WorldWideScience

Sample records for water by salt content

  1. Temperature resistance of Salmonella in low-water activity whey protein powder as influenced by salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillana Farakos, S M; Hicks, J W; Frank, J F

    2014-04-01

    Salmonella can survive in low-water activity (a(w)) foods for long periods of time. Water activity and the presence of solutes may affect its survival during heating. Low-a(w) products that contain sodium levels above 0.1 % (wt/wt) and that have been involved in major Salmonella outbreaks include peanut products and salty snacks. Reduced a(w) protects against thermal inactivation. There is conflicting information regarding the role of salt. The aim of this study was to determine whether NaCl influences the survival of Salmonella in low-a(w) whey protein powder independent of a(w) at 70 and 80 °C. Whey protein powders of differing NaCl concentrations (0, 8, and 17 % [wt/wt]) were equilibrated to target a(w) levels 0.23, 0.33, and 0.58. Powders were inoculated with Salmonella, vacuum sealed, and stored at 70 and 80 °C for 48 h. Cells were recovered on nonselective differential media. Survival data were fit with the Weibull model, and first decimal reduction times (δ) (measured in minutes) and shape factor values (β) were estimated. The influence of temperature, a(w), and salinity on Weibull model parameters (δ and β) was analyzed using multiple linear regression. Results showed that a(w) significantly influenced the survival of Salmonella at both temperatures, increasing resistance at decreasing a(w). Sodium chloride did not provide additional protection or inactivation of Salmonella at any temperature beyond that attributed to a(w). The Weibull model described the survival kinetics of Salmonella well, with R2 adj and root mean square error values ranging from 0.59 to 0.97 and 0.27 to 1.07, respectively. Temperature and a(w) influenced δ values (P 0.05). β values were not significantly influenced by temperature, a(w), or % NaCl (P > 0.05). This study indicates that information on salt content in food may not help improve predictions on the inactivation kinetics of Salmonella in low-a(w) protein systems within the a(w) levels and temperatures studied. PMID:24680075

  2. Glomus intraradices improved salt tolerance in Prosopis alba seedlings by improving water use efficiency and shoot water content

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Agustina A., Scambato; Mariela, Echeverria; Pedro, Sansberro; Oscar A., Ruiz; Ana Bernardina, Menndez.

    Full Text Available The present work was aimed at testing the hypothesis that mycorrhizal Prosopis alba, an economically important tree species worldwide, presents increased salt-tolerance compared with non-mycorrhizal ones and at gaining insight into the possible mechanisms underlying that improvement. For this purpos [...] e, a randomized complete block experiment with two factors: mycorrhizal treatments with or without the arbuscular fungus Glomus intraradices and two salinity levels, 0 and 200 mM NaCl was performed. Plant growth in P. alba plants colonized by G. intraradices was less affected by salinity than that in non-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants, indicating that mycorrhizal colonization turned P. alba more tolerant to salinity. Photosynthesis was reduced by salinity in non-AM plants but not in AM ones. Salini ty caused a significant decrease in mean stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, in mycorrhizal plants, but not in uninoculated ones. In this work, we detected two main mechanisms intervening in the salt tolerance enhancement of P. alba by the inoculation with G. intraradices: a- maintaining the net photosynthesis level and b- control of the transpiration rate. Taken together, the results suggest that inoculation with G. intraradices improves P. alba survival rates during the implantation period and seems to be a promising strategy to improve P. alba cultivation in saline lands.

  3. NaCl stress-induced growth, water and ions contents changes on in vitro selection of salt tolerant and salt sensitive callus of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoli Koutoua 1,2 , El Yacoubi Houda 2 , Atmane Rochdi 2 , Kouakou Kouakou Laurent 1 , Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire 1*

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Callus cultures tolerant to NaCl were developed from eight wheat genotypes using in vitro selection techniques. The accumulation of inorganic (Na+, Cl-and K+ solutes, water content and relative fresh weight were determined in selected (tolerant and sensitive calli after a NaCl shock in order to evaluate their implication in salt tolerance of the selected lines. No growth reduction was observed in salt-tolerant calli compared to control while a significant (P<0.05 decrease about 46.54% was observed in salt sensitive ones when both were cultivated under NaCl stress. Water content is significantly (P<0.05 high in salt-sensitive calli than salt-tolerant ones. Selected calli accumulate less K+as compared with control. However, K+content of salt-tolerant calli is greater than that of salt-sensitive. Accumulation of Na+and Cl- were more important in salt-sensitive calli in comparison with salt-tolerant ones while K+content was lower in salt-sensitive than in salt-tolerant calli when both were exposed to salt. The results indicated Na+and Cl-exclusion combined to less K+accumulation may play a key role in in vitro salt-tolerance in wheat calli lines obtained by in vitro selection and they could contribute mainly to counteract the negative effects of salt stress in wheat tolerant calli. Comparison of K+/Na+ ratio permitted to classify Sebou, Anouar and Tarek which are as most salt-tolerant wheat genotypes and on contrary, Marzak, Ourgh, Massa and Amjad as salt-sensitive wheat genotypes.K+/Na+ ratio can be use as a criterion of wheat genotypes classification.

  4. Salt content in ready-to-eat food and bottled spring and mineral water retailed in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajkovi?-Pavlovi? Ljiljana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Salt intake above 5 g/person/day is a strong independent risk factor for hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular diseases. Published studies indicate that the main source of salt in human diet is processed ready-to-eat food, contributing with 65-85% to daily salt intake. Objective. The aim of this paper was to present data on salt content of ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad, Serbia, and contribution of the salt contained in 100 g of food to the recommended daily intake of salt for healthy and persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. Methods. In 1,069 samples of ready-to-eat food, salt (sodium chloride content was calculated based on chloride ion determined by titrimetric method, while in 54 samples of bottled water sodium content was determined using flame-photometry. Food items in each food group were categorized as low, medium or high salt. Average salt content of each food group was expressed as a percentage of recommended daily intake for healthy and for persons with CVD risk. Results. Average salt content (g/100 g ranged from 0.360.48 (breakfast cereals to 2.321.02 (grilled meat. The vast majority of the samples of sandwiches (91.7%, pizza (80.7%, salami (73.9%, sausages (72.9%, grilled meat (70.0% and hard cheese (69.6% had a high salt profile. Average amount of salt contained in 100 g of food participated with levels ranging from 7.2% (breakfast cereals to 46.4% (grilled meat and from 9.6% to 61.8% in the recommended daily intake for healthy adult and person with CVD risk, respectively. Average sodium content in 100 ml of bottled spring and mineral water was 0.330.30 mg and 3344 mg, respectively. Conclusion. Ready-to-eat food retailed in Novi Sad has high hidden salt content, which could be considered as an important contributor to relatively high salt consumption of its inhabitants.

  5. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by (1)H and (23)Na MRI, (23)Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou; Jnsson, sbjrn; Karlsdttir, Magnea Gudrn; Arason, Sigurjn

    2015-12-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future. PMID:26041245

  6. The effect of water and salt stresses on the phosphorus content and acid phosphatase activity in oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Flasiński

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape plants responded to water and salt stresses (-0.5 MPa, PEG 6000 and NaCI by reduction of the fresh and dry weights of shoots and roots. When PEG was used, the ratio of dry weights of roots:shoots surpassed that of controls. The leaf protein content increased considerably. The phosphorus content decreased only in the roots, most significantly after three days of stress. Immediately after the stresses were induced, an increase in the acid phosphatase (AP activity was noted. Water and salt stresses caused four- and two-fold increases in AP activity in leaves, respectively. Changes in the enzyme activity were negligible in stems and roots. There are nine forms of AP in young leaves of oilseed rape. In the stressed plants, from No. 5 revealed lower activity and forms Nos 8 and 9, higher activities than in the control. The increase in AP activity was directly accompanied by the decrease in the water potential of the tissues. Oilseed rape is considerably less sensitive to salt stress than to water stress, which is manifested as the lower inhibition of plant growth and also by a smaller increase in acid phosphatase activity.

  7. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Veirs, Douglas Kirk [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clark, David Lewis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Stream Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.

  8. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Hong, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, International Center for Applied Mechanics and School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Suo, Zhigang, E-mail: hwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: suo@seas.harvard.edu [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Kavli Institute of Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-10-13

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  9. Transparent hydrogel with enhanced water retention capacity by introducing highly hydratable salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yuanyuan; Chen, Baohong; Xiang, Feng; Zhou, Jinxiong; Wang, Hong; Suo, Zhigang

    2014-10-01

    Polyacrylamide hydrogels containing salt as electrolyte have been used as highly stretchable transparent electrodes in flexible electronics, but those hydrogels are easy to dry out due to water evaporation. Targeted, we try to enhance water retention capacity of polyacrylamide hydrogel by introducing highly hydratable salts into the hydrogel. These hydrogels show enhanced water retention capacity in different level. Specially, polyacrylamide hydrogel containing high content of lithium chloride can retain over 70% of its initial water even in environment with relative humidity of only 10% RH. The excellent water retention capacities of these hydrogels will make more applications of hydrogels become possible.

  10. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou; Jnsson, sbjrn; Karlsdttir, Magnea Gudrn; Arason, Sigurjn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pi...

  11. NaCl stress-induced growth, water and ions contents changes on in vitro selection of salt tolerant and salt sensitive callus of wheat (Triticum durum Desf.)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayoli Koutoua 1,2 , El Yacoubi Houda 2 , Atmane Rochdi 2 , Kouakou Kouakou Laurent 1 , Kouakou Tanoh Hilaire 1*

    2011-01-01

    Callus cultures tolerant to NaCl were developed from eight wheat genotypes using in vitro selection techniques. The accumulation of inorganic (Na+, Cl-and K+) solutes, water content and relative fresh weight were determined in selected (tolerant and sensitive) calli after a NaCl shock in order to evaluate their implication in salt tolerance of the selected lines. No growth reduction was observed in salt-tolerant calli compared to control while a significant (P

  12. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical analysis of salt and water content as well as water holding capacity. The study indicated that double head brine injection with salt and phosphates lead to the least heterogeneous water distribution, while pickle salting had the least heterogeneous salt distribution. Fillets from all treatments contained spots with unsaturated brine, increasing the risk of microbial denaturation of the fillets during storage. Since a homogeneous water and salt distribution was not achieved with the studied pre-salting methods, further optimizations of the salting process, including the pre-salting and dry salting steps, must be made in the future.

  13. Alteration of MX-80 by hydrothermal treatment under high salt content conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If brammalit, i.e. sodium illite, is formed from smectite in Na-rich salt water at high temperature such conversion can also take place in the buffer clay that surrounds the canisters in a KBS-3 repository. The present study comprised two laboratory test series with MX-80 clay, one with compacted clay powder with a dry density of 1200 to 1300 kg/m3 and saturation with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions followed by heating to 110 deg C under closed conditions for 30 days. In the second series air-dry compacted clay powder in a cell was heated at 110 deg C for the same period of time and connected to vessels with 10% and 20% NaCl solutions. The first series represents the conditions in the buffer clay after saturation with Na-rich salt water while the second one corresponds to the conditions in the course of saturation with such water. All laboratory tests were made after short-term percolation with distilled water for making sure that the hydro-thermally treated samples were fully fluid-saturated. The results from the physical testing showed that the hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of the hydrothermally treated clay samples were on the same order of magnitude as for untreated clay. Comparison with illitic clays shows that the latter are at least a hundred times more permeable than the hydrothermally treated salt clays in the present study, which hence indicates that conversion to illite was insignificant. This is obvious also from the fact that while illitic clays have very low swelling pressures the hydrothermally treated clays exhibited swelling pressures on the same order of magnitude as untreated MX-80. XRD analysis showed a clear difference in mineral constitution between the two test series. Thus, while no significant change from the typical mineralogy of untreated MX-80 was found for hydrothermal treatment of clay saturated with 10 and 20% NaCl solution, except for some very slight neoformation of illite-smectite mixed layers or irreversible partially collapsed phases in the 20% NaCl solution, dry clay exposed to 20% NaCl solution showed changes although they were still limited. Here, formation of Na-illite or fully contracted layers took place and Mg was concluded to have migrated from octahedral lattice positions to interlamellar sites, implying partial dissolution. The thickness of the montmorillonite particles were comparable to that of untreated MX-80 montmorillonite for the hydrothermally treated clay saturated with NaCl solutions, while it was significantly larger for the air-dry clay exposed to such solutions at heating to 110 deg C. The larger thickness may be an example of 'Ostwald ripening' or aggregation with simultaneous cementation by precipitated silicious matter. TEM EDX analyses showed that partial replacement of octahedral Mg by Al yielding a drop in interlayer charge had occurred especially in the air-dry clay powder heated to 110 deg C under simultaneous exposure to NaCl solutions. Silicious matter, partly in the form of quartz or cristobalite, may have precipitated. The silica may have originated from tetrahedral positions in the montmorillonite lattice where aluminum can have replaced it, hence forming beidellite, or by dissolution of the smectite component. Since the temperature was higher than in a KBS-3 repository and the salt content appreciably higher than what is normally found at 500 m depth in Swedish crystalline rock, the degrading processes may be less significant in the buffer clay. On the other hand, the hydrothermal conditions in the lab study prevailed only for a month while they will last for much longer time in the repository

  14. Hexose uptake by Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions is inhibited by a high medium salt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefnagel, M H; Libbenga, K R; van der Plas, L H

    1994-05-01

    The uptake of glucose and fructose from the medium by Catharanthus roseus cell suspensions was strongly inhibited by high medium salt concentration, such as found in LS (Linsmaier and Skoog 1965) medium. After inoculation into standard LS nutrient medium with less than 5 mM hexose no uptake occurred, while in low salt medium hexose was completely depleted. At a hexose concentration of 50 mM the uptake rate was higher in low salt medium than in standard medium. The lower rate of uptake at high salt concentration was not the result of a pH or osmotic effect of the salts. Probably the affinity of the hexose carrier is affected by the ion concentration of the medium. The decrease in medium salt concentration during normal batch culture probably will have a considerable effect on hexose uptake. PMID:24194027

  15. Determination of salt content in various depth of pork chop by electrical impedance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salt concentration was determined inside of pork chop both by electrical impedance spectroscopy and by a conventional chemical method (according to Mohr). The pork chop in various depths (4 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm and 25 mm) was punctured with two stainless steel electrodes. The length of electrodes was 60 mm, and they were insulated along the length except 1 cm section on the end, so the measurement of impedance was realized in various depths. The magnitude and phase angle of impedance were measured with a HP 4284A and a HP 4285A LCR meters from 30 Hz up to 1 MHz and from 75 kHz up to 30 MHz frequency range, respectively at 1 V voltage. The distance between the electrodes was 1 cm. The impedance magnitude decreased as the salt concentration increased. The magnitude of open-short corrected impedance values at various frequencies (10 kHz, 100 kHz, 125 kHz, 1.1 MHz and 8 MHz) showed a good correlation with salt content determined by chemical procedure. The electrical impedance spectroscopy seems a prospective method for determination the salt concentration inside the meat in various depths during the curing procedure.

  16. Salt preferences of honey bee water foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Pierre W; Nieh, James C

    2016-03-15

    The importance of dietary salt may explain why bees are often observed collecting brackish water, a habit that may expose them to harmful xenobiotics. However, the individual salt preferences of water-collecting bees were not known. We measured the proboscis extension reflex (PER) response of Apis mellifera water foragers to 0-10% w/w solutions of Na, Mg and K, ions that provide essential nutrients. We also tested phosphate, which can deter foraging. Bees exhibited significant preferences, with the most PER responses for 1.5-3% Na and 1.5% Mg. However, K and phosphate were largely aversive and elicited PER responses only for the lowest concentrations, suggesting a way to deter bees from visiting contaminated water. We then analyzed the salt content of water sources that bees collected in urban and semi-urban environments. Bees collected water with a wide range of salt concentrations, but most collected water sources had relatively low salt concentrations, with the exception of seawater and swimming pools, which had >0.6% Na. The high levels of PER responsiveness elicited by 1.5-3% Na may explain why bees are willing to collect such salty water. Interestingly, bees exhibited high individual variation in salt preferences: individual identity accounted for 32% of variation in PER responses. Salt specialization may therefore occur in water foragers. PMID:26823100

  17. Pearsons correlations between moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid and salt-induced water gain of broiler pectoralis major muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture content, drip loss, expressible fluid, and % salt-induced water gain are widely used to estimate water states and water-holding capacity of raw meat. However, the relationships between these four measurements of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle describe are not well described. The objec...

  18. Water properties in cream cheeses with variations in pH, fat, and salt content and correlation to microbial survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mller, Sandie M; Hansen, Tina B; Andersen, Ulf; Lillevang, Sren K; Rasmussen, Anitha; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-02-22

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using (1)H NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli O157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that (1)H T(2) relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial. PMID:22276613

  19. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.

    2012-01-01

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphylococcus aureus, and partial least-squares regression revealed that H-1 T-2 relaxation decay data were able to explain a large part of the variation in the survival of E. coli O157 (64-83%). However, the predictions of L. innocua and S. aureus survival were strongly dependent on the fat/water content of the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial.

  20. Evaluation of salt content in school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cludia Alexandra Colao Loureno Viegas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals served in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12. Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05 and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05. The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  1. Silicon enhanced salt tolerance by improving the root water uptake and decreasing the ion toxicity in cucumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiwen; Liu, Peng; Chen, Daoqian; Yin, Lina; Li, Hongbing; Deng, Xiping

    2015-01-01

    Although the effects of silicon application on enhancing plant salt tolerance have been widely investigated, the underlying mechanism has remained unclear. In this study, seedlings of cucumber, a medium silicon accumulator plant, grown in 0.83 mM silicon solution for 2 weeks were exposed to 65 mM NaCl solution for another 1 week. The dry weight and shoot/root ratio were reduced by salt stress, but silicon application significantly alleviated these decreases. The chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and leaf water content were higher in plants treated with silicon than in untreated plants under salt stress conditions. Further investigation showed that salt stress decreased root hydraulic conductance (Lp), but that silicon application moderated this salt-induced decrease in Lp. The higher Lp in silicon-treated plants may account for the superior plant water balance. Moreover, silicon application significantly decreased Na+ concentration in the leaves while increasing K+ concentration. Simultaneously, both free and conjugated types of polyamines were maintained at high levels in silicon-treated plants, suggesting that polyamines may be involved in the ion toxicity. Our results indicate that silicon enhances the salt tolerance of cucumber through improving plant water balance by increasing the Lp and reducing Na+ content by increasing polyamine accumulation. PMID:26442072

  2. Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ≈2.4 g/cm3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

  3. Deuterium, oxygen-18 and salt content of drinking water sources in Cairo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The continuous increase of population in Cairo exceeding 10 millions inhabitants lead to the search for supplementary potable water resources in addition to the Nile River which is the principle drinking water source. Groundwater represents the main supplementary source. Evaluation of the groundwater feeding the so-called El-Ameria Water Treatment Station which is one of the biggest potable water supplies at the northern of Cairo was carried out. Chemical and isotopic techniques were applied to estimate the suitability of this groundwater for drinking purposes. The chemical analysis includes the determination of sodium, potasium, calcium and magnesium concentrations in additon to those of chlorides, sulphates, bicarbonates and silicates, while the isotopic analysis includes oxygen-18 and deuterium. The overall chemical- and isotopic investigations determined the conditions at which the examined groundwater is suitable for drinking purposes. (orig.)

  4. Model-based studies into ground water movement, with water density depending on salt content. Case studies and model validation with respect to the long-term safety of radwaste repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Near-to-reality studies into ground water movement in the environment of planned radwaste repositories have to take into account that the flow conditions are influenced by the water density which in turn depends on the salt content. Based on results from earlier studies, computer programs were established that allow computation and modelling of ground water movement in salt water/fresh water systems, and the programs were tested and improved according to progress of the studies performed under the INTRAVAL international project. The computed models of ground water movement in the region of the Gorlebener Rinne showed for strongly simplified model profiles that the developing salinity distribution varies very sensitively in response to the applied model geometry, initial input data for salinity distribution, time frame of the model, and size of the transversal dispersion length. The WIPP 2 INTRAVAL experiment likewise studied a large-area ground water movement system influenced by salt water. Based on the concept of a hydraulically closed, regional ground water system (basin model), a sectional profile was worked out covering all relevant layers of the cap rock above the salt formation planned to serve as a repository. The model data derived to describe the salt water/fresh water movements in this profile resulted in essential enlargements and modifications of the ROCKFLOW computer program applied, (relating to input data for dispersion modelling, particle-tracker, computer graphics interface), and yielded important information for the modelling of such systems (relating to initial pressure data at the upper margin, network enhancement for important concentration boundary conditions, or treatment of permeability contrasts). (orig.)

  5. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are few types of nuclear probes that measure the soil water content. The aim of this study is to develop a new nuclear probe, optimise its geometry using the code MCNP4C and calibrate it. This nuclear probe is constituted by a 60 keV gamma radiation source, a soil sample and a plastic scintillator. A beam of radiation coming from the source reaches the sample and is scattered by Compton effect. The scintillator then detects this scattered radiation. Its optimization is made using the MCNP4C adjusting the three parameters: distance between the source and the scintillator, dimensions of soil sample and source's energy. After choosing the optimized system, small amount of water is progressively added into the soil sample until its saturation, what permits correlate counts with water content. The results showed the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. (author)

  6. Water purification using organic salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Robert P.

    2004-11-23

    Water purification using organic salts. Feed water is mixed with at least one organic salt at a temperature sufficiently low to form organic salt hydrate crystals and brine. The crystals are separated from the brine, rinsed, and melted to form an aqueous solution of organic salt. Some of the water is removed from the aqueous organic salt solution. The purified water is collected, and the remaining more concentrated aqueous organic salt solution is reused.

  7. Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste with High Salt Content by Colloidal Adsorbents - 13274

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keun-Young; Chung, Dong-Yong; Kim, Kwang-Wook; Lee, Eil-Hee; Moon, Jei-Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute - KAERI, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Treatment processes have been fully developed for most of the liquid radioactive wastes generated during the operation of nuclear power plants. However, a process for radioactive liquid waste with high salt content, such as waste seawater generated from the unexpected accident at nuclear power station, has not been studied extensively. In this study, the adsorption efficiencies of cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) in radioactive liquid waste with high salt content were investigated using several types of zeolite with different particle sizes. Synthesized and commercial zeolites were used for the treatment of simulated seawater containing Cs and Sr, and the reaction kinetics and adsorption capacities of colloidal zeolites were compared with those of bulk zeolites. The experimental results demonstrated that the colloidal adsorbents showed fast adsorption kinetic and high binding capacity for Cs and Sr. Also, the colloidal zeolites could be successfully applied to the static adsorption condition, therefore, an economical benefit might be expected in an actual processes where stirring is not achievable. (authors)

  8. Neutron moderation for measuring the MgCl2 content in crude potassium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mineral carnallite (KCl . MgCl2 . 6 H2O) contained in crude potassium salts has a stoichiometric crystal water content. Using the effect of neutron moderation by hydrogen this permits the measurement of the MgCl2 content in potassium crude salts, which is important for optimizing technological processes in potassium salt production. Information is given on measuring arrangement as well as research and testing of a continuously working measuring procedure for the potash industry. (author)

  9. Nuclear probe for soil water content measurements by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for measuring soil moisture were developed. They are based on incoherent and coherent Compton scattering of 60 keV gamma rays. Scattered ? ray rates by small soil samples, less than 4 cm3, were measured using a X-Ray NaI(Tl) detector. Known water amounts were introduced in these samples and count rates were measured and correlated with water contents. Results have shown the viability of using this method to measure soil water content. A second method uses cylindrical soil samples with radius of 10 cm and height of 15 cm. These samples has an axial hole with 1.2 cm of diameter and 9 cm depth where the densimeter is placed. This densimeter consists of a cylinder of five centimeter length where inside a 241Am source, a lead shield and a plastic scintillator is axially placed. This scintillator is coupled to a light guide to light to a photocathode of a photomultiplier tube. The densimeter was tested using soil samples with water contents ranges from 5 to 25%. Linear correlation between count rates and water content has shown correlation coefficient better than 0.99. (author)

  10. [Simulation of effect of irrigation with reclaimed water on soil water-salt movement by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    As the conflict between water supply and demand, wastewater reuse has become an important measure, which can relieve the water shortage in Beijing. In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing, a city of water shortage, under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this research. The accumulation trends of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, it investigated the effects of different irrigation practices on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation. Results indicated that annual averages of soil salinity (EC(e)) increased 29.5%, 97.2%, 197.8% respectively, with the higher irrigation, normal irrigation, and low irrigation under equilibrium conditions. Irrigation frequency had little effect on soil salt-water movement, and soil salt accumulation was in a downward trend with low frequency of irrigation. Under equilibrium conditions, annual averages of EC(e) increased 23.7%, 97.2%, 208.5% respectively, with irrigation water salinity (EC(w)) 0.6, 1.2, 2.4 dS x m(-1). Soil salinity increased slightly with EC(w) = 0.6 dS x m(-1), while soil salinization did not appear. Totally, the growth of Blue grass was not influenced by soil salinity under equilibrium conditions with the regular irrigation in Beijing, but mild soil salinization appeared. PMID:23379129

  11. Water Properties in Cream Cheeses with Variations in pH, Fat, and Salt Content and Correlation to Microbial Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mller, Sandie M.; Hansen, Tina B.; Andersen, Simon Ulf; Lillevang, Sren K.; Rasmussen, Anitha; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and Staphyloc......Water mobility and distribution in cream cheeses with variations in fat (4, 15, and 26%), added salt (0, 0.625, and 1.25%), and pH (4.2, 4.7, and 5.2) were studied using H-1 NMR relaxometry. The cheese samples were inoculated with a mixture of Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli 0157 and...... the samples. Consequently, the present results indicate that NMR relaxometry is a promising technique for predicting the survival of these bacteria; however, the characteristics of the sample matrix are substantial....

  12. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, Kirsten; Knuthsen, Pia; Saxholt, Erling; Fagt, Sisse

    2010-01-01

    Background: A high salt (NaCl) intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For.......893.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased....... of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus) and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt...

  13. Well logging determination of insoluble residuum and carnallite contents in sylvinite and rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of the determination of the content of water-insoluble residuals and carnallite in sylvinite and rock salt by nuclear-geophysical methods (neutron logging, gamma- and microlateral current logging) has been studied. Empiric dependences are given between the content of insoluble residuals in salts and the data of neutron-neutron and gamma-methods and also between the carnallite content and the data of neutron-neutron well logging with epithermal neutrons

  14. Extraction of uranyl nitrate by di-isoamylmethylphosphonate from concentrated water-salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotherm of uranyl nitrate extraction by 100 % di-isoamylmethylphosphonate (dampa) from concentrated water-salt solutions is described with allowance made for formation of uranyl nitrate di- and trisolvates in organic phase. Values of constants of phase extraction equilibrium are determined. Values of excess functions of mixing of dampa and uranyl nitrate disolvate solutions at 298 K are given. 9 refs.; 2 tabs

  15. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  16. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is based on the selective separation of salts during the evaporation. In this paper, analysis of the PSS concept is carried out for two proposed distinctive designs: the dynamic (continuous flow model and the static (batch flow model. Separation of magnesium chloride is anticipated using solar energy for evaporating sea water. Preliminary experimental results for simulated systems are reported for each case.

  17. Electromotive Force Generation with Hydrogen Release by Salt Water Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto De Luca

    2011-01-01

    By considering an electrolyte solution in motion in a duct under a transverse magnetic field, we notice that a so called Faraday voltage arises because of the Lorentz force acting on anions and cations in the fluid. When salt water is considered, hydrogen production takes place at one of the electrodes if an electric current, generated by Faraday voltage, flows in an external circuit. The maximum amount of hydrogen production rate is calculated by basic electrochemical concepts.

  18. Cloud-point measurement for (sulphate salts + polyethylene glycol 15000 + water) systems by the particle counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase separation of (water + salt + polyethylene glycol 15000) systems was studied by cloud-point measurements using the particle counting method. The effect of three kinds of sulphate salt (Na2SO4, K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4) concentration, polyethylene glycol 15000 concentration, mass ratio of polymer to salt on the cloud-point temperature of these systems have been investigated. The results obtained indicate that the cloud-point temperatures decrease linearly with increase in polyethylene glycol concentrations for different salts. Also, the cloud points decrease with an increase in mass ratio of salt to polymer.

  19. Exceptionally Fast Water Desalination at Complete Salt Rejection by Pristine Graphyne Monolayers

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Minmin; Qiu, Hu; Guo, Wanlin

    2013-01-01

    Desalination that produces clean freshwater from seawater holds the promise to solve the global water shortage for drinking, agriculture and industry. However, conventional desalination technologies such as reverse osmosis and thermal distillation involve large amounts of energy consumption, and the semipermeable membranes widely used in reverse osmosis face the challenge to provide a high throughput at high salt rejection. Here we find by comprehensive molecular dynamics si...

  20. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply

  1. Salt, Water, and Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Good nutrition for athletes demands plenty of water, since water is essential to such vital functions as muscle reactions. Dehydration can result from jet travel as well as from exercise and heat, making it a danger to traveling athletic teams. To avoid dehydration, water needs should be monitored by frequent weighing, and a clean water supply…

  2. Predicting the effects of landuse change on water and salt balancea case study of a catchment affected by dryland salinity in NSW, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Vaze, Jai; Murphy, Brian; Barnett, Paul; Rancic, Aleksandra; Evans, Ray; Geeves, Guy; Rassam, Daud W.; Miller, Michelle

    2003-12-01

    An integrated and comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments is presented. The framework is applied to the Mandagery Creek catchment (1688 km 2), located in the south-eastern part of Australia. The catchment is affected by dryland salinity and the effects of landuse, climate, topography, soils and geology on water and salt balance are examined. Landuse change scenarios designed to: (a) increase the perennial content of the pastures and crop rotations and (b) increase the current remnant native woody vegetation with additional tree cover are investigated to determine the level of intervention required to develop ameliorative strategies. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in water flow and salt export are also estimated.

  3. Salt content in canteen and fast food meals in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse Fagt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high salt (=NaCl intake is associated with high blood pressure, and knowledge of salt content in food and meals is important, if the salt intake has to be decreased in the general population. Objective: To determine the salt content in worksite canteen meals and fast food. Design: For the first part of this study, 180 canteen meals were collected from a total of 15 worksites with in-house catering facilities. Duplicate portions of a lunch meal were collected from 12 randomly selected employees at each canteen on two non-consecutive days. For the second part of the study, a total of 250 fast food samples were collected from 52 retail places representing both city (Aarhus and provincial towns. The canteen meals and fast food samples were analyzed for chloride by potentiometric titration with silver nitrate solution, and the salt content was estimated. Results: The salt content in lunch meals in worksite canteens were 3.81.8 g per meal and 14.75.1 g per 10 MJ for men (n=109, and 2.81.2 g per meal and 14.46.2 g per 10 MJ for women (n=71. Salt content in fast food ranged from 11.82.5 g per 10 MJ (burgers to 16.34.4 g per 10 MJ (sausages with a mean content of 13.83.8 g per 10 MJ. Conclusion: Salt content in both fast food and in worksite canteen meals is high and should be decreased.

