-curing for this purpose. However, previously established calibration models had to be adjusted as they overestimated salt in dry samples. Prediction of ultimate salt content was more accurate approaching the end of the dry-curing process (RMSEP=0.351-0.595% salt). Inclusion of remaining weight loss improved the prediction accuracy in un-dried samples by approximately 0.1% NaCl. The prediction errors were sufficiently low to be of practical interest. PMID:22154569

Håseth, Torunn T; Sørheim, Oddvin; Høy, Martin; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

2012-03-01

159

[The water content reference material of water saturated octanol].  

Science.gov (United States)

The national standards of biofuels specify the technique specification and analytical methods. A water content certified reference material based on the water saturated octanol was developed in order to satisfy the needs of the instrument calibration and the methods validation, assure the accuracy and consistency of results in water content measurements of biofuels. Three analytical methods based on different theories were employed to certify the water content of the reference material, including Karl Fischer coulometric titration, Karl Fischer volumetric titration and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. The consistency of coulometric and volumetric titration was achieved through the improvement of methods. The accuracy of the certified result was improved by the introduction of the new method of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance. Finally, the certified value of reference material is 4.76% with an expanded uncertainty of 0.09%. PMID:21650035

Wang, Haifeng; Ma, Kang; Zhang, Wei; Li, Zhanyuan

2011-03-01

160

Discerning total salt contents and surface humidity on building stone with a portable moisture meter (Protimeter) in the region of Petra (Jordan)  

Science.gov (United States)

Water and moisture are some of the main decay agents of building stone and, in general of any stone structure. Several non-invasive methods are used to quantify moisture in building stone, many of them based on the fact that moist stone presents different electrical properties than dry stone. This is the case of resistance-based sensing equipment, such as "Protimeter" portable moisture meters. Although originally designed to measure moisture contents in wood, this sensing equipment is commonly used to measure the so-called "Wood Moisture Equivalent" (WME) in other building materials, such stone and mortar. However, this type of resistance-based sensors pose a degree of uncertainty, as there are other factors that modify electrical properties, such as porosity and salt content. When assessing the overall state of decay of a structure, it might not be crucial, in some cases, to discern between salt and water content: both high moisture levels and high salt content give high WME values, and both are usually related to areas with overall poor state of conservation and/or more prone to decay. However, discerning these two factors is crucial when trying to understand the dynamics of how some decay patterns are formed. This is the case of surface runoff in vertical façades and how it leads to the formation of alveoli and tafoni through salt weathering. Surface runoff and associated salt weathering are among the main decay processes found at the archaeological site of Petra (Jordan) and its understanding is of paramount importance for the conservation of this site. Some "Protimeter" sensors include a capacitance sensor in addition to the usual resistance sensing pins, which allows to measure sub-surface electrical properties. This paper presents results on how the combination of these two measurement modes could be used to discern if high WME values are caused by high surface humidity or by high salt contents in the context of Surface runoff and associated salt weathering. Research funded by AECID (PCI A/032184/10)

Gomez-Heras, M.; Wedekind, W.; Lopez-Arce, P.

2012-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

A model of brine migration and water transport in rock salt supporting a temperature gradient  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A procedure for calculating the loss of water as vapor or as brine in a borehole containing nuclear waste has been developed. The method accounts for vapor transport of water by Knudsen and bulk diffusion in the open porosity of the salt and brine movement by inclusion migration in the salt crystals and by extrusion from the interconnected porosity. Aside from the temperature distribution, the parameters that have the most profound effect on the water loss are the salt permeability, the closure of interconnected porosity by thermal expansion or stress, and the fraction of the grain boundary porosity, whether originally in the salt or created by trapped intragranular inclusions, which is interconnected and provides a fluid pathway to the drillhole. Reasonable estimates of the parameters of the model produce water release predictions that are consistent with field tests in rock salt

1982-01-01

162

Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

2012-08-01

163

Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

1979-01-01

164

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

2013-08-15

165

Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: •Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. •Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. •Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. •Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. •Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L{sup ?1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Oceanografia Biológica, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Müller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas – Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Leães [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itália km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

2013-08-15

166

Saltinessenhancement by taste contrast in bread prepared with encapsulated salt  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this study, we investigate a technological approach to reduce the sodium content of bread whilst retaining its sensory profile by creating taste contrast using encapsulatedsalt. We demonstrate that sensory contrast in bread induced by encapsulatedsalt can enhance saltiness and allows for a salt reduction of up to 50% while maintaining saltiness intensity. The magnitude of the saltinessenhancement depends on the size of the salt encapsulates. Small encapsulates lead to small concentration g...

Noort, M. W. J.; Bult, J. H. F.; Stieger, M. A.

2012-01-01

167

Foaming, Water Absorption, Emulsification and Gelation Properties of Kersting`s Groundnut (Kerstingiella geocarpa) and Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranean) Flours as Influenced by Neutral Salts and Their Concentrations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Foaming capacity and stability, water absorption capacity; emulsion capacity and stability; and least gelation concentration of kersting`s and bambara groundnut flours as influenced by types of salt (NaCl, NaNO3, NaNO2, CH3COONa and Na2SO4) and their concentrations were investigated using standard techniques. The results showed that the highest foaming capacity was recorded for CH3COONa at 15.0% (w/v) salt concentration ...

Aremu, M. O.; Olaofe, O.; Akintayo, E. T.; Adeyeye, E. I.

2008-01-01

168

Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

2006-01-01

169

Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2 on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl–, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

Youcef Daoud

2006-09-01

170

Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ? 150 ?g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ? Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a ?g/kg basis, ? 5 × higher than those of mothers. ? Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ? Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

2012-03-15

171

Water-vapor content in the atmosphere of arid zone  

Science.gov (United States)

The variation in water-vapor content W in the atmosphere of the arid zone is studied. The seasonal oscillations in W for the arid zone are characterized by changes in the moisture content from 2.3 to 3.6 times during the transition from winter to summer. The summer-fall period is characterized by a well-expressed midday minimum of moisture content. In winter the moisture content monotonically decreases during the day. In spring the water-vapor content has a wide maximum in midday. The water-vapor content in the atmosphere during dust haze increases up to two times.

Abdullaev, S. F.; Maslov, V. A.; Nazarov, B. I.; Salikhov, T. Kh.

2014-03-01

172

Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 ?...

Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-nielsen, Thomas

2011-01-01

173

Modification of polymorphisms in polyvinylidene fluoride thin films via water and hydrated salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the effects of solvent and magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2·6H2O) on the polymorphism of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films were systematically investigated. Wherein, N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and water with different volume ratio were used as mixed solvents to obtain the solution casting films, P series. In addition, MgCl2·6H2O was comparatively added to prepare PVDF/MgCl2·6H2O hybrid films, P-M series. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were utilized to study the influence of the water content in the mixed solvents and the hydrated salt on crystallization behavior of PVDF. Further, the morphologic images from scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and polarized optical microscopy (POM), as well as the pizoelectirc d33 test also supplies the corresponding evidences. As indicated, the water in the mixed solvent shows different effect on main crystal forms of PVDF. At low water content, the solvents may favor the polar phase (?- and ?-phase) mainly by hydrogen bonds interactions between PVDF and water, together with dipolar interactions between PVDF and DMF. At high water content, the nonsolvent water will impose confinement effect on polymer chain diffusion and crystal growth which facilitate the formation of ?-phase PVDF. Moreover, magnesium chloride hexahydrate mainly functioned as the nucleation sites for PVDF crystallization. The result of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) implies the content of water or MgCl2·6H2O has little impact on the structure of the long period. PMID:23587338

Song, Rui; Xia, Guangmei; Xing, Xueqing; He, Linghao; Zhao, Qiaoling; Ma, Zhi

2013-07-01

174

Bulk, surface properties and water uptake mechanisms of salt/acid amorphous composite systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Developing amorphous pharmaceuticals can be desirable due to advantageous biopharmaceutical properties. Low glass transition temperature (Tg) amorphous drugs can be protected from crystallisation by mixing with high Tg excipients, such as polymers, or with salt forms. However, both polymers and salts can enhance the water uptake. The aim of this study was to formulate physico-chemically stable amorphous materials, by co-processing different proportions of sulfathiazole and its sodium salt to produce an optimum ratio, characterised by the best physical stability and lowest hygroscopicity. Both sulfathiazole and salt amorphised upon spray drying. At room temperature, sulfathiazole crystallised within 1h at <5% relative humidity while the salt deliquesced when exposed to ambient humidity conditions. In the case of composite systems, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal and surface analysis suggested interactions with an acid:salt stoichiometry of 1:2. Increasing proportions of salt raised the Tg, enhancing the storage stability, however this was opposed by an enhanced hygroscopicity. The water uptake mechanism within the different amorphous systems, analysed by fitting the water sorption isotherms with the Young and Nelson equation, was dependent on the ratio employed, with the salt and the acid facilitating absorption and adsorption, respectively. Tuning the properties of amorphous salt/acid composites by optimising the ratio appears potentially promising to improve the physical stability of amorphous formulations. PMID:23948137

Bianco, Stefano; Tewes, Frederic; Tajber, Lidia; Caron, Vincent; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

2013-11-01

175

Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

Bijelovi? Sanja

2010-01-01

176

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA) + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) + salts (NaCl and KCl) at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems....

2007-01-01

177

Responses of common and successional heathland species to manipulated salt spray and water availability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal sandplain heathlands are a rare plant community in the northeastern United States. Salt spray and water availability are likely important factors determining heathland distribution. Field surveys and manipulative experiments were performed to examine heathland species' responses to salt spray and water availability. We surveyed field distributions of four typical heathland species: Solidago puberula, Solidago rugosa, Gaylussacia baccata, and Myrica pensylvanica. The distributions of two native tree species, Pinus rigida and Quercus ilicifolia, were also surveyed because they succeed into coastal heathlands with low disturbance frequency. We then manipulated salt spray and water in the field and measured species' water status, necrosis, and growth responses to the treatments. Predawn xylem pressure potential and necrosis were strongly affected by high salt spray and low water availability. Shoot elongation was also limited in S. puberula and S. rugosa grown in high salt, low water treatments. Gaylussacia baccata and Q. ilicifolia were particularly sensitive to high salt spray and low water, suggesting that they might excluded be from areas with those conditions. The interaction between salt spray and water availability could affect the landscape scale and should be incorporated into conservation management plans. PMID:21653348

Griffiths, Megan E; Orians, Colin M

2003-12-01

178

[Changes in solute content of different tomato genotypes under salt stress].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two wild tomato species Lycopersicon peruvianum LA111, Lycopersicon pennellii LA716 and two cultivars "Xianfeng 98-7", "Jiaonong No.1" with different salt tolerance were treated with NaCl 150 mmol/L, and to measure the inorganic ions Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) contents and the organic compounds free proline, soluble sugar contents. The results indicated that under salt stress, the wild species accumulated much Na(+) in young leaves, while cultivated species produced and accumulated much free proline and soluble sugar in young leaves, and Na(+) was mostly distributed to old leaves. So it can be seen that there are marked differences between wild species and cultivars in producing and accumulating these solutes under salt treatment. They adapt to salt stress through different salt tolerance mechanisms. PMID:15583416

Liu, Feng-Rong; Chen, Huo-Ying; Liu, Yang; Wei, Zhi-Ming

2004-02-01

179

A case of fatal salt water intoxication following an exorcism session.  

Science.gov (United States)

In response to a recent article published in this review, we present in this paper, an unusual case of fatal salt water intoxication. In this case, we point out three special features, the type of water ingested, the physiopathologic consequences of the ingestion and the very strange context of occurrence. This complex case allows us to point out complications due to salt poisoning and others caused by water intoxication. PMID:10069018

Hédouin, V; Révuelta, E; Bécart, A; Tournel, G; Deveaux, M; Gosset, D

1999-01-01

180

Primary Production and Nutrient Content in Two Salt Marsh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Seasonal variation patterns of aboveground and belowground biomass, net primary production, and nutrient accumulation were assessed in Atriplex portulacoides L. and Limoniastrum monopetalum (L.) Boiss. in Castro Marim salt marsh, Portugal. Sampling was conducted for five periods during 2001–2002 (autumn, winter, spring, summer, and autumn). This study indicates that both species have a clear seasonal variation pattern for both aboveground and belowground biomass. Mean live bioma...

Neves, Jp; Ferreira, Lf; Simo?es, Mp; Gazarini, Lc

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs, measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m to DOC (mg/ L."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.3±0.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.3±0.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

2009-08-01

182

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L.  

Science.gov (United States)

LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water deficit and salt stress upon the growth process of Jatropha curcas L.. Red(Fr) and far-red(FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit). The fluorescence ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the jatropha plants under stress. The data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range. The fluorescence ratio also permitted the detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed in the first 10 days of the experiment, and before signs of visual stress became apparent. The results suggest that the Fr/FFr ratio is an early-warning indicator of water deficit stress. PMID:22051983

Silva, E A; Gouveia-Neto, A S; Oliveira, R A; Moura, D S; Cunha, P C; Costa, E B; Câmara, T J R; Willadino, L G

2012-03-01

183

Influence of activity of water on deterioration of CFRP and GFRP by immersion in boiling salt water; CFRP, GFRP no futto ensuichu shinseki rekka ni oyobosu mizu no katsudodo no eikyo  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Experimental study was conducted to investigate influences of salt water on mechanical properties of carbon or glass fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP, GFRP) used in or on the sea. Unidirectionally reinforced CFRP and GFRP were immersed in boiling salt waters with various concentrations for periods from 2 hours to 3000 hours, and width dilation, flexural strength and interlayer stress strength (ILSS) of samples were measured after immersion. Weight of sample was also measured to calculate the quantity of absorbed water per unit volume that was the portion except fiber in CFRP or GFRP. As a result, width dilation of them was about 75% of the value which was estimated from the quantity of absorbed water. The flexural strength and ILSS of CFRP and GFRP decreased with increasing in quantity of absorbed water, and it became clear that the quantity of absorbed water increased with the activity of water in the salt water. The higher concentration of salt is, the lower activity of water is. Therefore, the deterioration of CFRP and GFRP is not accelerated with concentration of salt. 12 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Nakanishi, Y. [Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan)

1994-06-25

184

Impact of Salt and Water on Protein Structural Dynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Water is known as the lubricant of life. Without water, most proteins would lose their biological functions. Extensive studies have been carried out on how high concentration salts (dissolved in water) alter the stability and solubility of proteins. Such effects are thought to be mediated via salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions. This classic research field is known as the Hofmeister Series. We report the effects of Hofmeister Salts on the structural dynamics of proteins. Photoactive yellow protein (PYP), a bacterial blue light photoreceptor protein, is employed as a model system in this study. Time-resolved FTIR spectroscopic techniques allow us to probe the structural changes in proteins. Our data reveal that high concentration salt solutions alter the proton transfer pathway and suppress conformational changes in PYP upon photo-excitation. This study opens up a new dimension in the field of Hofmeister series. Further theoretical and experimental studies are needed in order to understand the dynamic properties of salt-water interactions and water-protein interactions.

Thubagere, Anu; Kelemen, Lorand; Nie, Beining; Kaledhonkar, Sandip; Xie, Aihua

2008-03-01

185

Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet  

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Full Text Available In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase. The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoagland’s solution with different concentrations of Sodium chloride (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. Measurement of chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were taken at different time intervals of salt treatment (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The results showed statistically significant differences in traits for the salt treatment. A significant increase in Catalase activity was observed under all the salt concentrations while no significant activity of Ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed. The protein content and chlorophyll content decreased with increasing salt concentration. This result shows salt stress affects the photosynthesis rate by decreasing chlorophyll content. Catalase enzyme plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species generated due to salt stress in the plant cell.

Sonam Sneha

2014-01-01

186

On Chlorine Salts: Their Detection, Stability and implications for Water on Mars and Europa  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine salts (e.g. chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates) are an important factor in the stability of water on the surfaces of planetary bodies. Here we have shown that perchlorate and chlorate salts will lower the freezing point of water, allowing it to be liquid down to ~204 K. These salts will also slow down the evaporation rate, extending the lifetime of the liquid water solution. Chlorine salts have been detected on Mars, which has significant implications for the stability of water and hence its habitability. To study their effects on the stability of water on planetary surfaces, we need to first locate where these chlorine salts exist; this is typically done by remote sensing. To date, only anhydrous chlorides have been remotely detected, mostly due to the lack of hydrated chlorine salts in the spectral libraries used to identify features. To address this deficit, we measured reflectance spectra for numerous chlorine salts. Hydration bands were most common in near-infrared spectra, with band depth and width increasing with increasing hydration state. In the mid-infrared, oxychlorine salts exhibit spectral features due to Cl-O vibrations. We also investigated the spectral features of these salts at low temperature (80 K) to compare with remote sensing data of the outer satellites, specifically Europa. At low temperature, water bands become narrower and shallower than their room temperature counterparts. We show that chlorine salts do possess distinct spectral features that should allow for their detection by remote sensing, though care must be taken to acquire laboratory spectra of all hydrated phases at the relevant conditions (e.g. temperature, pressure) for the planetary body being studied.

Hanley, Jennifer

2013-10-01

187

Genetic analysis of physiological components of salt tolerance conferred by Solanum rootstocks. What is the rootstock doing for the scion?  