  4. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St Denis, C.H.; Pinheiro, M.D.O.; Power, M.E. [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bols, Niels C., E-mail: ncbols@uwaterloo.c [Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. W, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  5. Effect of salt and urban water samples on bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of road salt on the eating of bacteria or bacterivory by the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila, was followed in non-nutrient Osterhout's solution with Escherichia coli expressing green fluorescent protein. Bacterivory was impaired at between 0.025 and 0.050% w/v but the ciliates appeared to have normal morphologies and motilities, whereas at above 0.1%, bacterivory was blocked and many ciliates died. By contrast, E. coli remained viable, suggesting salt could alter predator-prey relationships in microbial communities. In nutrient medium, salt was not toxic and the ciliates grew. After growth in salt, ciliates consumed bacteria in 0.2% salt, indicating the salt acclimation of bacterivory. Bacteria and ciliates were added to urban creek samples to compare their capacity to support exogenous bacterivory. Even though samples were collected weekly for a year and be expected to have fluctuating salt levels as a result of deicing, all creek samples supported a similar level of bacterivory. - Road salt at some concentrations inhibits bacterivory by ciliates, and thus potentially could alter the microbial food web.

  6. Water Uptake by Mars Salt Analogs: An Investigation of Stable Aqueous Solutions Using Raman Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuding, Danielle L.

    Liquid water processes that may occur on the surface and near-subsurface of Mars have important implications for the present-day water cycle, habitability, and planetary protection policies. The presence of salts on Mars plays a role in surface-atmosphere interactions as salts enhance the soil's ability to retain water. This thesis explores the phase transitions of water upon interaction with Mars relevant salt analogs. Water uptake and loss properties of a single and complex Mars analog are examined using a Raman microscope equipped with an environmental cell. The effect of the hygroscopic salts on bacterial spores was evaluated with a focus on potential terrestrial contamination on outbound spacecraft and its influence on planetary protection concerns. Calcium perchlorate (Ca(ClO4)2) is a highly deliquescent salt that may exist on the surface of present-day Mars. Here, we quantify the deliquescent relative humidity (DRH) and efflorescent relative humidity (ERH) of Ca(ClO4)2 as a function of temperature (223 K to 273 K) to elucidate its behavior on the surface of Mars. Mars relevant temperature and relative humidity (RH) conditions were simulated and deliquescence (solid to aqueous) and efflorescence (aqueous to solid) phase transitions of Ca(ClO4)2 were characterized. Experimental DRH values were compared to a thermodynamic model for three hydration states of Ca(ClO 4)2. Calcium perchlorate was found to supersaturate, with lower ERH values than DRH values. Additionally, we conducted a 17-hour experiment to simulate a subsurface relative humidity and temperature diurnal cycle. This demonstrated that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions can persist without efflorescing for the majority of a martian sol, up to 17 hours under Mars temperature heating rates and RH conditions. Applying these experimental results to martian surface and subsurface heat and mass transfer models, we find that aqueous Ca(ClO4)2 solutions could persist for most of the martian sol under present-day conditions. To investigate complex brine mixtures, a salt analog, deemed 'Instant Mars,' was developed to closely match the individual cation and anion concentrations as reported by the Wet Chemistry Laboratory instrument at the Phoenix landing site. 'Instant Mars' was developed to fully encompass and closely replicate correct concentrations of magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, perchlorate, chloride, and sulfate ions. Here we use two separate techniques, Raman microscopy and particle levitation, to study the water uptake and loss properties of individual Instant Mars analog particles. Raman microscope experiments reveal that Instant Mars particles can form stable, aqueous solutions at 56 +/- 5% RH at 243 K and persist as a metastable, aqueous solution down to 13 +/- 5% RH. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate that a salt analog that closely replicates in-situ measurements from the Phoenix landing site can take up water vapor from the surrounding environment and transition into a stable, aqueous solution. Furthermore, this aqueous Instant Mars solution can persist as a metastable, supersaturated solution in RH conditions much lower than the deliquescent RH. Finally, laboratory experiments presented here examine the interaction of B. subtilis spores (B-168) with liquid water in Mars relevant temperatures and RH conditions. In addition, Ca(ClO4)2 was mixed with the B. subtilis spores and exposed to the same diurnal cycle conditions to quantify the effects of Ca(ClO4)2 on the spores. A combination of Raman microscopy and an environmental cell allows us to visually and spectrally analyze the changes of the individual B. subtilis spores and Ca(ClO4)2 mixtures as they experience present-day martian diurnal cycle conditions. Results suggest that B-168 spores can survive the arid conditions and martian temperatures, even when exposed to Ca(ClO 4)2 in the crystalline or aqueous phase. The extreme hygroscopic nature of Ca(ClO4)2 allows for direct interaction of B. subtilis spores with liquid water. The results impact the understanding of planetary protectio

  7. DETERMINATION OF SOLUBLE SALTS IN INTERSTITIAL WATER OF FLUVIAL SEDIMENTS BY IE-HPLC

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SYLVIA. V, COPAJA; VESNA, NEZ S; DAVID, VLIZ.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An ionic exchange high resolution liquid chromatography (IE-HPLC) method for determination of cations and anions in interstitial water of sediments, affluent and effluent of dams is proposed in this paper. Cations: Na+, Ca2+, K+, and Mg2+ and anions: Cl-, CO3(2-), NO3- and SO4(2-) were analyzing by [...] IE-HPLC method. Optimized analytical conditions were validated in terms of accuracy, recovery and detection limit. The method of flame spray atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was used as an additional method for the determination of Ca and Mg. It must be indicated that cations may be analyzed by several analytical methods such as AAS, ICP, etc., but there are not enough methods to analyze anions; IE-HPLC methods are good alternative to determine these ions. The aim of this study was to determine ions in interstitial water in the affluent and effluent of the Chilean dams Cogot, Corrales, La Paloma, Rapel and Recoleta in order to determine if the water is suitable for irrigation or human consumption and estimate the effect of dams on water quality. The results indicate that the highest concentrations observed were for the cations: Ca2+ (mean 43.5 mgL-1), Na+ (mean 16.4 mgL-1), Mg2+ (mean 12.6 mgL-1), and K+ (mean 2.3 mgL-1). The highest concentration of anions was found for CO3(2-) (mean 55.9 mgL-1); the concentrations of SO4(2-), Cl- and NO3- reached 59.3 mgL-1, 12.8 mgL-1 and 27.0 mgL-1, respectively. The results indicate that although the origin of soluble salts is lithogenic, the high concentrations of these salts found in some places indicate anthropogenic effect, either by direct or indirect discharges or by diffuse pollution. These high concentrations may be significant, considering that these waters are used mainly for irrigation, which would affect the quality of agricultural soils irrigated with this moderately saline water.

  8. Removal of Oil Spills from Salt Water by Magnesium, Calcium Carbonates and Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayed, A M

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides that are widely used in cement industries were employed in studying sorption of petroleum oil spills from salt water at different condition parameters such as temperature, loading weight, degree of salinity. Treatment of magnesium, calcium carbonates and oxides by dodecyl benzene sulphonic acid alcohol was studied to enhance the sorption efficiency. Results obtained showed that treated MgCO3, CaCO3, MgO and CaO with dodecyl benzene sulphonic can sorb oil by 0.95, 1.25, 78, 0.56 times its weight respectively; untreated materials can sorb oil by 0.49, 0.76, 0.44, 0.32 its weight. Characteristics of crude oil and the used materials were investigated by FTIR, X ? Ray Fluorescence, Inductive Coupled Plasma, Pour Point and Thermostatic Water Bath instruments. Determination of the amount of crude oil in water was done by extracting the crude oil in tricholorotrifluoroethane and measuring absorbance by FTIR spectrometer. @JASEM

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution by combining water soluble graphene with cobalt salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is tremendous effort put in the pursuit for cheap and efficient catalysts for photocatalytic hydrogen evolution systems. Herein, we report an active catalyst that uses the earth-abundant element cobalt and water-dispersible sulfonated graphene. The photocatalytic hydrogen evolution activity of the catalyst was tested by using triethanolamine (TEOA as electron donor and eosin Y (EY as the photosensitizer under LED irradiation at 525 nm. Hydrogen was produced constantly even after 20 h, and the turnover number (TON reached 148 (H2/Co in 4 h with respect to the initial concentration of the added cobalt salts was shown to be 5.6 times larger than that without graphene.

  10. Simulation of water transport in heated rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This final report contains the results of computer simulation studies on water transport in German rock salt. Based on Jockwer's experimental investigations on water content and water liberation, the object of this work was to select a water transport model that matches the water inflow which was measured in some heater experiments in the Asse salt mine. The main result is that an evaporation model with Knudsen type vapour transport combined with fluid transport by thermal expansion of the adsorbed water layers in the non-evaporated zone showed the best agreement with experimental evidence. An extrapolatory calculation for a borehole in a high-level waste repository showed that the water vapour inflow during the time of convergence of the initial gap between canister and borehole will not exceed 200 g per meter

  11. Solubility of inorganic salts in water under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solubility of inorganic salts (including SrSO4, CdI2, CsBr, KI) in water at pressures up to 1000 MPa and 273-373 K temperatures was considered. A series of qualitative regularities, dictating change of solubility in particular water-salt systems, depending on electrolyte type, concentration of saturated solution, crystallization water content in solid phase, was revealed. It is shown for salts, moderately and highly soluble in water, that increase of pressure up to 600-1000 MPa leads to decrease of solubility for 19 of 21 experimentally studied salt-water systems

  12. Effect of water content on stability of landslides triggered by earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyabanaki, S.; Bagtzoglou, A. C.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquake- triggered landslides are one of the most important natural hazards that often result in serious structural damage and loss of life. They are widely studied by several researchers. However, less attention has been focused on soil water content. Although the effect of water content has been widely studied for rainfall- triggered landslides [1], much less attention has been given to it for stability analysis of earthquake- triggered landslides. We developed a combined hydrology and stability model to investigate effect of soil water content on earthquake-triggered landslides. For this purpose, Bishop's method is used to do the slope stability analysis and Richard's equation is employed to model infiltration. Bishop's method is one the most widely methods used for analyzing stability of slopes [2]. Earthquake acceleration coefficient (EAC) is also considered in the model to analyze the effect of earthquake on slope stability. Also, this model is able to automatically determine geometry of the potential landslide. In this study, slopes with different initial water contents are simulated. First, the simulation is performed in the case of earthquake only with different EACs and water contents. As shown in Fig. 1, initial water content has a significant effect on factor of safety (FS). Greater initial water contents lead to less FS. This impact is more significant when EAC is small. Also, when initial water content is high, landslides can happen even with small earthquake accelerations. Moreover, in this study, effect of water content on geometry of landslides is investigated. For this purpose, different cases of landslides triggered by earthquakes only and both rainfall and earthquake for different initial water contents are simulated. The results show that water content has more significant effect on geometry of landslides triggered by rainfall than those triggered by an earthquake. Finally, effect of water content on landslides triggered by earthquakes during rainfall is investigated. In this study, after different durations of rainfall, an earthquake is applied to the model and the elapsed time in which the FS gets less than one obtains by trial and error. The results for different initial water contents and earthquake acceleration coefficients show that landslides can happen after shorter rainfall duration when water content is greater. If water content is high enough, the landslide occurs even without rainfall. References [1] Ray RL, Jacobs JM, de Alba P. Impact of unsaturated zone soil moisture and groundwater table on slope instability. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng., 2010, 136(10):1448-1458. [2] Das B. Principles of Foundation Engineering. Stanford, Cengage Learning, 2011. Fig. 1. Effect of initial water content on FS for different EACs

  13. Amount and nature of occluded water in bedded salt, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantity and types of fluids within bedded salt cores from the Permian San Andres Formation, Palo Duro, Texas, were evaluated at the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. Bedded halite from the San Andres Formation and other salt-bearing units were selected to represent the variety of salt types present, and were then analyzed. The mean water content of ''pure'' samples (more than 90% halite) is 0.4 weight percent, with none observed greater than 1.0 weight percent. Samples that contain more than 10 weight percent clay or mudstone display a trend of increasing water content with increasing clastic material. Chaotic mudstone-halite samples have as much as 5 weight percent water; halite-cemented mudstone interlayers, common throughout the bedded salts, may have water content values as high as 10 to 15 weight percent based on extrapolation of existing data that range from 0 to about 6%. No significant difference exists between the mean water content values of ''pure salt'' from the upper San Andres, lower San Andres Cycle 5, and lower San Andres Cycle 4 salt units. The fraction of total water present as mobile intergranular water is highly variable and not readily predicted from observed properties of the salt sample. The amount of water that would be affected by a high-level nuclear waste repository can be estimated if the volume of halite, the volume of clastic interlayers, and the amount and type of impurity in halite are known. Appendix contains seven vugraphs

  14. The effects of pre-salting methods on salt and water distribution of heavily salted cod, as analyzed by 1H and 23Na MRI, 23Na NMR, low-field NMR and physicochemical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gujnsdttir, Mara; Traor, Amidou; Jnsson, sbjrn; Karlsdttir, Magnea Gudrn; Arason, Sigurjn

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different pre-salting methods (brine injection with salt with/without polyphosphates, brining and pickling) on the water and salt distribution in dry salted Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) fillets was studied with proton and sodium NMR and MRI methods, supported by physicochemical...

  15. Titanium for salt water service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titanium has potential as major material of construction in desalination plants, in condensers and heat exchangers, in view of its excellent corrosion resistance to salt water upto at least 120deg C. The advantages of titanium in such applications are brought out. The various specific problems such as pitting, crevice and galvanic corrosion and the preventive methods, for adopting titanium have been discussed. The hydriding problem can be overcome by suitably controlling the operating parameters such as temperature and surface preparation. A case has been made to prove the economic viability of titanium in comparison to Al-brass and Cu-Ni alloy. The future of titanium seems to be very promising in view of the negligible tube failures and outages. (auth.)

  16. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  17. Measurement of soil density and water content by attenuation of Bi-energy ? rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil density and water content can be determined concurrently by measuring the attenuation of two different energy ? rays. A dual source containing 241Am and 137Cs are shown to be suitable for these measurements. Multichannel pulse-height analyzers is used to determine their accuracy under experimental conditions for simultaneous measurements of soil density and water content

  18. Characterization of two-phase mixture (petroleum, salted water or gas) by gamma radiation transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mathematical description was accomplished to determine the discrimination of a substance in a two-phase mixture, for one beam system, using the five energy lines (13.9, 17.8,26.35 and 59,54 keV) of the 241 Am source. The mathematical description was also accomplished to determine the discrimination of two substances in a three-phase mixture, for a double beam system.. he simulated mixtures for the one beam system were petroleum/salted water or gas. The materials considered in these simulations were: four oils types, denominated as A, B, Bell and Generic, one kind of natural gas and salted water with the following salinities: 35.5, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg/m3 of Na Cl. The simulation for the one beam system consisted of a box with acrylic walls and other situation with a box of epoxi walls reinforced with fiber of carbon. The epoxi with carbon fiber was used mainly due to the fact that this material offers little attenuation to the fotons and it resists great pressures. With the results of the simulations it was calculated tables of minimum discrimination for each possible two-phase mixture with petroleum, gas and salted water at several salinities. These discrimination tables are the theoretical forecasts for experimental measurements, since they supply the minimum mensurable percentage for each energy line, as well as the ideal energy for the measurement of each mixture, or situation. The simulated discrimination levels were tested employing experimental arrangements with conditions and materials similar to those of the simulations, for the case of box with epoxi wall reinforced with carbon fiber, at the energies of 20.8 and 59.54 keV. It was obtained good results. For example, for the mixture of salted water (35.5 kg/m3) in paraffin (simulating the petroleum), it was obtained an experimental discrimination minimum of 10% of salted water for error statistics of 5% in I and Io, while the theoretical simulation foresaw the same discrimination level for error statistics of 3%. (author)

  19. Water dynamics and salt-activation of enzymes in organic media: Mechanistic implications revealed by NMR spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Eppler, Ross K.; Komor, Russell S.; Huynh, Joyce; Dordick, Jonathan S; Reimer, Jeffrey A; Clark, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Deuterium spin relaxation was used to examine the motion of enzyme-bound water on subtilisin Carlsberg colyophilized with inorganic salts for activation in different organic solvents. Spectral editing was used to ensure that the relaxation times were associated with relatively mobile deuterons, which were contributed almost entirely by D2O rather than hydrogendeuteron exchange on the protein. The results indicate that the timescale of motion for residual water molecules on the biocatalyst, (...

  20. Performance of neutron scattering relative to Diviner2000 for estimating soil water content in salt affected soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was conducted on sandy clay and clayey soils at Deir Ezzor to compare the performance of Neutron Scattering (NS) relative to a capacitance probe (CP), Diviner2000, in our local conditions under saline soils. The effect of soil electrical conductivity (ECe) and bulk density (?b) on the precession, accuracy and sensitivity of the tested equipment s were evaluated. Also, the ability to improve the calibration equation for these equipment s, by including ECe and ?b as independent variables in the equation formula, was studied. The study showed that, Diviner2000 was very sensitive to soil bulk density and electrical conductivity of the soil (i.e. soil salinity) compared to the NS. Multiple non-linear regressions improved the fitting when both parameters (?b and ECe) were included in the equation, even though the correlation coefficient (R2) remained low in the case of Diviner2000.(author)

  1. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  2. Analysis of the HDO content in heavy water by ATR-FTIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applicability of ATR-FTIR for the determination of the HDO content in heavy water (D2O) was investigated. Two groups of calibration standard solutions, of low contents (0-1 n% H2O in heavy water) and of higher contents (0-10 n% H2O in heavy water) were prepared by adding properly calculated amount of H2O to D2O by weight. The absorbances at 3400 cm-1 (?, O-H) against the calibration standards were measured five times using two kinds of interchangeable IREs (1 bound and 9 bound reflections). And four calibration curves were obtained by linear least square fit of the measured absorbances for the four different measurement conditions, which are (1) for low contents group using 1 bound reflection, (2) for low contents group using 9 bound reflections, (3) for higher contents group using 1 bound reflection, (4) for higher contents group using 9 bound reflections. Determined contents (c0) of each calibration standards for the four measurement conditions were obtained by the calibration curves and compared to the calculated contents (ccal). The uncertainty sources were considered when the HDO in heavy water is determined according to the procedure of this work. The uncertainties u(c0) of the determined contents (c0) for the four different measurement conditions were calculated. (author)

  3. Simulation of detection of total content of N, P in water using PGNAA by MCNP code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total content of N, P is an important index of water quality detection. The content of a special element in a water sample could be determined by prompt ? rays neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) quickly. The process, ? rays were emitted while the water sample was irradiated by neutron beam, was simulated by a model set up MCNP code and a pulse neutron generator as neutron source. The total content of N, P of class ?-? water demanded by the surface water environment quality standard were used as basis. So that detection limit of N, P using PGNAA could be gained. If the total content of N, P in the water sample were small, the detection precision could be improved by increasing the neutron flux or concentrating the water sample. For contaminated water, the total content of N, P can be obtained quickly by PGNAA so that related departments could take measures to deal with polluted water in time when emergency of water pollution takes place. (authors)

  4. “Inexhaustible” source of hydrogen may be unlocked by salt water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    A grain of salt or two may be all that microbial electrolysis cells need to produce hydrogen from wastewater or organic by-products, without adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere or using grid electricity, according to engineers in the USA at The Pennsylvania State University. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Antioxidant Content and Quality of Fruits as Affected by Nigari, an Effluent of Salt Industries, and Fruit Ages of Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. RAHMAN; H. Inden

    2012-01-01

    Nigari, an effluent of salt industries, is less expensive fertilizer. Without testing its effect on bioactive substances, it may not be suitable for fertilizer. Greenhouse trials were conducted over two years to evaluate antioxidant content, fruit quality, yield, and mineral contents in fruits and leaves of sweet pepper Papri new-E-red by application of three nigari concentrations at 0, 2 and 4 mL L-1 and additional N P K to equal the standard. Capsaicin, ?-carotene, ascorbic acid, fruit qu...

  6. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.2. Technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to technology for uranium extraction from brine with a high content of ion-chlorine. The content of basic anions and cations in lake waters of Sasik-Kul deposit was defined. Results of X-ray spectral analysis of salt residual after water evaporation from Sasik-Kul lake was discussed. Investigations revealed that uranium extraction from brines containing ion-chlorine is possible. The developed basic process flow diagram of uranium extraction from Sasik-Kul Lake' brine consists of the following basic stages: evaporation, leaching, catching of formed gases (HCl), sorption, desorption, deposition, drying and tempering.

  7. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Vilma Mota da; Silva, Luciana Almeida; Andrade, Jailson B. de [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: jailsong@ufba.br; Veloso, Marcia C. da Cunha [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica da Bahia (CEFET-BA), Salvador, BA (Brazil)); Santos, Gislaine Vieira [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia

    2008-07-01

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 {+-} 5.7% and 63.3 {+-} 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 {+-} 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  8. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture by thermogravimetry (TG and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 5.7% and 63.3 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  9. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by thermogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 5.7% and 63.3 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979. (author)

  10. Determination of moisture content and water activity in algae and fish by thermoanalytical techniques

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vilma Mota da, Silva; Luciana Almeida, Silva; Jailson B. de, Andrade; Mrcia C. da Cunha, Veloso; Gislaine Vieira, Santos.

    Full Text Available The water content in seafoods is very important since it affects their sensorial quality, microbiological stability, physical characteristics and shelf life. In this study, thermoanalytical techniques were employed to develop a simple and accurate method to determine water content (moisture) by ther [...] mogravimetry (TG) and water activity from moisture content values and freezing point depression using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The precision of the results suggests that TG is a suitable technique to determine moisture content in biological samples. The average water content values for fish samples of Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus species were 76.4 5.7% and 63.3 3.9%, respectively, while that of Ulva lactuca marine algae species was 76.0 4.4%. The method presented here was also successfully applied to determine water activity in two species of fish and six species of marine algae collected in the Atlantic coastal waters of Bahia, in Brazil. Water activity determined in fish samples ranged from 0.946 - 0.960 and was consistent with values reported in the literature, i.e., 0.9 - 1.0. The water activity values determined in marine algae samples lay within the interval of 0.974 - 0.979.

  11. Sulfur-poisoned Ni-based solid oxide fuel cell anode characterization by varying water content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ting Shuai; Wang, Wei Guo [Division of Fuel Cell and Energy Technology, Ningbo Institute of Material Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Road, Ningbo 315201 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The 0.2% hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) poisoning of Ni/YSZ anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is investigated by varying water content in fuel. The degradation extent of the cell voltage decreases with increasing water content (from 0% to 10%). Water can be generated at the anode side through an electrochemical reaction, and the content of water product augments upon the addition of fuel. However, our results indicate that an increase in fuel utilization significantly aggravates H{sub 2}S poisoning behavior. The results of X-ray analysis suggest that the presence of water in fuel cannot affect the final forms of nickel sulfides, but microstructural inspection reveals different attack modes upon the injection of vapor (from 0 to 10%) into fuel containing 0.2% H{sub 2}S. (author)

  12. Water content determination of superdisintegrants by means of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szakonyi, G; Zelk, R

    2012-04-01

    Water contents of superdisintegrant pharmaceutical excipients were determined by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy using simple linear regression. Water contents of the investigated three common superdisintegrants (crospovidone, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate) varied over a wide range (0-24%, w/w). In the case of crospovidone three different samples from two manufacturers were examined in order to study the effects of different grades on the calibration curves. Water content determinations were based on strong absorption of water between 3700 and 2800 cm?, other spectral changes associated with the different compaction of samples on the ATR crystal using the same pressure were followed by the infrared region between 1510 and 1050 cm?. The calibration curves were constructed using the ratio of absorbance intensities in the two investigated regions. Using appropriate baseline correction the linearity of the calibration curves was maintained over the entire investigated water content regions and the effect of particle size on the calibration was not significant in the case of crospovidones from the same manufacturer. The described method enables the water content determination of powdered hygroscopic materials containing homogeneously distributed water. PMID:22361662

  13. Deep purification of salts from suspended particles of submicron sizes by microfiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method for salt (calcium chloride, sodium borohydride, ammonium fluoride, cadmium iodide, chloroplatinic acid) purification from suspended particles of submicron sizes using microfiltration of their solutions in high-purity water and isopropyl alcohol with further salt separation from a solvent is presented. Atomic emission analysis of a precipitate on a filter is carried out to determine the particle element composition and their content in the initial salts. Analysis of salt solutions for suspended particles content is carried out by the laser ultramicroscopy method. The suspended particles content after purification is shown to decrease by 2-4 orders

  14. Protoplast water content of bacterial spores determined by buoyant density sedimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, J.A.; Beaman, T C; Gerhardt, P.

    1985-01-01

    Protoplast wet densities (1.315 to 1.400 g/ml), determined by buoyant density sedimentation in Metrizamide gradients, were correlated inversely with the protoplast water contents (26.4 to 55.0 g of water/100 g of wet protoplast) of nine diverse types of pure lysozyme-sensitive dormant bacterial spores. The correlation equation provided a precise method for obtaining the protoplast water contents of other spore types with small impure samples and indicated that the average protoplast dry densi...

  15. Modelling the effects of land-use change on water and salt delivery from a catchment affected by dryland salinity in south-east Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Jai; Barnett, Paul; Beale, Geoffrey; Dawes, Warrick; Evans, Ray; Tuteja, Narendra Kumar; Murphy, Brian; Geeves, Guy; Miller, Michelle

    2004-06-01

    A comprehensive framework for the assessment of water and salt balance for large catchments affected by dryland salinity is applied to the Boorowa River catchment (1550 km2), located in south-eastern Australia. The framework comprised two models, each focusing on a different aspect and operating on a different scale. A quasi-physical semi-distributed model CATSALT was used to estimate runoff and salt fluxes from different source areas within the catchment. The effects of land use, climate, topography, soils and geology are included. A groundwater model FLOWTUBE was used to estimate the long-term effects of land-use change on groundwater discharge. Unlike conventional salinity studies that focus on groundwater alone, this study makes use of a new approach to explore surface and groundwater interactions with salt stores and the stream.Land-use change scenarios based on increased perennial pasture and tree-cover content of the vegetation, aimed at high leakage and saline discharge areas, are investigated. Likely downstream impacts of the reduction in flow and salt export are estimated.The water balance model was able to simulate both the daily observed stream flow and salt load at the catchment outlet for high and low flow conditions satisfactorily. Mean leakage rate of about 23.2 mm year-1 under current land use for the Boorowa catchment was estimated. The corresponding mean runoff and salt export from the catchment were 89 382 ML year-1 and 38 938 t year-1, respectively. Investigation of various land-use change scenarios indicates that changing annual pastures and cropping areas to perennial pastures is not likely to result in substantial improvement of water quality in the Boorowa River. A land-use change of about 20% tree-cover, specifically targeting high recharge and the saline discharge areas, would be needed to decrease stream salinity by 150 ?S cm-1 from its current level. Stream salinity reductions of about 20 ?S cm-1 in the main Lachlan River downstream of the confluence of the Boorowa River is predicted. The FLOWTUBE modelling within the Boorowa River catchment indicated that discharge areas under increased recharge conditions could re-equilibrate in around 20 years for the catchment, and around 15 years for individual hillslopes.

  16. Measuring vegetation water content by looking at trees blowing in the wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooreman, Bouke; Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Selker, John; Steele-Dunne, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Satellite-based soil moisture measurements have shown a diurnal variation in soil water content in Ghana. Most likely this diurnal variation is due to variation of moisture content in vegetation, as was measured by Friesen et al. Understanding the specifics of this cycle and it's relation with radar backscatter would help improve the estimation of soil moisture from satellites as well as provide a new source of information: vegetation water content (ie. plant water stress) from satellites. To this end, a non-intrusive method is needed to measure the change in time of the water content of vegetation. In this research, we have measured the Eigen-frequency of trees using an accelerometer bolted in the tree trunk. The change in Eigen-frequency over time is related to the change in mass and stiffness which are depended on the water content of the tree. We looked at two driving forces for the tree-mass-spring system. Firstly, trees were pulled back and suddenly released. Eigen-frequencies were easily identified from the oscillation observed. Secondly, the wind was used as a driving force and Eigen-frequencies were estimated in the frequency domain.

  17. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonitesand buffer backfilling materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? SWCC and infiltration process of bentonitesand mixtures is researched. ? The ku of bentonitesand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. ? Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonitesand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (ku) of bentonitesand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and ku increase slightly with the concentration of Na+ in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in ku, which is the safe value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of ku.

  18. Salt content impact on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand buffer backfilling materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Zhang Huyuan, E-mail: p1314lvp@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Jia Lingyan; Cui Suli [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SWCC and infiltration process of bentonite-sand mixtures is researched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The k{sub u} of bentonite-sand mixtures was evaluated as the buffer backfilling materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salt content impacting on the unsaturated property of bentonite-sand materials is small. - Abstract: Bentonite mixed with sand is often considered as possible engineered barrier in deep high-level radioactive waste disposal in China. In the present work, the vapor transfer technique and water infiltration apparatus were used to measure the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (k{sub u}) of bentonite-sand mixtures (B/S) effected by salt content. Results show, the water-holding capacity and k{sub u} increase slightly with the concentration of Na{sup +} in pore liquid increasing from 0 g/L to 12 g/L, similar with the solution concentration of Beishan groundwater in China. Salt content in the laboratory produced only one order of magnitude increase in k{sub u}, which is the 'safe' value. The different pore liquid concentrations used in this study led to small differences in thickness of diffuse double layer of bentonite in mixtures, this might explain why some differences have been found in final values of k{sub u}.

  19. Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

    2012-04-01

    Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed sandy loam sample exhibited drop of the flow rates between the first and second infiltration run and a gradual recovery of flow rates and water contents during the third run. This supports the assumption that air that was trapped in the flow pathways when water infiltrated in wet soil was dissolved in degassed water during the third run. The TDR probes show the dynamics of the quasi-saturated water content changes. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  20. Rapid nondestructive bulk density and soil-water content determination by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is a promising tool that may help provide measurements needed to obtain finer resolution in soil-water content and bulk density for water uptake studies or detailed investigation of root-soil interactions. Research was conducted on soil collected from the A horizon of Mexico silt loam (Udollic Ochraqualfs) and the B2t horizon of Crider silt loam (Typic Paleudalfs) to evaluate the relationship between linear attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids and water. Air-dry soil (3 and CT slices or tomographs were taken before and after water was added. The relationship between attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil solids was linear for both of the soils evaluated. Parameter values for the Mexico soil compared favorably with those determined on previous data collected from Metea fine sandy loam (Arenic Hapludalfs). Differences in the parameter values for the Mexico and Crider soils were attributed to differences in Fe content. An experiment with Fe added to the Mexico soil was conducted that verified the effect of Fe content on the attenuation coefficients. Approximately 98% of the variation between the attenuation coefficients and volume fraction of soil water was accounted for by using linear regression relationships after correction for swelling. Results from this study indicate that it may be possible to develop a universal relationship for computed tomography data vs. soil bulk density and water content; however, more research is needed to characterize the influence of sample size on the calibration relationship

  1. The uptake of zinc-65 by oats in relation to soil water content and root growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of water content of the topsoil on root growth and 65Zn absorption by oats were measured. Seminal roots of oats grew through a labelled uptake layer that had been initially wetted to various water contents. The uptake layer was separated from adjacent layers of wet sand or soil by a thin layer of wax. When the uptake layer was wetted initially and allowed to dry during the uptake period, water content affected root growth and 65Zn uptake similarly. 65Zn absorption by unbranched seminal roots decreased lineraly as soil water suction increased from 0.3 to 5 bar. Nevertheless significant amounts of 65Zn were absorbed (40% of that from wet soil) even when the soil water suction exceeded 15 bar, with negligible concomitant uptake of water. Provided the roots had access to water in a subjacent layer, rates of 65Zn absorption from dry soil increased with the age of plants. The exudation of mucilage from the root was enhanced locally where the soil was dry. The mucilage may facilitate the transfer of zinc to the root in dry soil. (author)

  2. Rheological behaviour of wormlike micelles : effect of salt content

    OpenAIRE

    Candau, S.; Khatory, A.; Lequeux, F.; Kern, F.

    1993-01-01

    We study the effect of salt content on the rheological properties of wormlike micelles formed from hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in presence of potassium bromide (KBr) and of cetylpyridinium chlorate (CPClO3) in presence of sodium chlorate (ClO3Na). Upon increasing the salt concentration, at fixed surfactant concentration, we observe for both systems a maximum of the zero-shear viscosity ?0. For salt concentrations less than that corresponding to the maximum of [MATH], the variati...

  3. The use of a photodiode for measuring soil-water content by ?-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial PIN silicon photodiode was tested as detector for soil water-content measurements by the ?-ray attenuation method. The results indicate that the portable photodiode is adequate for this application and can replace the more complicated and expensive method of NaI(Ti) scintillation detection. (Author)

  4. Municipal water reuse for urban agriculture in Namibia: Modeling nutrient and salt flows as impacted by sanitation user behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltersdorf, L; Scheidegger, R; Liehr, S; Dll, P

    2016-03-15

    Adequate sanitation, wastewater treatment and irrigation infrastructure often lacks in urban areas of developing countries. While treated, nutrient-rich reuse water is a precious resource for crop production in dry regions, excessive salinity might harm the crops. The aim of this study was to quantify, from a system perspective, the nutrient and salt flows a new infrastructure connecting water supply, sanitation, wastewater treatment and nutrient-rich water reuse for the irrigation of agriculture, from a system perspective. For this, we developed and applied a quantitative assessment method to understand the benefits and to support the management of the new water infrastructure in an urban area in semi-arid Namibia. The nutrient and salt flows, as affected by sanitation user behavior, were quantified by mathematical material flow analysis that accounts for the low availability of suitable and certain data in developing countries, by including data ranges and by assessing the effects of different assumptions in cases. Also the nutrient and leaching requirements of a crop scheme were calculated. We found that, with ideal sanitation use, 100% of nutrients and salts are reclaimed and the slightly saline reuse water is sufficient to fertigate 10m(2)/cap/yr (90% uncertainty interval 7-12m(2)/cap/yr). However, only 50% of the P contained in human excreta could be finally used for crop nutrition. During the pilot phase fewer sanitation users than expected used slightly more water per capita, used the toilets less frequently and practiced open defecation more frequently. Therefore, it was only possible to reclaim about 85% of nutrients from human excreta, the reuse water was non-saline and contained less nutrient so that the P was the limiting factor for crop fertigation. To reclaim all nutrients from human excreta and fertigate a larger agricultural area, sanitation user behavior needs to be improved. The results and the methodology of this study can be generalized and used worldwide in other semi-arid regions requiring irrigation for agriculture as well as urban areas in developing countries with inadequate sanitation infrastructure. PMID:26773431

  5. Study on the water content measurement of tomatoes by near infrared technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huanyu; Ying, Yibin; Bao, Yingshi

    2005-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a promising technique for nondestructive measurement of farm products quality measurement and information acquisition. The objective of this research was to study the potential of NIR diffuse reflectance spectroscopy as a way for nondestructive measurement of the water content of tomato leaves. A total of 120 leaves were collected as experimental materials, 80 of them were used to form a calibration data set. In order to set up a calibration model, NIR spectral data were collected in the spectral region between 800 nm and 2500 nm by NIR spectrometer of Nicolet Corporation, and water content of tomato leaves by a drying chest, four different mathematical treatments were used in spectrums processing: different wavelength range, baseline correction, smoothing, first and second derivative. Depending on data preprocessing and PLS analysis, we can get best prediction model when we select original spectra by baseline correction at full wavelength range (800-2500nm), the best model of water content has a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 1.91, a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.731 and a calibration correlation coefficient (R) value of 0.96265. It is conclude that the FTNIR method with Smart Near-IR UpDRIFT accessory can accurate estimate the water content in tomato leaves.

  6. Dysprosium(III) hydroxide coprecipitation system for the separation and preconcentration of heavy metal contents of table salts and natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the determination of trace amounts of Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II) and Mn(II) is described, that combines atomic absorption spectrometry-dysprosium hydroxide coprecipitation. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), centrifugation time, sample volume, etc. were investigated on the recoveries of analyte ions. The effects of concomitant ions were also examined. The recoveries of the analyte ions were in the range of 95.00-104.00%. The detection limits corresponding to three times the standard deviation of the blank for the analytes were in the range of 14.1-25.3 ?g/L. The method was applied to the determination of lead, copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and manganese ions in natural waters and table salts good results were obtained (relative standard deviations 95%)

  7. [Simulation of effects of soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement with reclaimed water irrigation by ENVIRO-GRO model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Si-Dan; Chen, Wei-Ping; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    In order to promote safe irrigation with reclaimed water and prevent soil salinisation, the dynamic transport of salts in urban soils of Beijing under irrigation of reclaimed water was simulated by ENVIRO-GRO model in this study. The accumulation trends and profile distribution of soil salinity were predicted. Simultaneously, the effects of different soil properties and plants on soil water-salt movement and salt accumulation were investigated. Results indicated that soil salinity in the profiles reached uniform equilibrium conditions by repeated simulation, with different initial soil salinity. Under the conditions of loam and clay loam soil, salinity in the profiles increased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions, while under the condition of sandy loam soil, salinity in the profiles decreased over time until reaching equilibrium conditions. The saturated soil salinity (EC(e)) under equilibrium conditions followed an order of sandy loam soil salinity were also different in these three types of plants. In addition, the growth of the plants was not influenced by soil salinity (except clay loam), but mild soil salinization occurred under all conditions (except sandy loam). PMID:23379130

  8. Effect Of Salt Water On Compressive Strength Of Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Preeti Tiwari; Rajiv Chandak

    2014-01-01

    In this research work, the effect of salt water on the compressive strength of concrete was investigated. This paper therefore presents the result and findings of an experimental research on the effect of salt water on compressive strength of concrete. For this concrete cubes were cast using fresh wi and salt water for a design mix of M-30 1:1.8:3.31 by weight of concrete, and 0.45 water- cement ratio. Half of concrete cubes were cast and cured with fresh water and remaining ha...

  9. Ion specificity at a low salt concentration in water-methanol mixtures exemplified by a growth of polyelectrolyte multilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yunchao; Wang, Tao; Liu, Lvdan; Liu, Guangming; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2013-03-19

    By use of a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), we have investigated the specific ion effect on the growth of poly(sodium 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonate)/poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) multilayer at a salt concentration as low as 2.0 mM in water-methanol mixtures. QCM-D results demonstrate that specific ion effect can be observed in methanol and water-methanol mixtures though it is negligible in water. Moreover, the specific ion effect is amplified as the molar fraction of methanol (xM) increases from 0% to 75% but is weakened again with the further increase of xM from 75% to 100%. Nuclear magnetic resonance measurements reveal that the counterion-polyelectrolyte segment interactions may not account for the observed ion specificity. By extending the Collins' concept of matching water affinities to methanol and water-methanol mixtures, we suggest that the ion-solvent interactions and the resulted counterion-charged group interactions are responsible for the occurrence of the specific ion effect. The conductivity measurements indicate that water and methanol molecules may form complexes, and the change of relative proportion of complexes with the xM causes the amplification or weakening of the specific ion effect. PMID:23425248

  10. Zirconium recovery process for spent zircaloy components from light water reactor (LWR) by electrorefining in molten salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simulated channel boxes were electrolyzed in molten salts in order to fix the electrorefining conditions. The decontamination effects were investigated by using the samples of the actual spent channel boxes, which were obtained, at Hamaoka nuclear power station by Chubu Electric Power Inc. This paper outlined zircaloy wastes treatment and zirconium recovery process by electrorefining in molten salts. (author)

  11. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  12. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds

  13. Domestic Material Content in Molten-Salt Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-26

    This study lists material composition data for two concentrating solar power (CSP) plant designs: a molten-salt power tower and a hypothetical parabolic trough plant, both of which employ a molten salt for the heat transfer fluid (HTF) and thermal storage media. The two designs have equivalent generating and thermal energy storage capacities. The material content of the saltHTF trough plant was approximately 25% lower than a comparably sized conventional oil-HTF parabolic trough plant. The significant reduction in oil, salt, metal, and insulation mass by switching to a salt-HTF design is expected to reduce the capital cost and LCOE for the parabolic trough system.

  14. Resolving precipitation induced water content profiles by inversion of dispersive GPR data: A numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangel, Adam R.; Moysey, Stephen M. J.; van der Kruk, Jan

    2015-06-01

    Surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) measurements have significant potential for monitoring dynamic hydrologic processes at multiple scales in time and space. At early times during infiltration into a soil, the zone above the wetting front may act as a low-velocity waveguide that traps GPR waves, thereby causing dispersion and making interpretation of the data using standard methods difficult. In this work, we show that the dispersion is dependent upon the distribution of water within the waveguide, which is controlled by soil hydrologic properties. Simulations of infiltration were performed by varying the n-parameter of the Mualem-van Genuchten equation using HYDRUS-1D; the associated GPR data were simulated to evaluate the influence of dispersion. We observed a notable decrease in wave dispersion as the sharpness of the wetting front profile decreased. Given the sensitivity of the dispersion effect to the wetting front profile, we also evaluated whether the water content distribution can be determined through inversion of the dispersive GPR data. We found that a global grid search combined with the simplex algorithm was able to estimate the average water content when the wetted zone is divided into 2 layers. This approach was incapable, however, of representing the gradational nature of the water content distribution behind the wetting front. In contrast, the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was able to constrain a piece-wise linear function to closely match the shallow gradational water content profile. In both the layered and piece-wise linear case, the sensitivity of the dispersive data dropped sharply below the wetting front, which in this case was around 20 cm, i.e., twice the average wavelength, for a 900 MHz GPR survey. This study demonstrates that dispersive GPR data has significant potential for capturing the early-time dynamics of infiltration that cannot be obtained with standard GPR analysis approaches.

  15. Non-destructive determination of the biomass and the water content in plants by radiometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-destructive and non-contacting methods described here provide a continuous determination of the biomass, of the water content and derived from this, of the dry matter. The range of application for the absorption of beta- and gamma-rays extends for Tl-204 from 5 to 170 mg/cm2 absorber thickness and for Am-241 from 800 to 2700 mg/cm2. The detection limit of 0.53 mg/cm2 for the absorption of beta-rays and that of 0.4 mg/cm2 for the absorption of microwaves allow the determinaton of the absorber thickness of dry matter up to a relative error of 2%. The detection limits, however, increase according to the biological variation caused by the inhomogeneities in leaf and bulb, but also by slight leaf movements due to variations of the water content in the leaf. (orig.)

  16. Effects of salt content on leaching properties of synthetic bituminized wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The leaching properties of soluble components (Na+, NO3?, and NO2?) in synthetic bituminized wastes with various characteristics, such as salt content, salt composition, and bitumen matrix, were quantitatively evaluated by means of an aqueous leaching test. Micropores were formed in the bituminized waste by the leaching of soluble salts. The penetrability of bitumen and the salt content affected the size and the shape of the micropores observed by scanning electron microscopy. The linear relationship between leaching fraction of the soluble components and square root of leaching time was observed, and the diffusion coefficient of the soluble component was determined by Fick's law. The diffusion coefficients of ionic species of interest were similar to each other. Moreover, the diffusion coefficient agreed among bituminized wastes with the same salt content, even if salt composition and bitumen matrix were different. The diffusion coefficient of the component was proportional to the salt content in the synthetic bituminized wastes. It was found that the salt content in the bituminized waste was one of the key factors to determine the diffusion coefficient. (author)

  17. Sobre os efeitos vasomotres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas solues anisotonicas de clorto de sodio / Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Antonio Augusto, Xavier.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Kraw [...] kow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  18. Sobre os efeitos vasomotres exercidos pela agua distilada e pelas solues anisotonicas de clorto de sodio Vaso-motricity induced by distilled water and anisotonic salt solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Augusto Xavier

    1939-01-01

    Full Text Available The writer reports experiments done with distilled water and hypotonic and hypertonic salt solutions of definite osmotic concentrations. The experiments were performed according to the Laewen-Trendelenburg technic using the vascular system of the frog's hind legs, and according to the Pissemski-Krawkow method using the capillaries of the rabbit's ear. Both preparations react to distilled water by marked vaso-constriction, the same phenomenon taking place in the case of the hypotonic salt solutions. The lower the concentration pf the hypotonic salt solution the stronger the vaso-constriction obtained. With hypertonic salt solutions was observed a strong but rather transient vaso-dilatation followed by secondary vaso-constriction. The later results were found only in the experiments with the frog's hind legs.

  19. Salicylic acid improves acclimation to salt stress by stimulating abscisic aldehyde oxidase activity and abscisic acid accumulation, and increases Na+ content in leaves without toxicity symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szepesi, Agnes; Csiszr, Joln; Gmes, Katalin; Horvth, Edit; Horvth, Ferenc; Simon, Mria L; Tari, Irma

    2009-06-01

    Pre-treatment with 10(-4)M salicylic acid (SA) in hydroponic culture medium provided protection against salinity stress in tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Rio Fuego). The effect of 10(-7) or 10(-4)M SA on the water status of plants was examined in relation to the biosynthesis and accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA) in order to reveal the role of SA in the subsequent response to salt stress. Both pre-treatments inhibited the K+(86Rb+) uptake of plants, reduced the K+ content of leaves, and caused a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(w)). Due to the changes in the cellular water status, SA triggered the accumulation of ABA. Since the decrease in psi(w) proved to be transient, the effect of SA on ABA synthesis may also develop via other mechanisms. In spite of osmotic adaptation, the application of 10(-4)M, but not 10(-7)M SA, led to prolonged ABA accumulation and to enhanced activity of aldehyde oxidase (AO1, EC.1.2.3.1.), an enzyme responsible for the conversion of ABA-aldehyde to ABA, both in root and leaf tissues. AO2-AO4 isoforms from the root extracts also exhibited increased activities. The fact that the activities of AO are significantly enhanced both in the leaves and roots of plants exposed to 10(-4)M SA, may indicate a positive feedback regulation of ABA synthesis by ABA in this system. Moreover, during a 100mM NaCl treatment, higher levels of free putrescine or spermine were found in these leaves or roots, respectively, than in the salt-stressed controls, suggesting that polyamines may be implicated in the protection response of the cells. As a result, Na+ could be transported to the leaf mesophyll cells without known symptoms of salt toxicity. PMID:19185387

  20. Click chemistry from organic halides, diazonium salts and anilines in water catalysed by copper nanoparticles on activated carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso Valds, Francisco; Moglie, Yanina; Radivoy, Gabriel; Yus Astiz, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    An easy-to-prepare, reusable and versatile catalyst consisting of oxidised copper nanoparticles on activated carbon has been fully characterised and found to effectively promote the multicomponent synthesis of 1,2,3-triazoles from organic halides, diazonium salts, and aromatic amines in water at a low copper loading.

  1. Vitamin (B1, B2, B3 and B6) content and oxidative stability of Gastrocnemius muscle from dry-cured hams elaborated with different nitrifying salt contents and by two ageing times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratacs-Cubars, M; Srraga, C; Castellari, M; Gurdia, M D; Regueiro, J A Garca; Arnau, J

    2013-11-01

    The effect of the amount of added nitrate and nitrate plus nitrite to dry-cured hams on the vitamin (B1, B2, B3, B6) content, the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activities and the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was assessed in Gastrocnemius muscle at the end of two ripening processes. Five different curing mixtures (Hi-N: 600 KNO3; Lo-N: 150 KNO3; Hi-Mix: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2; Lo-Mix: 150 KNO3+150 NaNO2; Hi-Mix/Asc: 600 KNO3+600 NaNO2+500 sodium ascorbate, expressed as mg of salts added on surface per kg of fresh ham) were evaluated in dry-cured hams aged for 11.5months (standard process, SP) and 22months (long process, LP). Minor differences in target parameters between the hams due to the process were found. The amount of nitrate when it was added alone or as a mixture of nitrate and nitrite, as well as the ascorbate addition to dry-cured hams did not affect vitamin B1, B2 and B3 contents. The level of vitamin B6 was affected by both the amount and the mixture of salts; the addition of nitrite reduced around 40% the content of vitamin B6, but it was not affected by nitrate or ascorbate. The activity of SOD and CAT decreased with the amount of nitrate and nitrite, while GSHPx and TBARS resulted unaffected. PMID:23811105

  2. Determination of Deuterium Content of Deuterium Depleted Water by Gas Chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An applicable deuterium analysis method of deuterium depleted water was experimentally studied by used H2 carrier and the chromatogram calumniation with 5A molecular sieve at natural temperature after decompounding the deuterium depleted water by magnesium at 500 degree C. Decompounding the water using the magnesium instead of uranium can avoid the radioactive danger and the isotope effect was smaller than zinc. Determination by chromatograph at natural temperature can overcome the operation complexity at liquid nitrogen and the difficulty of determining the emend factor of the H2, HD, D2. The results showed that standard curved using standard sample of super low heavy water can reversely extend to below the natural deuterium abundance, deuterium content of deuterium depleted water can be calculated. The relative standard deviation of the method<5%, recovery rate with added specimen with three addition level was 96.6%-99.9%, the combined relative uncertainty was 0.166. It can meet the need of quantitative analysis during the deuterium depleted water manufacturing. (authors)

  3. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  4. Soil tensile strength as affected by time, water content and bulk density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pytka

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of soil water conditions and soil compaction on the age-hardening process of loamy sand and silty loamy sand in relation to the tensile strength. Soil samples from Germany (loamy sand and Poland (silty loamy sand were moulded at water contents 10 %, 15 %, 20 % and compacted up to 1.35, 1.45, 1.55g/cm3. The samples were stored at constant water content. At intervals after moulding, the tensile strengths of the moist samples were measured with the indirect tension (Brazilian test. The maximum aging time was 10 days. With increasing time the soils became stronger at the same water content. The higher the initial water content the less pronounced was the strength increase with time. Furthermore, increase in bulk density resulted in higher values of tensile strength. Two different mechanisms of age-hardening could be identified.

  5. Determination of uranium and thorium in solar salts by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium and thorium contents of solar salts were measured by neutron activation analysis. In advance of neutron irradiation, U and Th were concentrated and separated from some interfering elements by neutralization in which they were precipitated with aluminium hydroxide from solutions obtained by dissolving the salts in water or dilute nitric acid solution. The uranium and thorium concentrations determined were from several hundred ppt to 10 ppb.It was strongly indicated that uranium tends to remain in the solution (brine from seawater)phase in the process of solar salt production while thorium tends to transfer to the solid (solar salt)phase. (author) 10 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Continuous and nondestructive determination of the water content in plants by absorption of microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nondestructive method to determine watermass in plants or parts of plants is described. The attenuation of microwaves with a frequency of 26.5 GHz is measured. They are generated with high stability by a semiconductor device (gunn diode) and detected by a crystal diode. The continuous measurements give information on the dynamics of water content, and derived from thus, of stomate states. Transmitter and receiver can be installed distant from the test object, far enough to avoid shadow effects. Plexiglass or glass do not contribute to the attenuation of microwave radiation. It is possible to measure through climatic chambers constructed of these materials

  7. Separation of ethanol and water by extractive distillation with salt and solvent as entrainer: process simulation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I. D., Gil; A. M., Uyazn; J. L., Aguilar; G., Rodrguez; L. A., Caicedo.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to simulate and analyze an extractive distillation process for azeotropic ethanol dehydration with ethylene glycol and calcium chloride mixture as entrainer. The work was developed with Aspen Plus simulator version 11.1. Calculation of the activity coefficients employed to d [...] escribe vapor liquid equilibrium of ethanol - water - ethylene glycol - calcium chloride system was done with the NRTL-E equation and they were validated with experimental data. The dehydration process used two columns: the main extractive column and the recovery column. The solvent to feed molar ratio S/F=0.3, molar reflux ratio RR=0.35, number of theoretical stages Ns=18, feed stage Sf=12, feed solvent stage SS=3, and feed solvent temperature TS=80 C, were determined to obtain a distillate with at least 99.5 % mole of ethanol. A substantial reduction in the energy consumption, compared with the conventional processes, was predicted by using ethylene glycol and calcium chloride as entrainer.

  8. RELATIVE WATER CONTENT AS INFLUENCED BY VARIED PLANT DENSITIES AND IRRIGATION LEVELS IN PIGEONPEA

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, K.; V. Praveen Rao; A. Srinivas; A. Siva Sankar; V. Govardhan

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on a sandy clay soil at Agricultural Research Station, Basanthpur, Medak district of Andhra Pradesh during the kharif seasons of 2009-10 and 2010-11 to study the variation in relative water content (RWC) of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L) Mill Sp.) as influenced by plant densities and supplemental irrigation through drip. Three varied plant densities of pigeonpea (D155,555 plants ha- 1, D241,666 plants ha-1 and D333,333 plants ha-1) were tested as 3 main tre...

  9. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR, using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U. For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox, at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes; in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD. Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  10. Role of the central opioid system in the inhibition of water and salt intake induced by central administration of IL-1beta in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro E Silva, E; Luz, P A; Magrani, J; Andrade, L; Miranda, N; Pereira, V; Fregoneze, J B

    2006-02-01

    In the present study we investigated, the effect of third ventricle injections of IL-1beta on water and salt intake in fluid-deprived and sodium-depleted rats. Central administration of IL-1beta significantly reduced water and salt intake in fluid-deprived animals and decreased salt intake in sodium-depleted rats. The antidipsogenic and antinatriorexic effects elicited by the central administration of IL-1beta were suppressed by pretreatment with central injections of the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone (10 mug) in the two different experimental protocols used here (water deprivation and sodium depletion). In addition, central administration of IL-1beta failed to modify the intake of a 0.1% saccharin solution when the animals were submitted to a "dessert test" or to induce any significant locomotor deficit in the open-field test. The present results suggest that the activation of the central interleukinergic component by IL-1beta impairs the increase in water and salt intake induced by water deprivation and the enhancement in sodium appetite that follows sodium depletion. The data also support the conclusion that the antidipsogenic and antinatriorexic effects resulting from the activation of the central interleukinergic component rely on an opioid-dependent, naloxone-blockable system. PMID:16554088

  11. Exploring the use of Low-intensity Ultrasonics as a Tool for Assessing the Salt Content in Pork Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca-Prez, J. V.; de Prados, M.; Martnez-Escriv, G.; Gonzlez, R.; Mulet, A.; Benedito, J.

    Meat industry demands non-destructive techniques for the control of the salting process to achieve a homogeneous final salt content in salted meat products. The feasibility of using low-intensity ultrasound for characterizing the salting process of pork meat products was evaluated. The ultrasonic velocity (V) and time of flight (TF) were measured by through-transmission and pulse-echo methods, respectively, in salted meat products. Salting involved an increase of the V in meat muscles and a decrease of the time of flight in whole hams. Measuring the V before and after salting, the salt content could be estimated. Moreover, online monitoring of the salting process by computing the TF could be considered a reliable tool for quality control purposes.

  12. Laboratory experiments of salt water intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Elena; Camporese, Matteo; Salandin, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The problem of saltwater intrusion in coastal aquifers is dealt with by the proper setup of a sand-box device to develop laboratory experiments in a controlled environment. Saline intrusion is a problem of fundamental importance and affects the quality of both surface water and groundwater in coastal areas. In both cases the phenomenon may be linked to anthropogenic (construction of reservoirs, withdrawals, etc.) and/or natural (sea-level excursions, variability of river flows, etc.) changes. In recent years, the escalation of this problem has led to the development of specific projects and studies to identify possible countermeasures, typically consisting of underground barriers. Physical models are fundamental to study the saltwater intrusion problem, since they provide benchmarks for numerical model calibrations and for the evaluation of the effectiveness of solutions to contain the salt wedge. In order to study and describe the evolution of the salt wedge, the effectiveness of underground barriers, and the distance from the coast of a withdrawal that guarantees a continuous supply of fresh water, a physical model has been realized at the University of Padova to represent the terminal part of a coastal aquifer. It consists of a laboratory flume 500 cm long, 30 cm wide and 60 cm high, filled for an height of 45 cm with glass beads with a d50 of 0.6 mm and a uniformity coefficient d60/d10~= 1.5. The material is homogeneous and characterized by a porosity of about 0.37 and by an hydraulic conductivity of about 1.810-3 m/s. Upstream from the sand-box, a tank, continuously supplied by a pump, provides fresh water to recharge the aquifer, while the downstream tank, filled with salt water, simulates the sea. The volume of the downstream tank (~= 2 m3) is about five times the upstream one, so that density variations due to the incoming fresh water flow are negligible. The water level in the two tanks is continuously monitored by means of two level probes and is controlled by a couple of spillways placed in both the upstream and downstream tanks, ensuring a constant gradient during the tests. The flow rate spilled from the downstream tank is continuously measured so that it is possible to control the fulfillment of the stationary condition in the system. While we use food dye to mark saltwater to give an easy visual evidence of the salt wedge, the spatio-temporal evolution of the concentration is monitored during the experiment by using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). An electrode system specifically realized to be effective in the flume is used during the experiments to achieve electrical resistance measurements, later converted in concentrations through the calibration of a petrophysical law. The presentation describes the laboratory setup and the data achieved from the developed experiments compared with numerical simulations obtained by the SUTRA software.

  13. Iron clad wetlands: Soil iron-sulfur buffering determines coastal wetland response to salt water incursion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoepfer, Valerie A.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Burgin, Amy J.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal freshwater wetland chemistry is rapidly changing due to increased frequency of salt water incursion, a consequence of global change. Seasonal salt water incursion introduces sulfate, which microbially reduces to sulfide. Sulfide binds with reduced iron, producing iron sulfide (FeS), recognizable in wetland soils by its characteristic black color. The objective of this study is to document iron and sulfate reduction rates, as well as product formation (acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and chromium reducible sulfide (CRS)) in a coastal freshwater wetland undergoing seasonal salt water incursion. Understanding iron and sulfur cycling, as well as their reduction products, allows us to calculate the degree of sulfidization (DOS), from which we can estimate how long soil iron will buffer against chemical effects of sea level rise. We show that soil chloride, a direct indicator of the degree of incursion, best predicted iron and sulfate reduction rates. Correlations between soil chloride and iron or sulfur reduction rates were strongest in the surface layer (0-3 cm), indicative of surface water incursion, rather than groundwater intrusion at our site. The interaction between soil moisture and extractable chloride was significantly related to increased AVS, whereas increased soil chloride was a stronger predictor of CRS. The current DOS in this coastal plains wetland is very low, resulting from high soil iron content and relatively small degree of salt water incursion. However, with time and continuous salt water exposure, iron will bind with incoming sulfur, creating FeS complexes, and DOS will increase.

  14. Effects of Paclobutrazol and Salt Stress on Growth and Ionic Contents in Two Cultivars of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokoofeh Hajihashemi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ treatment on salinity tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum, were investigated for two salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars. Salinity with PBZ treatment significantly reduced the plant height and length and area of sixth leaf in both cultivars. With increasing salinity, a gradually reduction was observed in roots length, fresh and dry weight of shoot and sixth leaf and relative water content of PBZ-applied plants in both cultivars. The greatest reduction was observed at 225 mM NaCl with 60 or 90 ppm PBZ. Salinity with PBZ treatment increased Na+ content in the sixth leaf and roots of both cultivars and the greatest increase was observed in salt-sensitive cultivar. In PBZ -treated plants, K+, P and N contents increased in line with elevating salinity in both cultivars, except at 90 ppm PBZ in salt-sensitive cultivar. Very similar effects of NaCl and PBZ treatment were observed for both cultivars regardless of their salinity susceptibility. The results suggest that PBZ treatment may be useful to improve the salt tolerance of wheat via reducing the negative effect of salinity on vegetative growth and the Na+ content and increasing the K+, P and N contents.

  15. Synthesis of a-aminonitriles catalyzed by montmorillonite K10 in the presence of dicationic phosphonium salt in water under ultrasonic effect

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIRIM, i?dem; YOLAAN, i?dem; AYDO?AN, Feray

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of a-aminonitriles was successfully accomplished by the 1-pot 3-component reaction of several aldehydes with (S)-a-phenylethylamine and sodium cyanide in water in the presence of montmorillonite K10 and dicationic phosphonium salt under ultrasonic effect with good yields and moderate diastereoselectivities.

  16. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-11-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscopeenergy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasmamass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition.