Science.gov (United States)

Grafting desirable crop varieties on stress-tolerant rootstocks provides an opportunity to increase crop salt tolerance. Here, a commercial hybrid tomato variety was grafted on two populations of recombinant inbred lines developed from a salt-sensitive genotype of Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, as female parent, and two salt-tolerant lines, as male parents, from S. pimpinellifolium, the P population, and S. cheesmaniae, the C population, to identify an easy screening method for identifying rootstocks conferring salt tolerance in terms of fruit yield. Potential physiological components of salt tolerance were assessed in the scion: leaf biomass, [Na(+)], nutrition, water relations and xylem ABA concentration. A significant correlation between scion fruit yield and scion leaf fresh weight, water potential or the ABA concentration was found in the C population under salinity, but the only detected QTL did not support this relationship. The rootstocks of the P population clearly affected seven traits related to the sodium, phosphorous and copper concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, showing heritability estimates around 0.4 or higher. According to heritability estimates in the P population, up to five QTLs were detected per trait. QTLs contributing over 15% to the total variance were found for P and Cu concentrations and water content of the scion leaf, and the proportion of fresh root weight. Correlation and QTL analysis suggests that rootstock-mediated improvement of fruit yield in the P population under salinity is mainly explained by the rootstock's ability to minimise perturbations in scion water status. PMID:20180091

Asins, M J; Bolarín, M C; Pérez-Alfocea, F; Estañ, M T; Martínez-Andújar, C; Albacete, A; Villalta, I; Bernet, G P; Dodd, Ian C; Carbonell, E A

2010-06-01

188

ALUMINUM BIOAVAILABILITY FROM DRINKING WATER IS VERY LOW AND IS NOT APPRECIABLY INFLUENCED BY STOMACH CONTENTS OR WATER HARDNESS. (R825357)  

Science.gov (United States)

The objectives were to estimate aluminum (Al) oral bioavailability under conditions that model its consumption in drinking water, and to test the hypotheses that stomach contents and co-administration of the major components of hard water affect Al absorption. Rats received intra...

189

Highway Deicing: Comparing Salt and Calcium Magnesium Acetate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Contents: Introduction; Road Salt Use in the United States; Effects of Road Salt on Motor Vehicles and Infrastructure; Road Salt Impacts on the Environment; Road Salt Impacts on Drinking Water; Calcium Magnesium Acetate; Summary of Cost and Use Issues.

1991-01-01

190

Adsorption of benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride at the hydrophobic silica-water interface studied by total internal reflection Raman spectroscopy: effects of silica surface properties and metal salt addition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The adsorption of the cationic surfactant benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium (BDMHA(+)) chloride was studied at an octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS)-monolayer-modified silica-water interface by Raman spectroscopy in total internal reflection (TIR) geometry. The present study demonstrates the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique to evaluate thermodynamic and kinetic BDMHA(+)Cl(-) adsorption properties at the hydrophobic silica surface. The surface coverage of BDMHA(+) decreased by 50% at the hydrophobic OTS-silica surface relative to the surface coverage on bare silica; the dominating driving mechanisms for surfactant adsorption were identified as hydrophobic effects and head group charge screening by the electrolyte counterions. Addition of magnesium metal salt (MgCl2) to the aqueous solution (? neutral pH) lowered the surface coverage and moderately increased the Langmuir adsorption constants relative to those of the pure surfactant. These trends were previously observed at the hydrophilic, negatively charged silica surface but with a smaller change in the Gibbs free energy of adsorption at the hydrophobic silica surface. The hydrophobic OTS-silica surface properties resulted in shorter times for the surfactant to reach steady-state adsorption conditions compared to the slow adsorption kinetics previously seen with the surfactant at the hydrophilic surface. Adsorption isotherms, based on Raman signal intensities from spectral analysis, were developed according to the Langmuir adsorption model for the pure surfactant at the OTS-silica-water interface; the modified Langmuir model was applied to the surfactant adsorption in the presence of 5, 10, 50, and 100 mM magnesium chloride. Spectral analysis of the Raman scattering intensities and geometric considerations suggests a hemimicelle-type surface aggregate as the most likely surfactant structure at the OTS-silica surface. The different kinetics observed at the hydrophilic versus the hydrophobic silica surface further indicate that the surface charge and potential influence the surfactant diffusion and kinetic rates of adsorption at the silica-water interface. PMID:23947412

Grenoble, Zlata; Baldelli, Steven

2013-08-29

191

Prediction of activity coefficients in liquid aerosol particles containing organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water—Part 1: Organic compounds and water by consideration of short- and long-range effects using X-UNIFAC.1  

Science.gov (United States)

The semi-empirical group contribution method (GCM) of Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780] for estimating activity coefficient ( ?) values of neutral organic compounds and water in solutions composed of organic compounds, dissolved inorganic salts, and water is adapted for application to atmospheric particulate matter (PM). It is assumed that ? values are determined by a combination of short- and long-range interactions. The ? expression involves conventional UNIFAC terms and a Debye-Hückel term, with the former computed using group-group interaction parameters. Organic-organic interaction parameters are assigned the values from the UNIFAC-LLE model of Magnussen et al. [Ind. Eng. Chem. Process Design Develop. 20 (1981) 331-339]. Forty interaction parameters (ion-solvent group and anion-cation) were obtained from Kikic et al. [Chem. Eng. Sci. 46 (1991) 2775-2780], Achard et al. [Fluid Phase Equilibria 98 (1994) 71-89], and Ming and Russell [Am. Inst. Chem. Eng. J. 48 (2002) 1331-1348]. Twenty additional interaction parameters (ion-solvent group) are estimated based on 879 UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for organic compounds and water. The fitted ? values are based on liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data for a range of ternary and quaternary organic/inorganic salt/water mixtures at 293-308 K. The UNIQUAC fits are analogous to those described by Fredenslund et al. [Vapor-Liquid Equilibria Using UNIFAC: A Group-Contribution Method, Elsevier Scientific Publishing, New York, 1977]. The LLE mixture compositions range from primarily organic solutions to primarily aqueous solutions with maximum ionic strengths of ˜5 mol kg -1. The groups characteristic of organic compounds found in atmospheric PM considered here include: CH 3-, -CH 2-, -CH|-, -C||-, -OH, -CH 2CO-, and -COOH. These are: single bonded carbon with three, two, one, and zero hydrogens, respectively, hydroxyl, -CH 2-carbonyl, and carboxyl, respectively. The inorganic salts represented in the mixture data include NaCl, NaNO 3, Na 2SO 4, (NH 4) 2SO 4, and CaCl 2 so that the cations and anions considered include Na +, NH 4+, and Ca 2+, and Cl -, NO3-, and SO42-, respectively. The method predicts the UNIQUAC-fitted ? values for all datasets with an average error of ˜20%. In an application of the method, ? values are predicted in an aerosol PM phase containing four oxidation products (from ?-pinene/O 3) and water, without and with 1 and 2 mol kg -1 dissolved (NH 4) 2SO 4. The presence of the dissolved salt can cause significant increases in the ? values of the oxidation products considered, reflecting a potential "salting-out" effect for (NH 4) 2SO 4 on the oxidation products considered. Results indicate an important role played by dissolved salts in affecting the thermodynamic properties of atmospheric organic PM and the utility of X-UNIFAC.1 as a tool for evaluating those effects.

Erdakos, Garnet B.; Asher, William E.; Seinfeld, John H.; Pankow, James F.

192

Water Content of the Oceanic Lithosphere at Hawaii from FTIR Analysis of Peridotite Xenoliths  

Science.gov (United States)

Although water in the mantle is mostly present as trace H dissolved in minerals, it has a large influence on its melting and rheological properties. The water content of the mantle lithosphere beneath continents is better constrained by abundant mantle xenolith data than beneath oceans where it is mainly inferred from MORB glass analysis. Using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, we determined the water content of olivine (Ol), clinopyroxene (Cpx) and orthopyroxene (Opx) in spinel peridotite xenoliths from Salt Lake Crater, Oahu, Hawaii, which are thought to represent fragments of the Pacific oceanic lithosphere that was refertilized by alkalic Hawaiian melts. Only Ol exhibits H diffusion profiles, evidence of limited H loss during xenolith transport to the surface. Water concentrations (Ol: 9-28 ppm H2O, Cpx: 246-566 ppm H2O, Opx: 116-224 ppm H2O) are within the range of those from continental settings but higher than those from Gakkel ridge abyssal peridotites. The Opx H2O contents are similar to those of abyssal peridotites from Atlantic ridge Leg 153 (170-230 ppm) but higher than those from Leg 209 (10- 14 ppm). The calculated bulk peridotite water contents (94 to 144 ppm H2O) are in agreement with MORB mantle source water estimates and lower than estimates for the source of Hawaiian rejuvenated volcanism (approx 540 ppm H2O) . The water content of Cpx and most Opx correlates negatively with spinel Cr#, and positively with pyroxene Al and HREE contents. This is qualitatively consistent with the partitioning of H into the melt during partial melting, but the water contents are too high for the degree of melting these peridotites experienced. Melts in equilibrium with xenolith minerals have H2O/Ce ratios similar to those of OIB

Peslier, Anne H.; Bizmis, Michael

2013-01-01

193

Comparison of soil thermal properties in cultivated fields determined using soil water content measured by two methods  

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Full Text Available Results of the measurements of water content in the topsoil layer (1-6 cm in fields with various crops obtained by gravimetric and reflectometric (TDR methods have been used for the calculations of soil volumetric heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and diffusivity. Calculation values of individual soil thermal properties obtained in the two ways were then analysed by means of statistical and geostatistical methods and compared (correlation coefficients, regression equations, difference distributions, mean square errors, and maximum relative errors were determined. Compatibility of values of thermal properties as determined on the basis of soil moisture measured by means of gravimetric and TDR methods, was generally speaking, satisfactory, even though not uniform in various soil moisture ranges; it is better with higher moisture levels, and worse when moisture levels were low. More accuracy in spatial distribution of thermal properties obtained on the basis of soil moisture as measured by gravimetric than by reflectometric method points to the lower sensitivity of the TDR method for the soil moisture measurements.

Kossowski J.

1999-09-01

194

Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content  

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The expectation behind seismoelectric ?eld measurements is to achieve a combination of the sensitivity of electrical properties to water content and permeability and the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quanti?cation of the conversion between seismic energy and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the e?ect of water content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. We performed a ?...

Strahser, Matthias; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; Matthey, Pierre-daniel; Zillmer, Matthias

2011-01-01

195

Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

2012-10-15

196

Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring.

Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Bro, Rasmus

2004-01-01

197

Effects of Salt Stress on Yield, Yield Components and Carbohydrates Content in Four Hullless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Cultivars  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of salinity on some traits of barley, Four hullless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars (Namely, UH3, UHM7, EHM81-12 and CM67 were grown in research station of Islamic Azad University of Eghlid in Iran, under salt stress in two years (2006 and 2007. Four salinity treatments (1, 5, 10 and 15 dS m-1 were used. The experimental design was a split plot which salt treatments were arranged as main plots and cultivars as subplots, based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. The measured parameters were yield and its components, mono, poly and disaccharides content in flag leaves. Results showed that grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, grain per ear, grain weight and plant height were reduced significantly by salt stress. In all treatments of salinity, CM67 cultivar produced the highest and UH3 cultivar produced the lowest grain and biological yield. In all cultivars, salinity stress decreased starch content but increased sucrose content. In high level of salinity, CM67 cultivar had the highest sucrose content (100.20 mg g-1 in comparison with other cultivars. Thus, this cultivar had the highest tolerance to salt stress than the others and is suitable for cultivation in salinity conditions.

A. Bagheri

2009-01-01

198

Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of -40 microA to -80 microA were applied to human subjects' tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium sulfate, sodium saccharin, sodium acetate and sodium benzoate, which taken together encompass salty, bitter, sour and sweet taste qualities. The taste of NaCl, the salty and bitter tastes of the other chloride salts and the taste of NaNO(3) was inhibited, suggesting the current displaced stimulatory cations from salty and bitter receptors. However, bitter tastes of non-halide sodium salts were not inhibited, likely because other bitter receptors respond to anions. A discharge current at cathode-off ubiquitously evoked a metallic taste reminiscent of anodal taste used in clinical electrogustometry. Analogous effects on ambient NaCl responses were recorded from the hamster chorda tympani nerve. Increases in tastes of the saccharin and benzoate anions were not evoked during current flow, suggesting that cathodal current does not carry stimulatory anions to sweet receptors. Cathodal current may selectively inhibit salty and bitter-salty tastes for which proximal stimuli are cations. PMID:19576268

Hettinger, Thomas P; Frank, Marion E

2009-09-28

199

Quantitative analysis of trace metals in lithium molten salt by ICP-AES  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The quantitative analysis of various trace metals including fission products in lithium molten salts has been performed using a inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). The spectral interferences of lithium content, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/L, in the sample solution were investigated using an optimum wavelength for the respective metal species. As a result, the line intensities for Y, Nd, Sr, and La had no influences from the lithium content up to 2000 mg/L, while Mo, Ba, Ru, Pd, Rh, Zr and Ce showed spectral interferences of 10% to 50%. The group separation of metals from lithium in the molten salts solution was carried out by adding ammonia water into the solution. The recovery of Ru, Y, Rh, Zr, Nd,Ce, La and Eu was found to be over 90%, while Mo, Ba, Pd, and Sr provided low recovery percentages. (author)

2000-06-01

200

Determination of oxygen-18 content of water by hydrolysis of phosphorus pentachloride and measurment by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water is one of the most difficult chemicals in which to measure /sup 18/0 content. The classical method consisted of equilibrating a sample of water with a known amount of CO/sub 2/, followed by the determination of the /sup 18/0 content of the CO/sub 27/ and back-calculating via the known equilibrium constant for this reaction. Another method is the pyrolysis of an H/sub 2/0 sample with guanidine hydrochloride. The CO/sub 2/ produced from pyrolysis contains oxygen with the same /sup 18/0 content as that of the original H/sub 2/0 sample. The advantage of this method over the 2 previously mentioned is that it does not require the technology associated with handling gaseous samples. A sample of (/sup 18/0) H/sub 2/0 was placed in a PCl/sub 5/ reaction vessel. The phosphoric acid resulting from complete hydrolysis of the PCl/sub 5/ was methyl esterified by adding one or two drops of methanol, followed by an ethereal solution of diazomethane. The solutions of trimethyl phosphate were then concentrated to minimal volume by evaporating the solvent in a stream of dry N/sub 2/, and diluting with CHCl/sub 3/. The electron impact mass spectrum of trimethyl phosphate observed was consistent with that reported by Bafus et al. Basing the final calculated /sup 18/0 content on the measurement of several ion intensities results in a significant decrease in the sensitivity of the result to errors in the measurement of any one ion intensity. Because the hydrolysis of PCl/sub 5/ introduces four oxygens from water into the H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/, a statistical distribtuion of the five isotopomers of H/sub 3/P0/sub 4/ should be obtained, assuming no isotope effects in the PCl/sub 5/ hydrolysis. 2 tables. (DP)

Sharp, T.R.; Minard, R.D.

1980-03-01

 
 
 
 
201

Baric dependence of solubility of salts in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Experimental material on baric dependence of solubility of salts (CdCl2xH2O; CdSO4xH2O; CdBi2x4H2O; CdCl2x2.5H2O; CdCl2x4H2O; CdBr2) in water up to 1000 MPa was collected and systematized. Four types of solubility polybars were marked out. Using available experimental data, as well as thermodynamic calculations baric factors of solubility (BFS) were determined for more than 40 water-salt systems at different pressures. It is shown, that BFS and its change with pressure have different signs in solutions of low concentrations and in water melts or highly concentrated solutions. BFS differences of salts were interpreted using the structural model of water solution composition. The sign of BFS change with pressure in different structural, concentration regions of solutions was predicted. Classification of salt BFS in water on molecular base is given

1983-02-01

202

Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

2009-04-01

203

Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface.

Gdowski, G.

1997-04-04

204

Trace determination of heavy metal concentrations in fauna, flora and salt samples from Black Sea waters by charged particles - induced X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies were performed on Black Sea pollution by charged particles induced X-rays spectra analysis, using alpha and 16O beams. Fauna, flora and salt samples were analysed. We found some of the concentrations of pollutant elements to be below the accepted levels. (author)

1977-01-01

205

Salt Effects on Solvolysis Reactions of p-Nitrophenyl Alkanoates Catalyzed by 4-(Dialkylamino) pyridine-Functionalized Polymer in Buffered Water and Aqueous Methanol Solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Specific salting-in effects that lead to striking substrate selectivity were observed for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl alkanoates 2 (n=2-16) catalyzed by 4-(dialkylamino) pyridine-functionalized polymer 1 in aqueous Tris buffer solution at pH 8.0 and 3...

G. J. Wang D. Ye W. K. Fife

1996-01-01

206

Small-scall vapor explosion of molten salts/water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A systematic study of the vapor explosion induced when a small mass of molten salts at high temperature is dropped into tap water was carried out. The experiments show that the vapor explosion takes place in limited temperature ranges of both liquids for LiCl/water and Flinak/water systems. On the other hand, no vapor explosion is observed for LiNO_3/water and HTS/water systems. Some considerations are given about the temperature limits of vapor explosion. (author)

1984-01-01

207

Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea...

Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M.; Larson, Magnus

2008-01-01

208

Characteristics of SnO2:F Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis: Effect of Water Content in Solution and Substrate Temperature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide, SnO2:F, thin films were deposited by ultrasonic chemical spray starting from tin chloride and hydrofluoric acid. The physical characteristics of the films as a function of both water content in the starting solution and substrate temperature were studied. The film structure was polycrystalline in all cases, showing that the intensity of (200 peak increased with the water content in the starting solution. The electrical resistivity decreased with the water content, reaching a minimum value, in the order of 8 × 10-4 ?cm, for films deposited at 450? from a starting solution with a water content of 10 ml per 100 ml of solution; further increase in water content increased the corresponding resistivity. Optical transmittances of SnO2:F films were high, in the order of 75%, and the band gap values oscillated around 3.9 eV. SEM analysis showed uniform surface morphologies with different geometries depending on the deposition conditions. Composition analysis showed a stoichiometric compound with a [Sn/O] ratio around 1:2 in all samples. The presence of F into the SnO2 lattice was detected, within 2 at % respect to Sn.