  17. Characterizing and Exploring the Formation Mechanism of Salt Deposition by Reusing Advanced-softened, Silica-rich, Oilfield-produced Water (ASOW) in Superheated Steam Pipeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Xu, Ying; Lin, Senmin; Dai, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    To dispose of large volumes of oilfield-produced water, an environmentally friendly method that reuses advanced-softened, silica-rich, oilfield-produced water (ASOW) as feedwater was implemented via a 10-month pilot-scale test in oilfield. However, salt deposition detrimental to the efficiency and security of steam injection system was generated in superheated steam pipeline. To evaluate the method, the characteristics and formation mechanism of the deposition were explored. The silicon content and total hardness of the ASOW were 272.20?mg/L and 0.018?mg/L, respectively. Morphology and composition of the deposition were determined by scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), laser Raman spectroscopy (LRS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Na2Si2O5, Na2CO3 and trace silanes were identified in the deposition. In addition, the solubility of the deposition was about 99%, suggesting that it is very different from traditional scaling. The results of a simulation experiment and thermal analysis system (TGA and TG-FTIR) proved that Na2CO3 and Si(OH)4 (gas) are involved in the formation of Na2Si2O5, which is ascribed mainly to the temperature difference between the superheated steam and the pipe wall. These findings provide an important reference for improving the reuse of ASOW and reducing its deposition. PMID:26608736

  18. Monitoring of water quality around tailing pond at PPGN by chemical and radioactivity content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research purpose is to monitor the water quality of soil around the waste pond through measurement of chemical constituents (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and U) and water radioactivity. The water quality around tailing pond can be identified by analyzed the water sample from 4 control wells as deep as 20 m located on the fourth side of the pool and 2 comparison wells with a distance of 50 m and 100 m from the tailing pond. The measurement of chemical constituents of control well water and comparison well water was done by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The measurement of Uranium content was done by using UV - VIS Spectrophotometer, whereas measurement of radioactivity was measured by Eberline SPA-1 α detector associated with a counter scalers Ludlum model 1000. Determination of the quality of well water was used Storet method. Measurement result obtained in 2010 : the chemical content water in the control wells; Ca (2.31 - 2.91) mg/l, Mg (0.22 - 0.34) mg/l, Fe (0.024 - 0.033) mg/l, Ni (0.0028 - 0.030) mg/l, Zn (0.0019 - 0.025) mg/l, Cu (0.038 - 0.060) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.041) mg/l, Mn (0.004 - 0.005) mg/l, U (0.051 - 0.298) mg/l, Ni (0.003 - 0.004) mg/l, Zn (0.03 - 0.04) mg/l, Cu (0.004 - 0.004) mg/l, Pb (0.003 - 0.003), Mn (0.005 - 0.021) mg/l, and radioactivity of Uranium was (0.025. 10-3 - 0.028.10-3) Bq/l. The radioactivity of control wells in the first quarter (2.321 - 2.635).10-2 Bq/l, second quarter (2.162 - 2.823).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.424 - 2.931 ).10-2 Bq/l, fourth quarter (2.283 - 2.643).10-2 Bq/l. The radioactivity of comparison well water in the firs quarter was (2.931 - 2.931).10-2 Bq/l., second quarter (2.162 - 2.550).10-2 Bq/l, third quarter (2.931- 2.931 ).10-2, fourth quarter (2.450 - 2.632).10-2 Bq/l. This result showed that there are no pollutant release into the environment. Based on the evaluation result using Storet and US-EP A (Environmental Protection Agency) method, the water quality around tailing pond of PPGN - BATAN is expressed as A in class classification (best). (author)

  19. Caffeine dimerization: effects of sugar, salts, and water structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi

    2015-10-01

    Sugars and salts strongly affect the dimerization of caffeine in water. Such a change of dimerization, considered to be crucial for bitter taste suppression, has long been rationalized by the change of "water structure" induced by the additives; "kosmotropic" (water structure enhancing) salts and sugars promote dimerization, whereas "chaotropic" (water structure breaking) salts suppress dimerization. Based on statistical thermodynamics, here we challenge this consensus; we combine the rigorous Kirkwood-Buff theory of solution with the classical isodesmic model of caffeine association. Instead of the change of water structure, we show that the enhancement of caffeine dimerization is due to the exclusion of additives from caffeine, and that the weakening of dimerization is due to the binding of additives on caffeine. PMID:26222923

  20. WATER, SALT AND CLIMATE CHANGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The application of synchrotron based research for understanding the fate of contaminants in water, soil, and atmosphere is proving to be beneficial for scientists and regulators. Drawing the connection of a contaminated site to knowledge of metal speciation provides direct eviden...

  1. Water sorption on silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts for cooling system applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts (SHS) were prepared. ? The water uptake was evaluated as function of the pore size and salt content. ? A novel method based on mass spectrometry (MS) was proposed and successfully used. ? The MS was applied to obtain the water sorption isobars on SHS. ? The thermodynamic cooling cycle for SHSwater pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83. - Abstract: Silica gel and zeolite 13X were used as supports for the hygroscopic salts LiBr, MgCl2 and CaCl2. The silica- and zeolite-supported hygroscopic salts were characterized by N2 adsorption at ?196 C and X-ray diffraction. The silica support was mesoporous whereas the zeolite support was microporous. The dispersion of CaCl2 was much lower on the zeolite than on the silica support, and the microporosity of the zeolite was blocked by the salt. CaCl2 supported on silica was a superior water sorbent versus zeolite, and CaCl2 supported on zeolite was an inferior sorbent versus zeolite. Complete water desorption from silica-supported hygroscopic salts can be effectively reached at a relatively low temperature (100110 C), making them candidates for efficient cooling or air conditioning applications. The isosteric heat of water desorption was obtained from the isobars and was dependent on the amount of water adsorbed. Finally, the thermodynamic cooling cycle for the SCa33 (silica gel containing 33 wt.% CaCl2) water vapour pair showed a coefficient of performance of 0.83.

  2. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  3. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention

  4. How subaerial salt extrusions influence water quality in adjacent aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Razieh; Zarei, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ezzat

    2015-12-01

    Brines supplied from salt extrusions cause significant groundwater salinization in arid and semi-arid regions where salt rock is exposed to dissolution by episodic rainfalls. Here we focus on 62 of the 122 diapirs of Hormuz salt emergent in the southern Iran. To consider managing the degradation effect that salt extrusions have on the quality of adjoining aquifers, it is first necessary to understand how they influence adjacent water resources. We evaluate here the impacts that these diapirs have on adjacent aquifers based on investigating their geomorphologies, geologies, hydrologies and hydrogeologies. The results indicate that 28/62 (45%) of our sample of salt diapirs have no significant impact on the quality of groundwater in adjoining aquifers (namely Type N), while the remaining 34/62 (55%) degrade nearby groundwater quality. We offer simple conceptual models that account for how brines flowing from each of these types of salt extrusions contaminate adjacent aquifers. We identify three main mechanisms that lead to contamination: surface impact (Type A), subsurface intrusion (Type B) and indirect infiltration (Type C). A combination of all these mechanisms degrades the water quality in nearby aquifers in 19/62 (31%) of the salt diapirs studied. Having characterized the mechanism(s) by which each diapir affects the adjacent aquifer, we suggest a few possible remediation strategies to be considered. For instance, engineering the surface runoff of diapirs Types A and C into nearby evaporation basins would improve groundwater quality.

  5. Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of drinking water salt deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soktoev, B. R.; Rikhvanov, L. P.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article presents the research results on the features of element and mineral composition of salt deposits (limescale) formed in household conditions in heat exchanging equipment. The major part of limescale is represented by two species of calcium carbonate - calcite and aragonite. We have shown that high concentrations of chemical elements in the limescale promote the formation of their own mineral forms (sulphates, silicates, native forms) in salt deposits. Detecting such mineral formations suggests the salt deposits of drinking water to be a long-term storage media which can be used in the course of eco-geochemical and metallogenic studies.

  6. Effect of salts on the interfacial tension of asphaltene-toluene/water interface : prediction by Poisson-Boltzmann modified model and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Se, R.A.G.; Lima, E.R.A.; Nele, M.; Tavares, F.W. [Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). School of Chemistry; Bostrom, M. [Linkoping Univ., Linkoping (Sweden). Dept. of Physics, Chemistry and Biology

    2008-07-01

    This study presented new experimental data of interfacial tension of toluene-asphaltene/water systems in the presence of different salts. In order to study the stability of emulsions caused by the presence of salts in produced water, it is important to understand the interaction of ions at the interface. It was simpler to use model systems consisting of asphaltenes dissolved in toluene because of the complexity of the interfacially active components in oil. The study involved a Brazilian crude oil in which asphaltene was precipitated with a 1:15 ratio of n-heptane and solutions of water with salts LiCl, KCl, NaCl, NaI, NaBr and KBr in concentrations of 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 M. The study investigated salt mixtures NaCl/NaBr and NaCl/NaI in the proportions 0.8:0.2, 0.6:0.4, 0.4:0.6, 0.2:0.8 molar. The experimental data was modeled using a modified Poisson-Boltzmann equation that considered dispersion in order to take into account the influence of ions at the interface.

  7. Evaluation of a method to measure water content in porous media by employing ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Leonardo Senz Cruz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure water content in porous media, such as solis and grains, was developed as a real time nondestructive test. The method was based on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers as a sensor system. Transmiters and receivers was developed to administrate the sensors system and ultrasonic signal. Transmiters and receivers are placed facing each other and located inside the porous media 10 cm apart. The method was evaluated in two porous meda, namely a column 30 cm coarse sand and a paddy rice variety Fedearroz 50, in order to evaluate the sensors system performance in two different porous media with different water holder capacity. Tools were developed for data acquisition, capacity of 16 analog signal, 12 bits resolution. Electronic circuits, C++ OPP programming and Matlab were used. The results showed a monotonically increment of millivolts as a response of the transducer as the water content was decreasing

  8. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake, and the current fortification level of salt ( 13 ppm) seems reasonable.

  9. Free water content and monitoring of healing processes of skin burns studied by microwave dielectric spectroscopy in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the dielectric properties of human skin in vivo at frequencies up to 10 GHz using a time-domain reflectometry method with open-ended coaxial probes. Since ?-dispersion results from the reorientation of free water molecules, the free water content of skin is quantitatively determined by dielectric measurements. The free water content of finger skin increased by about 10% after soaking in 37 0C water for 30 min, and it systematically decreased again through the drying process, as expected. Thus this analytical method has been applied to the study of skin burns. The free water content of burned human cheek skin due to hydrofluoric acid was significantly lower than that of normal skin, and the burned skin recovered through the healing process. In the case of a human hand skin burn due to heat, although the free water content was almost the same as that of normal skin at the beginning, it decreased during the healing process for the first 10 days, then began to increase. Although the number of test subjects was one for each experiment, it was shown that free water content is a good indicator for evaluating skin health and can be well monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

  10. Salt content of school meals and comparison of perception related to sodium intake in elementary, middle, and high schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Sohyun; Park, Seoyun; Kim, Jin Nam; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Soo Bin; Kim, Hye-Kyeong

    2013-01-01

    Excessive sodium intake leading to hypertension, stroke, and stomach cancer is mainly caused by excess use of salt in cooking. This study was performed to estimate the salt content in school meals and to compare differences in perceptions related to sodium intake between students and staffs working for school meal service. We collected 382 dishes for food from 24 schools (9 elementary, 7 middle, 8 high schools) in Gyeonggi-do and salt content was calculated from salinity and weight of individ...

  11. Organic tank safety project: Effect of water partial pressure on the equilibrium water contents of waste samples from Hanford Tank 241-BY-108

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water content plays a crucial role in the strategy developed by Webb et al. to prevent propagating or sustainable chemical reactions in the organic-bearing wastes stored in the 20 Organic Tank Watch List tanks at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Because of water's importance in ensuring that the organic-bearing wastes continue to be stored safely, Duke Engineering and Services Hanford commissioned the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to investigate the effect of water partial pressure (PH2O) on the water content of organic-bearing or representative wastes. Of the various interrelated controlling factors affecting the water content in wastes, PH2O is the most susceptible to being controlled by the and Hanford Site's environmental conditions and, if necessary, could be managed to maintain the water content at an acceptable level or could be used to adjust the water content back to an acceptable level. Of the various waste types resulting from weapons production and waste-management operations at the Hanford Site, Webb et al. determined that saltcake wastes are the most likely to require active management to maintain the wastes in a Conditionally Safe condition. A Conditionally Safe waste is one that satisfies the waste classification criteria based on water content alone or a combination of water content and either total organic carbon (TOC) content or waste energetics. To provide information on the behavior of saltcake wastes, two waste samples taken from Tank 241-BY-108 (BY-108) were selected for study, even though BY-108 is not on the Organic Tanks Watch List because of their ready availability and their similarity to some of the organic-bearing saltcakes

  12. Effects of salt stress on the growth, physiological responses, and glycoside contents of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianwei; Chen, Aimeng; Li, Dandan; Yi, Bin; Wu, Wei

    2013-06-19

    This study examined the effects of three different NaCl concentrations (60, 90, and 120 mM) on the growth, physiological responses, and steviol glycoside composition of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni for 4 weeks. The results showed that the total dry weight decreased by 40% at 120 mM NaCl but remained the same at 60 and 90 mM NaCl. As salt concentration increased, chlorophyll contents decreased markedly by 10-70%, whereas the increments of the antioxidant enzyme activities were 1.0-1.6, 1.2-1.3, and 2.0-4.0 times, respectively, for superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase. The proline contents in salt-treated plants were 17-42 times higher than that in control. Moreover, leaf possessed significantly higher K? content and K?/Na? ratio than stem and root for all salt treatments. In addition, 90-120 mM NaCl treatment notably decreased the content of rebaudioside A (RA) and stevioside (ST) by 16.2-38.2%, whereas the increment of the ratio of RA/ST of salt-treated plants was 1.1-1.4 times. These results indicate that S. rebaudiana is moderately tolerant to salt stress. Hypohaline soil can be utilized in the plantation of S. rebaudiana and may be profitable for optimizing the steviol glycoside composition. PMID:23711229

  13. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  14. Does overhead irrigation with salt affect growth, yield, and phenolic content of lentil plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakoula Anastasia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead irrigation of lentil plants with salt (100 mM NaCl did not have any significant impact on plant growth, while chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv/Fm were affected. Under such poor irrigation water quality, the malondialdehyde content in leaves was increased due to the lipid peroxidation of membranes. In seeds, the total phenolic content (TPC was correlated to their total antioxidant capacity (TAC. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS detection showed that flavonoids (catechin, epicatechin, rutin, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid and resveratrol appear to be the compounds with the greatest influence on the TAC values. Catechin is the most abundant phenolic compound in lentil seeds. Overhead irrigation with salt reduced the concentration of almost all phenolic compounds analyzed from lentil seed extracts.

  15. Separation and Fixation of Toxic Components in Salt Brines Using a Water-Based Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts to implement new water quality standards, increase water reuse and reclamation, and minimize the cost of waste storage motivate the development of new processes for stabilizing waste water residuals that minimize waste volume, water content and the long-term environmental risk from related by products. This work explores the use of an aqueous-based emulsion process to create an epoxy/rubber matrix for separating and encapsulating waste components from salt laden, arsenic contaminated, amorphous iron hydrate sludges. Such sludges are generated from conventional water purification precipitation/adsorption processes, used to convert aqueous brine streams to semi-solid waste streams, such as ion exchange/membrane separation, and from other precipitative heavy metal removal operations. In this study, epoxy and polystyrene butadiene (PSB) rubber emulsions are mixed together and then combined with a surrogate sludge. The surrogate sludge consists of amorphous iron hydrate with 1 part arsenic fixed to the surface of the hydrate per 10 parts iron mixed with sodium nitrate and chloride salts and water. The resulting emulsion is cured and dried at 80 C to remove water. Microstructure characterization by electron microscopy confirms that the epoxy/PSB matrix surrounds and encapsulates the arsenic laden amorphous iron hydrate phase while allowing the salt to migrate to internal and external surfaces of the sample. Salt extraction studies indicate that the porous nature of the resulting matrix promotes the separation and removal of as much as 90% of the original salt content in only one hours time. Long term leaching studies based on the use of the infinite slab diffusion model reveal no evidence of iron migration or, by inference, arsenic migration, and demonstrate that the diffusion coefficients of the unextracted salt yield leachability indices within regulations for non-hazardous landfill disposal. Because salt is the most mobile species, it is inferred that arsenic leaches from the host material at an even slower rate, making the waste forms amenable to unregulated land disposal options. These result indicate that the environmentally-benign, water-based emulsion processing of epoxy/PSB polymeric hosts show great promise as a separation and fixation technology for treating brine streams from wastewater treatment facilities

  16. Characterization of water content dynamics and tracer breakthrough by 3-D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) under transient unsaturated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrer, Markus; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of preferential flow and transport is still a major challenge but may be improved employing noninvasive, tomographic methods. In this study, 3-D time lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was employed during infiltration on an undisturbed, unsaturated soil core in a laboratory lysimeter. A tracer breakthrough was conducted during transient conditions by applying a series of short-term infiltrations, simulating natural precipitation events. The electrical response was quantitatively validated using data from a multicompartment suction sampler. Water content probes were also installed for ground-truthing of ERT responses. Water content variations associated with an infiltration front dominated the electrical response observed during individual short-term infiltration events, permitting analysis of water content dynamics from ERT data. We found that, instead of the application of an uncertain petrophysical function, shape measures of the electrical conductivity response might be used for constraining hydrological models. Considering tracer breakthroughs, the ERT observed voxel responses from time lapse tomograms at constant water contents in between infiltration events were used to quantitatively characterize the breakthrough curve. Shape parameters of the breakthrough derived from ERT, such as average velocity, were highly correlated with the shape parameters derived from local tracer breakthrough curves observed in the compartments of the suction plate. The study demonstrates that ERT can provide reliable quantitative information on both, tracer breakthroughs and water content variations under the challenging conditions of variable background electrical conductivity of the pore solution and non steady-state infiltration.

  17. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue; Knuthsen, Pia; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Andersen, Niels Lyhne; Okholm, Bolette; Saxholt, Erling

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed. The...... increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98% of...... the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  18. Alleviation of adverse impact of salt in Phaseolus vulgaris L. by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the possible role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in enhancing the salt (0, 0.15; 0.25 M NaCl) tolerance in Phaselous vulgaris. The impact of AMF in presence and absence of salt stress was studied on growth, nodulation, and attributes of systemic acquired resistance in P. vulgaris. The results suggested that salinity caused significant decrease in growth performance, nodulation, pigment system, tissue water content, and membrane stability index. Also, salt stress caused significant decrease in phytohormones , polyamines, membrane stability index and tissue water content of P. vulgaris. On the other hand, lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), total phenol content and antioxidant enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase) increases as salt concentration increases. The accumulations of sodium, chlorine were significantly increased by salt stress, however the concentration of potassium, phosphorous and calcium decreased. Overall, the results indicate that AMF alleviate the adverse impact of salinity on the plant growth, anabolic physiological attributes and nutrient uptake by reducing the oxidative damage of salt through strengthening and modulation the systemic acquired resistance. (author)

  19. Measurements of Iodine Contents in Some Iodized Salts (Consumer Level) in (Myanmar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of iodine contents in iodized salt (consumer level) of six brands in Myanmar were measured by means of volumetric method (WHO recommended) and vibrational spectroscopic technique. The results optained from both methods were in good agreement within the statistical error

  20. Attraction by repulsion: compounds with like charges undergo self-assembly in water that improves in high salt and persists in real biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Graham A E; Daze, Kevin D; Pea Diaz, Jorge A; Fagen, Noah; Shaurya, Alok; Ma, Manuel C F; Collins, Mary S; Johnson, Darren W; Zakharov, Lev N; Hof, Fraser

    2016-02-01

    We report a family of highly anionic calixarenes that form discrete homo-dimeric assemblies in pure water, that get stronger in high salt solutions, and that remain assembled in complex, denaturing solutions like real urine. The results reveal the potential of like-charged subunits for self-assembly in high-salt solutions and biological fluids. PMID:26762538

  1. Neuroendocrine regulation of salt and water metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. McCann

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurons which release atrial natriuretic peptide (ANPergic neurons have their cell bodies in the paraventricular nucleus and in a region extending rostrally and ventrally to the anteroventral third ventricular (AV3V region with axons which project to the median eminence and neural lobe of the pituitary gland. These neurons act to inhibit water and salt intake by blocking the action of angiotensin II. They also act, after their release into hypophyseal portal vessels, to inhibit stress-induced ACTH release, to augment prolactin release, and to inhibit the release of LHRH and growth hormone-releasing hormone. Stimulation of neurons in the AV3V region causes natriuresis and an increase in circulating ANP, whereas lesions in the AV3V region and caudally in the median eminence or neural lobe decrease resting ANP release and the response to blood volume expansion. The ANP neurons play a crucial role in blood volume expansion-induced release of ANP and natriuresis since this response can be blocked by intraventricular (3V injection of antisera directed against the peptide. Blood volume expansion activates baroreceptor input via the carotid, aortic and renal baroreceptors, which provides stimulation of noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus and possibly also serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei. These project to the hypothalamus to activate cholinergic neurons which then stimulate the ANPergic neurons. The ANP neurons stimulate the oxytocinergic neurons in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei to release oxytocin from the neural lobe which circulates to the atria to stimulate the release of ANP. ANP causes a rapid reduction in effective circulating blood volume by releasing cyclic GMP which dilates peripheral vessels and also acts within the heart to slow its rate and atrial force of contraction. The released ANP circulates to the kidney where it acts through cyclic GMP to produce natriuresis and a return to normal blood volume

  2. An Integrated Approach to Identify Water Resources for Human Consumption in an Area Affected by High Natural Arsenic Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Armiento

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the occurrence of arsenic in the groundwater system of the Cimino-Vico volcanic area (central Italy, different parts of which are currently widely used for local drinking water supply and for irrigation. The system shows a complex groundwater circulation, including a continuous basal aquifer, discontinuous perched aquifers, groundwater flows at high altitude, and local interactions with rising thermal fluids. Data on arsenic contents in 250 water samples from springs and wells and in 68 samples from rock outcrops were measured and combined with already existing information. Results highlight that arsenic concentrations of groundwater are influenced by type of aquifer, groundwater flow path, arsenic content of the aquifer rocks, and interaction with fluids rising from depth. Waters circulating in the Vico volcanics, one of the prominent rock units of the area, have high concentrations of arsenic, both for the basal and the perched aquifers. A large fraction of the waters associated with this rock unit have arsenic contents higher than 10 ?g/L (82 percent for basal, 40 percent for perched. In contrast, waters circulating in the Cimino volcanics have lower arsenic contents: 30 percent of the basal and 10 percent of the perched aquifers have arsenic concentrations greater than 10 ?g/L. Through an integrated approach, including leaching tests to investigate the arsenic behavior concerning the water-rock interaction and a geostatistical modeling of data, it has been possible to identify and tentatively quantify suitable water resources that have arsenic content not exceeding the quality standards for human consumption.

  3. Brines formed by multi-salt deliquescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, S; Rard, J; Alai, M; Staggs, K

    2005-11-04

    The FY05 Waste Package Environment testing program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory focused on determining the temperature, relative humidity, and solution compositions of brines formed due to the deliquescence of NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures. Understanding the physical and chemical behavior of these brines is important because they define conditions under which brines may react with waste canister surfaces. Boiling point experiments show that NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} and NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3}-Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} salt mixtures form brines that transform to hydrous melts that do not truly 'dry out' until temperatures exceed 300 and 400 C, respectively. Thus a conducting solution is present for these salt assemblages over the thermal history of the repository. The corresponding brines form at lower relative humidity at higher temperatures. The NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has a mutual deliquescence relative humidity (MDRH) of 25.9% at 120 C and 10.8% at 180 C. Similarly, the KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture has MDRH of 26.4% at 120 C and 20.0% at 150 C. The KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture salts also absorb some water (but do not appear to deliquesce) at 180 C and thus may also contribute to the transfer of electrons at interface between dust and the waste package surface. There is no experimental evidence to suggest that these brines will degas and form less deliquescent salt assemblages. Ammonium present in atmospheric and tunnel dust (as the chloride, nitrate, or sulfate) will readily decompose in the initial heating phase of the repository, and will affect subsequent behavior of the remaining salt mixture only through the removal of a stoichiometric equivalent of one or more anions. Although K-Na-NO{sub 3}-Cl brines form at high temperature and low relative humidity, these brines are dominated by nitrate, which is known to inhibit corrosion at lower temperature. Nitrate to chloride ratios of the NaCl-KNO{sub 3}-NaNO{sub 3} salt mixture are about NO{sub 3}:Cl = 19:1. The role of nitrate on corrosion at higher temperatures is addressed in a companion report (Dixit et al., 2005).

  4. Sewage sludge sanitization by ionizing radiation. Part 2. Water content influence on sludge hygienization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decrease of specific filter resistance of anaerobically digested sludge (5% dry matter) is independent up to the dose 3 kGy at dose rate in the range 0.2-2.2 kGy/h when irradiated by 60Co. Irradiation by 4.5 MeV electrons has almost the same effect. Costs analysis shows that the sludge dewatering by either organic or inorganic flocculants is less expensive than by irradiation. Lowering of microbial concentration remains the main purpose of sludge irradiation. A combination of belt filter press and electron accelerator seems to be technically and economically very promising. The dose dependence of the concentrations of 8 types of bacteria was estimated up to the dose of 12 kGy in sludge with 5.24 and 95% content of dry matter. No distinct differences in the dose dependences by dry matter content were found. (author)

  5. Surfactant enhanced wetting and salt leaching of soil contaminated by crude oil and brine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, I.; McNabb, D.H.; Johnson, R.L. [Soil Remediation Research, Vegreville, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    As a pre-treatment of bioremediation, leaching of salts from an agriculture top soil contaminated with crude oil and brine was inhibited by severe water repellency resulting from the large difference in surface tension between water and soil aggregates coated by crude oil. Surfactant solutions were found effective in reducing soil water repellency and improving salt leaching. An intermittent leaching procedure further improved leaching efficiency by allowing diffusion of salt from soil interpores to aggregate surface. As a result, electric conductivity (EC) of the contaminated soil was reduced from 11.8 dS cm{sup -1} to 2.6 dS cm{sup -1} when the soil was leached with a non-ionic surfactant (0.05 N, SN-70, Witco Inc.) using 1.6 L kg{sup -1} water. Dissolved hydrocarbons into the leachate was 106 mg L{sup -1} counting for 3.5% of total oil content.

  6. Elemental content in deionized water by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed to evaluate minor and trace elements in the water during different water purification steps of a deionized water production plant, located at CENA, by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique, using Ga as internal standard for elemental quantification. This approach was capable of determining Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ge, As, Se, Br, Rb at concentrations higher than 40-100 ?g L-1, and for K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V and Sr at concentrations higher than sub mg L-1 in the water samples. TXRF spectrometer encompasses an X-ray tube with a Mo target with a Zr filter. The elemental characteristic X-rays were recorded by a Si(Li) semiconductor detector and the X-ray spectra deconvoluted by AXIL software. (author)

  7. Origin of fluid inclusion water in bedded salt deposits, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt horizons in the Palo Duro Basin being considered for repository sites contain fluid inclusions which may represent connate water retained in the salt from the time of original salt deposition and/or external waters which have somehow penetrated the salt. The exact origin of this water is important to the question of whether or not internal portions of the salt deposit have been, and are likely to be, isolated from the hydrosphere for long periods of time. The 18O/16O and D/H ratios measured for water extracted from solid salt samples show the inclusions to be dissimilar in isotopic composition to meteoric waters and to formation waters above and below the salt. The fluid inclusions cannot be purely external waters which have migrated into the salt. The isotope data are readily explained in terms of mixed meteoric-marine connate evaporite waters which date back to the time of deposition and early diagenesis of the salt (>250 million years). Any later penetration of the salt by meteoric waters has been insufficient to flush out the connate brines

  8. Determining the water cut and water salinity in an oil-water flowstream by measuring the sulfur content of the produced oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technique for detecting water cut and water salinity in an oil/water flowstream in petroleum refining and producing operations is described. The fluid is bombarded with fast neutrons which are slowed down and then captured producing gamma spectra characteristic of the fluid material. Analysis of the spectra indicates the relative presence of the elements sulfur, hydrogen and chlorine and from the sulfur measurement, the oil cut (fractional oil content) of the fluid is determined, enabling the water cut to be found. From the water cut, water salinity can also be determined. (U.K.)

  9. Iodine nutrition: iodine content of iodized salt in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Liu, Yining; Dyke, Jason V

    2008-02-15

    Adequacy of iodine nutrition in the United States has lately been of concern. A major source of dietary iodine for the U.S. population is iodized salt. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) recommends 60-100 mg Kl/kg salt, equivalent to 46-76 mg l/kg salt. All U.S. iodized salt contains 45 mg l/kg according to labels. We collected samples of table salt from freshly opened containers from U.S. volunteers. A sample was sent to us when the can was first purchased. Subsets of volunteers sent further samples when the salt container became half-empty through normal use and a further final sample when the container was nearly finished. We also looked at iodine distribution homogeneity within individual containers, loss of iodine from salt upon exposure to humidity and sunlight, and upon short-term heating (dry and in solution) as may be encountered in cooking. Measurements were made in 0.01% w/v salt solutions by induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with 72Ge as an internal standard. The median and mean (+/-sd) I content in freshly opened top-of-the-can salt samples was 44.1 and 47.5 +/- 18.5 mg/kg (n=88, range 12.7-129 mg l/kg) and geometric mean and standard deviation of 44.70 and 1.41. Forty-seven of 88 samples fell below the USFDA recommended I content while 6 exceeded it. The homogeneity in a single can of salt varied greatly: in 5 samples taken from the same container from different depths, the iodine content varied by as little as 1.2x (8.3% coefficient of variance (CV)) to as much as 3.3x (49.3% CV) from one container/brand to another. Iodine is significantly lost upon high humidity storage but light or dry heat has little effect. There is much recent literature on iodine sufficiency and uptake inhibitors; there is also much misinformation and disinformation. We review the relevant literature and discuss our results with reference to the United States. PMID:18351111

  10. Salt taste inhibition by cathodal current

    OpenAIRE

    Hettinger, Thomas P.; Frank, Marion E.

    2009-01-01

    Effects of cathodal current, which draws cations away from the tongue and drives anions toward the tongue, depend on the ionic content of electrolytes through which the current is passed. To address the role of cations and anions in human salt tastes, cathodal currents of ?40 to ?80 A were applied to human subjects tongues through supra-threshold salt solutions. The salts were sodium chloride, sodium bromide, potassium chloride, ammonium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrate, sodium su...

  11. Nutrients content and accumulation by net melon plant cultivated with potassium and CO2 in the irrigation water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiaini Kano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluate the influence of carbonated water use and potassium doses on the nutrients content and accumulation by net melon plant. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Department of Agricultural Engineering of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo, Brazil. Two greenhouses were used, where one applied four potassium doses (50; 150; 300; and 600 kg.ha-1 of K2O through drip irrigation water. Only in one of the greenhouses 301.8 kg.ha-1 of CO2 were applied through irrigation water, however, in a separate way from the potassium application. The experimental design adopted was that of randomized blocks in a factorial scheme with 4 replications, totaling 32 plots, each of them consisting of 13 plants. Data on the nutrients content at each time and the nutrients accumulation at the cycle end underwent variance analysis and, in case of a significant effect, the regression analysis was used to check the effect of potassium doses and Tukeys test for comparing the effect of using CO2. One found out that CO2 application decreased the potassium and magnesium accumulation and, in general, caused an increase in the plants macronutrient content. Regarding the micronutrients, there was an increase in zinc accumulation at the melon plants shoot and the manganese and zinc content was higher in all the plant parts which received CO2 in the irrigation water.

  12. Extraction of vanadium from campo Alegre de Lourdes (BA, Brazil) Fe-Ti-V ore by partial reduction/magnetic concentration/salt roasting/hot water leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process under development at COPPE/UFRJ to rocover vanadium from a titaniferous magnetite type ore from Campo Alegre de Lourdes (Bahia, Brazil), throxgh magnetizing roasting/magnetic concentration/ salt roasting/hot water leaching, is described. The results of the experimental work carried cut up to present are in qualitative agrement with those of othar studies on salt roasting/water leaching of titaniferous magnetites. Is is discussed the existing relationship between the maximum percentags of vanadium extraction in the leaching and the salt roasting conditions. (author)

  13. Water, Vapor, and Salt Dynamics in a Hot Repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a new model study examining the high temperature nuclear waste disposal concept at Yucca Mountain using MULTIFLUX, an integrated in-drift- and mountain-scale thermal-hydrologic model. The results show that a large amount of vapor flow into the drift is expected during the period of above-boiling temperatures. This phenomenon makes the emplacement drift a water/moisture attractor during the above-boiling temperature operation. The evaporation of the percolation water into the drift gives rise to salt accumulation in the rock wall, especially in the crown of the drift for about 1500 years in the example. The deposited salts over the drift footprint, almost entirely present in the fractures, may enter the drift either by rock fall or by water drippage. During the high temperature operation mode, the barometric pressure variation creates fluctuating relative humidity in the emplacement drift with a time period of approximately 10 days. Potentially wet and dry conditions and condensation on salt-laden drift wall sections may adversely affect the storage environment. Salt accumulations during the above-boiling temperature operation must be sufficiently addressed to fully understand the waste package environment during the thermal period. Until the questions are resolved, a below-boiling repository design is favored where the Alloy-22 will be less susceptible to localized corrosion. (authors)

  14. Water Content of Lunar Alkali Fedlspar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, R. D.; Simon, J. I.; Wang, J.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Hauri, E. H.

    2016-01-01

    Detection of indigenous hydrogen in a diversity of lunar materials, including volcanic glass, melt inclusions, apatite, and plagioclase suggests water may have played a role in the chemical differentiation of the Moon. Spectroscopic data from the Moon indicate a positive correlation between water and Th. Modeling of lunar magma ocean crystallization predicts a similar chemical differentiation with the highest levels of water in the K- and Th-rich melt residuum of the magma ocean (i.e. urKREEP). Until now, the only sample-based estimates of water content of KREEP-rich magmas come from measurements of OH, F, and Cl in lunar apatites, which suggest a water concentration of water content of the magma ocean would have water contents of 320 ppm for the bulk Moon and 1.4 wt % for urKREEP from plagioclase in ferroan anorthosites. Results and interpretation: NanoSIMS data from granitic clasts from Apollo sample 15405,78 show that alkali feldspar, a common mineral in K-enriched rocks, can have approx. 20 ppm of water, which implies magmatic water contents of approx. 1 wt % in the high-silica magmas. This estimate is 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that estimated from apatite in similar rocks. However, the Cl and F contents of apatite in chemically similar rocks suggest that these melts also had high Cl/F ratios, which leads to spuriously low water estimates from the apatite. We can only estimate the minimum water content of urKREEP (+ bulk Moon) from our alkali feldspar data because of the unknown amount of degassing that led to the formation of the granites. Assuming a reasonable 10 to 100 times enrichment of water from urKREEP into the granites produces an estimate of 100-1000 ppm of water for the urKREEP reservoir. Using the modeling of and the 100-1000 ppm of water in urKREEP suggests a minimum bulk silicate Moon water content between 2 and 20 ppm. However, hydrogen loss was likely very significant in the evolution of the lunar mantle. Conclusions: Lunar granites crystallized between 4.3-3.8 Ga from relatively wet melts that degassed upon crystallization. The formation of these granites likely removed significant amounts of water from some mantle source regions, e.g. later mare basalts predicting derivation from a mantle with water. However, this would have been a heterogeneous pro-cess based on K distribution. Thus some, if not most of the mantle may not have been devolatilized by this process; as seen by water in volcanic glasses and melt inclusions.

  15. Simulation of water quality for Salt Creek in northeastern Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melching, Charles S.; Chang, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water-quality processes in the Salt Creek watershed in northeastern Illinois were simulated with a computer model. Selected waste-load scenarios for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions were simulated in the stream system. The model development involved the calibration of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency QUAL2E model to water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency (IEPA) for a diel survey on August 29-30, 1995, and the verification of this model with water-quality constituent concentration data collected by the IEPA for a diel survey on June 27-28, 1995. In-stream measurements of sediment oxygen demand rates and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (CBOD) decay rates by the IEPA and traveltime and reaeration-rate coefficients by the U.S. Geological Survey facilitated the development of a model for simulation of water quality in the Salt Creek watershed. In general, the verification of the calibrated model increased confidence in the utility of the model for water-quality planning in the Salt Creek watershed. However, the model was adjusted to better simulate constituent concentrations measured during the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. Two versions of the QUAL2E model were utilized to simulate dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations in the Salt Creek watershed for selected effluent discharge and concentration scenarios for water-quality planning: (1) the QUAL2E model calibrated to the August 29-30, 1995, diel survey, and (2) the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey. The results of these simulations indicated that the QUAL2E model adjusted to the June 27-28, 1995, diel survey simulates reliable information for water-quality planning. The results of these simulations also indicated that to maintain DO concentrations greater than 5 milligrams per liter (mg/L) throughout most of Salt Creek for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, the sewage-treatment plants (STP's) must discharge effluent with CBOD and total ammonia as nitrogen concentrations substantially below the permit limits. If the STP's discharge effluent with CBOD and total ammonia as nitrogen concentrations at the permit limits for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions, DO concentrations less than 5 mg/L are expected for all of Salt Creek downstream from Fullerton Avenue (river mile 23.1).

  16. Simultaneous analysis of silicon and boron dissolved in water by combination of electrodialytic salt removal and ion-exclusion chromatography with corona charged aerosol detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Masanobu; Sagara, Katsuya; Arai, Kaori; Nakatani, Nobutake; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Toda, Kei; Itabashi, Hideyuki; Kozaki, Daisuke; Sugo, Yumi; Watanabe, Shigeki; Ishioka, Noriko S; Tanaka, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-29

    Selective separation and sensitive detection of dissolved silicon and boron (DSi and DB) in aqueous solution was achieved by combining an electrodialytic ion isolation device (EID) as a salt remover, an ion-exclusion chromatography (IEC) column, and a corona charged aerosol detector (CCAD) in sequence. DSi and DB were separated by IEC on the H(+)-form of a cation exchange resin column using pure water eluent. DSi and DB were detected after IEC separation by the CCAD with much greater sensitivity than by conductimetric detection. The five-channel EID, which consisted of anion and cation acceptors, cathode and anode isolators, and a sample channel, removed salt from the sample prior to the IEC-CCAD. DSi and DB were scarcely attracted to the anion accepter in the EID and passed almost quantitatively through the sample channel. Thus, the coupled EID-IEC-CCAD device can isolate DSi and DB from artificial seawater and hot spring water by efficiently removing high concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) (e.g., 98% and 80% at 0.10molL(-1) each, respectively). The detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were 0.52?molL(-1) for DSi and 7.1?molL(-1) for DB. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=5) of peak areas were 0.12% for DSi and 4.3% for DB. PMID:26755416

  17. Barley growth and plant mineral content of plant grown from seeds irradiated by low doses of gamma irradiated and cultured on salt media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two barley White Arabi (WA) Pakistani PK30163 (PK) were irradiated with three doses 0,15 and 20 Gy of gamma irradiation. Then they were cultured on (Coic-Lesaint) nutrient media containing several concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, and 100 mmol). The irradiation doses did not affect the shoot growth of plants, whereas the combination between 15 Gy and 50 and 100 mmol NaCl decreased significantly the root growth. Doses of 0 and 20 Gy and 10 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on WA variety wet weight. The 20 Gy and 10 and 50 mmol NaCl significantly reduced the wet weight of PK variety. Dry weight of WA variety was decreased, when the seeds were irradiated by 15 Gy and cultured on media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. WA and PK content of Ca++ increased when weeds were irradiated by 15 Gy (WA) and 20 Gy (PK) and grown on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. The content of Mg++ and K++ of 2 varieties were increased, when seeds were cultured on media containing 10 mmol NaCl. Positive relationship was noticed between Na+ and Cl- contents and NaCl concentrations in the media. The NaCl concentrations correlated with the irradiation, negatively effected the total N % of the WA variety, whereas in the absence of irradiation, 10 and 50 mmol NaCl had a positive effect on the total N % of PK variety. Similar effects were produced for the last variety with the dose of 15 Gy and NaCl concentrations in the media. Concentration of 100 mmol NaCl positively affect PO4-- of unirradiated WA variety, but PO-- of all plants of PK variety was increased with 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The content of SO4-- of 2 varieties was increased, when the seeds were exposed to the irradiation of 15 and 20 Gy and cultured on a media containing 10 and 50 mmol NaCl. The ratio of Na/Cl, was generally different from 1 and the Cl- content was higher than Na+ content, in seedlings of both barley varieties. (author)

  18. Simulation of Exterior Conditions in Permanently Closed Soil Chambers by Controlling Air Flow, Soil Water Content, and Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile substances and gases resulting e.g. from degradation processes of chemicals in soils emit into the atmosphere and no chemical mass balance is complete without considering this path. Closed soil chambers allow the evaluation of this transfer to the atmosphere. This study deals with the influence of soil chambers with a glass plate cover on physical soil conditions in the chambers and the possibility to simulate the exterior conditions within the chambers. The water content immediately at the soil surface is an important factor for the microbial activity and the transfer of gaseous compounds to the atmosphere as well. It is monitored by specially designed water content sensors in 1 cm depth in the chamber and as control outside. Funnels with a cross section equal to the soil surface area of the chamber collect the rain water and channel it into the soil chamber. This results in soil water content in the chambers very similar to that outside. For the purpose of analysing 14CO2 and volatile 14C-compounds, air is permanently pumped through the chamber. In order to simulate natural conditions, the wind speed is measured 1 cm above the soil surface outside the chambers. A control circuit adjusts the air flow through the chamber to a value corresponding to the wind speed outside. Temperature measurements in 1 cm depth verify that there is no significant difference between the soil chamber and the control outside

  19. Effect of nitrogen, salt, and iron content in the growth medium and light intensity on lipid production by microalgae isolated from freshwater sources in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeesang, Chittra; Cheirsilp, Benjamas

    2011-02-01

    Four green microalgae (TRG, KB, SK, and PSU) identified as Botryococcus spp. by morphological criteria were isolated from lakes and freshwater ponds in southern Thailand. In nitrogen-rich medium the strains achieved a lipid content of 25.8%, 17.8%, 15.8% and 5.7%, respectively. A combination of nitrogen deficiency, moderately high light intensity (82.5 ?E m(-2) s(-1)) and high level of iron (0.74 mM) improved lipid accumulation in TRG, KB, SK, and PSU strains up to 35.9%, 30.2%, 28.4% and 14.7%, respectively. The lipid contents and plant oil-like fatty acid composition of the microalgae suggested their potential as biodiesel feedstock. PMID:20980142

  20. SURVEY ON IODINE CONTENT OF SALT CONSUMED IN TEHRAN AND THE EFFECT OF HEAT, LIGHT AND MOISTURE ON ITS CONTENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kimiagar

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Iodine deficiency disorders are among the most important health problems in Iran. Use of iodized salt is one of the oldest, most convenient and cheapest ways of IDD control, although not very easy to implement. Factors such as the chemical form of iodine, heat moisture, light and storage affect its stability. In this survey, salt iodine content at production site and the effect of heat, moisture and light on salt produced in 6 factories in Tehran were measured in May 1994. The results showed that salt iodized with potassium iodated at 40 ppm and stored for 15 days in favorable conditions, kept over 90% of its iodine content. Keeping the salt in solution form for 3.5 h resulted in 5% reduction of the iodine (P<0.0l. Storage at 50% relative humidity, sunlight and low ordinary lamp for 15 days did not affect the salt content appreciably. Boiling in uncovered pot for 3.5 h caused a 10% reduction of iodine. Only 61% of the surveyed families (84% in the north and 42% in the south consumed iodized salt which pointed to the need for further education of the public. The iodine content of the factories was between 29 to 50 ug/kg. In view of negligible loss of iodine during cooking, it seems the recommendation of adding salt at the end of cooking process is unnecessary and may cause hesitation on the part of the housewives to use iodized salt.

  1. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  2. Modeling of Soil Water and Salt Dynamics and Its Effects on Root Water Uptake in Heihe Arid Wetland, Gansu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijie Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Heihe River basin, China, increased salinity and water shortages present serious threats to the sustainability of arid wetlands. It is critical to understand the interactions between soil water and salts (from saline shallow groundwater and the river and their effects on plant growth under the influence of shallow groundwater and irrigation. In this study, the Hydrus-1D model was used in an arid wetland of the Middle Heihe River to investigate the effects of the dynamics of soil water, soil salinization, and depth to water table (DWT as well as groundwater salinity on Chinese tamarisk root water uptake. The modeled soil water and electrical conductivity of soil solution (ECsw are in good agreement with the observations, as indicated by RMSE values (0.031 and 0.046 cm3cm?3 for soil water content, 0.037 and 0.035 dSm?1 for ECsw, during the model calibration and validation periods, respectively. The calibrated model was used in scenario analyses considering different DWTs, salinity levels and the introduction of preseason irrigation. The results showed that (I Chinese tamarisk root distribution was greatly affected by soil water and salt distribution in the soil profile, with about 73.8% of the roots being distributed in the 2060 cm layer; (II root water uptake accounted for 91.0% of the potential maximal value when water stress was considered, and for 41.6% when both water and salt stress were considered; (III root water uptake was very sensitive to fluctuations of the water table, and was greatly reduced when the DWT was either dropped or raised 60% of the 2012 reference depth; (IV arid wetland vegetation exhibited a high level of groundwater dependence even though shallow groundwater resulted in increased soil salinization and (V preseason irrigation could effectively increase root water uptake by leaching salts from the root zone. We concluded that a suitable water table and groundwater salinity coupled with proper irrigation are key factors to sustainable development of arid wetlands.

  3. Bitumen and salt contents within the Quaternary sediments at Starunia palaeontological site and vicinity (Carpathian region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej J. KOTARBA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Geochemical studies were conducted on bitumen and salts saturating the Pleistocene and Holocene sediments from an abandoned ozokerite mine in Starunia. This location is noted for the discovery of remnants of a mammoth and three woolly rhinoceroses in 1907, and a nearly completely preserved rhinoceros carcass in 1929. The bitumen (oil and brines (chloride ions were preserving agents for the large Pleistocene mammals. The main mass of organic carbon hosted in the Pleistocene muds is related to bitumen originating from oil migrating from deep accumulations within the Boryslav-Pokuttya Unit. The highest analysed bitumen content is 9.26 wt%. The chloride ion content, originating from highly concentrated brines ascending from the salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds, vary from 0 to 4.66 wt% but this usually does not exceed 1 wt%. The natural pathways of underground fluids (oil, gas and water migration within the Quaternary sediments were disturbed by intensive ozokerite mining operations run between the last three decades of the 19th century and 1960. Therefore, the present preservation and conservation conditions of large, extinct mammals' remains can be different from those prevailing during the Pleistocene, when the mammals were buried. Taking into consideration the contents of the remaining preservatives: chloride and bitumen, the most favourable zone for fossils conservation and preservation is located close to boreholes Nos 22, 23, 28 and 36N, where the thickness of Pleistocene muds exceeds 2 metres. Generally, the spatial distributions of bitumen and chloride ion contents within the Holocene sediments and salt-bearing Miocene Vorotyshcha beds are very similar to those in the Pleistocene sediments.

  4. The effect of insoluble salts in bituminized waste products leached in pure water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our aim is to refine the current description of the leaching phenomenology with cross-linked characterizations of Bituminized Waste Products (BWP) in contact with water, at the early stages of the leaching as well as the longer ones. For that sake, three model BWP have been synthesised, varying the chemical content of salts and the grain size distribution. Water sorption, 1H CPMG NMR techniques are the main techniques used for this study. They have been compared to the kinetics of water uptake in leaching experiments. These results put into evidence the effect of insoluble salts in the water uptake kinetics. This effect may be attributed to a percolation mechanism enhanced with the presence of small hydrophobic salts. This is really new but has to be deeper evaluated before updating long term predictive modeling of BWP leaching, since we have not at that time correlated this effect with the salts release kinetics

  5. Determination of aluminium, silicon and magnesium content in water samples by nuclear physical methods using XRFA and the MT-25 microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of element contents in the samples have been determined by nuclear physical methods (XRFA, GAA and NAA). The possibility of determining Al, Si and Mg content in water samples has been studied. The detection limits of 0.03 mg/1 for Al, 0.3 mg/1 for Si and 0.1 mg/1 for Mg in water samples have been obtained. Monitoring of the aluminium and silicon content in water is important because the high concentration of aluminium or the low content of silicon in drinking water may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease

  6. Potentials and problems of sustainable irrigation with water high in salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Gal, Alon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity and need to expand agricultural productivity have led to ever growing utilization of poor quality water for irrigation of crops. Almost in all cases, marginal or alternative water sources for irrigation contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved salts. When salts are present, irrigation water management, especially in the dry regions where water requirements are highest, must consider leaching in addition to crop evapotranspiration requirements. Leaching requirements for agronomic success are calculable and functions of climate, soil, and very critically, of crop sensitivity and the actual salinity of the irrigation water. The more sensitive the crop and more saline the water, the higher the agronomic cost and the greater the quantitative need for leaching. Israel is a forerunner in large-scale utilization of poor quality water for irrigation and can be used as a case study looking at long term repercussions of policy alternatively encouraging irrigation with recycled water or brackish groundwater. In cases studied in desert conditions of Israel, as much of half of the water applied to crops including bell peppers in greenhouses and date palms is actually used to leach salts from the root zone. The excess water used to leach salts and maintain agronomic and economic success when irrigating with water containing salts can become an environmental hazard, especially in dry areas where natural drainage is non-existent. The leachate often contains not only salts but also agrochemicals including nutrients, and natural contaminants can be picked up and transported as well. This leachate passes beyond the root zone and eventually reaches ground or surface water resources. This, together with evidence of ongoing increases in sodium content of fresh produce and increased SAR levels of soils, suggest that the current policy and practice in Israel of utilization of high amounts of low quality irrigation water is inherently non- sustainable. Current trends and technologies allowing economically feasible desalination at large scales present a sustainable alternative where salts are removed from water prior to irrigation.

  7. Response of two genetically diverse wheat cultivars to salt stress at different growth stages: leaf lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of root zone salinity on two hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (S-24, salt-tolerant; MH-97, salt-sensitive) was appraised at different growth stages. Grains of the two cultivars were sown in Petri-plates at two salt levels (0 and 150 mM of NaCl). After 8 days of germination, the seedlings were transplanted into plastic tubs containing either 0 or 150 mM of NaCl in full strength Hoagland's nutrient solution. Changes in growth, lipid peroxidation and phenolic contents were examined in the cultivars at different growth stages (vegetative, booting and reproductive) under salt stress. Higher MDA contents were observed in cv. MH-97 as compared to that in S-24 under saline regimes at different growth stages. Salt-induced effect in terms of lipid peroxidation was more pronounced at the booting and reproductive stages as compared with that at the vegetative stage in both cultivars, however, the accumulation of leaf total phenolics was higher at the booting stage as compared with that at the other stages. A significant variability in salt response was found among different growth stages in both cultivars. Correlations among growth and biochemical parameters showed a significant negative correlation between growth and MDA content but a positive correlation between growth and phenolic contents, which shows that phenolic compounds were involved in the mechanism of salt tolerance of the two cultivars by showing enhanced antioxidant activity which resulted in reduced membrane damage and hence improved growth. (author)

  8. Service (salt) water system life-cycle management evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides a description of how the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging required by 10 CFR Part 54 was tailored at Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant to a system which had known reliability and availability concerns. This customizing of the requirements of the License Renewal Rule allowed many short term benefits to be gained from the implementation of a regulation normally associated only with extended plant operation. The Important to License Renewal Screening of the Salt Water Cooling System at Calvert Cliffs identified four important to license renewal functions performed by the system. The next step in the Integrated Plant Assessment for Aging would normally be to evaluate whether existing practices at the plant were effectively managing the age-related degradation of the components of the system so that these components could continue to perform the important functions through a license renewal term. In the case of the CCNPP Salt Water System, it was recognized early on that portions of the existing system needed to be replaced with an alternate design due to reliability, availability and maintainability concerns. Therefore, instead of evaluating the existing components for aging as part of the IPA process, it made more sense to determine the most beneficial replacement option for these components and design the new system components with aging management programs in mind. This report describes how the Salt Water System Life Cycle Management Evaluation was conducted, from its inception to the planning stages of implementing its results

  9. Brain water content. A misunderstood measurement?

    OpenAIRE

    Keep, Richard F.; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Brain edema is a major contributor to poor outcome following ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In animal models, edema has historically been quantified as a change in % brain water content (water content/wet weight). As described in this communication, this number can be misleading, as small changes in % brain water content actually reflect much bigger changes in brain swelling. Using either water content, expressed as g/g dry weight, or a measure of brain swelling, better reflect the impact...

  10. Attachment of Escherichia coli to Soil Aggregates as Affected by Aggregate Water Content and Presence of Manure Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guber, A.; Pachepsky, Y.; Shelton, D. R.; Yu, O.

    2006-12-01

    Many soils contain relatively large structural units that do not slack when soil is being wetted. Soil aggregates, obtained from dry soil samples by sieving, present a model media to study the interactions of intact soils with dissolved or suspended contaminants. Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and Echerichia coli is widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. The objective of this work was to test the hypothesis that Echerichia coli attachment to soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, aggregate water content, and presence of suspended manure colloids and dissolved organic compounds. Three aggregate fractions of 3.4-4.8 mm, 4.8-7.9 mm and 7.9-9.5 mm diameters were obtained by dry sieving of a loam soil. Air-dry and water-saturated aggregates were submerged in bacteria-water and bacteria-manure suspensions at four E. coli concentrations for 24 h. Amounts of attached E. coli were calculated from the difference between the amount applied and the amount remained in the suspension. Significant differences in E. coli attachment to air-dry and saturated aggregates were found. Both increase in water content and the presence of manure significantly decreased the Echerichia coli attachment to all aggregate fractions regardless of the aggregate size. Because E. coli transport in soil generally occurs through large pores between structural units when rainfall follows manure application, the decrease in bacteria attachment as a result of soil saturation and presence of suspended or dissolved manure components can enhance bacterial mobility and increase risk of ground water contamination.

  11. Sorption and permeation of solutions of chloride salts, water and methanol in a Nafion membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaluenga, J.P.G. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Barragan, V.M. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: vmabarra@fis.ucm.es; Seoane, B. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Bauza, C. [Department of Applied Physics I, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    The sorption of water-methanol mixtures containing a dissolved chloride salt in a Nafion 117 membrane, and their transport through the membrane under the driving force of a pressure gradient, have been studied. Both type of experiments was performed by using five different salts: lithium chloride, sodium chloride, cesium chloride, magnesium chloride and calcium chloride. It was observed that both the permeation flow through the membrane and the membrane swelling increase significantly with the methanol content of the solutions. These facts are attributed to the increase in wet membrane porosity, which brings about the increase of the mobility of solvents in the membrane, besides the increase of the mobility of the polymer pendant chains. In contrast, the influence of the type of electrolyte on the membrane porosity and permeability is not very important, with the exception of the CsCl solutions, which is probably due to the small hydration ability of the Cs{sup +} ion.

  12. PENENTUAN KADAR IODIDA DAN IODAT DALAM GARAM BERIODIUM DENGAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI CAIR KENERJA TINGGI PASANGAN ION [Determination of Iodate and Iodide Content in Iodized Salt By Ion Pair High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisnu Cahyadi1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Two species of iodine, i.e. iodide and iodate in commercial iodized salt were determined using ion pair HPLC. From 15 samples analysed, the iodide and iodate content ranged from 24,05 2,51 to 70,25 3,78 ppm and from 31,43 8,10 to 87,59 0,44 ppm, respectively. The method used was found satisfactory in terms of precission, accuracy, sensitivity and selectivity, therefore the method seem acceptable for the determination of iodide and iodate content in iodized salt samples.

  13. Evaluation of salt content in school meals / Avaliao do contedo de sal em refeies escolares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cludia Alexandra Colao Loureno, Viegas; Jorge, Torgal; Pedro, Graa; Maria do Rosrio Oliveira, Martins.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Considerando que a presso arterial elevada constitui um dos maiores fatores de risco para as doenas cardiovasculares e sua associao ao consumo elevado de sal, bem como o fato de as escolas serem considerados ambientes de excelncia para fomentar a aquisio de bons hbitos alimentares [...] e promover a sade, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o contedo de sal presente nas refeies escolares e a percepo dos consumidores sobre o sabor salgado. MTODOS: Foram recolhidas refeies nas cantinas das escolas, analisando-se todos os seus componentes (po, sopa e prato principal). A quantificao de sal foi realizada com um medidor de sal porttil. Para a avaliar a percepo dos consumidores foi desenvolvido e aplicado um questionrio aos alunos das escolas preparatrias e secundrias. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 798 componentes de refeies. O po apresentou o valor mais elevado de sal, com mdia de 1,35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). O contedo de sal nas sopas apresentou mdia de 0,72 g/100 g a 0,80 g/100 g (p=0,05) e, nos pratos principais, de 0,71 g/100 a 0,97 g/100 g (p=0,05). Em mdia, as refeies escolares disponibilizaram entre 2,83 e 3,82 g de sal por poro servida, o que representa de duas a cinco vezes mais em relao dose diria recomendada para crianas e jovens. Para a maioria dos estudantes, o sabor das refeies foi percebido como sendo nem salgado nem insosso, o que parece demonstrar adaptao intensidade/ quantidade de sal consumida. CONCLUSO: Escolhas alimentares saudveis e adequadas s so possveis se sustentadas por um ambiente que as facilite. Considerando o impacto que o consumo de sal tem na sade, em particular nas doenas crnicas, a implementao de estratgias de reduo de sal - nas indstrias, servios de catering e restaurantes -, imperativa, em particular direcionada para o pblico mais jovem. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: High blood pressure is a major rick factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is closely associated with salt intake. Schools are considered ideal environments to promote health and proper eating habits. Therefore the objective of this study was to evaluate the amount of salt in meals se [...] rved in school canteens and consumers' perceptions about salt. METHODS: Meals, including all the components (bread, soup, and main dish) were retrieved from school canteens. Salt was quantified by a portable salt meter. For food perception we constructed a questionnaire that was administered to high school students. RESULTS: A total of 798 food samples were analysed. Bread had the highest salt content with a mean of 1.35 g/100 g (SD=0.12). Salt in soups ranged from 0.72 g/100 g to 0.80 g/100 g (p=0.05) and, in main courses, from 0.71 g/100 to 0.97 g/100g (p=0.05). The salt content of school meals is high with a mean value of 2.83 to 3.82 g of salt per meal. Moreover, a high percentage of students consider meals neither salty nor bland, which shows they are used to the intensity/amount of salt consumed. CONCLUSION: The salt content of school meals is high, ranging from 2 to 5 times more than the Recommended Dietary Allowances for children, clearly exceeding the needs for this population, which may pose a health risk. Healthy choices are only possible in environments where such choices are possible. Therefore, salt reduction strategies aimed at the food industry and catering services should be implemented, with children and young people targeted as a major priority.

  14. On dissolution of salts in water and aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New concepts of the mechanism of chemical interactions between salts and water (water solutions) are put forward. It is shown experimentally, using tungstates by way of example, that in the most cases heterogeneous reactions in the systems above involve a stage, in which radical particles formed as a result of phase contact take part. The reactions mentioned, exchange reactions between tungstates, of bivalent metals and solutions of sodium carbonate, alkali (or inorganic acid) in particular, occur in the layer of liquid adjacent to the solid phase surface

  15. Salt stress increases content and size of glutenin macropolymers in wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaxiang; Shi, Zhiqiang; Tian, Youjia; Zhou, Qin; Cai, Jian; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Pu, Hanchun; Jiang, Dong

    2016-04-15

    Addition of salt solution in making wheat dough improves viscoelasticity. However, the effect of native salt fortification on dough quality is unclear. Here, wheat plants were subjected to post-anthesis salt stress to modify salt ion content in grains. The contents of Na(+) and K(+), high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), glutenin macropolyers (GMP) and amino acids in mature grains were measured. As NaCl concentration in soil increased, grain yield decreased while Na(+) and K(+) contents increased. The contents of amino acids, HMW-GS and GMP in grains also increased, especially when NaCl concentration exceeded 0.45%. Fraction of GMP larger than 10 μm was also increased. Na(+) and K(+) contents were significantly positively correlated to GMP and total HMW-GS contents, and to large GMP fraction. PMID:26616983

  16. A model of brine migration and water transport in rock salt supporting a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for calculating the loss of water as vapor or as brine in a borehole containing nuclear waste has been developed. The method accounts for vapor transport of water by Knudsen and bulk diffusion in the open porosity of the salt and brine movement by inclusion migration in the salt crystals and by extrusion from the interconnected porosity. Aside from the temperature distribution, the parameters that have the most profound effect on the water loss are the salt permeability, the closure of interconnected porosity by thermal expansion or stress, and the fraction of the grain boundary porosity, whether originally in the salt or created by trapped intragranular inclusions, which is interconnected and provides a fluid pathway to the drillhole. Reasonable estimates of the parameters of the model produce water release predictions that are consistent with field tests in rock salt

  17. Iodine in drinking water varies by more than 100-fold in Denmark. Importance for iodine content of infant formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, K M; Laurberg, P; Nhr, S; Jorgensen, A; Andersen, S

    1999-01-01

    water used for preparation. We found that iodine in tap water was a major determinant of regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark. Changes in water supply and possibly water purification methods may influence the population iodine intake level and the occurrence of thyroid disorders......The iodine intake level of the population is of major importance for the occurrence of thyroid disorders in an area. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the importance of drinking water iodine content for the known regional differences in iodine intake in Denmark and for the iodine content...... of infant formulas. Iodine in tap water obtained from 55 different locations in Denmark varied from <1.0 to 139 microg/l. In general the iodine content was low in Jutland (median 4.1 microg/l) with higher values on Sealand (23 microg/l) and other islands. Preparation of coffee or tea did not reduce...