Mario A. Sánchez-García

2012-10-01

209

Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flakin...

Lopez-arce, P.; Doehne, E.; Martin, W.; Pinchin, S.

2008-01-01

210

Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel  

Science.gov (United States)

Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

2011-02-01

211

PulsArt : IT, Salt and Water for Family Awareness  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Recent years have seen a growing interest in considering the domestic household as a new and important domain for interaction design. In this paper we present pulsArt - a physical and digital installation designed for the home to represent different family membersâ?? level of activity by water running down blocks of salt based on a real-time reading of the individual family memberâ??s pulse. We describe how pulsArt explores novel ways of looking at the interaction between the physical, the social and the technological and how it acts as a context-aware artefact, amplifying the domestic setting to provide a new kind of awareness in the family. In doing so, we seek to develop new perspectives on designing interactive and context-aware systems for the home and what values they might support.

Fritsch, Jonas; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup

2005-01-01

212

Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA) + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) + salts (NaCl and KCl) at 25-26°C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. The salting-out effect was investigated by using inorganic salts NaCl or KCl at two concentrations of each salt within their solubility limits. The results obtained in these experiments showed that the salts NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents, as well as the distribution coefficients and separation factors for PA by changing their equilibrium composition and the selectivity of the solvents while the region of heterogeneity increases as compared to the same system of without salt. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-line data was ascertained by Othmer-Tobias plots as well as by Hand plots.

Roy, Bhupesh C.; Awual, M. R.; Goto, M.

213

Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and ?-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

1987-01-01

214

Monte Carlo studies of epithermal neutron water content determinations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNP code have been performed on the epithermal neutron calibration configuration used at the Nevada Test Site to determine downhole water content. The calibration configuration, located at the Hydrogen Content Test Facility, is composed of twelve sets of content. The Monte Carlo calculations have been able to reproduce logging data taken at the facility, showing that this sort of computation is applicable to epithermal neutron logging tools. The calculations have also shown that the containers listed as having zero water content must really have on the order of 0.5 - 1.0% water by mass, which has been confirmed by analysis of some of the material inside the containers. Calculations are continuing to study whether: 1) the container materials adequately represent underground materials, 2) the containers adequately represent borehole geometry, and 3) the interpolation algorithm from neutron count to water content can be improved

1985-09-10

215

Revised theory of water transport in rock salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a theoretical treatment of the water loss rate of a heated 1 kg sample of southeastern New Mexico rock salt. The analysis presented represents a refinement of a previously published model in which the water loss was assumed to be the Darcy flow of water vapor from a receding evaporation front. The refinement consists of a more careful and detailed modeling of the vapor region, including the effects of Knudsen diffusion and binary gaseous diffusion of water vapor through air. Results of the analysis are found to provide improved agreement with experiment during the room temperature drying stage

1981-01-01

216

Salt-water-freshwater transient upconing - An implicit boundary-element solution  

Science.gov (United States)

The boundary-element method is used to solve the set of partial differential equations describing the flow of salt water and fresh water separated by a sharp interface in the vertical plane. In order to improve the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution, a new implicit scheme was developed for calculating the motion of the interface. The performance of this scheme was tested by means of numerical simulation. The numerical results are compared to experimental results for a salt-water upconing under a drain problem. ?? 1985.

Kemblowski, M.

1985-01-01

217

Activity of water mixed with molten salts at 317"0C  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors have determined the activity of water in extremely concentrated solutions of individual salts and common ion ternary mixtures in the system Na"+-K"+-OH"--acetate-Cl"--H_2O at 317"0C. The sodium salts of boric acid, phenol, propionic acid, benzoic acid, and toluenesulfonic acid were also studied. These solutions are relevant to water chemistry and corrosion control in the steam generator of a nuclear power plant. The data have been fitted by using the thermodynamic model of very concentrated salt solutions recently proposed by Pitzer and Simonson. The model is able to successfully represent the data in all cases, and allows salt activity coefficients to be calculated

1986-06-19

218

Comparison of nuclear and capacitance- based soil water measuring techniques in salt- affected soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A field calibration experiment was carried out on salt-affected clayey soil in Syria, to compare the sensitivity to soil electrical conductivity (ECe), and bulk density ( ?) of two instruments for estimating soil moisture: the neutron probe (NP) and the Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (CP). The results showed that the values of the correlation coefficient of the calibration were decreased when the ECe and ? values increased; this decrease was more pronounced for the Diviner 2000, indicating that it was more sensitive to ? and ECe than the NP. When only scaled frequency was used in the fitted equation, the Diviner 2000 in wet soil underestimated soil water content significantly at all depths, but especially in the top layer, by up to 0.09 cm3 cm-3 compared with gravimetric determinations. However, in dry soil, the Diviner 2000 overestimated the volumetric water content by up to 0.05 cm3 cm-3 in the top 15 cm, and by 0.03 cm3 cm-3 at 30-45 cm depth. The performance of the neutron probe was better overall, using a factory calibration curve: no significant differences were observed between NP estimates and the gravimetric values. Including both ? and ECe in the calibration equations improved the fits, although the regression coefficient (R2) for the Diviner 2000 remained low. (author)

2000-01-00

219

Geophysical methods to support correct water sampling locations for salt dilution gauging  

Science.gov (United States)

To improve water management design, particularly in irrigation areas, it is important to evaluate the baseline state of the water resources, including canal discharge. Discharge measurements, using salt dilution gauging, are a traditional and well-documented technique. The complete mixing of salt used for dilution gauging is required for reliable measurements; this condition is difficult to test or verify and, if not fulfilled, is the largest source of uncertainty in the discharge calculation. In this paper, a geophysical technique (FERT, Fast Electrical Resistivity Tomography) is proposed for imaging the distribution of the salt plume used for dilution gauging at every point along a sampling cross-section. In this way, it is possible to check whether complete mixing has occurred. If the mixing is not complete, the image created by FERT can also provide guidance for selecting water-sampling locations in the sampling cross-section. A water multi-sampling system prototype for the simultaneous sampling of canal water at different points within the cross-section, aimed to potentially take into account concentration variability, is also proposed and tested. Preliminary results of a single test with salt dilution gauging and FERT in a real case are reported. The results show that imaging the passage of the salt plume is possible by means of geophysical controls and that this can potentially help in the selection of water sampling points.

Comina, C.; Lasagna, M.; De Luca, D. A.; Sambuelli, L.

2014-05-01

220

Water Status and Protein Pattern Changes Towards Salt Stress in Cotton  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate performance of four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties, Deir-Ezzor22 (DE22, Niab78 (N78, Aleppo118 (A118 and Deltapine50 (DP50 grown under non-saline conditions (control and salt stress (200 mM NaCl for 7 weeks. During the course of the experiment, potential osmotic (?, leaf relative water content (RWC , water saturation deficit (WSD, membrane stability index (MSI, and salt tolerance index (STI were measured. Moreover, protein pattern changes were detected under salt application. Data indicated that potential osmotic (? considerably decreased under saline condition. Where, the lowest value was recorded for DP50 and A118, while the highest one was recorded for N78 and DE22. Whereas, RWC was strongly reduced for DP50 and A118, while, it was slightly increased for N78 and DE22 varieties. However, it was noticed that WSD showed an inverse trend of RWC. In contrast to DP50 and A118 varieties, both the estimated membrane stability index (MSI and salt tolerance index (STI were higher in N78 and DE22. In addition, salt application induced changes in protein pattern including decrease, increase or induction of some polypeptides bands. According to our results, N78 and DE22 varieties showed a better protection mechanism against salinity damage than the other two tested varieties

Saleh, Basel

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
221

Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with th...

Garci?a Villaluenga, Juan Pedro; Barraga?n Garci?a, Vicenta Mari?a; Seoane Rodri?guez, Benjamin; Ruiz Bauza?, Carlos

2006-01-01

222

Rise and fall of road salt contamination of water-supply springs  

Science.gov (United States)

A storage pile of de-icing agent consisting principally of sodium chloride was placed in the recharge area of two springs, and remained there for 2 years. Water flow is through fractures in rocks with low matrix permeability, along a hydraulic gradient developed along fracture zones. Salt contamination in the springs was noticed about 1 year after the salt was placed. When the salt was removed 1 year later, chloride concentrations in the springs exceeded 500 mg/L. Monitoring for the following 5 years showed salt contamination rising for the first year, but receding to normal background after 5 years. Chloride to sodium ratios of the spring waters indicated that some sodium was initially sequestered, probably by ion exchange on clay minerals, in the early part of the monitoring period, and released during the latter part; thereby extending the period of contamination.

Werner, Eberhard; Dipretoro, Richard S.

2006-12-01

223

The changes in contents of Salt Marsh Species and the importance of Edaphic Physiochemical Factors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The changes in nutrient contents of some halophytic plants which occurred in a salt marsh located in the vicinity of Bafra town, on the north coast of Turkey during the growing seasons were investigated. Contents of So4, Cl, Na, K, Ca and Mg changed during the growing season in most species. High correlation coefficients were obtained between plant ion and soil ion contents. It has been found that the most prevalent ion was Na in the plant and soil samples. It was also shown that species diversity was quite low in the study area, and species diversity was highly correlated with so4/Cl ratio, electrical conductivity and pH. (author)

2001-01-01

224

The effects of pre-salting methods on water distribution and protein denaturation of dry salted and rehydrated cod â?? A low-field NMR study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (LF-NMR) relaxation time measurements were used to evaluate the effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection of salt and/or phosphates followed by brining, solely brining, pickling and kench salting) on the protein denaturation and change in muscle properties during the production steps of dry salted cod fillets followed by rehydration. The NMR relaxation curves were affected by the salting method and represented well the structural differences between the salting methods at each processing step. Significant correlations were observed between the NMR relaxation parameters and all physicochemical quality properties measured, except the cooking yield, when samples from all processing stages were analyzed together. The longitudinal relaxation time T1, and the faster relaxing transverse relaxation time T21 were shown to be especially sensitive to protein denaturation in the fillets. The water distribution indicated that the salting and rehydration processes changedthe cells irreversibly. The study indicated that pre-brining by brine injection followed by brining, with low salt concentrations, led to the least protein denaturation during the dry salting and rehydration process.

Guðjónsdóttir, María; Arason, Sigurjón

2011-01-01

225

Salt rejection and water flux through a tubular pervaporative polymer membrane designed for irrigation applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of a hydrophilic polyester tubular pervaporative membrane in treating high-salinity water for irrigation was investigated. The membrane was filled with contaminated water and placed in air, soil or sand media. When this occurs water diffuses through the tube, trapping salts within the tube. Sorption and permeation tests and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to assess salt rejection and permeate flux through the tubular membrane when surrounded by deionized water, air, top soil or silver sand. Mean water uptake by the membrane was 0.5 L x m(-2) at room temperature and the water diffusion coefficient was 3.8 x 10(-4) cm2 x s(-1). The permeate flux across the membrane was 7.9 x 10(-3) L(m(-2) x h(-1)) in sand and 5.6 x 10(-2) in air. The rejection of sodium chloride by the tubular membrane in sand was 99.8% or above under all tested conditions. However, when the tube was filled with sodium chloride solution and placed in deionized water, salt was observed to permeate the membrane. SEM images confirmed that variable amounts of sodium chloride crystals were retained inside the membrane walls. These results support the potential application of such a tubular pervaporative membrane for irrigation applications using saline waters; however there may be reduced salt rejection under waterlogged soil conditions. PMID:24191465

Sule, May; Jiang, Jing; Templeton, Michael; Huth, Emily; Brant, Jonathan; Bond, Tom

2013-01-01

226

High water content hydrogel with super high refractive index.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transparent, high water content (>65%), and cytocompatible hydrogels, which also possess super high refractive indices (RI?>?1.5), are needed for ophthalmological applications. Most hydrogels can achieve either high RI or high water content but not both in the same system because water is a low RI material. Here, high water content/high RI hydrogels fabricated through elevated-temperature UV polymerization of an aqueous solution of acrylamide (AM) and methacrylamide (MAM) with tri(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (TEDA) crosslinker are reported. By varying the AM:MAM ratios (2:8 to 8:2) and crosslinker density (5 to 11?mol %), it is discovered that high water content (66%) AM:MAM copolymer hydrogels exhibiting anomalously high refractive indices (1.53); they are also colorless, transparent (99.4%), and cytocompatible with human keratinocytes. PMID:23881874

Zhou, Chuncai; Heath, Daniel E; Sharif, Abdul Rahim Mohamed; Rayatpisheh, Shahrzad; Oh, Bernice H L; Rong, Xu; Beuerman, Roger; Chan-Park, Mary B

2013-11-01

227

Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 â?? 10 % at both 5 °C and 22 °C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5°C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation.

Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

2011-01-01

228

Corrosion of aluminides by molten nitrate salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The corrosion of titanium-, iron-, and nickel-based aluminides by a highly aggressive, oxidizing NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} has been studied at 650{degree}C. It was shown that weight changes could be used to effectively evaluate corrosion behavior in the subject nitrate salt environments provided these data were combined with salt analyses and microstructural examinations. The studies indicated that the corrosion of relatively resistant aluminides by these nitrate salts proceeded by oxidation and a slow release from an aluminum-rich product layer into the salt at rates lower than that associated with many other types of metallic materials. The overall corrosion process and resulting rate depended on the particular aluminide being exposed. In order to minimize corrosion of nickel or iron aluminides, it was necessary to have aluminum concentrations in excess of 30 at. %. However, even at a concentration of 50 at. % Al, the corrosion resistance of TiAl was inferior to that of Ni{sub 3}Al and Fe{sub 3}Al. At higher aluminum concentrations, iron, nickel, and iron-nickel aluminides exhibited quite similar weight changes, indicative of the principal role of aluminum in controlling the corrosion process in NaNO{sub 3}(-KNO{sub 3})-Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} salts. 20 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Tortorelli, P.F.; Bishop, P.S.

1990-01-01

229

Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystallization of the stable one. Solubility values were qualitatively related to the crystal structure of the salts and the molecular structure of the cation.

Adamo Fini

2010-04-01

230

Characterization of protein hydrolysis and odor-active compounds of fish sauce inoculated with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt content.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with reduced salt content, on fish sauce quality, particularly free amino acids and odor-active compounds, was investigated. Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was inoculated with an approximate viable count of 5 log CFU/mL in samples with varied amounts of solar salt, for example, 10, 15, and 20% of total weight. Eighteen selected odorants were quantitated by stable isotope dilution assays (SIDA), and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Samples prepared using 10% salt underwent spoilage after 7 days of fermentation. The viable count of Virgibacillus sp. SK37 was found over 3 months in the samples containing 15 and 20% salt. However, acceleration of protein hydrolysis was not pronounced in inoculated samples at both 15 and 20% salt. Virgibacillus sp. SK37, together with salt contents reduced to 15-20%, appeared to increase the content of 2-methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, acetic acid, and 2-methylpropanoic acid. However, only aldehydes were found to have an effect on the overall aroma of fish sauce based on high OAVs, suggesting that the inoculation of samples with Virgibacillus sp. SK37 under reduced salt contents of 15-20% likely contributed to stronger malty or dark chocolate notes. PMID:23768048

Lapsongphon, Nawaporn; Cadwallader, Keith R; Rodtong, Sureelak; Yongsawatdigul, Jirawat

2013-07-10

231

Simultaneous determination of elemental content in water samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence and atomic absorption spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An analytical exercise between two laboratories was performed in order to compare the elemental composition of a water sample. The metal concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the water sample was analyzed by Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The analysis by Total Reflection X-Ray Spectrometry was realized by an Ital Structures TX-2000 and the analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry was made by a Perkin Elmer Spectrophotometer Model 3110. Results show a good agreement in the metal concentrations obtained by both techniques. The variation coefficient between the results with both techniques was less than 14%. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that both techniques are reliable and adequate for the determination of these elements in environmental water samples. (author)

2009-05-01

232

Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.  

Science.gov (United States)

Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:24751269

Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

2014-08-01

233

Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-?t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from ?t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction ? is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

2010-01-01

234

Determination of 2,4-D content in water surfaces by gas-liquid chromatography. [2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies on surface waters were carried out for the presence of 2,4-D. The studies were selected from regions with intensive application of the herbicide. The studies were carried out by means of gas-liquid chromatography after derivatization of 2,4-D to methyl ester by diazomethane. The presence of 2,4-D in concentrations from 0,1 to 2,6 micrograms/dm3 was confirmed in an average of 68 per cent of the samples analyzed--rivers, dams, microdams and field water sources, with no data for seasonal or local oscillations. The residual quantities of 2,4-D in the surface water, confirmed in the present study, are 1000 and 100 resp. times less as compared with the literature data and the standards of the foreign sanitary legislations.

Gitsova, S.; Rizov, N.