  18. Measurement of water lost from heated geologic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes three methods used to measure the rate at which water is lost from heated geologic salt. The three methods were employed in each of a series of proof tests which were performed to evaluate instrumentation designed to measure the water-loss rate. It was found that the water lost from heated, 1-kg salt specimens which were measured according to these three methods was consistent to within an average 9 percent

  19. Improvement in growth and leaf water relation parameters of sunflower and safflower plants with foliar application of nutrient solutions under salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of nutrient solutions viz., KNO/sub 3/, H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/, Fe EDTA, and their mixture applied through foliar spray on growth and water relation was assessed in sunflower and safflower plants under salt stress. Salt stress impaired growth by reducing fresh weight of both the plants. Imposition of salt stress also had adverse effects on leaf water relation parameters, relative leaf water content (RLWC), water potential (sigma w), osmotic potential (sigma s) and turgor potential (sigma p). All the water relation parameters were improved with the foliar application of nutrient solutions. The ameliorative effect of mineral nutrition on fresh biomass of both the plants under saline conditions was due to the nutrients-induced improvement in plant water status. (author)

  20. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L?1). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper

  1. Biomarkers of waterborne copper exposure in the guppy Poecilia vivipara acclimated to salt water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Anderson Abel de Souza [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Ps-Graduao em Oceanografia Biolgica, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Hoff, Mariana Leivas Mller [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Klein, Roberta Daniele [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Ps-Graduao em Cincias Fisiolgicas Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Cardozo, Janaina Goulart [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Cincias Biolgicas, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Giacomin, Marina Mussoi [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Programa de Ps-Graduao em Cincias Fisiolgicas Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pinho, Grasiela Lopes Lees [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Instituto de Oceanografia, Av. Itlia km 8, 96201-900 Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: Acute effects of waterborne copper were evaluated in the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara. Fishes were acutely exposed to waterborne copper in salt water. Waterborne copper affects the response of several biochemical and genetic endpoints. Catalase, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation are responsive to copper exposure. Copper exposure induces DNA damages in fish erythrocytes. -- Abstract: The responses of a large suite of biochemical and genetic parameters were evaluated in tissues (liver, gills, muscle and erythrocytes) of the estuarine guppy Poecilia vivipara exposed to waterborne copper in salt water (salinity 24 ppt). Activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase), metallothionein-like protein concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, antioxidant capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and lipid peroxidation (LPO) were evaluated in liver, gills, and muscle. Comet assay score and nuclear abnormalities and micronucleated cell frequency were analyzed in peripheral erythrocytes. The responses of these parameters were evaluated in fish exposed (96 h) to environmentally relevant copper concentrations (5, 9 and 20 ?g L{sup ?1}). In control and copper-exposed fish, no mortality was observed over the experimental period. Almost all biochemical and genetic parameters proved to be affected by waterborne copper exposure. However, the response of catalase activity in liver, ROS, ACAP and LPO in muscle, gills and liver, and DNA damages in erythrocytes clearly showed to be dependent on copper concentration in salt water. Therefore, the use of these parameters could be of relevance in the scope of biomonitoring programs in salt water environments contaminated with copper.

  2. Water content reflectometer calibration and field use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Automated soil water content can be used to help determine upward water movement from a shallow water table. Apparent permittivity determined from dielectric probes is related to more than soil water content for soils high in smectite clays. The purpose of this study was to calibrate and use CS616 w...

  3. NMR investigation into water content of foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications are briefly discussed of NMR methods in measuring water content in food and food products. The NMR methods allow measuring water content in different fractions; physical (energy) water mobility from relaxation characteristics and mechanical water mobility from the self-diffusion coefficient; correlation time and coordination number pertaining to one molecule for each fraction. (B.S.)

  4. Salt and fat contents in preparations at commercial restaurants in Goinia-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Kunert

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the sodium and fat contents added to preparations of commercial restaurants in Goinia-GO, Brazil. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional and descriptive study. It included pay-per-weight restaurants with a medium standard menu and having as daily preparations white rice, beans and grilled chicken. Among the establishments with these characteristics, three agreed to participate. The production process of the above-mentioned preparations was accompanied for three non-consecutive days in each establishment. For quantification of sodium and fat added into the preparations, oil and salt were weighed, as well as the finished preparation; the weight of the standard portion and the yield of the preparation expressed in number of portions prepared were settled. From these data, the per capita amount of salt and oil added to cook one portion of each kind of preparation was calculated by dividing the total quantity of salt and oil by the number of prepared portions. Results: The levels of salt (3.0, 2.7, and 4.1 g restaurant A, B and C, respectively and oil (17.0, 11.3, and 11.2 g restaurant A, B and C, respectively added in the three preparations are superior to the recommendations. Conclusion: The sodium and fat contents in the analyzed restaurants are higher than it is recommended by the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population. It is essential that commercial restaurants become partners of public policies on health promotion, adopting good nutritional practices, by reducing the sodium and fat contents, to offer healthy meals daily.

  5. Biochemical Changes Associated With Giving PALUDAL Salt In The Drinking Water Of Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three groups of adult male albino rats were given either tap water (control) or saline water (1 % unrefined paludal salt dissolved in tap water or 1 % pure chemically synthesized NaCl in tap water). The experiment was carried out under hot summer conditions. At the end of 28 days of the treatment, blood samples were collected to follow up the biochemical alterations induced by paludal salt intake in kidney, liver and thyroid function tests besides serum electrolytes since unrefined paludal salt is being used extensively nowadays by Egyptian people as a table salt which comprises risks to human health.The results revealed that drinking water containing high level of either pure or unrefined crude salts led to significant elevation of serum urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Serum triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly depressed in both groups received high levels of salt in their drinking water. The level of serum total protein was decreased and albumin was negatively affected by salinity of water especially in paludal group while serum globulin was significantly increased in the other two groups. The biochemical alterations observed in rats as a result of drinking water containing paludal salt were more pronounced than those occurred in rats drank tap water plus pure NaCl.

  6. Effect of different levels of water consumptive use of squash under drip irrigation system on salt distribution, yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to trace the distribution of salts and fertilizers through drip irrigation system and the response of squash (yield and water use efficiency) to irrigation treatments, i.e. T1 (100 % ETc), T2 (75 % ETc) and T3 (50 % ETc). This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Soil samples were taken from three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distance from the emitters between drippers and laterals lines) for evaluating the salt content (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that salt accumulation was noticed at the surface layer and was affected by the direction of soil water movement (horizontal and vertical motion). The highest salt concentrations were in 75 % and 50 % ETc treatments between emitters and laterals. As for the three sites, salt concentration behaved in the sequence: 25 >12.5 > 0 cm sites. For squash yield, the first treatment produced high yield without significant differences between the second treatment so, 75 % ETc treatment was considered the best one for saving water

  7. Growth, water relations, proline and ion content of in vitro cultured Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii as affected by CaCl2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Daoud

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Atriplex halimus subsp. schweinfurthii, a widely distributed perennial halophyte in the Algerian salt steppes, is of interest because of its tolerance to environmental stresses and its use as a fodder shrub for livestock in low-rainfall Mediterranean areas. This study reports the effects of salinity (0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 g l-1 CaCl2 on the growth, succulence, proline and ion content of the species under in vitro conditions. Fresh and dry weight of plants increased with an increase in salinity. Optimal growth was recorded at 8 g l-1 CaCl2; growth declined with increased levels of salinity. Ca2+, K+, Cl, and proline contents in plants increased, whereas Na+ content decreased with an increase in salinity. Succulence of shoots and roots was significantly higher at CaCl2 concentrations of 12 to 20 g l-1 than at 8 g l-1 CaCl2. Water potential of plants decreased with an increase in salinity. This plant can be used locally as a fodder for livestock and to stabilise sand dunes and rehabilitate salt soils.

  8. The estimation of total petroleum hydrocarbons content in waste water by IR spectrometry with multivariate calibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vershinin, Viacheslav I; Petrov, Sergey V

    2016-02-01

    Alkanes, cycloalkanes and arenes have rather different sensitivities to IR-spectrometric determination, leading to high relative uncertainty (?c) for the total petroleum hydrocarbon index (TPH) in natural and waste waters. Another source of TPH uncertainty is the mismatch of group composition of the hydrocarbon mixture in the sample and in the standard substance used for one-dimensional calibration. Increasing the number of wavelengths and using of multivariate calibrations permit the reduction of ?c to hydrocarbons. The method takes into account the losses of hydrocarbons during sample preparation. The accuracy of TPH estimations for this method is much better than for standard methods based on one-dimensional calibration with Simard mixture. This new method is useful in produced waste water analysis. PMID:26653437

  9. Influence of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primo Mariani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research was to study the effect of somatic cell count on mineral content and salt equilibria at the level of quarter milk samples. Ten Italian Friesian cows, in which two homologous quarters (front quarters in 1 cow, rear quarters in 6 cows and both rear and front quarters in 3 cows were characterised by a milk SCC400,000 cells/mL (HC-milk, respectively, were selected. Cows were milked at quarter level during the morning milking and a single sample was collected from each selected quarter, thus, 26 quarter milk samples were collected. Compared to LC-milk, HC-milk was characterised by a lower content of phosphorus and potassium and by a higher content of both sodium and chloride. The equilibrium of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between the colloidal and soluble phase of milk and the mineralisation degree of the casein micelles, were not different between HC and LC milk.

  10. Soil water content and evaporation determined by thermal parameters obtained from ground-based and remote measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reginato, R. J.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Vedder, J. F.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Soil water contents from both smooth and rough bare soil were estimated from remotely sensed surface soil and air temperatures. An inverse relationship between two thermal parameters and gravimetric soil water content was found for Avondale loam when its water content was between air-dry and field capacity. These parameters, daily maximum minus minimum surface soil temperature and daily maximum soil minus air temperature, appear to describe the relationship reasonably well. These two parameters also describe relative soil water evaporation (actual/potential). Surface soil temperatures showed good agreement among three measurement techniques: in situ thermocouples, a ground-based infrared radiation thermometer, and the thermal infrared band of an airborne multispectral scanner.

  11. Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bhupesh C. Roy; M.R. Awual; Goto, M.

    2007-01-01

    Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE) data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA) + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone) + salts (NaCl and KCl) at 25-26C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. ...

  12. [Effects of salting, cut type, and initial simmering temperature on protein and fat contents of meat broths: I. Beef].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotera-Prado, Z; Quintero, J B; Huerta-Leidenz, N; Prado Gotera, Z

    1997-12-01

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was used to study variation of protein and fat contents in beef broths as affected by cut type (flank, shank), salt treatments (addition of salt to the medium, no salt), and initial temperatures of simmering (25, 70, 75, and 100 degrees C). Flank portions yielded slightly more protein (0.29 g/100 mL) and had three-fold less fat (0.39 g/mL) than those of shank (0.25 and 1.12 g/mL, respectively) (P boiling point (P boiling point. PMID:9673698

  13. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirk, Andrea B. [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of North Texas Health Sciences Center, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107 (United States); Kroll, Martina; Dyke, Jason V.; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dias, Rukshan A.; Dasgupta, Purnendu K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, 700 Planetarium Place, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2012-03-15

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which {approx} 150 {mu}g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a {mu}g/kg basis, {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign higher than those of mothers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  14. Perchlorate, iodine supplements, iodized salt and breast milk iodine content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was undertaken to determine if increasing maternal iodine intake through single dose tablets will decrease breast milk concentrations of the iodine-uptake inhibitor, perchlorate, through competitive inhibition. We also sought to determine if the timing of supplementation influences the fraction of iodine excreted in milk versus urine and to compare the effectiveness of iodized salt as a means of providing iodine to breastfed infants. Thirteen women who did not use supplements, seven of whom used iodized salt and six of whom used non-iodized salt, submitted four milk samples and a 24-h urine collection daily for three days. Women repeated the sampling protocol for three more days during which ? 150 ?g of iodine were taken in the evening and again for three days with morning supplementation. Samples were analyzed using isotope-dilution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for iodine and isotope-dilution ion chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for perchlorate. No statistically significant differences were observed in milk iodine or perchlorate concentrations during the two treatment periods. Estimated perchlorate intake was above the U.S. National Academy of Sciences suggested reference dose for most infants. Single daily dose iodine supplementation was not effective in decreasing milk perchlorate concentrations. Users of iodized salt had significantly higher iodine levels in milk than non-users. Iodized salt may be a more effective means of iodine supplementation than tablets. - Highlights: ? Estimated infant exposures to perchlorate were, on a ?g/kg basis, ? 5 higher than those of mothers. ? Daily supplements are less effective than iodized salt in providing iodine to lactating women. ? Low iodine and high perchlorate in milk may place infants at risk of iodine deficiency.

  15. Alleviation of Salt Stress in Seedlings of Black Glutinous Rice by Seed Priming with Spermidine and Gibberellic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumitahnun CHUNTHABUREE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the spermidine (Spd and gibberellic acid (GA3 priming-induced physiological and biochemical changes responsible for induction of salinity tolerance in two rice (Oryza sativa L. cultivars, namely Niewdam Gs. no. 00621 (salt tolerant and KKU-LLR-039 (salt sensitive. The seeds of the two cultivars were primed separately with distilled water, 1 mM Spd or 0.43 mM GA3. Primed seeds were germinated and the resultant seedlings were hydroponically grown for 14 days before being exposed to salinity stress (150 mM NaCl for 10 days. Seed priming with Spd or GA3 slightly improved salt-induced reductions in growth, anthocyanin and chlorophyll contents of the seedlings. Salt stress induced pronounced increases in Na+/K+ ratio, proline and H2O2 contents, particularly in the sensitive cultivar. The levels of these salt-sensitivity physiological indicators tended to be mitigated by priming with Spd and GA3. Salt-stressed seedlings grown from seeds primed with these growth regulators also possessed higher phenolic contents and greater antioxidant capacity than the control seedlings. Based on all growth and physiological data, Spd tended to be more effective than A3 in improving salt tolerance in both rice cultivars.

  16. Determination of microelement content in natural waters by X-ray fluorescence and activation analyses after preliminary concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of analysis of natural waters which differ in the mineralization level for determining Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Tl, Bi, Cd, Ag, In, Pb microimpurities is proposed. To improve the analysis sensitivity preliminary concentration by means of evaporation and extraction of microcomponents by chloroform and extracting them in an organic phase in a form of diethyl-dithiocarbamate complexes have been carried out. Most microimpurities have been determined by means of the X-ray fluorescence analysis method in concentrates which provides sensitivity from 10-3 to 10-2 mg/l. The Tl and Pb content is determined by the gamma activation analysis. The determination sensitivity constitutes 3x10-3 mg/l. The technique may be recommended for serial analysis

  17. Breadboard wash water renovation system. [using ferric chloride and ion exchange resins to remove soap and dissolved salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A total wash water renovation system concept was developed for removing objectionable materials from spacecraft wash water in order to make the water reusable. The breadboard model system described provides for pretreatment with ferric chloride to remove soap by chemical precipitation, carbon adsorption to remove trace dissolved organics, and ion exchange for removal of dissolved salts. The entire system was put into continuous operation and carefully monitored to assess overall efficiency and equipment maintenance problems that could be expected in actual use. In addition, the capacity of the carbon adsorbers and the ion-exchange resin was calculated and taken into consideration in the final evaluation of the system adequacy. The product water produced was well within the Tentative Wash Water Standards with regard to total organic carbon, conductivity, urea content, sodium chloride content, color, odor, and clarity.

  18. Fitoextrao de sais pela Atriplex nummularia lindl. sob estresse hdrico em solo salino sdico Phytoextraction of salts by Atriplex nummularia lindl. under water stress in saline sodic soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivan R. de Souza

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a extrao de sais pela Atriplex cultivada em solo salino sdico sob condies de estresse hdrico e comparar propriedades do solo antes e aps seu cultivo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetao durante 134 dias, com cultivo em vasos com 20 kg de solo salino sdico em quatro nveis de umidade (35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, com um tratamento controle (sem cultivo, montado em blocos casualizados, com oito repeties. As altas concentraes de Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ e, especialmente Na+ e Cl- nas folhas de Atriplex nummularia, associadas elevada produo de massa seca, caracterizam esta espcie como planta fitoextratora de sais, chegando a extrair, nas folhas e caule, o equivalente a: 644,25; 757,81; 1.058,55 e 1.182,00 kg ha-1 desses elementos, para 35, 55, 75 e 95% da capacidade de campo, respectivamente. As variveis do complexo sortivo do solo (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, soma de bases e o carbono orgnico total, permaneceram estveis entre o incio e o final do experimento, em todos os tratamentos, enquanto o Na+ e a percentagem de sdio trocvel diminuram aps o cultivo da planta. A Atriplex respondeu ao incremento de umidade do solo quando se considera a produo de biomassa e a extrao de sais.This study aims to evaluate the growth, production and extraction of salts by Atriplex grown on saline-sodic soil under water stress conditions and to compare soil properties before and after their cultivation. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse during 134 days growing Atriplex nummularia in pots with 20 kg of saline sodic soil with four levels of soil moisture (35, 55, 75 and 95% of field capacity with a control (soil without plant. The experiment was performed in a randomized block with eight replications. The high concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, and especially Na+ and Cl- in leaves of Atriplex nummularia, associated with high dry matter production characterizes this species as phytoextraction of salts, extracting through leaf and stem: 644, 758, 1059 and 1182 kg ha-1 at 35, 55, 75 e 95% of field capacity, respectively. The variables of the exchangeable cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, sum of bases and total organic carbon remained stable between the beginning and end of the experiment in all treatments, while Na+ and exchangeable sodium percentage decreased after cultivation of the plant. The Atriplex responded to soil moisture with respect to biomass production and salts extraction.

  19. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelovi? Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 0.05844 5 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Students t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.21.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.50.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.51.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.30.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.40.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.70.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.130.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  20. Organic carbon content and potential for formation of disinfection by-products in drinking water of the water distribution system of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Natural organic matter (NOMs, measured on the basis of organic carbon, produces disinfection by-products precursors (DBPs during the chlorination process. Some DBPs are carcinogenic. NOMs are not completely removed by conventional water treatment. As a result, in addition to forming DBPs, they support bacterial regrowth in the water distribution systems and cause unpleasant odor and taste and other problems. The objective of this study was to determine organic carbon concentration and DBPs formation potential in drinking water of the water distribution system in Tehran, Iran."nMethods and Materials: Water sampling was done by standard methods, monthly between August 2006 and Feb 2007, at four points of the drinking water distribution system in Tehran. Quantitative parameters, including pH, EC, UV254 (UV absorbance at a wavelength of 254nm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA were determined. DOC and UV-254 of the samples were determined using a Total Organic Carbon (TOC analyzer and a Lambda 25 UV/Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. SUVA (L/mg.m was calculated as thea ratio of the UV absorbance at 254 nm (1/m to DOC (mg/ L."nResults: The water content of DOC at the four points of the distribution system was less than 0.7 mg /L. The mean DOC concentration was 0.30.14mg/L, ranging between 0.12 and 0.687mg/L, with no monthly variation. The mean SUVA was 1.30.7. "nConclusion: It can be concluded that the Tehran water treatment systems cannot eliminate completely natural organic matter. SUVA values show, however, that the system can eliminate the majority of hydrophobic compounds. Therefore, formation of haloacetic acids is more probable than that of trihalomathanes.

  1. Monitoring and estimation of iodine content of edible salt in urban areas of Meerut district, after four decades of Universal Salt Iodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilutpal Sharma

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is estimated that 200 million people in India are exposed to the risk of iodine deficiency disorders (IDD. To protect future generations, Universal Salt Iodization (USI is the mainstay of the intervention. So, we carried out the study to estimate salt iodine content at the house hold and retail level in urban areas of Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh.Method: A total no of 64 (48 from house hold and 16 from retail samples of salt were estimated by iodometric titration method for the iodine content. Legal requirement for iodine level in India ranges from 30 parts per million (ppm at retail level and 15ppm at consumer level. Results: We found that at retail level the range of concentrations of iodine in salt samples from Shiv Kunj, Krishna Vihar, Yadav colony, Ratan nagar. At retail level the range of concentration of iodine in salt sample was 26.5 to 33.6 ppm, 28.8 to 34.6 ppm, 31.3 to 36.8 ppm, 29.6 to 32.6 ppm respectively, while at house hold level were 12.7 to 34.6 ppm, 15.1 to 33.9 ppm, 15.8 to 38.4 ppm, 15.2 to 29.6 ppm respectively.Conclusion: Our study reveals a positive new momentum that reflects changes in Indias salt industry. These changes include better production, better refining and iodization practices, improvement in salt quality, improvement to packaging, effective monitoring to iodine levels from production to consumption and better consumer awareness in the urban areas.

  2. Effect of photons collimation of 241 Am source in soil water content measurement by gamma radiation transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments to study the effect of collimators of 1,2,3,4 and 5 mm of diameter on the water attenuation mass coefficient gamma were carried out to improve the performance of a ? transmission system using a 241 Am source and a proportional gas filled detector. A simulated soil core, built in aluminium and water, has permitted to simulate water content from 0.17 to 0.50. A linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor (I/Io) and the simulated soil moisture shown in all systems (5 collimators and peaks of 30,60 and total spectra) a good correlation coefficient, R2, near the unity. Then, it is recommended to use the collimator of 5 cm and total spectra, because this system drastically increase the rate of counting and improves the precision on water content measurements. (author)

  3. Development of spent salt treatment technology by zeolite column system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pyrometallurgical reprocessing of metallic fuel, the spent electrorefiner salt containing fission product (FP) elements should be purified and reused. For this purpose, we are developing a salt treatment process by using selective absorption of FPs on zeolite 4A. The absorption behaviors of FP elements in molten LiCl-KCl salt have been studied by batch type absorption tests. However, salt treatment process by using 'Column type method', in which molten salt flows through columns filled with zeolite, is preferable in the practical process in the view points of high decontamination of FPs in a single step and effective treatment of the salt in shorter processing time. For obtaining the basic data of the column system such as flow property and ion-exchange performance while high temperature molten salt is passing through the column, an experimental apparatus equipped with a fraction collector was developed. By using this apparatus, following results were obtained. (1) The relationship between velocity of molten salt passing through the columns filled with zeolite 4A powder and argon gas pressure to push the molten salt go through the columns was measured by using columns of 1cm in inner diameter and 10cm or 30cm in length. As shown, the average flow velocity increased in proportional to the gas pressure and decreased inversely proportional to the column length. Additionally, the relationship between velocity and gas pressure was quite close to that of obtained by using water instead of molten salt, whose kinematic viscosities are quite similar. (2) The absorption behavior of cesium, which was used as a representative of FP elements, on zeolite 4A in the columns was measured by taking the exhausted molten salt samples by using the fraction collector. As shown, it was revealed that the decontamination factor of cesium was highest at the beginning of the salt flow and its value decreased with the increase of amount of the passed molten salt. From these results, feasibility of the zeolite column system for purification and recycle of the spent molten salt was confirmed

  4. A non-destructive method for determining the distribution of soil water content by measuring fast neutron transmission using an NE-213 organic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of measuring the water content distribution in a soil layer packed in a column, using fast neutron transmission, has been developed. The calibration curve of the water content was obtained from the rate of decrease of fast neutrons per unit of water content. An NE-213 organic scintillator (2'' in diameter x 2'' in length) and Cf-252(273 ? Ci) were used as the fast neutron detector and neutron source respectively. The distribution curve of soil water content obtained by the present method was consistent with that obtained by the destructive drying method. The NE-213 scintillator was superior to other conventional detectors (3He, BF3 counter) in measurement accuracy, spatial resolution and measurement sensitivity. The relative error and sensitivity of the present method are discussed in detail in this report. (author)

  5. Survival of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee during simulated gastric passage is improved by low water activity and high fat content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviles, Bryan; Klotz, Courtney; Smith, Twyla; Williams, Robert; Ponder, Monica

    2013-02-01

    The low water activity (a(w) 0.3) of peanut butter prohibits the growth of Salmonella in a product; however, illnesses are reported from peanut butter contaminated with very small doses, suggesting the food matrix itself influences the infectious dose of Salmonella, potentially by improving Salmonella's survival in the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of our study was to quantify the survival of a peanut butter outbreak-associated strain of Salmonella enterica serotype Tennessee when inoculated into peanut butters with different fat contents and a(w) (high fat, high a(w); high fat, low a(w); low fat, high a(w); low fat, low a(w)) and then challenged with a simulated gastrointestinal system. Exposures to increased fat content and decreased a(w) both were associated with a protective effect on the survival of Salmonella Tennessee in the simulated gastric fluid compared with control cells. After a simulated intestinal phase, the populations of Salmonella Tennessee in the control and low-fat formulations were not significantly different; however, a 2-log CFU/g increase occurred in high-fat formulations. This study demonstrates that cross-protection from low-a(w) stress and the presence of high fat results in improved survival in the low pH of the stomach. The potential for interaction of food matrix and stress adaptations could influence the virulence of Salmonella and should be considered for risk analysis. PMID:23433384

  6. Mineral sources of water and their influence on the safe disposal of radioactive wastes in bedded salt deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the increased use of nuclear energy, there will be subsequent increases in high-level radioactive wastes such as Sr90, Cs137, and Pu239. Several agencies have considered the safest possible means to store or dispose of wastes in geologic environments such as underground storage in salt deposits, shale beds, abandoned dry mines, and in clay and shale pits. Salt deposits have received the most favorable attention because they exist in dry environments and because of other desirable properties of halite (its plasticity, gamma-ray shielding, heat dissipation ability, low mining cost, and worldwide abundance). Much work has been done on bedded salt deposits, particularly the Hutchinson Salt Member of the Wellington Formation at Lyons, Kansas. Salt beds heated by the decay of the radioactive wastes may release water by dehydration of hydrous minerals commonly present in evaporite sequences or water present in other forms such as fluid inclusions. More than 80 hydrous minerals are known to occur in evaporite deposits. The occurrences, total water contents (up to 63%) and dehydration temperatures (often less that 1500C) of these minerals are given. Since it is desirable to dispose of radioactive wastes in a dry environment, care must be taken that large quantities of water are not released through the heating of hydrous minerals. Seventy-four samples from four cores taken at Lyons, Kansas, were analyzed by x-ray diffraction. The minerals detected were halite, anhydrite, gypsum, polyhalite, dolomite, magnesite, quartz, feldspar, and the clay minerals illite, chlorite, kaolinite, vermiculite, smectite, mixed-layer clay, and corrensite (interstratified chlorite-vermiculite). Of these, gypsum, polyhalite and the clay minerals are all capable of releasing water when heated

  7. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of the Water Content of a Red-Yellow Argissol Cultivated With Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Irrigated by Center Pivot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elder Snzio Aguiar Cerqueira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the spatial and temporal distribution of the water content in a red-yellow argissol cultived with bean, irrigated by central pivot. The samplings were made at a depth of 30 cm, in systematic grid of 10.0 by 10.0 m with 108 and 54 sampling points in conventional tillage (CT and no tillage (NT, respectively, sampled at four stages of crop development: V3 (1st trifoliated leaf, R6 (flowering, R8 (filling of string beans and R9 (physiological maturity. The water content of the soil was determined by the greenhouse standard method and the analysis of spatial dependence was obtained with the GS+ Program. The semivariograms presented dependence spatial in conventional tillage, adjusting to the spherical model with ranges of 68.5, 78.3, 73.3 and 75.4 m, and in no-tillage system with ranges of 172.3, 210.9, 193.7 and 100.0 m for the steps V3, R6, R8 and R9, respectively. The relationship between the nugget effect and sill indicated that the spatial dependence was strong, lower than 25%. Using the graphical representation of the surface, the area studied presented higher water content at the low elevation and lower water content at the part of high elevation. Overall, the soil water content in CT showed a narrower range of spatial dependence on the scale, compared to soil water content in NT. The spatial distribution mapping of water content in the soil showed that there is a stability of the time variability for water content in the two cultivating systems.

  8. Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonam Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase. The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoaglands solution with different concentrations of Sodium chloride (50, 100, 150 and 200 mM. Measurement of chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity were taken at different time intervals of salt treatment (12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The results showed statistically significant differences in traits for the salt treatment. A significant increase in Catalase activity was observed under all the salt concentrations while no significant activity of Ascorbate peroxidase activity was observed. The protein content and chlorophyll content decreased with increasing salt concentration. This result shows salt stress affects the photosynthesis rate by decreasing chlorophyll content. Catalase enzyme plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species generated due to salt stress in the plant cell.

  9. SMAPVEX08 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008 (SMAPVEX08) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference...

  10. [Estimation of vegetation water content from Landsat 8 OLI data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xing-ming; Ding, Yan-ling; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao; Li, Xiao-feng; Zhang, Shi-yi; Li, Yang-yang; Wu, Li-li; Sun, Jian; Ren, Jian-hua; Zhang, Xuan-xuan

    2014-12-01

    The present paper aims to analyze the capabilities and limitations for retrieving vegetation water content from Landsat8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) sensor-new generation of earth observation program. First, the effect of soil background on canopy reflectance and the sensitive band to vegetation water content were analyzed based on simulated dataset from ProSail model. Then, based on vegetation water indices from Landsat8 OLI and field vegetation water content during June 1 2013 to August 14 2013, the best vegetation water index for estimating vegetation water content was found through comparing 12 different indices. The results show that: (1) red, near infrared and two shortwave infrared bands of OLI sensor are sensitive to the change in vegetation water content, and near infrared band is the most sensitive one; (2) At low vegetation coverage, solar radiation reflected by soil background will reach to spectral sensor and influence the relationship between vegetation water index and vegetation water content, and simulation results from ProSail model also show that soil background reflectance has a significant impact on vegetation canopy reflectance in both wet and dry soil conditions, so the optimized soil adjusted vegetation index (OSAVI) was used in this paper to remove the effect of soil background on vegetation water index and improve its relationship with vegetation water content; (3) for the 12 vegetation water indices, the relationship between MSI2 and vegetation water content is the best with the R-square of 0.948 and the average error of vegetation water content is 0.52 kg m(-2); (4) it is difficult to estimate vegetation water content from vegetation water indices when vegetation water content is larger than 2 kg m(-2) due to spectral saturation of these indices. PMID:25881444

  11. Landfill CH4 oxidation by mineralized refuse: Effects of NH4+-N incubation, water content and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineralized refuse, excavated from a municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill that had been closed for more than 10 years, was incubated in livestock wastewater for 150 d to accumulate ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and also co-oxidize methane (CH4). The extent of CH4 oxidation and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the incubated mineralized refuse (IMR) were investigated to assess its applicability as a bio-cover material at landfill sites for minimizing total greenhouse gas emission equivalents. From the initial 200 mg nitrogen (N) kg?1 incubated for 120 h, the nitrate-N content produced in the IMR was twice (P 4 concentration of approximately 10% by volume in the headspace, CH4 consumption and net emission of CO2 from the soil, IMR and OMR all agreed well with first-order and zero-order kinetics models for a 120-h incubation (R2 = 0.667 and R2 = 0.995, respectively). Similar to N turnover, the rate of consumption of CH4 by the mineralized refuse was some 50.0% higher than for soil (P 2 generation, the CH4 oxidation rate by IMR was 14.2% (P > 0.05) greater than for OMR and 56.1% (P > 0.05) higher than for soil. Variation of water content and temperature produced substantially higher CH4 consumption rates by IMR than by either OMR or soil. After treatment by livestock wastewater, the CH4 oxidation capacity of mineralized refuse was moderately improved, due to the enhancement of CH4 adsorption by retained suspended solids and the subsequent co-oxidation by the accumulated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. By correlation analysis for the three experimental materials, CH4 oxidation rate was significantly correlated with specific surface area and organic matter content (P 2 generation, NH4+-N nitrification and NO3-N generation rate (P > 0.05). - Highlights: ? Mineralized refuse was improved through NH4+-N incubation. ? Ammonia oxidizing bacteria were accumulated for methane oxidation. ? Mineralized refuse was very tolerated to extreme climatic conditions.

  12. Estimation of soil clay content from hygroscopic water content measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Wuddivira, Mark N.; Robinson, David A; Lebron, Inma; Brechet, Latitia; Atwell, Melissa; De Caires, Sunshine; Oatham, Michael; Jones, Scott B.; Abdu, Hiruy; Verma, Aditya K.; Tuller, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Soil texture and the soil water characteristic are key properties used to estimate flow and transport parameters. Determination of clay content is therefore critical for understanding of plot-scale soil heterogeneity. With increasing interest in proximal soil sensing, there is the need to relate obtained signals to soil properties of interest. Inference of soil texture, especially clay mineral content, from instrument response from electromagnetic induction and radiometric methods is of subst...

  13. Hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Young Eun; Yoon, Sung Ho [Kumoh Nat' l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In this study, salt water immersion tests were experimentally performed for up to 12 months to investigate the hygrothermal effect of salt water environments on the mechanical properties of carbon/epoxy composites. The composites were manufactured by laminating prepregs composed of carbon plain woven fabric and epoxy resin. The specimens were subjected to temperatures of 35, 55, and 75 .deg. C while being exposed to the salt water environments. Mechanical test results showed that the tensile modulus and tensile strength decreased at a small rate, and the compressive modulus and compressive strength decreased at a relatively larger rate, as the exposure temperature and time increased. The rate of decrease in compressive strength became larger as the exposure temperature became higher. This is because a higher environmental temperature accelerates the salt water uptake; this, in turn, reduces the compressive strength more rapidly.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Water Content In Transformer Oil

    OpenAIRE

    PANKAJSHUKLA; Y.R Sood; R.K.JARIAL

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research on temperature dependency of water content in mineral transformer oils. Moisture sensor measurements (online measurement) and absolute water content determination by Karl Fisher titration method(off-line method) were performed in the laboratory to investigate solubility of different types of mineral transformer oils. Results of experiments explain that preset moisture solubility model of moisture sensor affects the accuracy of water content determinat...

  15. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    OpenAIRE

    Vincenzi, S.; Santangelo, R; S. Pugnaghi; M. R. Rivasi; M. Menziani

    1996-01-01

    A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results ...

  16. Mineralogical study of stream waters and efflorescent salts in Sierra Minera, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Hernandez, Carmen; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements contained in the residues from mining and metallurgical operations are often dispersed by wind and/or water after their disposal. These areas have severe erosion problems caused by water run-off in which soil and mine spoil texture, landscape topography and regional and microclimate play an important role. Water pollution by dissolved metals in mining areas has mainly been associated with the oxidation of sulphide-bearing minerals exposed to weathering conditions, resulting in low quality effluents of acidic pH and containing a high level of dissolved metals. The studied area, Sierra Minera, is close to the mining region of La Unión (Murcia, SE Spain). This area constituted an important mining centre for more than 2500 years, ceasing activity in 1991. The ore deposits of this zone have iron, lead and zinc as the main metal components. Studied area showed a lot of contaminations sources, formed by mining steriles, waste piles and foundry residues. As a consequence of the long period of mining activity, large volumes of wastes were generated during the mineral concentration and smelting processes. Historically, these wastes were dumped into watercourses, filling riverbeds and contaminating their surroundings. 40 sediment samples were collected from the area affected by mining exploitations, and at increasing distances from the contamination sources in 4 zones In addition, 36 surficial water samples were collected after a rain episode The Zn and Fe content was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Pb and Cd content was determined by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The As content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectrometry using an automated continuous flow hydride generation spectrometer and Al content was determined by ICP-MS. Mineralogical composition of the samples was made by X Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis using Cu-Kα radiation with a PW3040 Philips Diffractometer. Zone A: Water sample collected in A5 is strongly influenced by a tailing dump, and showed high trace element contents. In addition, is influenced by the sea water and then showed high bromide, chloride, sodium and magnesium content, together with a basic pH.The DRX results of evaporate water showed that halite, hexahydrite and gypsum are present: halite corroborates the sea influence and gypsum and hexahydrite the importance of soluble sulphates. A9 water showed acid pH and high trace elements content; is influenced by the tailing dump and also by waters from El Beal gully watercourse, transporting materials from Sierra Minera Waters affected by secondary contamination are influenced by mining wastes, the sea water and also are affected by agricultural activities (nitrate content). These waters have been mixed with carbonate materials, present in the zone increasing the pH. Some elements have precipitated, such as Cu and Pb, while Cd, Zn and As are soluble. The DRX analysis in the evaporate if A14 showed that halite and gypsum are present: halite confirms the seawater influence and gypsum the relationship between calcium and sulphates A2 and A6 waters are affected by tertiary contamination and showed basic pH, soluble carbonates and lower trace element content. Only Zn, Cd and Al are present. Zone B: All waters are strongly affected by mining activities and showed: acid pH, high trace element content and high content of soluble sulphates. The evaporate of B8 and B12 showed the presence of soluble sulphates: gypsum, halite, bianchite, paracoquimbite, halotrichite and siderotil in B8; gypsum, bianchite, paracoquimbite and coquimbite in B12; gypsum, hexahydrite, carnalite, bianchite, copiapite and sideroti in B10 and polihalite, gypsum, bianchite, coquimbite and paracoquimbite in B14. All the sampling points collected in Zone C are affected by primary contamination, because there are a lot of tailing dumps and sampling points are located close to them. C1 showed high trace element content because is a reception point of a lot of tailing dumps. Water samples from C3 to C8 also had acid pH and high trace element content, particularly As (remains soluble) and Zn and Cd (high mobility). In addition, they showed high soluble sulphates. C2 water showed neutral pH, soluble carbonate and low trace element content because is influenced by a stabilised tailing dump. However, the As remains soluble. Zone D: All waters collected in this zone showed acid pH and high trace element content, mainly Zn, Cd and As. Some differences were found from the high and the low part: samples located in the lower part (D2-D7) showed higher As content while Zn is higher in the high part (D8-D13) The DRX analysis in evaporates suggest that in D4 copiapite, coquimbite, gypsum, bianchite and ferrohexahydrite are formed and in D11 gypsum, bianchite, halotrichite and siderotil. D1 is affected by secondary contamination, which showed higher pH (still acid) and lower content in soluble salts and trace elements.

  17. Effect of agricultural activity in the salt content in soils of Murcia: comparison with other land uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinization is one of the main problems of soil degradation in arid and semiarid areas, causing a reduction of soil quality, declining yield and productivity, and even land abandonment. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different land uses, particularly agricultural use in the salt content in soil. The study area is located in the surroundings of Murcia city (SE Spain), with an surface of 100 km2, with high agricultural productivity. In order to determine salt content in soil, E. C. was measured in the 1:5 ratio. The results showed that the study area is saline, being the salinity higher when anthropogenic activity is more severe. Agricultural lands present the widest range of data, probably due to the application of poor quality irrigation water, fertilizers and livestock waste. (Author) 9 refs.

  18. CLASIC07 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water...

  19. SMAPVEX12 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains the vegetation water content map derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) from SPOT and RapidEye satellite imagery as...

  20. CLASIC07 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign 2007 (CLASIC07) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water...

  1. SMAPVEX12 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration This data set contains the vegetation water content map derived by calculating Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) from SPOT and RapidEye satellite imagery as...

  2. Characterization of Cloud Water-Content Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungwon

    2010-01-01

    The development of realistic cloud parameterizations for climate models requires accurate characterizations of subgrid distributions of thermodynamic variables. To this end, a software tool was developed to characterize cloud water-content distributions in climate-model sub-grid scales. This software characterizes distributions of cloud water content with respect to cloud phase, cloud type, precipitation occurrence, and geo-location using CloudSat radar measurements. It uses a statistical method called maximum likelihood estimation to estimate the probability density function of the cloud water content.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garca-Prez, J. V.; De Prados, M.; Prez-Muelas, N.; Crcel, J. A.; Benedito, J.

    2012-12-01

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 6010 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p<0.05) linear relationships were found between the ultrasonic velocity and the salt (R2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Baric dependence of solubility of salts in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental material on baric dependence of solubility of salts (CdCl2xH2O; CdSO4xH2O; CdBi2x4H2O; CdCl2x2.5H2O; CdCl2x4H2O; CdBr2) in water up to 1000 MPa was collected and systematized. Four types of solubility polybars were marked out. Using available experimental data, as well as thermodynamic calculations baric factors of solubility (BFS) were determined for more than 40 water-salt systems at different pressures. It is shown, that BFS and its change with pressure have different signs in solutions of low concentrations and in water melts or highly concentrated solutions. BFS differences of salts were interpreted using the structural model of water solution composition. The sign of BFS change with pressure in different structural, concentration regions of solutions was predicted. Classification of salt BFS in water on molecular base is given

  5. Determination of the protein content in brine from salted herring using near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, V.T.; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2004-01-01

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy in the spectral range of 1000-2500 nm, was measured directly on brine from barrel salted herring, to investigate the potential of NIR as a fast method to determine the protein content. A principal component analysis performed on the NIR spectra shows two groups, separating the first 100 days of storage from the storage time exceeding 100 days. A partial least-squares regression model between selected regions of the NIR spectra and the protein content yields a correlation coefficient of 0.93 and a prediction error (RMSECV) of 0.25 g/100 g. The results clearly indicate that NIR spectroscopy has a potential as a fast and noninvasive method for assessing the protein content in brine from barrel salted herring, which again may be used as an indicator for the ripening quality of barrel salted herring.

  6. Solubility estimation of inorganic salts in supercritical water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: A pragmatic approach to estimate solubility of inorganic salts in SCW is employed. R-HKF, Density and SAA models are used to evaluate chemical equilibrium constant. Models predictability in estimating solubility of inorganic salts is evaluated. A simplified SAA model competes well with a complex R-HKF in solubility estimation. - Abstract: Presence of minute amount of inorganic salts in supercritical water (SCW) can cause equipment scaling, erosion and corrosion, reaction disturbance and process malfunctions. Thermodynamic modeling reduces experimental measurements; hence, solubility of several inorganic salts with available empirical solubility data (NaH2PO4, Na2HPO4, NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2 and MgSO4) within temperature and pressure ranges of (623823) K and (9.025.0) MPa, respectively, is estimated following determination of the dissociation constant, K, in SCW using three known models, namely, R-HKF, SueAdschiriArai (SAA) and Density model. Results obtained are compared with the experimental data to assess the suitability of the models in predicting the solubility of these inorganic salts in SCW, which indicate that R-HKF model is satisfactorily capable of correlating solubility for these salts. In almost every case except NaCl, SAA has provided similar estimation to R-HKF model. The Density model however, has offered the least accurate estimation in all cases

  7. Mixing Time for the Dead Sea Based on Water and Salt Mass Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Bashitialshaaer, Raed; Persson, Kenneth M.; Larson, Magnus

    2008-01-01

    Water and salt mass balances for the Dead Sea were modeled to consider different possible methods for maintaining its water level and water volume. In the models, precipitation, evaporation, rivers, ground water, input/output from potash companies and salt production, and brine discharge were included. The mixing time in the Dead Sea was modeled by a 1) single-layer (well-mixed) system, and a 2) two-layer (stratified) system. Brine discharge from the desalination plant of the proposed Red Sea...

  8. PulsArt : IT, Salt and Water for Family Awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Fogtmann, Maiken Hillerup

    2005-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in considering the domestic household as a new and important domain for interaction design. In this paper we present pulsArt - a physical and digital installation designed for the home to represent different family members level of activity by water running down blocks of salt based on a real-time reading of the individual family members pulse. We describe how pulsArt explores novel ways of looking at the interaction between the physical, the social and the technological and how it acts as a context-aware artefact, amplifying the domestic setting to provide a new kind of awareness in the family. In doing so, we seek to develop new perspectives on designing interactive and context-aware systems for the home and what values they might support.

  9. Effects of harvest date, irrigation level, cultivar type and fruit water content on olive mill wastewater generated by a laboratory scale 'Abencor' milling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y

    2012-03-01

    Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. PMID:22226593

  10. Effect of Inorganic Salts on Ternary Equilibrium Data of Propionic Acid-Water-Solvents Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupesh C. Roy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium (LLE data were obtained for the pseudo-ternary systems of propionic acid (PA + water + solvents (methyl isopropyl ketone and methyl isobutyl ketone + salts (NaCl and KCl at 25-26C in order to study the effect of salts on extraction equilibrium of these systems by comparing with the same systems without salt. Mutual solubility curves, tie-line data, distribution coefficient, selectivity diagrams and separation factor data were determined for these systems. The salting-out effect was investigated by using inorganic salts NaCl or KCl at two concentrations of each salt within their solubility limits. The results obtained in these experiments showed that the salts NaCl and KCl significantly affect the solubility of PA in the organic solvents, as well as the distribution coefficients and separation factors for PA by changing their equilibrium composition and the selectivity of the solvents while the region of heterogeneity increases as compared to the same system of without salt. The thermodynamic consistency of the equilibrium tie-line data was ascertained by Othmer-Tobias plots as well as by Hand plots.

  11. Flavor and quality characteristics of salted and desalted cod (Gadus morhua) produced by different salting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jnsdttir, Rsa; Sveinsdttir, Kolbrn; Magnsson, Hannes; Arason, Sigurjn; Lauritzsen, Kristin; Thorarinsdottir, Kristin Anna

    2011-04-27

    Flavor characterization and quality of salt-cured and desalted cod (Gadus morhua) products was studied using sensory analysis and gas chromatography techniques. The products were produced in Iceland using two different processing methods (filleting and splitting) and three different salting procedures, i.e., the old single-step kench salting or a multistep procedure, and presalting (injection and brine salting or only brine salting), which was followed by kench salting. The main difference observed was between fillets and split fish, where the split fish was darker and had stronger flavor characteristics. Comparison of different salting procedures showed that the use of presalting improved the appearance of the salted products, which can be described as increased lightness and reduced yellowness of the products. In the same products, the intensity of curing flavors was milder, as described by sensory analysis and key aroma compounds. Derivatives from lipid and protein degradation contribute to the characteristic flavor of the salted products. PMID:21401095

  12. Water deficit and salt stress diagnosis through LED induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in Jatropha curcas L. oil plants for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia-Neto, Artur S.; Silva, Elias A., Jr.; Oliveira, Ronaldo A.; Cunha, Patrícia C.; Costa, Ernande B.; Câmara, Terezinha J. R.; Willadino, Lilia G.

    2011-02-01

    Light-emitting-diode induced chlorophyll fluorescence analysis is employed to investigate the effect of water and salt stress upon the growth process of physicnut(jatropha curcas) grain oil plants for biofuel. Red(Fr) and far-red (FFr) chlorophyll fluorescence emission signals around 685 nm and 735 nm, respectively, were observed and examined as a function of the stress intensity(salt concentration and water deficit) for a period of time of 30 days. The chlorophyll fluorescence(ChlF) ratio Fr/FFr which is a valuable nondestructive and nonintrusive indicator of the chlorophyll content of leaves was exploited to monitor the level of stress experienced by the jatropha plants. The ChlF technique data indicated that salinity plays a minor role in the chlorophyll concentration of leaves tissues for NaCl concentrations in the 25 to 200 mM range, and results agreed quite well with those obtained using conventional destructive spectrophotometric methods. Nevertheless, for higher NaCl concentrations a noticeable decrease in the Chl content was observed. The Chl fluorescence ratio analysis also permitted detection of damage caused by water deficit in the early stages of the plants growing process. A significant variation of the Fr/FFr ratio was observed sample in the first 10 days of the experiment when one compared control and nonwatered samples. The results suggest that the technique may potentially be applied as an early-warning indicator of stress caused by water deficit.

  13. Modulation of collagen by addition of Hofmeister salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oechsle, Anja Maria; Landenberger, Markus; Gibis, Monika; Irmscher, Stefan Bjrn; Kohlus, Reinhard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-08-01

    Collagen can be modified by addition of chaotropic or kosmotropic salts of the reversed Hofmeister series. Hence, telopeptide-poor collagen type I was suspended in H2SO4 (pH 2) and 0.05-0.5 M KCl and KNO3 (chaotropes), as well as KI and KSCN (kosmotropes). Rheological parameters, including storage and loss modulus, intrinsic viscosity, and critical overlap concentration, were assessed and the microstructure was characterized by applying confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The addition of up to 0.1 M KCl and 0.05 M KNO3 increased the intrinsic viscosity from 1.22 to 1.51 L/g without salt to a maximal value of 1.74 L/g and decreased the critical overlap concentration from 0.66 to 0.82 g/L to a minimal value of 0.57 g/L. Higher salt concentrations increased the collagen-collagen interactions due to ions withdrawing the water from the collagen molecules. Hence, 0.1 M KSCN delivered the largest structures with the highest structure factor, area value and the highest critical overlap concentration with 17.6 L/g. Overall, 0.5 M salt led to salting out, with chaotropes forming fine precipitates and kosmotropes leading to elastic three-dimensional networks. The study demonstrated that collagen entanglement and microstructure depend strongly on the ionic strength and type of salt. PMID:26014138

  14. GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Islami

    2011-01-01

    A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivit...

  15. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, Carlos G.; Jauregui, Jos R.

    2010-01-01

    Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary), and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia), and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism ...

  16. Desalination of salt damaged Obernkirchen sandstone by an applied DC field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maty?k, Ond?ej; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Soluble salts are considered as one of the most common causes for decay of building materials. In the present work, an electrokinetic method for desalination of sandstones from a historic warehouse was tested. The sandstones claddings were removed from the warehouse during a renovation action as the outer surface was scaling due to salts.The focus of the work was on the effect of electrokinetic desalination for removal of unevenly distributed mixtures of salts. Previous reported studies were conducted with laboratory contaminated stones with single salts, which were relatively evenly distributed in the stones, i.e. the present investigation faces more challenges relevant to a real desalination action. Experiments were conducted with two Obernkirchen sandstones from the same warehouse, but with different levels of salt concentrations and porosity. The investigation includes removal of the most common salts: chlorides, nitrates, sulphates. In the experimental setup the electrodes were placed in a clay poultice:a mixture of kaolinite, calcite and distilled water. An electric direct current (DC) field was applied to the sandstone.By applying 2mA for 511days it was possible to reduce the chloride concentration from up to 420mg/kg to concentration of 140mg/kg, nitrate concentration from 1000mg/kg to concentration of 310mg/kg nearest the cathode and the sulphate concentration from up to 540mg/kg to 30mg/kg nearest the anode in 7501020g dry matter stone sample.The final concentrations meet the limiting values indicating no risk for salt decay. The placement of the anode related to the original outer surface of the stone showed its importance only in the experiments with the long duration 1011days. Due to the placement of the anode to the outer surface of the stone segments which was more contaminated, higher concentrations of nitrates and sulphates were measured in the anode clay poultices at the end of experiments. The longer duration might show even more significant role of the electrode placements.The clay poultice successfully neutralized the acid from electrolysis at the anode. During the treatment the water content was very low in the stones, between 1.3% and 2.1%. Electroosmotic water transport was observed in the clay poultices, however, there was no decrease of the water contents in the stones at the end of the experiments, so there was no indication of an electroosmotic effect in the stones themselves under the present conditions.

  17. WATER LEVEL AND OXYGEN DELIVERY/UTILIZATION IN POROUS SALT MARSH SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing terrestrial nutrient inputs to coastal waters is a global water quality issue worldwide, and salt marshes may provide a valuable nutrient buffer, either by direct removal or by smoothing out pulse inputs between sources and sensitive estuarine habitats. A major challen...

  18. Effect of gamma-ray irradiation on the deoxygenation of salt-containing water using hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spent fuel pools at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, hydrazine was added to salt-containing water in order to reduce dissolved oxygen. Hydrazine is known to reduce dissolved oxygen in high-temperature pure water, but its deoxygenation behavior in salt-containing water at ambient temperature in the presence of radiation is unknown. Deoxygenation using hydrazine in salt-containing water was thus investigated using a 60Co gamma-ray source and artificial seawater at room temperature. Water samples containing a small amount of hydrazine were irradiated at dose rates of 100 - 10,000 Gy/h. The concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water samples was measured before and after irradiation. Notably, a decrease in the dissolved oxygen was only observed after irradiation, and the dissolved oxygen concentration decreased with increasing dose rate and irradiation time. The rate of decrease in the amount of dissolved oxygen using hydrazine was slow in the presence of salts. Kinetic considerations suggested that the deoxygenation of the salt-containing water exposed to gamma-ray irradiation using hydrazine was suppressed by chloride ions. (author)

  19. Water requirement model for salt gradient solar ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batty, J.C.; Riley, J.P.; Panahi, Z.

    1987-01-01

    A model for predicting the salt gradient solar pond (SGSP) area that could be maintained with a given water supply is presented together with several specific applications. For example, based on 30-year average water flows, the model predicts that 1.93 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (477,000 acres) of solar ponds, 1.02 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (253,000 acres) of evaporation ponds to recycle salt, and 0.51 x 10/sup 9/ m/sup 2/ (125,000 acres) of freshwater storage reservoirs could be maintained at the Great Salt Lake of Utah. Water use requirements per unit of electrical energy from solar ponds are calculated as 600,000 m/sup 3//MW x yr. This is roughly 30 times the water evaporated per unit of electrical energy from coal-fired generating plants using wet cooling towers, but substantially less than water evaporation losses per unit of electrical energy produced from typical hydropower dams and reservoirs. It is concluded that water use requirements for solar ponds, although not necessarily prohibitive, are substantial; and in many locations may be the physical factor that limits solar pond development. 9 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  20. THE INFLUENCE OF SALT CONTENT AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF TERASI TO THE SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMBAL TERASI, THE CHILI SAUCE ADDED WITH TERASI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, N T Damanik; De Meulenaer, B

    2015-01-01

    The type of terasi (the Indonesian seafood fermented paste) and the ingredients used can give sambal terasi (ST), the chili sauce added with terasi, its identity and taste distinction. Inherit from its production, salt content differs the flavor(s) of product added with terasi. This research explored the role of terasi salt content, either from the origin of terasi or by salt adjustment, to the products acceptability and sensory characteristics perceived during subsequent sensorial evaluations. Six types of terasi were characterized based on the proximate and salt content, and prepared as STs with and without salt adjustment at several terasi concentrations. 118 panelists conducted sensory evaluations for overall acceptability at 12.5% terasi; at lower concentration specific tastes (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, umami, fishy and rebon) were characterized by 80 panelists. Results showed that the acceptance of ST is more due to its innate origin salt content and to the suitability saltiness perceived. The specific odor of terasi, combining with other taste(s), when prepared at higher terasi concentration as practiced in restaurant, home and commercial products showed masking effect(s). After saltiness adjusted, different types of terasi showed different taste characteristics. Preferred ST were different between higher and lower concentration. Better tastes characteristics and stronger spices taste were found at lower salt content (and terasi concentration). PMID:26630752

  1. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is presented on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh. A core was taken from the marsh and analysed at 5cm intervals for particle size, water and organic content, and ?-radioactivity. Data on the levels of radioactivity of 241Am, 134Cs, 137Cs and 146Ru are given for various sample depths of the core. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern. (U.K.)

  2. Effect of Short Term Salt Stress on Chlorophyll Content, Protein and Activities of Catalase and Ascorbate Peroxidase Enzymes in Pearl Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Sonam Sneha; Anirudha Rishi; Subhash Chandra

    2014-01-01

    In this study the 21 days old seedlings of Pennisetum glaucum were subjected to short term salt stress in order to observe the effect on chlorophyll content, protein and antioxidative enzyme activity (CAT and APX) responses. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the changes in chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes (Catalase and Ascorbate peroxidase). The 21 days old seedlings were subjected to salt stress by supplementing Hoaglands solution with differ...

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of pork meat salting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salting process plays a key role in the preservation and quality of dry-cured meat products. Therefore, an adequate monitoring of salt content during salting is necessary to reach high quality products. Thus, the main objective of this work was to test the ability of low intensity ultrasound to monitor the salting process of pork meat. Cylindrical samples (diameter 36 mm, height 6010 mm) of Biceps femoris were salted (brine 20% NaCl, w/w) at 2 C for 1, 2, 4 and 7 days. During salting and at each experimental time, three cylinders were taken in order to measure the ultrasonic velocity at 2 C. Afterwards, the cylinders were split in three sections (height 20 mm), measuring again the ultrasonic velocity and determining the salt and the moisture content by AOAC standards. In the whole cylinders, moisture content was reduced from 763 (g/kg sample) in fresh samples to 723 (g/kg sample) in samples salted for 7 days, while the maximum salt gain was 37.3 (g/kg sample). Although, moisture and salt contents up to 673 and 118 (g/kg sample) were reached in the sections of meat cylinders, respectively. During salting, the ultrasonic velocity increased due to salt gain and water loss. Thus, significant (p2 = 0.975) and moisture (R2 = 0.863) contents. In addition, the change of the ultrasonic velocity with the increase of the salt content showed a good agreement with the Kinsler equation. Therefore, low intensity ultrasound emerges as a potential technique to monitor, in a non destructive way, the meat salting processes carried out in the food industry.

  4. Manipulating cattle distribution with salt and water in large arid-land pastures: a GPS/GIS assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganskopp, D

    2001-08-27

    Several of the problems associated with grazing animals in extensive settings are related to their uneven patterns of use across the landscape. After fencing, water and salt are two of the most frequently used tools for affecting cattle distribution in extensive settings. Cattle are attracted to water in arid regions, but mixed results have been obtained with salt and mineral supplements. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacies of salt and water manipulations for affecting cattle distribution in large (>825ha) pastures. This was accomplished by fitting cattle with global positioning system (GPS) collars and monitoring their travels and activities in a three pasture, Latin-square design where water and salt shared a common location and water or salt were moved individually to distant areas. Mean distance of cattle from water (&xmacr;=1.16km) was unaffected by treatments (P=0.79) suggesting that cattle followed movements of water tanks. Distance traveled daily (&xmacr;=5.78km), time devoted to grazing (11.0h per day), time devoted to resting (10.1h per day), and the area (&xmacr;=325ha) of minimum convex polygons were also unaffected by treatment implying that cattle did not compensate for separated water and salting areas with increased travels or disruptions of habitual grazing and resting activities. Centers of activity for cattle shifted further (P=0.02) when water (&xmacr;=1.49km) was moved than when salt (&xmacr;=1.00km) was relocated. Mean distance of cattle from salt increased from 1.03km, when salt and water were together, to 1.73km (P=0.08) when salt and water were separated. This implied that cattle made less effort to remain near salt. Also, when water and salt were separated, cattle were found within 250m of water 354 times and close to salt only 38 times. Movement of drinking water to distant points in pastures was the most effective tool for altering cattle distribution. When cattle and salt were introduced to a new portion of a pasture, cattle used the new area for about 2 days, and then began drifting back toward previously used portions of the pasture. Manipulations of salting stations will not significantly rectify serious livestock distribution problems in extensive arid-land pastures. PMID:11434959

  5. Formulation and make-up of simulate dilute water, low ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Dilute Water (SOW), a low-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50, Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of ten higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal times ten higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the effect of ionic concentrating due to elevated temperature water flowing through fractures where salts and minerals have been deposited due to evaporation and boiling

  6. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface

  7. Formulation and make-up of simulated concentrated water, high ionic content aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gdowski, G.

    1997-04-04

    This procedure describes the formulation and make-up of Simulated Concentrated Water (SCW), a high-ionic-content water to be used for Activity E-20-50 Long-Term Corrosion Studies. This water has an ionic content which is nominally a factor of a thousand higher than that of representative waters at or near Yucca Mountain. Representative waters were chosen as J-13 well water [Harrar, 1990] and perched water at Yucca Mountain [Glassley, 1996]. J-13 well water is obtained from ground water that is in contact with the Topopah Spring tuff, which is the repository horizon rock. The perched water is located in the Topopah Spring tuff, but below the repository horizon and above the water table. A nominal thousand times higher ionic content was chosen to simulate the water that would result from the wetting of salts which have been previously deposited on a container surface.