1982-01-01

235

Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2005-07-01

236

Feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging to predict moisture content of porcine meat during salting process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique (1000-2500 nm) for predicting moisture content (MC) during the salting process of porcine meat was assessed. Different spectral profiles including reflectance spectra (RS), absorbance spectra (AS) and Kubelka-Munk spectra (KMS) were examined to investigate the influence of spectroscopic transformations on predicting moisture content of salted pork slice. The best full-wavelength partial least squares regression (PLSR) models were acquired based on reflectance spectra (Rc(2)=0.969, RMSEC=0.921%; Rc(2)=0.941, RMSEP=1.23%). On the basis of the optimal wavelengths identified using the regression coefficient, two calibration models of PLSR and multiple linear regression (MLR) were compared. The optimal RS-MLR model was considered to be the best for determining the moisture content of salted pork, with a Rc(2) of 0.917 and RMSEP of 1.48%. Visualisation of moisture distribution in each pixel of the hyperspectral image using the prediction model display moisture evolution and migration in pork slices. PMID:24444926

Liu, Dan; Sun, Da-Wen; Qu, Jiahuan; Zeng, Xin-An; Pu, Hongbin; Ma, Ji

2014-06-01

237

PIXE measurements of drinking water of Salt Lake, Calcutta, India  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the trace elemental concentration in drinking water from Salt Lake City, a residential locality in Calcutta, India, was carried out using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Samples were collected from overhead tanks, where drinking water is stored for supply to all parts of this residential area. A chelating agent (NaDDTC) was used for the pre-concentration of the trace elements. A large number of elements, namely Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Tl and Pb were detected and the results are discussed.

Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Vijayan, V.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

2000-08-01

238

[Water content in thin films of nucleic acid nitrogen bases. Ultramicroquantitative determination by means of a quartz resonator].  

Science.gov (United States)

A method of quartz resonator is proposed for accurate micro- and ultramicroquantitative analysis of water in various biological systems. Sensitivity of this method may be about 10(-9) g. Some advantages and specific applications of quartz resonator are shown by "weighing" water rigidly bound to homogenous dry films of cytosine at great changes of their mass. It is suggested to use the quartz resonator with a specific sorbent applied to it as an efficient detector of small quantities of gases and microadmixtures of solved substances. PMID:698264

Gumeniuk, V A; Sukhorukov, B I

1978-01-01

239

Dry matter accumulation and foliar K, Ca and Na contents in salt-stressed cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L. plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A pot experiment aimed at determining the effect of five NaCl
concentrations (namely 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 mM, determining
respective EC values of 0.8, 3.0, 6.0, 9.0 and 12.2 dS m-1 on cape
gooseberry plants was set up at Humboldt University’s greenhouse
in Berlin, Germany. Dry weight (DW of roots, stems
and leaves, as well as foliar content of ions K+, Ca2+ and Na+ and
the relationship they hold with one another, were determined
over a 75-day period. DW of all plant organs was observed
to decrease with increasing salinity. The lowest values of this
variable, which were recorded from the 120 mM NaCl plants,
were found to be significantly smaller than those recorded at
60 mM and lower salt concentrations. Salt stress effects on dry
matter (DM accumulat ion were observed to increase with
plant age. Leaf K+ content increased with salinity and peaked
at 90 mM NaCl, where the value was significantly higher than
that observed at 120 mM. Foliar Ca2+ content remained unchanged
at the different salt concentrations, whilst Na+ content
increased together with salt stress. The relationship among ion
concentrations was significantly influenced only by 90 mM or
higher NaCl concentrations, which determined a progressive
increase of the Na+/Ca2+ ratio and a similar decrease of the K+/
Na+ ratio. According to the results, cape gooseberry can be
considered as moderately tolerant to salt, as shown by the 30
mM NaCl treatment, which did not affect DM accumulation in
plant organs. This tolerance is also supported by steady leaf Ca2+
contents at all levels of salinity, indicating that cape gooseberry
uses K+ as an osmoprotectant, at least up to 90 mM NaCl.

Miranda Diego

2010-08-01

240

Effects of porosity, strength and water content on attenuation of stresses generated by subsurface explosions in soils  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As part of the calculational and experimental study on the effects of subsurface explosions (ESSEX), a calculational parameter study was performed to determine the effects of various soil parameters on the ground motion resulting from high explosive (HE) and/or nuclear detonations. Rapid attenuation of stress and particle velocity levels with distance from an underground explosion can significantly affect the range where failure of the material will occur. The effect of various parameters such as available air filled porosity, strength, water content, and initial bulk modulus of the material was studied via the one-dimensional finite difference computer code, SOC. A porous material model was developed in order to vary these parameters consistently. The model agreed well with laboratory test-generated compression and strength data for the types of solids found at the Ft. Polk, LA, test site. Air filled porosity and material strength were found to have large effects on the resulting ground motion. Ten percent air filled porosity leads to an order of magnitude reduction in peak stress, compared to that generated in fully saturated soil, at a distance of 10 meters from a 10-ton high-explosive detonation. The predicted stress and particle velocity levels compare favorably with measurements obtained on HE experiments conducted at the site

1977-04-14

 
 
 
 
241

Temporal Partitioning by Animals Visiting Salt Licks  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Temporal partitioning of resources according to feeding period occurs in situation of food type specialization, such as for the use of salt licks by ecologically similar animal species. Camera traps placed at salt licks can be used to determine animal activity patterns. This study was carried in a logging concession area in central Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Sampling was carried from September 2010 to January 2011, and May to September 2011. Activity data at salt lick sites showed that sambar deer Rusa unicolor was mostly nocturnal, with high number of records occurring after dark from 20:00hrs onwards, peaking after midnight before slowly decreasing until early morning at 08:00hrs. Bornean yellow muntjac’s Muntiacus antherodes activity was restricted to during the day, which peaked at 11:00 to 12:00hrs. There was no clear pattern observable in mousedeer Tragulus spp. and bearded pig Sus barbatus activity data. Significant differences between the proportion of daily activity were observed between Bornean yellow muntjac and bearded pig (Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, W=165.5, p=0.004, followed by sambar deer (W=195.5, p=0.053 and mousedeer (W=213, p=0.074. Human presence and hunting pressure may affect the behaviour of some game species, such as the Bornean yellow muntjac which showed peak activity periods during the earlier part of the day, and over a much shorter time span in more human accessible salt lick sites.

Jason Hon

2013-02-01

242

Estimating canopy water content using hyperspectral remote sensing data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper, in particular the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative...

2010-01-01

243

Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative at the right s...

2010-01-01

244

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

DUNCAN, D.R.

1999-02-25

245

Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

1999-01-01

246

MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0-3 and Day 4-7 (p = 0.034) and decreased from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). Water content at Day 4-7 was significantly higher than in controls (p < or = 0.05). At the same time intervals, mean rCBF (SD) was 76 (23); 94 (31); 106 (35); and 64 (26)%, respectively. There was a significant increase in rCBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water as an internal standard in stroke patients.

Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S

1999-01-01

247

Aluminium-air (salt-water) battery for vehicles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report discusses the development of a 12-V, 250-W aluminium-air (salt water electrolyte) battery and its use to demonstrate the concept of range extension in electric vehicles using two types of batteries. Two 12-V 20-A multicell aluminum-air batteries were constructed and tested in a 24-V series configuration. They yielded 100 Wh/kg and 15 W/kg. The problems of heat removal, hydrogen dispersal and by-product management were resolved. The batteries were then placed in parallel-with lead-acid batteries in a 24-V gold cart. A microprocessor-based control device (appendix A) was developed for the aluminum-air battery to trickle-charge the lead-acid battery. The hybrid system more than doubled the range of the vehicle as compared to that obtained using lead-acid batteries only, for an equal mass and similar capacity rating. The cost of this new means of propulsion is briefly discussed in appendix B. 68 figs., 11 tabs.

Strong, D.S.

1987-04-01

248

Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that treat classes of measurement systems, or individual sensors/methods if they do not belong to one of the major classes, which include neutron moisture meters, capacitance sensors that work from within a plastic access tube, time domain reflectometry systems that employ waveform capture and analysis, tensiometers, and direct sampling methods. Obviously, not all sensor systems could be included in the studies that led up to this manual. Much of the work supported by the IAEA involves determination of the soil water balance to determine crop water use and water use efficiency. Thus, many of the systems studied were those that work in access tubes so that measures could be made to well below the crop root zone. However, a few other widely used systems employing probes that are inserted into the soil were also studied

2008-02-01

249

[Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil. PMID:24555360

Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

2013-11-01

250

Efficient chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation using nickel complexes and salts as precatalysts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation catalyzed by a number of Ni complexes and salts have been investigated at pH 7-9 in borate buffer. For chemical oxidation, [Ru(bpy)3](3+) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) was used as the oxidant, with turnover numbers (TONs) >65 and a maximum turnover frequency (TOFmax) >0.9 s(-1). Notably, simple Ni salts such as Ni(NO3 )2 are more active than Ni complexes that bear multidentate N-donor ligands. The Ni complexes and salts are also active catalysts for visible-light-driven water oxidation that uses [Ru(bpy)3](2+) as the photosensitizer and S2 O8 (2-) as the sacrificial oxidant; a TON>1200 was obtained at pH 8.5 by using Ni(NO3)2 as the catalyst. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed the formation of nanoparticles in chemical and visible-light-driven water oxidation by the Ni catalysts. These nanoparticles aggregated during water oxidation to form submicron particles that were isolated and shown to be partially reduced ?-NiOOH by various techniques, which include SEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, XRD, and IR spectroscopy. These results suggest that the Ni complexes and salts act as precatalysts that decompose under oxidative conditions to form an active nickel oxide catalyst. The nature of this active oxide catalyst is discussed. PMID:24155063

Chen, Gui; Chen, Lingjing; Ng, Siu-Mui; Lau, Tai-Chu

2014-01-01

251

Generating electric fields in PDMS microfluidic devices with salt water electrodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Droplet merging and sorting in microfluidic devices usually rely on electric fields generated by solid metal electrodes. We show that simpler and more reliable salt water electrodes, despite their lower conductivity, can perform the same droplet manipulations at the same voltages. PMID:24671446

Sciambi, Adam; Abate, Adam R

2014-08-01

252

Striped bass: environmental risks in fresh and salt water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

At the 112th Annual meeting of the American Fisheries Society (AFS) at Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, the society held a 1-day symposium Striped Bass: Environmental Risks in Fresh and Salt Water. This issue of the Transactions contains some of the papers from that symposium. This symposium explored several hypotheses about sources of environmental risks that could cause problems for striped bass populations: (1) habitat squeeze on adults stemming from their thermal and dissolved oxygen requirements; (2) stress from toxic materials; and (3) meteorological controls of living space and food. A nonenvironmental factor, fishing pressure, also was raised as an alternative hypothesis.

Coutant, C.C.

1985-01-01

253

Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

2013-08-01

254

Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

1989-01-01

255

Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas  

Science.gov (United States)

A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the ambient vertical stratification. The inclusion of ice water stress in the model makes the coastal current much wider due to the resulting offshore Ekman transport and also doubles the amount of salt exported.

Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

2002-09-01

256

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla.  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. PMID:16591764

Thomson, W W; Berry, W L; Liu, L L

1969-06-01

257

LOCALIZATION AND SECRETION OF SALT BY THE SALT GLANDS OF Tamarix aphylla*  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of salt secreted by the salt glands of Tamarix aphylla shows that the composition of the secreted salt is dependent on the salt composition of the root environment. Rubidium ion, if added to culture solutions in which the plants were growing, is also taken up by the plants and subsequently secreted by the glands. Electron micrographs of glands from the ribidium-secreting plants show accumulations of electron-dense material in the microvacuoles of the secretory cells. It is concluded that rubidium is accumulated in the microvacuoles and subsequently secreted by their fusion with the plasmalemma. Images

Thomson, W. W.; Berry, W. L.; Liu, L. L.

1969-01-01

258

Effects of Salinity on Seedling Biomass Production and Relative Water Content of Some Haricot Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Varieties  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effects of salinity on fourteen haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris varieties at 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 dS/m. Data analysis was carried out using jmp 5 (version 5.0 and SPSS (version 12 statistical softwares. Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW, Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW, Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW were measured; and seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC and seedling Root Relative Water Content (RRWC were calculated. The two ways ANOVA for varieties found statistically insignificant with respect to Seedling Root Fresh Weight (SRFW, seedling Shoot Relative Water Content (SRWC and seedling root relative water content (RRWC (p>0.05 but it was significant with respect to Seedling Shoot Fresh Weight (SSFW, Seedling Shoot Dry Weight (SSDW and Seedling Root Dry Weight (SRDW (p0.05 with respect to the entire parameters. Varieties such as Awash-1, Argene, Chore, Mexican 142 and Awash Melka were found to be salt tolerant during seedling biomass production and in Relative Water Content (RWC. On the other hand, varieties Red Kidney (DRK, Dimtu, Gofta, Cranscope and Sinkinesh were found to be salt sensitive during seedling biomass production and in RWC. The rest haricot bean varieties were intermediate in their salt tolerance. The study affirmed the presence of broad intraspecific genetic variation in haricot bean varieties for salt stress with respect to their early biomass production and Relative Water Content (RWC.

Kinfemichael Geressu Asfaw

2011-07-01

259

Mineralogical and Anthropogenic Controls of Stream Water Chemistry in Salted Watersheds  

Science.gov (United States)

Analyses of major cation and anion concentrations in stream water and soil solutions from two salted (regular applications of winter road deicing salt) watersheds located in the northeastern United States indicate that both mineralogical and anthropogenic factors are important in controlling water chemistry. The relatively stable concentrations of calcium and magnesium, as well as their possible weathering paths identified by mass-balance models, indicate that the weathering of feldspars and the dissolution of carbonates are the primary sources for these two cations in the small, salted Centennial Lake Watershed (CLW, 1.95 km 2). However, the relatively stable and lower concentrations of sodium and chloride in soil solutions, and their fluctuating and higher concentrations in stream water from the CLW, indicate that road deicing salt is the primary source for these ions in stream water. Furthermore, positive correlations between calcium and sulfur concentrations and magnesium and sulfur concentrations in soil solutions, as well as positive correlations between sulfur and iron concentrations in soil compositions, indicate that both the dissolution of gypsum and the oxidation of pyrite into hematite are the primary sources of sulfate in the CLW. Analyses of water chemistry from the related and much larger Delaware River Watershed (DRW, 17560 km 2) show that sodium and chloride concentrations have increased steadily due to the regular application of winter deicing salt over the 68 years for which data are available. The more rapid increase of stream water chloride concentrations, relative to the increase in sodium, also results in the steady decline of Na+/Cl-molar ratios in the DRW over that time. In addition, the reduction of sulfate and increase of bicarbonate concentration since 1980 in DRW stream water may be attributed to the decline of sulfate levels in atmospheric deposition resulting from enhanced national and state environmental regulations and a shift in local economic activity away from heavy industry. There also are more periods of low silica stream water concentrations in the DRW than in the past, perhaps as a result of recent increases in summer water temperatures due to global climate change. The combined results of this study illustrate the many changing anthropogenic factors that can control stream water chemistry in salted watersheds and that these factors need to be taken into account when considering future water quality regulations and policy.

Sun, H.; Alexander, J.; Gove, B.; Chakowski, N.; Husch, J.

2013-12-01

260

Productivity Amelioration of Solar Water Distillator Linked with Salt Gradient Pond  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a great need for fresh water in many developing countries. Water sources from, e.g., lakes; rivers and groundwater are often brackish or contain harmful bacteria and should therefore not be used for drinking or irrigation.In this work a simple solar double sloped basin type still was connected to a solar salt gradient pond. The salinity-gradient solar pond is constructed in such a manner that the convective circulation in the pond is prohibited by making the bottom water much denser than the surface water. In doing so, the solar radiation absorbed in the deep water can be stored; the hot water from the salt pond was used to heat salt water in the stiller, at daylight and night.The tests were conducted in September and October in autumn season in Baghdad city-Iraq in 2009. The results show development in stiller productivity at daylight and larger productivity increase at night. The stiller productivity increased also with cooling the glass cover from the still outside. 

Miqdam Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
261

[Endogenous hormone contents and their habitat differentia of Reaumuria trigyna and R. soongorica in different salt habitats].  

Science.gov (United States)

By means of Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), this paper analyzed the contents of endogenous hormones ABA, IAA, ZR, and GA3 in Reaumuria trigyna and its related congener R. soongorica from four different salt habitats. In the identical habitats, the contents of growth-promoting hormones IAA, ZR, and GA3 in R. trigyna were lower than those in R. soongorica, while the content of growth-suppressing hormone ABA was in contrary, which could be one of the main reasons that R. trigyna had a weaker ecological adaptability than R. soongorica. The (IAA+ZR+GA3) /ABA in wild R. trigyna varied with habitats, being saline soil > non-salinized soil > heavy solonchack, which was consistent with the density and coverage of R. trigyna population being the largest on saline soil and followed by on non-salinized soil and heavy solonchack, and suggested that R. trigyna having lived in saline habitat for a long time developed a corresponding inherent adaptation mechanism, and that the integrative regulation of endogenous hormones under salt stress played a key role for the growth and development of R. trigyna. PMID:21608246

Shi, Song-Li; Wang, Ying-Chun; Zhou, Jian-Hua; Zhou, Hong-Bing

2011-02-01

262

Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

Z. J. Wu

2011-12-01

263

WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

Carlos G. Musso

2010-01-01

264

Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S. In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

Hiroyuki Ohno

2013-09-01

265

Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 ?g/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 ?g/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 ?g/day). (author)

2008-11-01

266

[Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

2012-11-01

267

Determination of water soluble chloride, sodium and potassium content - RTD results and status of the standardisation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The elements chlorine, sodium and potassium may be present at various levels in solid biofuels. They contribute to utilisation problems as corrosion, fouling and slagging in the furnace. Also they cause increased particle emissions and/or blocking of flue gas filters. Concerning straw-like biofuels, the content of water soluble chloride and potassium in general equals the total content of the elements (the content of sodium is normally insignificantly low). Organic bound contents of the elements are in general not water soluble, but are however not normally present in virgin biomasses. Also contents of sodium and potassium bound with silica (silicates) will not be included in the results. The water soluble amount of chloride, sodium and potassium in virgin biomasses thus mainly originates from easily dissolved salts. As these salts are readily reactive, the water soluble amounts of the elements will be most aggressive in relation to the utilisation problems. The aim of the Technical Specification is to provide a quick, simple and reliable determination of possible problematic contents of chlorine, sodium and potassium in solid biofuels. (orig.)

Westborg, S. [FORCE Technology, Brondby (Denmark); Thomsen, E. [Enstedvaerket, Elsam Kraft A/S (Denmark)

2004-07-01

268

Ra-Po-Pb isotope systematics in waters of Sambhar Salt Lake, Rajasthan (India): geochemical characterization and particulate reactivity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Sambhar Salt Lake hydrological system, including river waters, groundwaters, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines, has been analyzed for the salt content (TDS) and naturally occurring radionuclides (210Po, 210Pb and 226,228Ra). The abundance of these radionuclides and their activity ratios show a wide variation in different hydrological regimes, which helps to geochemically characterize the lake system. A significantly lower Ra to total dissolved solids (TDS) ratio in the brines (by two to three orders of magnitude), when compared to the groundwaters and river waters, suggests removal of dissolved Ra by co-precipitation with Ca-Mg minerals at an early stage of the brine evolution. The concentration of Ra in evaporating lake/pan waters saturates at a value of about 35 Bq L-1 over the salinity range of 100-370 g L-1; attributable to its equilibration with the clay minerals. The two distinct regimes, saline lake system (lake water, evaporating pans and sub-surface brines) and groundwaters have been identified based on their differences in the distribution of 226,228Ra isotopes. This observation points to the conclusion that the groundwaters and the lake brines are not intimately coupled in terms of their origin and evolution. The abundances of 210Po and 210Pb along with their activity ratios (210Po/210Pb) are markedly different among the surface lake waters/evaporating pans, sub-surface lake brines and groundwaters. These differences are explained in terms of different geochemical behaviour of these nuclides in presence of algae and organic matter present in these water regimes

2009-01-01

269

Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida  

Science.gov (United States)

Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

2008-12-01

270

Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of addition of Lithium Bromide salt in isopropanol -water binary azeotropic mixture using extractive distillation is discussed. As LiBr is a high boiling point salt, it will not appear in the distillate and moreover LiBr is hygroscopic and has a characteristic to givehigher boiling point elevation with water which is main cause of its use in this application. Addition of salt (40% of watereliminates azeotrope formation and purity of 99.74% (by wt. is achieved.

Sanket R. Vora

2013-04-01

271

Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0ºC. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2º for Esso, 36.7º for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8º in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

2011-09-01

272

Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring the water content quantitatively. And the definition on bread water content index is presented for this measurement. The proposed measurement scheme is relatively inexpensive to implement, easy to set up. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness.

Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

2011-01-01

273

Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants-containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid. 6 figs.

Tsai, S.P.

1997-07-08

274

Isotopic and chemical investigation of ground water salinization in upper part of Chaj Doab  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salts in upper part of Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaporation, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. no evidence for mixing with connate marine water could be found. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as the dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

1997-01-01

275

Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

2013-12-01

276

Realisation of a test facility for the ITER ICRH antenna plug-in by means of a mock-up with salted water load  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

By the use of a mock-up operated at higher frequency it is possible to measure with good accuracy the rf characteristics of an ICRH antenna, the plasma loading being simulated by a water tank in front of it. This concept has motivated the construction of the mock-up of the antenna array foreseen for ITER

2005-11-01

277

Single-parameter estimates of aerosol water content  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Water can represent a substantial fraction of the mass of tropospheric non-cloud particulate matter, and can also serve as a medium for aqueous-phase reactions in such particles. Aerosol water contents are highly dependent upon aerosol hygroscopicity and ambient relative humidities (RH). In this work we evaluate a recently proposed parameterization of composition-dependent aerosol hygroscopicity that predicts the volume of liquid water associated with a unit volume of dry aerosol. The predictions over the range 10%85%) expected to have the most significant effects on tropospheric chemistry and radiation balance. Water contents for most of the compounds studied are generally represented within experimental uncertainties over the entire range of relative humidity examined, with the exception of marine-type particles dominated by sodium chloride and sodium sulfate

2008-01-01

278

Chapter 7. CS616 (CS615) water content reflectometer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The CS615/616 water content reflectometers are frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) that measure the frequency at which an electronic pulse is reflected back from the ends of the probe rods. Like other electromagnetic sensors, they do not measure water content. Like TDR, they are sensitive to changes in signal propagation velocity along the waveguide of the sensor. Changes in propagation velocity are, in large part, caused by the changes in the soil's dielectric constant that occur due to changing water content. The signal is a very fast rise time pulse. According to CSI, 'The return of the reflection from the ends of the rods triggers a logic state change which initiates propagation of a new wavefront.' This differs from conventional TDR in that it uses a specific voltage level of the signal reflected from the end of the waveguide to trigger the next pulse instead of analysing the entire waveform as in TDR. However, the rise time of the reflected pulse changes with soil bulk electrical conductivity (BEC), clay type and content, soil temperature and organic matter content (Evett et al., 2005; Robinson et al., 2003; Wraith and Or, 1999). The result is that the sensor oscillation frequency is dependent not only upon the average water content of the medium surrounding the rods, but it is also quite dependent on soil bulk electrical conductivity, clay type and content, and temperature. The sensor output is a stepped down frequency that is the internal oscillation frequency divided by an integer value so as to render a number small enough to be easily datalogged

2008-02-01

279

Measurement of the Water Content of Snow with Radioactive Isotopes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of the water content of snow using radioactive isotopes is based on the principle of measurement of the attenuation of the flux of gamma rays by the snow cover from a source situated beneath the snow cover. As the source it is possible to ...

A. A. Sapozhnikov M. S. Sternzat

1965-01-01

280

Water and the Many Faces of Salt at the MER Sites  

Science.gov (United States)

Detections of salt-forming elements at previous landing sites have been extended in multiple examples for soils, outcrops, and light and dark rocks at the Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater rover sites. A general theme of widespread S and Cl and now even Br occurrences is emerging for the planet. Mars Exploration Rover (MER) surface explorations and Mars Express orbital measurements are discovering exposures of very high sulfate concentrations in certain locations. Implicated cations for sulfates include Mg, Ca and Fe. Odyssey observations from orbit show planet-wide abundances of Cl, albeit with intriguing variations. These abundances and their patterns reinforce the evidence for mobilization of soluble salts under aqueous influence, but likewise place significant constraints on the volumes and nature of the interactions of various hydrologic forms of liquid water in the history of the observable martian surface. Physicochemical conditions of diverse weathering regimes may have affected the formation and most certainly the redistribution and diagenetic modification of salt deposits on Mars. Supplementing the abundant geomorphologic evidence for episodic activity by H2O, salt concentrations provide direct evidence for standing bodies of liquid H2O. Future detailed characterization of such salt deposits could establish temperature and saline concentration parameters at times of deposition or alteration, and hence clarify the climate regimes for corresponding times in martian history. Funding support for MER science and mission operations is provided by NASA/JPL.

Clark, B. C.; Athena Science

2004-11-01

 
 
 
 
281

[Exploring dream contents by neuroimaging].  

Science.gov (United States)

Dreaming is a subjective experience during sleep that is often accompanied by vivid perceptual and emotional contents. Because of its fundamentally subjective nature, the objective study of dream contents has been challenging. However, since the discovery of rapid eye movements during sleep, scientific knowledge on the relationship between dreaming and physiological measures including brain activity has accumulated. Recent advances in neuroimaging analysis methods have made it possible to uncover direct links between specific dream contents and brain activity patterns. In this review, we first give a historical overview on dream researches with a focus on the neurophysiological and behavioral signatures of dreaming. We then discuss our recent study in which visual dream contents were predicted, or decoded, from brain activity during sleep onset periods using machine learning-based pattern recognition of functional MRI data. We suggest that advanced analytical tools combined with neural and behavioral databases will reveal the relevance of spontaneous brain activity during sleep to waking experiences. PMID:24748094

Horikawa, Tomoyasu; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

2014-04-01

282

Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is also elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide, in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

L.A. Jr De Luca

2007-05-01

283

Recreational runners with patellofemoral pain exhibit elevated patella water content.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased bone water content resulting from repetitive patellofemoral joint overloading has been suggested to be a possible mechanism underlying patellofemoral pain (PFP). To date, it remains unknown whether persons with PFP exhibit elevated bone water content. The purpose of this study was to determine whether recreational runners with PFP exhibit elevated patella water content when compared to pain-free controls. Ten female recreational runners with a diagnosis of PFP (22 to 39years of age) and 10 gender, age, weight, height, and activity matched controls underwent chemical-shift-encoded water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify patella water content (i.e., water-signal fraction). Differences in bone water content of the total patella, lateral aspect of the patella, and medial aspect of the patella were compared between groups using independent t tests. Compared with the control group, the PFP group demonstrated significantly greater total patella bone water content (15.4±3.5% vs. 10.3±2.1%; P=0.001), lateral patella water content (17.2±4.2% vs. 11.5±2.5%; P=0.002), and medial patella water content (13.2±2.7% vs. 8.4±2.3%; P<0.001). The higher patella water content observed in female runners with PFP is suggestive of venous engorgement and elevated extracellular fluid. In turn, this may lead to an increase in intraosseous pressure and pain. PMID:24906520

Ho, Kai-Yu; Hu, Houchun H; Colletti, Patrick M; Powers, Christopher M

2014-09-01

284

Influence of Water Stress on Proline Accumulation, Lipid Peroxidation and Water Content of Wheat  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of water stress on Triticum aestivum L. was investigated before and during a period of stress at the seedling stage. For this purpose Turkish bread wheat cultivar Gönen 98 was used in this research. Changing of proline and lipid peroxidation content (malonyl dialdehyde, MDA at five different harvesting times (7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after sowing during early vegetative stage was determined in relation to dry matter production and relative water content of leaves. After onset of stress treatment (14 days after sowing decline of dry matter production by water stress was observed. The decreasing of relative water content and increasing of proline concentration of stressed plants harvested 28 days after sowing was markedly more than at other harvesting times. Water stress caused an increase of MDA content in leaves of plants. It reached highest level 28 days after sowing. The data showed that proline accumulation increased after lipid peroxidation content became higher and relative water content of leaves became lower. Therefore proline appeared to be mainly involved in protection against oxidative stress than osmotic adjustment during initial steps of water stress.

Ozgur Tatar

2008-01-01

285

In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

2012-01-01

286

Iodine Content of Household Salt and Urinary Iodine of Primary School Pupils in Commercial Towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was designed to determine the iodine content of household salt and urinary iodine of primary school pupils in commercial towns in Nsukka Senatorial Zone, Enugu State, Nigeria. Two commercial towns (Orba and Ibagwa-aka in Nsukka senatorial district were purposely selected. Iodine content of salt was measured at household level as well the nutritional iodine status of 200 school aged children (6-12 years was assessed by measuring their urinary iodine concentration. Validated questionnaire was used to test the Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Behaviour (KAPB of 40 household salt consumers and 15 salt retailers in the two communities. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 17 was used to analyze the data into frequencies, percentages and mean. More than half (58.3% of the household salt at Orba and 70% at Ibagwa-aka were iodized to an adequate level of > 15 ppm, while 12.5% at Orba and 3.7% at Ibagwa-aka, had no iodine (0 ppm. The proportions of the primary school children that were mildly iodine deficient at Orba and Ibagwa-aka were 43.3 and 56.2%, respectively. The factors that affect the iodine status of school children in the study areas include poor use of salt, unhygienic method of handling and storage of salt and cultural practices. There is need to increase awareness of both the retailers and consumers in Orba and Ibagwa-aka regarding the consequences of poor use, unhygienic handling and storage of salt.

Maduabuchi, Adimoranma

2013-01-01

287

Alleviation of salt stress in lemongrass by salicylic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil salinity is one of the key factors adversely affecting the growth, yield, and quality of crops. A pot study was conducted to find out whether exogenous application of salicylic acid could ameliorate the adverse effect of salinity in lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus Steud. Wats.). Two Cymbopogon varieties, Krishna and Neema, were used in the study. Three salinity levels, viz, 50, 100, and 150 mM of NaCl, were applied to 30-day-old plants. Salicylic acid (SA) was applied as foliar spray at 10(-5) M concentration. Totally, six SA-sprays were carried out at 10-day intervals, following the first spray at 30 days after sowing. The growth parameters were progressively reduced with the increase in salinity level; however, growth inhibition was significantly reduced by the foliar application of SA. With the increase in salt stress, a gradual decrease in the activities of carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase was observed in both the varieties. SA-treatment not only ameliorated the adverse effects of NaCl but also showed a significant improvement in the activities of these enzymes compared with the untreated stressed-plants. The plants supplemented with NaCl exhibited a significant increase in electrolyte leakage, proline content, and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase activity. Content and yield of essential oil was also significantly decreased in plants that received salinity levels; however, SA overcame the unfavorable effects of salinity stress to a considerable extent. Lemongrass variety Krishna was found to be more adapted to salt stress than Neema, as indicated by the overall performance of the two varieties under salt conditions. PMID:21882051

Idrees, Mohd; Naeem, M; Khan, M Nasir; Aftab, Tariq; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin

2012-07-01

288

Identifying the Economic Effects of Salt Water Intrusion after Hurricane Katrina  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hurricane Katrina made landfall August 29, 2005 becoming the costliest and one of the deadliest hurricanes in U.S. history. Katrina caused widespread loss of life, with over 700 bodies recovered in New Orleans by October 23, 2005. Before Hurricane Katrina, the region supported approximately one million non-farm jobs, with 600,000 of them in New Orleans. The ecological consequences were considerable including storm surge floods into coastal areas. These ecological impacts are still being felt throughout the region through human-driven coastal erosion and saltwater intrusion—issues that have long been damaging the region's natural storm buffers—were made worse by the hurricane. Specifically this research will: (1 provide current updates of the economic and ecological impacts from Katrina (2 review the current literature relating to salt water intrusion and (3 identify the economic impact of salt water erosion from hurricane Katrina. 

Vereda Johnson Williams

2010-02-01

289

Salt diffusion in interstitial waters and halite removal from sediments: Examples from the Red Sea and Illinois basins  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Large thicknesses of bedded halite can be removed in subsiding sedimentary basins by verticla diffusion of dissolved salt in interstitial waters over geologic time scales. Calculations show that at least 10 m to 40 m of halite may have dissolved and diffused through the Red Sea sediments overlying the salt beds, since cessation of salt deposition approximatley 5.3 million years ago. The total amount of salt diffused out of the sediment column over geologic time is five to twenty times the amount of salt that currently exists in the porewater column. If upward flow in the past occurred at even small rates, 10{sup {minus}3} m/yr, the amount of halite removed could have been ten times as great, 500 m. Unlike the Red Sea Basin, no halite beds are known in the Illinois Basin in spite of the fact that interstitial waters with as much as 200{per thousand} TDS (approximately 220 g/L) occur. Calculations show that if a halite bed had been deposited at the base of the Illinois Basin in Cambrian time, it would have been completely removed from the stratigraphic record had it initially been less than 60 m to 130 m in thickness. A significant thickness of halite deposited in sedimentary basins may thus be removed during active burial of salt beds, and before exhumation and exposure of the salt beds to shallow meteoric waters.

Ranganathan, V. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-06-01

290

Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAP±SEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.6±29.8) was significantly higher than control (113.2±3.0; P<0.05), HS (90.0±7.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.4±8.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.9±11.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

2012-01-01

291

Heavy Metal Concentration in Pore Water of Salt Marsh along the Karnafully River Coast, Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Heavy metal concentrations (Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in salt marsh pore water of Karnafully River coast were investigated in this study. Water samples of four different locations were analyzed for selected heavy metals by AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The mean values of heavy metals were recorded 4.63±2.035 ?g mL-1 for Fe, 0.32±0.080 ?g mL-1 for Cu, 0.66±0.319 ?g mL-1 for Zn, 0.03±0.008 ?g mL-1 for Cd and 0.25±0.085 ?g mL-1 for Pb in this study. It is also observed that Cd is found to positively correlate with NO2-N (r = 0.957, p<0.05 and Zn (r = 0.970, p<0.05. However, positive correlations were also found between Cu and Fe (r = 0.985, p<0.05 and Cu and Zn (r = 0.959, p<0.05 in salt marsh pore water. The mean concentration of Fe, Cd and Pb were found above the recommended value which may indicate a fresh and continuous contamination of salt marsh pore water due to anthropogenic activities.

M.A.M. Siddique

2012-01-01

292

Research on heat induced water liberation from rock salt with polyhalite in situ. Temperature test 5 at Asse salt mine  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The temperature Test 5, which was begun in April 1982 to investigate the geological boundary conditions at heating of rock salt formations, was shut down according to schedule in February 1983 at termination of the 5th heating step. The test was carried out in the rock salt with polyhalite seams Na2P at the 775 m level of the Asse salt mine. Polyhalite K_2Ca_2Mg(SO_4)_.42H_2O contains crystalline water and may also be found in small quantities in the Older Halite Na2?, which is considered to be a suitable disposal medium. In order to investigate the temperature dependent start of the liberation of crystalline water, i.e., the decomposition of polyhalite in situ, the rock salt was heated stepwise to 100"0C, 150"0C, 200"0C, 230"0C and 270"0C. The heaters were placed in a 7 m deep horizontal borehole. Apart from the initially high liberation rates in heating step 1, the highest liberation rates were registered in heating step 5 due to the original liberation of adsorptive water bound to the borehole wall. This was found to be a reference to the beginning of crystalline water liberation above 230"0C. Extensive chemical/mineralogical analyses on heated rock salt were carried out in 1984. The immediate surroundings of the heaters, showed partly decomposed polyhalite crystals. A detailed temperature analysis showed that such decomposed crystals were only found in salt samples taken from areas which had temperatures higher than 230"0C. Hereby it could be proved that the decomposition of polyhalite is negligible at 200"0C

1986-01-01

293

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

1989-01-01

294

Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 35}S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present.

Torres-Shumann, S.; Godoy, J.A.; del Pozo, O.; Pintor-Toro, J.A. (Instituto Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, Sevilla (Spain))

1989-04-01

295

Reactions of nitrate salts with ammonia in supercritical water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Reactions involving nitrate salts and ammonia were investigated in supercritical water at temperatures from 450 to 530 C and pressures near 300 bar. Reaction products included nitrite, nitrogen gas, and nitrous oxide. Observed reaction rates and product distributions provided evidence for a free-radical reaction mechanism with NO2, NO, and NH2· as the primary reactive species at supercritical conditions. In the proposed elementary mechanism, the rate-limiting reaction step was determined to be the hydrolysis of MNO3 species, which resulted in the formation of nitric acid and subsequently NO2. A simple second-order reaction model was used to represent the data. In developing an empirical kinetic model, nitrate and nitrate were lumped as an NOx- reactant. Empirical kinetic parameters were developed for four MNOx/NH3 reacting systems, assuming first orders in both NH3 and NOx-. Observed MNOx/NH3 reaction rates and mechanisms suggest immediately a practical significance of these reactions for nitrogen control strategies in supercritical water oxidation processes

1997-07-01

296

PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN [The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Ducks Egg  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc = 7,0 > Ftab = 4,5 fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab= 8,7 and ash content (Fc = 64,6 > F tab = 8,7 very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc= 6,9 F tab = 8,7 but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc = 3,5 < Ftab = 4,46. Storage duration also influenced taste of salted duck egg, but did not for its color. The interaction of treatment between palm sugar addition and storage duration just influenced fat content of salted duck egg significantly. The salted duck egg made by addition 75 grams palm sugar and stored 5 weeks (A3B3 the highest content of fat. The salted ducks eeg made by addition of 25 grams palm sugar and stored duration produced the salted ducks egg with high content of fat and ash. Organoleptic test indicated that the panelis preferred the salted taste duck egg made by addition of palm sugar 25 grams and storaged for 3 weeks having reddish yellow color.

Yenni Yusriani

2004-12-01

297

Physiological and growth responses of Jatropha curca L. to water, nitrogen and salt stresses  

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This thesis provides necessary and complementary information for an improved understanding of jatropha growth to guide further research to evaluate the response of jatropha to abiotic stressors and for designing plantations adapted to the plants? requirements. Given the fact that jatropha is claimed to grow on marginal lands, we studied effects of water supply, salt stress, nitrogen and air humidity as major abiotic stressors on gas exchange parameters and biomass production followed by ...

Rajaona, Arisoa Mampionona

2012-01-01

298

Extraction mechanism of sulfamethoxazole in water samples using aqueous two-phase systems of poly(propylene glycol) and salt  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the poly(propylene glycol)400 (PPG400)-salt aqueous two-phase system (ATPS), a green, economical and effective sample pretreatment technique coupled with high performance liquid chromatography was proposed for the separation and determination of sulfamethoxazole (SMX). The extraction yield of SMX in PPG400-salt ATPS is influenced by various factors, including the salt species, the amount of salt, pH, and the temperature. Under the optimum conditions, most of SMX was partitioning into the polymer-rich phase with the average extraction efficiency of 99.2%, which may be attributed to the hydrophobic interaction and salting-out effect. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to the analysis of SMX in real water samples with the recoveries of 96.0-100.6%, the detection limits of 0.1 ?g L-1, and the linear ranges of 2.5-250.0 ?g L-1.

2011-02-14

299

Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology i...

Liu, Zhi; Møller, Flemming

2011-01-01

300

Sugar Accumulation and its Regulation by Jasmonic Acid in Brassica napus L. under Salt Stress  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of Jasmonic acid (JA on sugar accumulation and protein content in 12-days old Brassica napus L. seedlings were studied. The seeds pre-treated with different concentrations of jasmonic acid were germinated in Petriplates supplied with various concentrations of salt stress (NaCl. The contents of total chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars, non-reducing sugars, total carbohydrates and total protein content of 12-days old seedlings were analysed. It was observed that JA reduced the toxicity of salt stress on seedling growth by influencing the chlorophyll content and protein content. Pre-treatment of jasmonic acid was found to be significantly effective in increasing the contents of sugars.

Harpreet Kaur

2013-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media

2013-04-21

302

Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

Kang, M., E-mail: kangm@ornl.gov [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bilheux, H.Z., E-mail: bilheuxhn@ornl.gov [Chemical and Engineering Materials Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Voisin, S. [Computational Sciences and Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cheng, C.L.; Perfect, E. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Horita, J. [Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Warren, J.M. [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

2013-04-21

303

Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

1992-01-01

304

Nuclear-waste repository impaired by effects of sub-surface salt dissolution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty alkaline lake basins are underlain by Permian salt in West Texas-eastern New Mexico. Early workers thought the basins were created by solution of Permian salt, causing surface collapse. It wasn't until studies by Gustavson and others (1980-85) that salt dissolution beneath several basins was confirmed. Study of alkaline lake basins 240 km south of the main area worked by Gustavson and others (1980-85) shows basins associated and not associated with salt dissolution. Basins associated with salt dissolution are often underlain by Cretaceous formations which are either horizontal or displaced. Thus, evidence indicates many of the large lake basins are antecedent to salt dissolution, that salt dissolution results from infiltration of lake water, and that a certain amount of dissolution occurs before propagation of the cavity to surface. Areas of unusually thick Cretaceous rocks around several lake basins in the central Southern High Plains and unusually thick sections of Tertiary Ogallala in the Northern High Plains indicate regional dissolution of Permian salt beds prior to Cretaceous deposition. Therefore, dissolution of Permian salt in West Texas has been of long-term, regional extent, and formation of sinks, faults and the solute discharge of streams east of the Southern High Plains indicates salt dissolution continues. It therefore follows that the geologic integrity of any high-level nuclear-waste repository site in the Permian salt beds may be seriously impaired, and that the geologic suitability of bedded salts for high-level nuclear-waste storage anywhere by seriously questions

1985-10-28

305

Certification by the Karl Fischer method of the water content in SRM 2890, Water Saturated 1-Octanol, and the analysis of associated interlaboratory bias in the measurement process.  

Science.gov (United States)

The calibration of Karl Fischer instruments and reagents and the compensation for instrumental bias are essential to the accurate measurement of trace levels of water in organic and inorganic chemicals. A stable, nonhygroscopic standard, Water Saturated Octanol, which is compatible with the Karl Fischer reagents, has been prepared. This material, Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2890, is homogeneous and is certified to contain 39.24 +/- 0.85 mg water/mL (expanded uncertainty) of solution (47.3 +/- 1.0 mg water/g solution, expanded uncertainty) at 21.5 degrees C. The solubility of water in -octanol has been shown to be nearly constant between 10 degrees C and 30 degrees C (i.e., within 1% of the value at 21.5 degrees C). The results of an interlaboratory comparison exercise illustrate the utility of SRM 2890 in assessing the accuracy and bias of Karl Fischer instruments and measurements. PMID:11227426

Margolis, S A; Levenson, M

2000-05-01

306

Tritium content in tissue free water of Japanese bodies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tritium content of tissue free water was measured in fresh, non-diseased organs (brain, lungs, liver, kidneys and muscle) removed by forensic autopsy from 4 male and 4 female bodies. Tissue free water was extracted by freeze drying and distillation and tritium measured in the absence of background radon gas. A typical count was approximately 2.70 cpm. The mean tritium content of tissue free water in all the organs examined was 2.50 + - 0.67 Bq.1"-"1 (67.6 + -18.2 pCi1"-"1). This value was much lower than that obtained for tissues from Italian bodies: the value was, however, similar to that obtained for tap water (70.2 + -28.0 pCi.1"-"1), rain water (77.8 + - 47.4 pCi.1"-"1) and tissue free water of foods (55.6 + - 26.2 pCi.1"-"1). (author)

1986-02-17

307

Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress on Rice Seedlings by Exogenous Trehalose  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Synthesis and accumulation of small organic osmolytes is a mechanism which protects plants from damaging effects of abiotic stresses including salinity. The effects of three different osmoprotectants; trehalose (Tre, proline (Pro, and sorbitol (Sor on growth and physiology of rice seedlings subjected to salt stress were compared in this study. Four-day-old seedlings of rice cvs. Pokkali (PK; salt-tolerant and Patumthani 60 (PT60; salt-sensitive were treated with 5 mM and 10 mM Tre, Pro or Sor without and with 170 mM NaCl for 10 days. NaCl inhibited growth, caused a reduction in chlorophyll and K+ and increase Na+ and Na+: K+ ratio and the adverse effects of salt were more pronounced in PT60. Under salt stress, exogenous Tre was capable of alleviating the deleterious effects of NaCl by enhancing growth, maintaining chlorophyll content and reducing Na+: K+ ratio. In contrast, Pro exacerbated the effects of NaCl by further reducing plant height, fresh and dry weights, although, it did not have any effects on chlorophyll content and ion accumulation. Exogenous Sor neither alleviated nor exacerbated the effects of NaCl. These results indicated that Tre was the most effective osmoprotectant which offered protective roles for rice seedlings subjected to salt stress and presented a practical implication for rice cultivation in salt-affected soils.

P. Theerakulpisut

2013-01-01

308

Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD and adequate (50 percent SMD levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.

F.C. Oad

2002-01-01

309

Changes in water content and distribution in Quercus ilex leaves during progressive drought assessed by in vivo 1H magnetic resonance imaging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

[Background]: Drought is a common stressor in many regions of the world and current climatic global circulation models predict further increases in warming and drought in the coming decades in several of these regions, such as the Mediterranean basin. The changes in leaf water content, distribution and dynamics in plant tissues under different soil water availabilities are not well known. In order to fill this gap, in the present report we describe our study withholding the irrigation of the ...

Sardans, Jordi; Pen?uelas, Josep; Lope-piedrafita, Silvia

2010-01-01

310

Determinacao do teor de agua em tricarbonato de amonio e uranilo (TCAU) pelo metodo de Karl Fischer. (Determination of the water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method).  

Science.gov (United States)

Two methods are compared for the determination of water content in tetra-ammonium uranyl tricarbonate by the Karl Fischer reagent method. In the first method it is Known that the carbonate reacts stoichiometrically with the iodine content of the Karl Fisc...

C. Sisti T. Grigoletto

1990-01-01

311

Radiation absorption, water content and contrast medium impregnation of gallstones  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gallstones extracted by surgery were examined for CT density, which was compared with the X-ray film, floating performance and chemical analysis of the stones. So far, the water content of the biliary concrements - 14% on the average - has not been given much attention. Drying will considerably reduce the density; examination of the dried gallstones yields a false picture of direct ray absorption. Pure cholesterol stones do not float in water, and they show positive values on Hounsfield's scale (+30 - +60). The article discusses the question whether CT is suitable for effecting a better selection of gallstone patients who can be treated by drug therapy. (orig.)

1982-01-01

312

The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, proline and nutrient accumulation, and k/na ratio in walnut  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of irrigation water salinity on growth, chlorophyll contents, proline and nutrients accumulation and K/Na ratio in three walnut cultivars was investigated. Three irrigation water salinity levels with electrical conductivities of 1,5, 3, and 5.0 dS/m and tap water as a control treatment were used in a randomized design with four replications. Irrigation practices were realized by considering the weight of each pot. Sodium, clor, proline, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of leaf were increased under salinity conditions. But growth of plant and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content were decreased under saline condition. There were significant differences between in irrigation water salinity levels in proline and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Na content. But there were not any significant differences in LRWC (%). Results showed that, regarding fresh shoot weight, dry shoot and root weight, there were significant differences between cultivars, but chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline accumulation and leaf relative water content (LRWC) there weren't any significant differences between cultivars. Kaman 1 and Bilecik walnut cultivars showed higher accumulation of proline than Kaman 5 but was not observed significant difference between them. (author)

2012-01-01

313

Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents  

Science.gov (United States)

Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

2012-06-01

314

Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

2009-01-01

315

Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance

2010-06-01

316

Selection of gamma-ray induced salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The present study had been performed to select the salt tolerant rice mutant lines through an in vivo and in vitro mutagenesis with a gamma-ray. The physiological responses such as MDA and chlorophyll of the selected salt mutant lines were investigated under salt stress. For the selection of the salt tolerant rice mutants by in vitro mutagenesis with gamma-ray, we conducted a second selection procedure with 1,500 mutant lines induced from the original cv. Dongan (wild-type, WT): Ist, selection under a nutrient solution with 171 mM NaCI: 2nd, selection under in vitro conditions. Based on a growth comparison of the entries, out of mutant lines, the putative 2 salt tolerant rice mutant lines, ST-495 and ST-532, were selected. The 2 ST-lines had a lower malonaldehyde (MDA) contents than wild-type (WT) during salt stress. The survival rate of the WT, ST-495 and ST-532 were 36.6%, 70% and 50% in 171 mM NaCI, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were decreased more in a WT plant than the two selected mutant lines. These rice mutant lines will be released for cultivation at the reclaimed land and used as a control plot for genetic research about salt tolerance.

Kim, Dong Sub; Chun, Jae Beom; Lee, Kyung Jun; Kim, Jin Baek; Kim, Sang Hoon; Yun, Song Jong; Kang, Si Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

2010-06-15

317

Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha?1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%–18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

Zhigang Huang

2013-05-01

318

Canopy water content retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Biogeochemical processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, evaporation and net primary production, are directly related to foliar water. Therefore, canopy water content is important for the understanding of the terrestrial ecosystem functioning. Spectral information related to the water absorption features at 970 nm and 1200 nm offers possibilities for deriving information on leaf and canopy water content. Hyperspectral reflectance data representing a range of canopies were simulated at the ...

2007-01-01

319

Regional increase of mean chloride concentration in water due to the application of deicing salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council 2000/60/EC: Establishing a Framework for Community Action in the Field of Water Policy, states that it is necessary to consider human activities within a river basin in order to prevent and reduce the spreading of pollutants and to achieve good water status. This paper shows a simple method to estimate the environmental pressure from the deicing of roads as steady state chloride concentration in water. The data processed are presented using GIS. The result showed that the contribution of deicing salt is of importance for the chloride concentration on a regional scale. The increase in chloride concentration is also compared to the background concentration and other sources of chloride within the river basin. Road salt applied by the Swedish National Road Administration (SNRA) accounts for more than half of the total chloride load for the river basin investigated. The method presented may easily be generalised to a national scale for monitoring the environmental effects of deicing salt application. PMID:15144775

Thunqvist, Eva-Lotta

2004-06-01

320

Salting-out of triethylphosphate by inorganic electrolytes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The salting-out of triethylphosphate (TEP) from water was measured at 25 degrees C for twelve inorganic electrolytes. If salting out is taken as an additive property of ions, then the effectiveness for salting TEP out of water is I- - - 42- 32- for anions and 1/3La3+ + approximately NH4+ + 2+ + 2+ for cations. The results were fitted to three theories. The distribution theory of Conway, Desnoyers, and Smith predicts the order of magnitude of the experimental results, but does not discriminate well between salts of the same valence type. The electrostriction theory of McDevit and Long discriminates well between ions but gives results three or five times larger than those observed. Scaled particle theory predicts the results reasonably well, but the predictions depend critically on the choice of ionic and molecular parameters. Thus, none of these theories is entirely satisfactory

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Resistance of Liposomal Sunscreen Formulations against Plain Water as well as Salt Water Exposure and Perspiration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present in vivo investigation using a total of 30 healthy adult volunteers with Fitzpatrick skin type II examines the persistent efficacy of sunscreens using liposomal suspensions as the vehicle. Based on the COLIPA guidelines, the protective effect of a single application of 4 different liposomal sunscreen formulations (sun protection factors, SPFs: 50+, 30,25 and 15) against sunburn at the recommended amount of 2 mg/cm(2) was determined after exposure of the skin to plain water and salt...

2011-01-01

322

Tamarisk Water Flux Patterns Before, During and After Episodic Defoliation by the Salt Cedar Leaf Beetle on the Colorado Plateau, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

Tamarisk (Tamarix) species are among the most successful plant invaders in the western United States, and has had significant impacts on watershed hydrology and water resources. Accordingly, local, state and federal agencies have undertaken considerable efforts to eradicate tamarisk and restore riparian habitats to pre-invasion status. A biological control - the saltcedar leaf beetle (Diorhabda elongata) - was released in the summer of 2004 at several locations in eastern Utah, USA to control the spread and impact of tamarisk within the Colorado River watershed. Beginning in April of 2008, sap flux techniques were used to monitor changes in transpiration fluxes in response to canopy defoliation by the beetle. Specifically we installed modified (10 mm length) heat dissipation probes into the main stem of 20 mature tamarisk trees within a single stand on the Colorado Plateau. In July, the saltcedar leaf beetle reduced the total leaf area to near 0% of pre-beetle invasion status. Consequently, sap flux declined by up to 80% compared to pre-beetle invasion fluxes. By mid-August, refoliation of the canopy occurred, and sap flux rates returned to pre- defoliation status. Sap flux rates prior to defoliation were modeled against atmospheric vapor pressure deficit in order to predict the amount of water salvage from defoliation. Sap flux from June 1 through September 1 was on average 36% lower than predicted values. Combined with scaling techniques, the heat dissipation approach shows a high potential for monitoring changes in watershed hydrology in response to tamarisk defoliation by the saltcedar leaf beetle. Nevertheless, tamarisk sap flux studies with heat dissipation probes presents several challenges, including, narrow sapwood depth, low flux rates in response to defoliation, and large thermal gradients that are inevitable in warm climates (particularly after defoliation removes canopy shading). We will present results from ongoing research to address these potential pitfalls.

Hultine, K. R.; Nagler, P. L.; Dennison, P. E.

2008-12-01

323

Effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents an experiment on the effects of water content on the actuation performance of ionic polymer-metal composites (IPMCs). Specifically, Nafion 117 sandwiched by platinum electrodes was actuated by AC voltage for 2 h. Because the water molecules in Nafion 117 evaporated into the air, the change of the actuation performance of IMPCs with decreasing water content was investigated. The actuation mechanism of IPMCs under different initial water contents with different applied voltages was also discussed. The largest deformation of IPMCs was obtained under a water content of ~ 70%. The displacement amplitude of IPMCs required 100-900 s to reach the maximum value under different applied voltages and initial water contents. A linear relation between the peak value of the current and the water content at 3 Vpp driving voltage has also been observed.

Yeh, Cheng-Chia; Shih, Wen-Pin

2010-12-01

324

Effect of hydrotropic salts on phase relationships involving hydrocarbons, water, and alcohols  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hydrotropic salts, which can increase the solubility of organic materials in aqueous solutions, are useful to tertiary oil recovery. We have examined effects on solubility of hydrocarbons in water (with and without alcohols) through addition of inorganic hydrotropic salts, such as perchlorates, thiocyanates, and iodides - high in the usual Hofmeister series - and of organic salts such as short chain alkyl benzene sulfonates and other salts based on substituted benzene derivatives. Although the inorganic salts are relatively ineffective in increasing solubility of hydrocarbons in water, many of the organic salts are excellent hydrotropic agents for hydrocarbons. We have examined the phase relationships for several series of aromatic salts such as sulfonates, carboxylates and hydroxycarboxylates, as a function of alkyl-carbon substitution in three-component (hydrocarbon, salt, water) and in four-component (hydrocarbon, salt, alcohol, water) systems. We have also examined miscibility relationships for a given hydrotropic salt as the chain length of alkanes and alkyl benzenes is systematically varied. While miscibilities decrease with increase in chain length of the hydrocarbon, the hydrotropic properties in these systems increase rapidly with the number of alkyl carbons on the benzene ring of the salts and they are relatively insensitive to the type of charged group (sulfonate vs carboxylate) attached to the benzene ring. However, there were significant increases in hydrotropy as one goes from equally substituted sulfonates or carboxylates to salicylates. A number of salts have been identified which have much greater hydrotropic properties for hydrocarbons than such well-known hydrotropic materials as toluene and xylene sulfonates.

Ho, P. C.; Kraus, K. A.

1980-01-01

325

Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

Mythri H

2010-01-01

326

Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction on account of the stable reactive intermediates in the reduction of SO2. In the presence of NaNO3 or Na2S, the amount of sulfur incorporated was in the molar ratio Na:S = 3 ± 0.3, and the XPS spectra of the residual carbon showed an increase of ca. 9% of the non-oxidized form of sulfur in the intermediates. In the absence of salt, it is proposed that after the adsorption of SO2 on the carbon, a 1,3,2-dioxathiolane or 1,2-oxathietene 2-oxide are formed and that decompose to produce CO2 and atomic sulfur. The non-oxidized sulfur intermediate would be an episulfide 3, formed from the reaction of the atomic sulfur with the nearest double bond and followed by consecutive reactions of insertion of atomic sulfur to form a trisulfide. Extrusion of S2 from the trisulfide would regenerate the episulfide, establishing a sulfidedisulfide-trisulfide equilibrium that worked as a capture-release cycle of sulfur. In the presence of salt, the results are consistent with the assumption that the episulfide 3 reacts with the corresponding sulfide anion to form a disulfide anion, which upon reaction with atomic sulfur forms a trisulfide anion that decomposes releasing diatomic sulfur S2, transporting the sulfur and generating a thiolate that is part of the catalytic cycle.

Wido Schreiner

2005-01-01

327

The effect of water content and cement content on the strength of portland cement-stabilized compacted fly ash  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Class F fly ash, when combined with portland cement and hydrated, forms a high-strength material whose strength increases with increasing cement content and compaction effort, and is highest near optimum water content of around 20-30%. However, fly ash in stockpiles can be at a water content of around 50%, so completely drying to optimum water content may not be practical. If the material is left at its stockpile water content, the cement content required to achieve a given strength is about 2.5-3 times higher than the cement content required if compacting at optimum water content. However, strength can be predicted as a function of water content for water contents between the stockpile water content and the optimum water content. 14 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Michael E. Kalinski; Brian T. Hippley [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (US). Department of Civil Engineering

2005-10-01

328

Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of decay and associated weathering types under different environmental conditions can be obtained.Las sales de sulfato magnésico a menudo se producen a partir de la combinación de materiales de construcción incompatibles, tales como piedra o mortero con un alto contenido en magnesio y sulfatos procedentes de morteros adyacentes o del aire contaminado. Cuando estos materiales se combinan con una fuente de humedad, reaccionan para formar sales solubles que con frecuencia dan lugar a un importante deterioro por laminaciones de la piedra, ya que el sulfato magnésico responde a las fluctuaciones de las condiciones ambientales. Varios experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo para reproducir laminaciones superficiales en diferentes tipos de calizas procedentes de España y Reino Unido, para evaluar los efectos de ciclos de humedad en el deterioro de la piedra por cristalización de sales. Una única sal de sulfato magnésico y una mezcla de sulfato magnésico, sulfato cálcico y cloruro sódico, típica mezcla de sales encontrada en la piedra deteriorada de Howden Minster (UK, fueron las dos soluciones salinas utilizadas para realizar los experimentos. Se utilizó una cámara climática con control preciso de programación de temperatura y humedad para probar la hipótesis de que el deterioro por sales en la piedra puede ser fácilmente causada por fluctuaciones de humedad. El deterioro se monitorizó utilizando un Transformador Diferencial de Variable Lineal (TDVL, que mide el desplazamiento de transductores por cambios dimensionales en el orden de micras. Además, también se realizaron análisis de Cromatografía de Iones, Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido Ambiental con energía dispersiva de rayos-X (MEBA-EDX y Difracción de rayos-X (DRX para analizar el comportamiento de las sales. El deterioro por laminaciones se produjo en dos tipos de calizas magnésicas impregnadas con la mezcla salina, procedentes de las canteras de Cadeby y de York Min

Pinchin, S.

2008-06-01

329

Properties of glasses with high water content. Progress report, 1 March 1980-31 January 1981  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Glasses with high water content were prepared by a hydrothermal process and various properties were measured. The following unique features have been revealed: (1) electrical conductivity decreases substantially at first with the addition of water and then increases with the further addition of water. The phenomenon is somewhat similar to the mixed alkali effect; (2) the glass with higher water content is radiation coloration resistant; (3) with the addition of water, glasses became tougher at room temperature, suggesting the occurrence of plastic deformation

1980-03-01

330

4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm"3. Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

1975-01-01

331

Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

1982-01-01

332

Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure.

Boer, J.; Schothorst, A.A.; Boom, B.; Suurmond, D.; Hermans, J.

1982-07-01

333

Relation between water content and resistivity in rock samples; Ganseki no gansui jotai to hiteiko no kankei ni tsuite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A changing mechanism of resistivity was examined by varying water content in rock samples including low water content samples. The rock samples used as test specimens included sedimentary rocks, igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks. Each sample was reformed and put into a desiccator to be soaked into the water under reduced pressure condition for 24 hours so that the water could permeate the sample. Potassium chloride was added to purified water to control its resistivity to 100 ohm m. The resistivity measuring equipment was composed of an acrylic vessel, a salt bridge of agar containing dissolved potassium chloride, a current transmitter, and a potential receiver. Such experiments were performed that fully saturated (100%) samples were put in a thermostat and humidistat chamber and the relationship between changed weight and resistivity of each sample was measured. The dry density, porosity, resistivity and saturation index were examined and studied. It was clarified that the resistivity was in inverse proportion to the power of the degree of water saturation as shown in the Archie`s expression while the saturation index showed different values depending on rocks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Iseki, S. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-10-01

334

Ion contents, relative electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm seedlings in response to salt stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Sodium ions, proline content and the percentage of relative electrolyte leakage in seedlings subjected to salt stress increased, depending on the degree of salt concentrations. Sodium ion accumulation in oil palm seedlings grown under 200 mM NaCl was enriched and positively related to membrane injury or relative electrolyte leakage subsequently correlated with total chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (OEPSII) and quantum efficiency of PSII (qP) in the seedlings under salt stress dropped significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth, especially in 200 mM NaCl. A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including sodium ion, relative electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II, Pn and plant dry weight was found. These data may further be applied to establish criteria for salt tolerance screening in oil palm breeding programs. (author)

2010-06-01

335

Effect of water content on the water repellency for hydrophobized sands  

Science.gov (United States)

Alternative earthen covers such as capillary barriers (CBs) and evapotranspirative covers are recognized as useful technical and low-cost solutions for limiting water infiltration and controlling seepage flow at solid waste landfills in semi-arid and arid regions. However, their application to the landfills at wet regions seems to be matter of concern due to loss of their impending capability under high precipitation. One of the possible techniques to enhance the impermeable properties of CBs is to alter soil grain surfaces to be water-repellent by mixing/coating hydrophobic agents (HAs). In order to examine a potential use of model sands hydrophobized with locally available and environmental-friendly HAs such as oleic acid (OA) and stearic acid (SA) for hydrophobic CBs. In the present study, we first characterized the effect of water content on the degree of water repellency (WR) for hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soil at different depth. Secondly, the time dependency of the contact angle in hydrophobized sands and volcanic ash soils at different water content was evaluated. Further, the effects of hydrophobic organic matter contents on the WR of hydrophobized sands were investigated by horizontal infiltration test. We investigated the degree of WR as functions of volumetric water content (?) of a volcanic ash soil samples from different depth and water adjusted hydrophobized sand samples with different ratio of HAs by using sessile drop method (SDM). The initial contact angle (?i) measured from SDM decreased gradually with increasing water content in OA and SA coated samples. Measured ?i values for volcanic ash soils increased with increasing water content and reached a peak values of 111.7o at ?= 0.325 cm3 cm-3, where-after ?i gradually decreased. Each test sample exhibited sharp decrease in contact angle with time at higher water content. Sorptivity values for oleic acid coated samples decreased with increasing HA content and reached the minimum value of 0.068 cm s-1/2 at 1 g HA kg-1 sand, and then gradually increased.

Subedi, S.; Kawamoto, K.; Kuroda, T.; Moldrup, P.; Komatsu, T.

2011-12-01

336

A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Iran’s Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of bread’s salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of bread’s salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of bread’s salt is yet more than the standard level.

MJ Zibaeenezhad

2010-03-01

337

Limitation of sodium content in make-up water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

When demineralizers with additional mixed beds were put into service to prepare the demineralized water, the sodium content of the make-up water for the steam-water system decreased on the average from 4 to less than 0.5 ppb for the 22 PWR 900 MW plant units tested. During tests performed by EDF/GDL at Tricastin facility, the estimated amounts of sodium retained on the mixed beds during 1991 were 880 grams for the line A demineralizer and 1,360 grams for the line C demineralizer. The sodium hydroxide retention efficiency is approximately 95% for each demineralizer. The ARM 9882 resin (manufactured by Rohm and Haas) used for most of the sodium retention mixed beds is well suited for this function. The sodium hydroxide elimination performance noted for these demineralizers confirms that this equipment is well suited for reducing the sodium hydroxide content of demineralized make-up water at EDF's PWR plants, which minimizes the risk of intergranular corrosion on the secondary side of steam generator tubes made of Alloy 600. (authors). 2 tabs., 2 refs

1994-01-01

338

Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content â?? water potential relation of building materials  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content â?? water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content â?? water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht

2008-01-01

339

Enhanced salt tolerance in maize plants induced by H2O2 leaf spraying is associated with improved gas exchange rather than with non-enzymatic antioxidant system  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates plant responses against several biotic and abiotic stresses. H2O2 pretreatment has emerged as a signaling way, inducing salt stress acclimation in plants. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 leaf pretreatment on the non-enzy [...] matic defense system (ascorbate and glutathione), plant growth, relative water content (RWC), relative chlorophyll content, H2O2 content, and gas exchange in maize plants under NaCl stress. The results showed that salinity reduced the leaf area and shoot and root dry mass as compared to control, and the leaf spraying with H2O2 significantly improved the growth of salt stressed plants. Photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were strongly decreased by salinity after 7 and 14 days of salt exposure; however, the decrease was lower in plants sprayed with H2O2. The improved gas exchange in H2O2-sprayed stressed plants correlated positively with higher RWC and relative chlorophyll content and lower leaf H2O2 accumulation under NaCl stress conditions. Ascorbate and glutathione did not play any obvious effects as non-enzymatic antioxidants in the ROS scavenging. In conclusion, the salt tolerance induced by H2O2 leaf pretreatment is attributed to a reduction in the H2O2 content and maintenance of RWC and chlorophyll in maize leaves. These characteristics allow maize plants to maintain high rates of photosynthesis under salt stress and improve the growth.

Gondim, Franklin Aragão; Miranda, Rafael de Souza; Gomes-Filho, Enéas; Prisco, José Tarquinio.

340

The geological-technical and technological factors of saturation of strata waters by sulfates in the development of deposits  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is shown that the saturation of strata waters by sulfates in the development of the deposits of Bashkiria is caused by the following reasons: the salting out of the sulfate inclusions of the productive strata and the stratum waters become fresh; overcurrents of the upper sulfate waters through the disruptions in the exploitation column and the cement rock beyond the column; the pumping into the productive levels of fresh and industrial waste waters with increased sulfate content.

Khalimov, E.M.; Yulbarisov, E.M.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Assessment of subsurface salt water disposal experience on the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast for applications to disposal of salt water from geopressured geothermal wells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A representative cross section of the literature on the disposal of geothermal brine was perused and some of the general information and concepts is summarized. The following sections are included: disposal statistics--Texas Railroad Commission; disposal statistics--Louisiana Office of Conservation; policies for administering salt water disposal operations; salt water disposal experience of Gulf Coast operators; and Federal Strategic Petroleum Reserve Program's brine disposal operations. The literature cited is listed in the appended list of references. Additional literature is listed in the bibliography. (MHR)

Knutson, C.K.; Boardman, C.R.

1978-08-04

342

Changes in contents of somatostatin in hypophysis and arginine vasopressin in hypothalamus of postnatal developing brain induced by low level prenatal ?-irradiation of tritiated water in mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in contents of the two kinds of neuropeptides have been measured in the brains of postnatal G57BL/6J strain mice that received accumulative doses of 0, 0.05, 0.10 or 0.30 Gy respectively in utero from tritium ?-irradiation during the mother mice's pregnancy from the 12.5th day of gestation to the day of delivery. Dose response relationship for alteration in somatostatin content due to exposure to 0.10 Gy or above was observed, and it was also noted that 0.30 Gy could cause decrease in arginine vasopressin in hypothalamus. These results were consistent with findings in research on brain development and reflex behavior in the literature. 0.10 Gy exposure may represent a threshold for exposure to tritiated water within the range from day 12.5 of gestation to the day of delivery using change in content of somatostatin in hypophysis as a parameter

1993-10-01

343

A three dimensional two-phase debris flow model: Reduction to one free model parameter by linking rheology to grain size distribution and water content  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to model debris flow material either as a granular or as a viscous matter can not account for the wide range of debris flow processes, leading to the development of two-phase models with one phase accounting for the fluid and the other for the grains. Within this group of models, depth-averaged approaches are wide-spread, but since the rheology of true material is sensitive to pressure and shear gradient, three dimensional simulations are necessary to predict flows in complex geometries. Phase interaction can be modelled by solving the Navier-Stokes equation system for each phase and linking the phases with drag force models. However, this is a numerically expensive way that introduces a number of free parameters because too little is known about drag of non-spherical grains in non-Newtonian fluids. The approach proposed here solves one phase-averaged Navier-stokes equation system by applying the Volume of Fluid method, while still allowing to account for the sensitivity of the local rheology to pressure and shear in dependency to phase concentrations. One phase with a Herschel-Bulkley rheology represents the interstitial fluid and can mix with a second phase with the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology of Pudasaini (Birte et al. 2013) that represents the gravel. A third phase is kept separate and represents the air. This setup allows modelling key properties of debris flow processes like run out or impact in high detail. By linking the Herschel Bulkley parameters to water content, clay mineral proportion and grain size distribution (Kaitna et al. 2007, Yu et al. 2013), and the parameters of the Coulomb-viscoplastic rheology to the angle of repose of the gravel, a reduction to one free model parameter was achieved. The resulting model is tested with laboratory experiments for its capability to reproduce the sensitivity of debris flow material to water content and channel curvature. Existing large scale flume experiments are used to corroborate the model and demonstrate its sensitivity to smooth or rough channel bed conditions, and a simulation of a large scale debris flow breaker is presented to show its applicability for practical problems.

von Boetticher, Albrecht; McArdell, Brian; Rickenmann, Dieter; Hübl, Johannes; Scheidl, Christian

2014-05-01

344

Does Water Content or Flow Rate Control Colloid Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mobile colloids can play an important role in contaminant transport in soils: many contaminants exist in colloidal form, and colloids can facilitate transport of otherwise immobile contaminants. In unsaturated soils, colloid transport is, among other factors, affected by water content and flow rate. Our objective was to determine whether water content or flow rate is more important for colloid transport. We passed negatively charged polystyrene colloids (220 nm diameter) through unsaturated sand-filled columns under steady-state flow at different water contents (effective water saturations Se ranging from 0.1 to 1.0, with Se = (? – ?r)/(?s – ?r)) and flow rates (pore water velocities v of 5 and 10 cm/min). Water content was the dominant factor in our experiments. Colloid transport decreased with decreasing water content, and below a critical water content (Se < 0.1), colloid transport was inhibited, and colloids were strained in water films. Pendular ring and water film thickness calculations indicated that colloids can move only when pendular rings are interconnected. The flow rate affected retention of colloids in the secondary energy minimum, with less colloids being trapped when the flow rate increased. These results confirm the importance of both water content and flow rate for colloid transport in unsaturated porous media and highlight the dominant role of water content.

Thorsten Knappenberger; Markus Flury; Earl D. Mattson; James B. Harsh

2014-03-01

345

Understanding of sodium content labeled on food packages by Japanese people.  

Science.gov (United States)

Salt reduction is one of the most important lifestyle modifications for the prevention of hypertension. The health promotion law regulates the labeling of the nutrient content of food in Japan and, the level of sodium, not salt (sodium chloride), has to be printed on the labels of manufactured foods. In order to control their salt intake, consumers need to apply a conversion factor to the sodium levels listed on the labels to obtain the salt equivalent. However, it is not known whether people have the knowledge appropriate for making the conversion. We carried out a questionnaire survey at the 7th National Shokuiku (food education) Conference in 2012, asking subjects to determine the salt equivalent of 1000?mg of sodium on food labels. We also asked about the target values of salt reduction in grams in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010 (DRI2010) and the Guidelines for Management of Hypertension 2009 by the Japanese Society of Hypertension (JSH2009). We analyzed the data from 683 respondents (169 men and 514 women); only 13.3% of respondents gave a correct answer for the salt equivalent of 1000?mg of sodium (2.50-2.60?g), whereas 61.8 and 40.4% of respondents chose the correct target values for salt reduction according to DRI2010 and JSH2009, respectively. In conclusion, few people could convert sodium content to salt, which suggested difficulty in using food labels to control their salt intake. Salt content in grams, not sodium content, should be labeled on food packages for effective salt reduction and prevention of hypertension. PMID:24173359

Okuda, Nagako; Nishi, Nobuo; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Yoshimura, Eiichi; Horie, Saki; Nakanishi, Tomoko; Sato, Yoko; Takimoto, Hidemi

2014-05-01

346

Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

2014-06-01

347

IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

Fercha Azzedine

2011-03-01

348

Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples were collected from a grass-covered dune sand (typic Psammaquent), at six depths, eight times in tr...

2001-01-01

349

Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Koch ia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m-1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m-1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

2011-01-01

350

Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

1983-09-01

351

Determining tritium contents in Elbe water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tritium measurements of different local and temporal Elbe river water samples had been executed. The comparison of untreated, filtered and distilled samples confirmed the nead of distillation step. The average tritium activity was found to be 300 and 570 pCi/l, respectively. Some periodical peaks, however, reached values of about 4000 pCi/l. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MB

1979-01-01

352

Regulation No. 100/2006 Coll. of the Ministry of Health of the Slovak Republic dated as of February 6, 2006 laying down the requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water, Balneology details of the report, distribution, extent of monitoring and content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products and requirements for entry to the list of accredited laboratories maintained by the State Commission bathroom  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This Regulation provides: (a) requirements for natural healing water and natural mineral water; (b) requirements for the recognition of natural mineral water; (c) details of balneology report; (d) distribution of natural healing waters and natural mineral water; (e) the extent of tracking of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (f) content analysis of natural healing waters and natural mineral waters and their products; (g) registration requirements for accredited laboratories in the list maintained by the State Commission bathroom. This Regulation came into force on March 1, 2006.

2006-02-06

353

Potential water-quality effects from iron cyanide anticaking agents in road salt  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Water-soluble iron cyanide compounds are widely used as anticaking agents in road salt, which creates potential contamination of surface and groundwater with these compounds when the salt dissolves and is washed off roads in runoff. This paper presents a summary of available information on iron cyanide use in road salt and its potential effects on water quality. Also, estimates of total cyanide concentrations in snow-melt runoff from roadways are presented as simple mass-balance calculations. Although available information does not indicate a widespread problem, it also is clear that the water-quality effects of cyanide in road salt have not been examined much. Considering the large, and increasing, volume of road salt used for deicing, studies are needed to determine levels of total and free cyanide in surface and groundwater adjacent to salt storage facilities and along roads with open drainage ditches. Results could be combined with current knowledge of the fate and transport of cyanide to assess water-quality effects of iron cyanide anticaking agents used in road salt.

Paschka, M.G.; Ghosh, R.S.; Dzombak, D.A.

1999-10-01

354

Gross alpha determination in salt rich water samples using an extraction chromatographic resin and LSC  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The application of an extraction chromatographic resin to the determination of the gross alpha activity of drinking water samples with volumes greater than 100 ml and of salt rich aqueous samples, like mineral, waste or sea waters was tested. Alpha-emitters are extracted from the water sample onto the resin, the gross alpha activity is then determined by direct measurement of the dried resin using ?/? discrimination LSC. The resin shows strong affinity for actinides, as well as for radium, out of pH 2 solutions. The extraction is robust against Ca, sulphate and other potential interferents. The method was tested by analyzing reference materials, intercomparison samples and spiked real samples. Results of good precision and accuracy were obtained in counting times notably shorter than routinely used for gas proportional counting. (author)

2008-07-01

355

Ice Particle Impact on Cloud Water Content Instrumentation  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the total amount of water contained in an icing cloud necessitates the measurement of both the liquid droplets and ice particles. One commonly accepted method for measuring cloud water content utilizes a hot wire sensing element, which is maintained at a constant temperature. In this approach, the cloud water content is equated with the power required to keep the sense element at a constant temperature. This method inherently assumes that impinging cloud particles remain on the sensing element surface long enough to be evaporated. In the case of ice particles, this assumption requires that the particles do not bounce off the surface after impact. Recent tests aimed at characterizing ice particle impact on a thermally heated wing section, have raised questions about the validity of this assumption. Ice particles were observed to bounce off the heated wing section a very high percentage of the time. This result could have implications for Total Water Content sensors which are designed to capture ice particles, and thus do not account for bouncing or breakup of ice particles. Based on these results, a test was conducted to investigate ice particle impact on the sensing elements of the following hot-wire cloud water content probes: (1) Nevzorov Total Water Content (TWC)/Liquid Water Content (LWC) probe, (2) Science Engineering Associates TWC probe, and (3) Particle Measuring Systems King probe. Close-up video imaging was used to study ice particle impact on the sensing element of each probe. The measured water content from each probe was also determined for each cloud condition. This paper will present results from this investigation and attempt to evaluate the significance of ice particle impact on hot-wire cloud water content measurements.

Emery, Edward F.; Miller, Dean R.; Plaskon, Stephen R.; Strapp, Walter; Lillie, Lyle

2004-01-01

356

Monoacylation of 2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid by protease in N,N-dimethylformamide with low water content.  

Science.gov (United States)

2-O-alpha-D-Glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid (AA-2G) laurate was synthesized from AA-2G and vinyl laurate with a protease from Bacillus subtilis in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with low water content. Addition of water to DMF dramatically enhanced monoacyl AA-2G synthesis. Maximum synthetic activity was observed when 3% (v/v) water was added to the reaction medium. Under the optimal reaction conditions, 5-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid, 2-O-(6'-O-dodecanoyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl)-L-ascorbic acid, and 6-O-dodecanoyl-2-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-L-ascorbic acid were synthesized in yields of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 20.4%, respectively. PMID:20566192

Tai, Akihiro; Mori, Tasuku; Kimura, Yuka; Ito, Hideyuki

2010-08-16

357

Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made available to participating farmers. Yields obtained by farmers with these varieties at both Noakhali and Satkhira ranged from 1 to 3 tons per hectare. Such a harvested yield, compared with nothing if land were left fallow, would provide a substantial increase in food crop production and a significant economic benefit to resource-poor farmers. The soil moisture neutron probe (SMNP) was used to measure the soil content in order to ensure optimal irrigation scheduling. The soil salinity observed after the harvest of the crops in March/April averaged 1.5 ppt with drip irrigation, compared to 6.9 ppt on fallow land, hence showing that there is no adverse effect on soil salinity associated with the sustainable and productive use of these fallow lands for additional food production and income generation.

2011-07-01

358

Measurement of the B-10 content in borated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method, based on the high thermal neutron absorption cross section of boron, was developed to measure the boron-10 content of borated water. The procedure consists in the obtention of a calibration curve which relates neutron absorption in a set of borated solutions with the boron-10 content in these media. This value coupled with the total boron content in the solutions will give the isotopic content of the boron. Solutions with 300 to 3000 ppm were used. The deviation obtained between the real boron concentration of a sample used as test, and the experimental value using the calibration curve was -3%. This method is simple and fast, and it can be applied to the measurement of B-10 content in the borated water of Pressurized Water Reactors, in order to measure the B-10 burn-up during reactor life time. (author)

1993-10-01

359

Deuterium content on surface waters VI to X Chile regions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

One important parameter on any sitting study for a heavy water plant installation is the deuterium content of the feed water. Deuterium data on surface waters from differents areas located in the south of Chile, are presented. These results allow to idently some potential areas for a future heavy water plant. One of these areas, Lago Llanquihue, was sampled more in detail to study the vertical distribution and spatial variations. (Author)

1984-01-01

360

Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Salts Production from Dead Sea by using Different Technological Methods: Prospective Outlook  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study presents alternative methods for the utilizing of Dead Sea resources. These include crystallization through cooling by passing the Dead Sea water across cooled surfaces, or by direct contact between a cooling agent and the water solution. The cooling process of the Dead Sea water leads to the saturation state, after which precipitation of the main salts occurs. However, more work is required to study the effect of freezing on the crystallization process and to obtain the equilibriu...

Al-harahsheh, Adnan M.; Al-itawi, Hossam I.

2005-01-01

362

Chemical quality of ground water in Salt Lake Valley, Utah, 1969-85  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

During 1979-84, 35 wells completed in the principal aquifer in the Salt Lake Valley, Utah, that had been sampled during 1962-67 were resampled to determine if water quality changes had occurred. The dissolved solids concentrations of the water from 13 of the wells has increased by more than 10% since 1962-67. Much of the ground water between the mouth of Bingham Canyon and the Jordan River about 10 mi to the east has been contaminated by seepage from reservoirs and evaporation ponds associated with mining activities. Groundwater underlying part of the community of South Salt Lake near the Jordan River has been contaminated by leachate from uranium-mill tailings. The major effect of the leachate from the tailings of the Vitro Chemical Co. on the shallow unconfined aquifer downgradient from the tailings was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, iron, and uranium. The concentration of dissolved solids in uncontaminated water was 1,650 mg/L, whereas downgradient from the tailings area, the concentrations range from 2,320-21,000 mg/L. The maximum volume of contaminated water was estimated to be 7,800 acre-ft. The major effect of the leachate from the vitro tailings on the confined aquifer was the contribution of measurable quantities of dissolved solids, chloride, sulfate, and iron. The concentration of dissolved solids upgradient from the tailings was 330 mg/L, and beneath and downgradient from the tailings the concentrations were 864 and 1,240 mg/L. The minimum volume of contaminated water in the confined aquifer was estimated to be about 12,000 acre-ft. 13 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

1986-01-01

363

Soil water content and green water estimations in a small farmed semiarid catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of this work is to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of soil water content and green water production over a farmed water harvesting catchment, located in north-eastern Tunisia. The area has a typical Mediterranean climate with a hot dry summer and a cool season, extending from October to April, where rainfall normally meets the water requirements of the usually grown cereals and legumes (500mm). The catchment has an area of 2.6 km2 and comprises at its outlet a dam, which retains the runoff water in a reservoir. Soil water balance measurements were carried out, about weekly, over two successive cropping cycles (2000-2002) on a network of eleven plots of 2 m2 each, representing the main land use and soil types. Soil water store investigations targeted the different individual plots as well as the entire catchment. We used a simple water balance model, where the root zone is considered as a single reservoir, to simulate soil water content variations. Results show a fairly good agreement between the calculated and measured water store for all experimental sites. The model reproduces accurately the soil water content during the beginning of the rainy season but underestimates it during the season when heavy rains occur. On heavy soils, simulated soil moisture was lower than measured values, giving differences as high as 25% between simulated water store amounts and the neutron probe measurement values. For the cereals/legume/pasture based cropping systems, most of rainfall water is stored in the soil and returns to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration. The 0-0.3 m soil layer is most active for water uptake by crops and intermittent replenishment by rainfall during the growing period; whereas drying involves the entire soil profile over the summer season (May-Seeptmber). The available water holding capacity of the soil turned out to be about seven times the storage capacity of the reservoir, showing the order of magnitude of rainfall partitioning between green water and blue water for cropped catchments, under semiarid arid climates.

Mekki, I.; Voltz, M.; Ben Mechlia, N.; Albergel, J.

2012-04-01

364

Measurement of Soil Water Content Using Ground Penetrating Radar.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an effective tool to measure the geological properties. A lot of information can be interpreted from the GPR data, such as soil water content. One of the common approaches is to determine the apparent electrical permittivity from the transmission velocity of the impulse electromagnetic wave, and to use empirical relationships to estimate the soil water content. For example, Ferre equation & Topp equation are all expressing the relationship between soil wa...

Zhang, Di

2012-01-01

365

Monitoring of Water Content in Building Materials Using a Wireless Passive Sensor  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper describes an innovative design of a wireless, passive LC sensor and its application for monitoring of water content in building materials. The sensor was embedded in test material samples so that the internal water content of the samples could be measured with an antenna by tracking the changes in the sensor’s resonant frequency. Since the dielectric constant of water was much higher compared with that of the test samples, the presence of water in the samples increased the capaci...

Stojanovic?, Goran; Radovanovic?, Milan; Males?ev, Mirjana; Radonjanin, Vlastimir

2010-01-01

366

Prolonged Raman lasing in size-stabilized salt-water microdroplets on a superhydrophobic surface.  

Science.gov (United States)

We demonstrate prolonged Raman lasing from individual salt-water microdroplets with 10-20 microm diameters located on a superhydrophobic surface. The mechanism is based on the absorption heating of a 1064 nm cw IR laser and the resonant heating of a 532 nm pulsed, pump laser. A clear hysteresis is observed in the lasing intensity as the droplet size is photothermally tuned by the IR laser, indicating a self-stabilization mechanism due to the resonant absorption of the pump laser. Using this mechanism, Raman lasing near 650 nm is sustained for up to 25 min, approximately 1000 times longer than lasing durations reported in previous studies. PMID:20548364

Karadag, Y; Gündo?an, M; Yüce, M Y; Cankaya, H; Sennaroglu, A; Kiraz, A

2010-06-15

367

Study of endogenic abscisic acids and cytokinin content in soybean crops of variable salt sensitivity as well as the effect of exogenically applied abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ translocation. [in German  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A study of the phytohormones abscisic acid and cytokinin with respect to plant salt stress and its relationship to genetic control over endogen content. An analysis is made of the acid cytokinin content, and an investigation is made of the influence exerted by exogenic applied synthetic abscisic acid on Cl/sup -/ uptake and accumulation. 275 references, 14 figures, 11 tables.

Roeb, G.

1981-05-01

368

Fluid-loading solutions and plasma volume: Astro-ade and salt tablets with water  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid loading with salt and water is a countermeasure used after space flight to restore body fluids. However, gastrointestinal side effects have been frequently reported in persons taking similar quantities of salt and water in ground-based studies. The effectiveness of the Shuttle fluid-loading countermeasure (8 gms salt, 0.97 liters of water) was compared to Astro-ade (an isotonic electrolyte solution), to maintain plasma volume (PV) during 4.5 hrs of resting fluid restriction. Three groups of healthy men (n=6) were studied: a Control Group (no drinking), an Astro-ade Group, and a Salt Tablet Group. Changes in PV after drinking were calculated from hematocrit and hemoglobin values. Both the Salt Tablet and Astro-ade Groups maintained PV at 2-3 hours after ingestion compared to the Control Group, which had a 6 percent decline. Side effects (thirst, stomach cramping, and diarrhea) were noted in at least one subject in both the Astro-ade and Salt Tablet Groups. Nausea and vomiting were reported in one subject in the Salt Tablet Group. It was concluded that Astro-ade may be offered as an alternate fluid-loading countermeasure but further work is needed to develop a solution that is more palatable and has fewer side effects.

Fortney, Suzanne M.; Seinmann, Laura; Young, Joan A.; Hoskin, Cherylynn N.; Barrows, Linda H.

1994-01-01

369

Salt tectonics on Venus?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470"0C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus

1986-05-01

370

Salt tectonics on Venus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (470/sup 0/C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus.

Wood, C.A.; Amsbury, D.

198