  8. Responses of Water and Salt Parameters to Groundwater Levels for Soil Columns Planted with Tamarix chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jiangbao; Zhao, Ximei; Chen, Yinping; Fang, Ying; Zhao, Ziguo

    2016-01-01

    Groundwater is the main water resource for plant growth and development in the saline soil of the Yellow River Delta in China. To investigate the variabilities and distributions of soil water and salt contents at various groundwater level (GL), soil columns with planting Tamarix chinensis Lour were established at six different GL. The results demonstrated the following: With increasing GL, the relative soil water content (RWC) declined significantly, whereas the salt content (SC) and absolute soil solution concentration (CS) decreased after the initial increase in the different soil profiles. A GL of 1.2 m was the turning point for variations in the soil water and salt contents, and it represented the highest GL that could maintain the soil surface moist within the soil columns. Both the SC and CS reached the maximum levels in these different soil profiles at a GL of 1.2 m. With the raise of soil depth, the RWC increased significantly, whereas the SC increased after an initial decrease. The mean SC values reached 0.96% in the top soil layer; however, the rates at which the CS and RWC decreased with the GL were significantly reduced. The RWC and SC presented the greatest variations at the medium (0.91.2 m) and shallow water levels (0.6 m) respectively, whereas the CS presented the greatest variation at the deep water level (1.51.8 m).The RWC, SC and CS in the soil columns were all closely related to the GL. However, the correlations among the parameters varied greatly within different soil profiles, and the most accurate predictions of the GL were derived from the RWC in the shallow soil layer or the SC in the top soil layer. A GL at 1.51.8 m was moderate for planting T. chinensis seedlings under saline groundwater conditions. PMID:26730602

  9. How Do Changes to the Railroad Causeway in Utahs Great Salt Lake Affect Water and Salt Flow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James S.; Null, Sarah E.; Tarboton, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Managing terminal lake elevation and salinity are emerging problems worldwide. We contribute to terminal lake management research by quantitatively assessing water and salt flow for Utahs Great Salt Lake. In 1959, Union Pacific Railroad constructed a rock-filled causeway across the Great Salt Lake, separating the lake into a north and south arm. Flow between the two arms was limited to two 4.6 meter wide rectangular culverts installed during construction, an 88 meter opening (referred to locally as a breach) installed in 1984, and the semi porous material of the causeway. A salinity gradient developed between the two arms of the lake over time because the south arm receives approximately 95% of the incoming streamflow entering Great Salt Lake. The north arm is often at, or near, salinity saturation, averaging 317 g/L since 1966, while the south is considerably less saline, averaging 142 g/L since 1966. Ecological and industrial uses of the lake are dependent on long-term salinity remaining within physiological and economic thresholds, although optimal salinity varies for the ecosystem and between diverse stakeholders. In 2013, Union Pacific Railroad closed causeway culverts amid structural safety concerns and proposed to replace them with a bridge, offering four different bridge designs. As of summer 2015, no bridge design has been decided upon. We investigated the effect that each of the proposed bridge designs would have on north and south arm Great Salt Lake elevation and salinity by updating and applying US Geological Surveys Great Salt Lake Fortran Model. Overall, we found that salinity is sensitive to bridge size and depth, with larger designs increasing salinity in the south arm and decreasing salinity in the north arm. This research illustrates that flow modifications within terminal lakes cannot be separated from lake salinity, ecology, management, and economic uses. PMID:26641101

  10. GEOELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD FOR SALT/BRACKISH WATER MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Islami

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A 2D geoelectrical resistivity method was used for detecting and mapping occurrence of salt/brackish water in the subsurface, North Kelantan - Malaysia. The North Kelantan plain is covered with Quaternary sediments overlying granite bedrock. The drainage system is dendritic with the main river flowing into the South China Sea. The geoelectrical resistivity surveys made up of eleven resistivity traverses at four different sites. The zone of brackish water is very clearly seen in the resistivity inverse model with position around 20-30 m depth. This aquifer is referred to second aquifer. As the final result, a map with the possibility of salt/brackish and fresh water interface can be generated

  11. Diclofenac Salts. V. Examples of Polymorphism among Diclofenac Salts with Alkyl-hydroxy Amines Studied by DSC and HSM

    OpenAIRE

    Adamo Fini; Cristina Cavallari; Francesca Ospitali

    2010-01-01

    Nine diclofenac salts prepared with alkyl-hydroxy amines were analyzed for their properties to form polymorphs by DSC and HSM techniques. Thermograms of the forms prepared from water or acetone are different in most cases, suggesting frequent examples of polymorphism among these salts. Polymorph transition can be better highlighted when analysis is carried out by thermo-microscopy, which in most cases made it possible to observe the processes of melting of the metastable form and re-crystalli...

  12. NITRATE RELEASE BY SALT MARSH PLANTS: AN OVERLOOKED NUTRIENT FLUX MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt marshes provide water purification as an important ecosystem service in part by storing, transforming and releasing nutrients. This service can be quantified by measuring nutrient fluxes between marshes and surface waters. Many processes drive these fluxes, including photosy...

  13. Surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The attention has been paid to surface functionalization by molten salt electrolytic processes. Three topics on the experimental results obtained by the authors are described: the electrochemical formation of zirconium metal film and zirconium alloy film on ceramic, surface nitriding of titanium by electrochemical process and an anodic oxide film formation on nickel. (author)

  14. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    OpenAIRE

    Wido Schreiner; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; Maria da Gloria B. Peruch; Eduardo Humeres

    2005-01-01

    Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction o...

  15. Aldicarb and carbofuran transport in a Hapludalf influenced by differential antecedent soil water content and irrigation delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, H V; Anderson, S H; Goyne, K W; Gantzer, C J

    2009-01-01

    Pesticide use in agroecosystems can adversely impact groundwater quality via chemical leaching through soils. Few studies have investigated the effects of antecedent soil water content (SWC) and timing of initial irrigation (TII) after chemical application on pesticide transport and degradation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of antecedent soil water content (wet vs dry) and timing of initial irrigation (0h Delay vs 24h Delay) on aldicarb [(EZ)-2-methyl-2-(methylthio)propionaldehyde O-methylcarbamoyloxime] and carbofuran [2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethylbenzofuran-7-yl methylcarbamate] transport and degradation parameters at a field site with Menfro silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Hapludalf) soils. Aldicarb and carbofuran were applied to plots near field capacity (wet) or near permanent wilting point (dry). Half of the dry and wet plots received irrigation water immediately after chemical application and the remaining plots were irrigated after a 24h Delay. The transport and degradation parameters were estimated using the method of moments. Statistical significance determined for SWC included averages across TII levels, and significance determined for TII included averages across SWC levels. For the dry treatment, aldicarb was detected 0.10 m deeper (Pwater velocity was found to be higher (P<0.10) in the dry vs wet treatments on three of four dates for aldicarb and two of four dates for carbofuran. Retardation coefficients for both pesticides showed similar evidence of reduced values for the dry vs wet treatments. These results indicate deeper pesticide movement in the initially dry treatment. For aldicarb and carbofuran, estimated values of the degradation rate were approximately 40-49% lower in the initially dry plots compared to the initially wet plots, respectively. When the initial irrigation was delayed for 24h, irrespective of antecedent moisture conditions, a 30% reduction in aldicarb degradation occurred. This study illustrates the deeper transport of pesticides and their increased persistence when applied to initially dry soils. PMID:18926555

  16. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B; Petersen, P

    1999-01-01

    Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction ...

  17. Determination of ice content in hardened concrete by low-temperature calorimetry : Influence of baseline calculation and heat of fusion of confined water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Bjrn

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature calorimetry has been used to determine the ice content in concrete at different temperatures when exposed to low-temperature environments. However, the analysis of the ice content from the measured data of heat flow is not straightforward. In this study, two important factors influencing the ice content calculation are discussed. The importance of the baseline determination for the calculation of the ice content is realized. Two different methods of generating the baseline are discussed. First, the J-baseline is discussed which is a recently proposed extrapolation method based on the accumulated heat curves measured in the freezing and the melting process. Second, the C-baseline is discussed in which a calculated baseline is used where the heat capacity of both water and ice and the phase changing behaviour under different testing temperatures are considered. It turns out that both the J-baseline method and the C-baseline method can be used to calculate the approximate baseline. The heat of fusion of the water confined in small pores is another important parameter to be considered in ice content calculation. This property must be carefully analyzed in order to accurately calculate the ice contents at different temperatures in the freezing and melting process. It should be noted that there is no general agreement on how to obtain the important temperature dependence of the heat of fusion of water confined in small pores. By performing comparison studies, the present study shows the influence of the different values of the heat of fusion commonly adopted on the calculated ice content for the studied concrete samples. The importance and necessity to use an accurate value of the heat of fusion is emphasized. Based on the calculation of the baseline proposed in this work and by carefully selecting the values for the heat of fusion, the ice content in a hardened concrete sample is expected to be estimated with an acceptable accuracy.

  18. Porous starch/cellulose nanofibers composite prepared by salt leaching technique for tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasri-Nasrabadi, Bijan; Mehrasa, Mohammad; Rafienia, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Shahin; Behzad, Tayebeh; Gavanji, Shahin

    2014-08-01

    Starch/cellulose nanofibers composites with proper porosity pore size, mechanical strength, and biodegradability for cartilage tissue engineering have been reported in this study. The porous thermoplastic starch-based composites were prepared by combining film casting, salt leaching, and freeze drying methods. The diameter of 70% nanofibers was in the range of 40-90 nm. All samples had interconnected porous morphology; however an increase in pore interconnectivity was observed when the sodium chloride ratio was increased in the salt leaching. Scaffolds with the total porogen content of 70 wt% exhibited adequate mechanical properties for cartilage tissue engineering applications. The water uptake ratio of nanocomposites was remarkably enhanced by adding 10% cellulose nanofibers. The scaffolds were partially destroyed due to low in vitro degradation rate after more than 20 weeks. Cultivation of isolated rabbit chondrocytes on the fabricated scaffold proved that the incorporation of nanofibers in starch structure improves cell attachment and proliferation. PMID:24751269

  19. 46 CFR 46.10-45 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load lines in salt water. 46... in salt water. (a) Passenger vessels required to be marked with subdivision load lines, engaged on foreign and coastwise voyages other than the Great Lakes voyages, shall not submerge in salt water...

  20. Faba Bean (Vicia faba L. Salt Stress Response under Different Soil Organic Matter Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Matijević

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Use of saline water for crop irrigation leads to rhizosphere salinization, which affects plant element uptake, as well as trace elements (TEs accumulation in plant tissue. Moreover, imbalance in crop element uptake may reflect on crop productivity. Soil organic matter (SOM plays an important role in soil biogeochemical processes and especially affects trace element mobility and bioavailability. Therefore, it is an important factor for assessment of plant responses under varying ecological conditions, including salinity. A greenhouse pot experiment was set up to study the effects of saline irrigation and increased SOM on faba bean (Vicia faba L. salt stress response. Soil from arable land of Croatian coastal region was used for the trial. One half of the bulk of soil provided for the experiment was mixed with commercial peat (4:1 and two trial variants, unmodified and increased SOM content, were investigated. Two weeks after transplanting faba bean seedlings into pots, treatment with two levels of NaCl salinity (50 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively was applied in a nutrient solution. Control plants were included in the measurements as well. Saline irrigation as well as increased SOM affected certain element accumulation in bean plant (leaf, pod and/or seed, although no significant interaction between rhizosphere salinization and SOM was revealed.

  1. Estimation of plant water content by spectral absorption features centered at 1,450 nm and 1,940 nm regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Ruisong; Yang, Shilun

    2009-10-01

    Vegetation water content could possibly provide widespread utility in agriculture, forestry and hydrology. In this article, three species leaves were measured radiometrically in order to determine a relationship between leaf water status and the spectral feature centered at 1,450 and 1,940 nm where there are strong water absorptions. The first step of our research is to measure leaf spectra with a FieldSpec-FR. After the spectral analysis using the continuum removal technique, the spectral absorption feature parameters: absorption band depth (D (1450), D (1940)), the normalized band depth of absorption in 1,450 and 1,940 nm (BNA(1450), BNA(1940)), the ratio of the two reflectance of continuum line (R (1450i )/R (1940i )), the ratio of the two band depth (D (1450)/D (1940)) and the ratio of the two absorption areas (A (1450)/A (1940)) in the two wavebands were extracted from each leaf spectrum. The fuel moisture content (FMC), specific leaf weight (SLW), equivalent water thickness (EWT) were measured for each leaf sample. A correlation analysis was conducted between the spectral absorption feature parameters and corresponding FMC, SLW and EWT. In addition, some existing indices for assessing water status such as WI (water index), WI/NDVI (water index/normalized difference vegetation index), MSI (moisture stress index), NDWI (normalized difference water index)were calculated and the correlation between them and water status were analyzed too. The results by comparing the correlations indicated that the spectral absorption feature indices we proposed were better. The indexes BNA(1940), D (1450)/D (1940), and A (1450)/A (1940) were well correlated with FMC, and the correlation between the indexes D (1450,) D (1940), R (1450i )/R (1940i ) and EWT were strong. The index A (1450)/A (1940) was tested to be a good indictor for evaluating plant water content, because there was strongest positive correlation between it and FMC than other indices. PMID:18853268

  2. Pulse pressure effect on the gas-water-salt nuclei dynamics in water solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes of growth and decay of water, gas and salt nuclei in solution under the effect of the acoustic pulses were investigated using the method of Rayleigh light scattering. A model of the nucleus was proposed.

  3. Increased Cerebral Water Content in Hemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Reetz, Kathrin; Abbas, Zaheer; Costa, Ana Sofia; Gras, Vincent; Tiffin-Richards, Frances; Mirzazade, Shahram; Holschbach, Bernhard; Frank, Rolf Dario; Vassiliadou, Athina; Krger, Thilo; Eitner, Frank; Gross, Theresa; Schulz, Jrg Bernhard; Floege, Jrgen; Shah, Nadim Jon

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available on the impact of hemodialysis on cerebral water homeostasis and its distribution in chronic kidney disease. We used a neuropsychological test battery, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and a novel technique for quantitative measurement of localized water content using 3T MRI to investigate ten hemodialysis patients (HD) on a dialysis-free day and after hemodialysis (2.42.2 hours), and a matched healthy control group with the same time interval. Neuro...

  4. Salts and Co-crystals of Theobromine and their phase transformations in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Palash Sanphui; Ashwini Nangia

    2014-09-01

    Theobromine, a xanthine derivative analogous to caffeine and theophylline, is an effective central nervous system stimulant. It has lower aqueous solubility than caffeine and theophylline. Salts of theobromine with hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, methanesulfonic acid, benzenesulfonic acid and -toluenesulfonic acid were prepared using liquid-assisted grinding (LAG). Proton transfer from the strong acid to the weak base imidazole N resulted in N+-H…O− hydrogen-bonded supramolecular assemblies of theobromine salts. The mesylate salt is polymorphic with amide N-H…O dimer and catemer synthons for the theobromine cations. A variable stoichiometry for phosphate salts (1:3 and 1:2.5) were observed with the latter being more stable. All new salts were characterized by FT-IR, PXRD, DSC and finally single crystal X-ray diffraction. In terms of stability, these salts transformed to theobromine within 1 h of dissolution in water. Remarkably, the besylate and tosylate salts are 88 and 58 times more soluble than theobromine, but they dissociated within 1 h. In contrast, theobromine co-crystals with gallic acid, anthranilic acid and 5-chlorosalicylic acid were found to be stable for more than 24 h in the aqueous slurry conditions, except malonic co-crystal which transformed to theobrominewithin 1 h.Water mediated phase transformation of theobromine salts and co-crystalmay be due to the incongruency (high solubility difference) between the components. These results suggest that even though traditional salts are highly soluble compared to co-crystals, co-crystals can be superior in terms of stability.

  5. Water Availability as a Measure of Cellulose Hydrolysis Efficiency : Studies of water-substrate interactions at low and high dry matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic hydrolysis involves the use of cellulases to break down cellulose in the presence of water. Therefore, not only are enzyme and substrate properties important for efficient hydrolysis, but also the hydrolysis medium, i.e. the liquid phase. The LF-NMR technique is used in this work to measure properties of the liquid phase, where water protons are characterized based on their mobility in the system as measured by their relaxation time. Studies of cellulose hydrolysis at low dry matter show that the contents of the liquid phase influence the final hydrolysis yield, as the presence of sugars, salts, and surfactants impact the water relaxation time. Systems with high concentrations of sugars and salts tend to have low water availability, as these form strong interactions with water to keep their solubility, leaving less water available for hydrolysis. Thus, cellulase performance decreases. However, the addition of surfactants such as polyethylene glycol (PEG) increases the water mobility, leading to higher water availability, and ultimately higher glucose production. More specifically, the higher water availability boosts the activity of processive cellulases. Thus, water availability is vital for efficient hydrolysis, especially at high dry matter content where water availability is low. At high dry matter content, cellulase activity changes water interactions with biomass, affecting the water mobility. While swelling and fiber loosening also take place during hydrolysis, the cellulase hydrolytic activity changes the substrate to give a unique relaxation time profile. In extreme conditions where water is only present as bound water, cellulases are still able to utilize bound water for hydrolysis.

  6. Oil spill research : salt water and fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The difference in oil spill response activities between marine and freshwater environments were reviewed. Although containment, recovery and in-situ burning remain the same in both environments, the fate of oil is different due to water density and salinity considerations. The lower energy of lakes and the lack of major currents changes the advection of the oil. Rivers have high currents, and wind speed and direction are highly influenced by topographic effects. Tidal action is not a consideration for the inland situation, but water levels in rivers can change due to sudden rain events or the action of control devices upstream from the spill. Typically, the volume of oil released in freshwater environments is lower than in marine tanker situations, but spills from pipelines or a major train derailment can exceed 1000 m3. Since the use of water for human consumption and irrigation is another important factor in inland spills, it is important to have a means of obtaining information on the dynamics of spills and a system for archiving the response activities, such as the shoreline cleanup assessment technique (SCAT)and resulting cleanup. It was suggested that research studies must be undertaken to improve response strategies for freshwater spills. These include the dynamics of oil in freshwater environments such as rivers, lakes and sloughs; the role of oil-fine interactions in freshwater situations; the process involved in the formation of tar balls; and, the dynamics of oil in a freshwater situation. The response techniques that must be developed to improve the response to freshwater spills include techniques to remove oil from the bottom; techniques to filter and remove oil from the water column; and, development and testing of dispersants for freshwater environments

  7. Response of antioxidant enzyme activity and pigment content in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings under salt stress

    OpenAIRE

    MOHARRAMNEJAD, Sajjad; TAHERKHANI, Tofigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In order to evaluate the effects of osmotic stress on fresh weight, pigment content and responses of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POX) and catalase (CAT), a factorial experiment was carried out under laboratory conditions with five common bean genotypes and two salt stress levels induced by NaCl (control and 400 mM). Electrophoretic analyses were performed for three antioxidant enzymes SOD, POX and CAT in leafs of common bean genotype seedlin...

  8. Measuring the Dark Matter Content of Galaxies with SALT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixel, Alex; Sellwood, Jerry; Mitchell, Carl

    2016-01-01

    In order to test the predictions of galaxy formation models, we seek to measure the detailed dark matter distributions of spiral galaxies. The best way to accomplish this is through measurements of the Doppler shift of the H? line, through which we can produce detailed velocity maps and rotational models of a galaxy. Since the gas flows in rough centrifugal balance, we can use the rotational models to estimate the central gravitational attraction and therefore the mass distribution. As an example, we present a rotational velocity model fitted to an H? velocity map of the spiral galaxy NGC 908, and find that the fitted systemic velocity gives good agreement with previous measurements in the literature. In the future, this method can be used to determine the rotation curves of the nineteen nearby galaxies for which we have or plan to collect interferometric data; we are currently working to produce similar results for the galaxy NGC 7606.This research has been supported by NSF grant PHY-1263280.

  9. Peptide salt bridge stability: From gas phase via microhydration to bulk water simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluha?ov, Eva; Marsalek, Ondrej; Schmidt, Burkhard; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2012-11-01

    The salt bridge formation and stability in the terminated lysine-glutamate dipeptide is investigated in water clusters of increasing size up to the limit of bulk water. Proton transfer dynamics between the acidic and basic side chains is described by DFT-based Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations. While the desolvated peptide prefers to be in its neutral state, already the addition of a single water molecule can trigger proton transfer from the glutamate side chain to the lysine side chain, leading to a zwitterionic salt bridge state. Upon adding more water molecules we find that stabilization of the zwitterionic state critically depends on the number of hydrogen bonds between side chain termini, the water molecules, and the peptidic backbone. Employing classical molecular dynamics simulations for larger clusters, we observed that the salt bridge is weakened upon additional hydration. Consequently, long-lived solvent shared ion pairs are observed for about 30 water molecules while solvent separated ion pairs are found when at least 40 or more water molecules hydrate the dipeptide. These results have implications for the formation and stability of salt bridges at partially dehydrated surfaces of aqueous proteins.

  10. Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 10 % at both 5 C and 22 C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation.

  11. Modelling unfrozen water content in a silty clay permafrost deposit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Frederik Ancker; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical properties of both unfrozen soils and permafrost soils are influenced by the amount of unfrozen water in the pore space. When dealing with foundation engineering in permafrost areas it is essential to estimate the unfrozen water content (wu). This paper deals with the establishing of...... a calibration equation for determining the unfrozen water content of a Greenlandic silty clay permafrost deposit. Calibration experiments have been conducted for water contents in the interval 0 10 % at both 5 C and 22 C. Calibration equations are verified against permittivity data from a...... permafrost core of material properties similar to the test soil. The calibration for 5C is seen to make a good fit to the permafrost core data. Further experiments should be performed in order to extend the range of water contents tested and hence the range of validity of the calibration equation....

  12. Automated image analysis for experimental investigations of salt water intrusion in coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G.; Hamill, G. A.; Ahmed, Ashraf A.

    2015-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to quantify important salt water intrusion parameters in a sandbox experiment using image analysis. Existing methods found in the literature are based mainly on visual observations, which are subjective, labour intensive and limit the temporal and spatial resolutions that can be analysed. A robust error analysis was undertaken to determine the optimum methodology to convert image light intensity to concentration. Results showed that defining a relationship on a pixel-wise basis provided the most accurate image to concentration conversion and allowed quantification of the width of the mixing zone between salt water and freshwater. A high image sample rate was used to investigate the transient dynamics of salt water intrusion, which rendered analysis by visual observation unsuitable. This paper presents the methodologies developed to minimise human input, promote autonomy, provide high resolution image to concentration conversion, and allow the quantification of intrusion parameters under transient conditions.

  13. Mg-Sulfate Salts as Possible Water Reservoirs in Martian Regolith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Carey, J. W.; Feldman, W. C.

    2003-12-01

    Neutron spectrometer data from the Mars Odyssey orbiter provide evidence of high water-equivalent hydrogen abundance in some near-equatorial locations on Mars. In broad regions shallow (X-ray fluorescence data and alteration assemblages in martian meteorites suggest the presence of sulfate salts in martian regolith. Viking data from excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and that 10% of an Mg-sulfate salt is a likely cementing agent. However, the range of possible Mg sulfates is large. Epsomite (7-hydrate, 51% water) and hexahydrite (6-hydrate, 47% water) are the most hydrated; both form structures of isolated SO4 tetrahedra with isolated octahedral sites consisting of Mg coordinated by six H2O molecules (epsomite has an extra H2O in addition to the six required to coordinate with Mg). Pentahydrite (5-hydrate, 43% water) has infinite chains of alternating SO4 tetrahedra and Mg octahedra, with 4/5 of the water forming apices in octahedral sites. Starkeyite (4-hydrate, 37% water) has clusters of two SO4 tetrahedra and two Mg octahedra, linked only by hydrogen bonds. The Mg-sulfate sanderite (2-hydrate, 23% water) is rare and has poorly known structure. Kieserite (1-hydrate, 13% water) is relatively common in evaporite deposits and has a framework structure of infinite tetrahedral-octahedral chains cross-linked by hydrogen bonds. The stability of Mg-sulfate hydrates under martian near-surface conditions depends on their structures; those with excess water beyond that required to form the octahedral Mg site (e.g., epsomite, pentahydrite) lose that excess readily. Experiments with epsomite and hexahydrite indicate great sensitivity to environmental conditions; epsomite is not stable at 295 K at relative humidity (RH) values less than about 55%, below which hexahydrite is the observed phase. More importantly, hexahydrite - with all water coordinated to Mg in octahedral sites - is unstable at pressures less than 20 mtorr. X-ray diffraction analysis of hexahydrite held at 20 mtorr for six hours shows that structural degradation is slow at 100 K but becomes obvious in 1 hour at 273 K. Thermogravimetric analysis of this amorphous solid shows that it contains 26% H2O (compared with 47% in crystalline hexahydrite), and its observed macroscopic expansion behavior suggests that it can reversibly hydrate and dehydrate. Although neither epsomite nor hexahydrite is likely to be stable near the surface of Mars, their amorphous derivatives or crystalline forms of the lower hydrates might be present (preliminary thermogravimetric data indicate that kieserite is likely to be stable). However, the limited rehydration of structurally degraded hexahydrite indicates that unrealistically large amounts ( 50%) would be required in the upper meter of regolith to account for the higher water contents ( 13%) suggested for some martian equatorial regions; even larger amounts of kieserite ( 100%) would be required. A more important role for sulfates may be in the formation of a low-permeability salt crust that could restrict dewatering of underlying soil horizons.

  14. Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samin, Sela; Hod, Manuela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate a general non-Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

  15. Experimental Demonstration of the Stabilization of Colloids by Addition of Salt

    CERN Document Server

    Samin, Sela; Melamed, Eitan; Gottlieb, Moshe; Tsori, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a general non--Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek method to stabilize colloids in liquids. By this method, colloidal particles that initially form unstable suspension and sediment from the liquid are stabilized by the addition of salt to the suspending liquid. Yet, the salt is not expected to adsorb or directly interact with the surface of the colloids. For the method to work, the liquid should be a mixture, and the salt needs to be antagonistic such that each ion is preferentially solvated by a different component of the mixture. The stabilization may depend on the salt content, mixture composition, or distance from the mixture's coexistence line.

  16. Soil volumetric water content measurements using TDR technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Vincenzi

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A physical model to measure some hydrological and thermal parameters in soils will to be set up. The vertical profiles of: volumetric water content, matric potential and temperature will be monitored in different soils. The volumetric soil water content is measured by means of the Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR technique. The result of a test to determine experimentally the reproducibility of the volumetric water content measurements is reported together with the methodology and the results of the analysis of the TDR wave forms. The analysis is based on the calculation of the travel time of the TDR signal in the wave guide embedded in the soil.

  17. SMAPVEX08 Vegetation Water Content Map V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetation Water Content (VWC) map for the Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2008 (SMAPVEX08) was derived by calculating Normalized Difference...

  18. High pressure processing alters water distribution enabling the production of reduced-fat and reduced-salt pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijuan; Han, Minyi; Bai, Yun; Han, Yanqing; Xu, Xinglian; Zhou, Guanghong

    2015-04-01

    High pressure processing (HPP) was used to explore novel methods for modifying the textural properties of pork sausages with reduced-salt, reduced-fat and no fat replacement additions. A 27 factorial design was set up, incorporating two pressure levels (0.1 or 200 MPa) and seven fat levels (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). Sausages treated at 200 MPa exhibited improved tenderness at all fat levels compared with 0.1 MPa treated samples, and the shear force of sausages treated at 200 MPa with 15 or 20% fat content was similar to the 0.1 MPa treated sausages with 30% fat. HPP significantly changed the P? peak ratio of the four water components in raw sausages, resulting in improved textural properties of emulsion-type sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt. Significant correlations were found between pH, color, shear force and water proportions. The scanning and transmission micrographs revealed the formation of smaller fat globules and an improved network structure in the pressure treated sausages. In conclusion, there is potential to manufacture sausages with reduced-fat and reduced-salt by using HPP to maintain textural qualities. PMID:25553411

  19. Determination by gamma-ray spectrometry of the plutonium and americium content of the Pu/Am separation scraps. Application to molten salts; Determination par spectrometrie gamma de la teneur en plutonium et en americium de produits issus de separation Pu/Am. Application aux bains de sels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godot, A. [CEA Valduc, Dept. de Traitement des Materiaux Nucleaires, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France); Perot, B. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. de Technologie Nucleaire, Service de Modelisation des Transferts et Mesures Nucleaires, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2005-07-01

    Within the framework of plutonium recycling operations in CEA Valduc (France), americium is extracted from molten plutonium metal into a molten salt during an electrolysis process. The scraps (spent salt, cathode, and crucible) contain extracted americium and a part of plutonium. Nuclear material management requires a very accurate determination of the plutonium content. Gamma-ray spectroscopy is performed on Molten Salt Extraction (MSE) scraps located inside the glove box, in order to assess the plutonium and americium contents. The measurement accuracy is influenced by the device geometry, nuclear instrumentation, screens located between the sample and the detector, counting statistics and matrix attenuation, self-absorption within the spent salt being very important. The purpose of this study is to validate the 'infinite energy extrapolation' method employed to correct for self-attenuation, and to detect any potential bias. We present a numerical study performed with the MCNP computer code to identify the most influential parameters and some suggestions to improve the measurement accuracy. A final uncertainty of approximately 40% is achieved on the plutonium mass. (authors)

  20. A Tolerant Behavior in Salt-Sensitive Tomato Plants can be Mimicked by Chemical Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Flors, Vctor; Parads, Mercedes; Garca-Andrade, Javier; Cerezo, Miguel; Gonzlez-Bosch, Carmen; Garca-Agustn, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    Lycopersicon esculentum plants exhibit increased salt stress tolerance following treatment with adipic acid monoethylester and 1,3-diaminepropane (DAAME), known as an inducer of resistance against biotic stress in tomato and pepper. For an efficient water and nutrient uptake, plants should adapt their water potential to compensate a decrease in water soil potential produced by salt stress. DAAME-treated plants showed a faster and stronger water potential reduction and an enhanced proline accu...

  1. Determination of 2,4-D content in water surfaces by gas-liquid chromatography. [2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitsova, S.; Rizov, N.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on surface waters were carried out for the presence of 2,4-D. The studies were selected from regions with intensive application of the herbicide. The studies were carried out by means of gas-liquid chromatography after derivatization of 2,4-D to methyl ester by diazomethane. The presence of 2,4-D in concentrations from 0,1 to 2,6 micrograms/dm3 was confirmed in an average of 68 per cent of the samples analyzed--rivers, dams, microdams and field water sources, with no data for seasonal or local oscillations. The residual quantities of 2,4-D in the surface water, confirmed in the present study, are 1000 and 100 resp. times less as compared with the literature data and the standards of the foreign sanitary legislations.

  2. Uncertainties in the measurement of soil water content caused by abrupt soil layer changes, when using a neutron probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multigroup diffusion code calculations have been made to model the changes in the thermal flux distribution as a fast neutron source passes through an interface between two soil systems. By integrating this flux over the volume of a detector attached to the source, a relative count rate can be determined for different source positions with respect to the interface. Water densities determined from these count rates and calibration curves can be seriously in error near the interface. The magnitude of these errors depends upon the soil parameters, the detector geometry, and the proximity of the soil strata to the neutron source and detector. Unless the soil structure is well known, it would be unwise to rely on water measurements closer than about 25 cm to a soil discontinuity. It two soils merge over 30-40 cm, it is likely that the measured water density will not deviate far from the real value

  3. Investigations into the endogenic abcisinic acid and cytokinin content of soja bean cultures with varying salt sensitivity, as well as into the effect of exogenically applied abcisinic acid to the Cl--translocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two soja bean cultures with different Cl- sensitivity the 'Lee' and 'Jackson' were used for the investigation. Salting of the growth medium with 75 nM NaCl massively increased the obcisinic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves, not however of the cytokinin content. The high ABA concentrations remained in the 'Jackson' sort even after a 7-day salt treatment. The moderately salt-resistant sort 'Lee' had a remarkable Cl- retention mechanism. The addition of 10-5 and 10-6 M ABA to the growth medium reduced the Cl- concentration in the sprout and simultaneously increased the accumulation in the root. This ABA effect failed at high salt concentration. The order of magnitude in which ABA is taken up from a normal or salted growth medium and its distribution were investigated using 14C. Macroautoradiographic investigations show that after 35 h the whole sprout is radioactively labelled whereby a prefered accumulation is found in youngest part of the sprout. The highest Cl- values were found in the older leaves. The ABA is obviously transported to the stomata with the transpiration flow and inhibits the transpiration by its effect on the stomata. Subjecting the soja beans to a 75 mM NaCl concentration, can lead to a decrease of transpiration due to the strong salt concentration. The addition of ABA as well had an inhibiting effect on the water release of the plants without influencing the Cl- translocation. (MG)

  4. The effect of salt stress on antioxidative enzymes and proline content of two Turkish tobacco varieties

    OpenAIRE

    EL?K, zge; Atak, imen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the salinity tolerances of 2 oriental tobacco varieties (?zmir zba? and Akhisar 97). Salinity stress experiments were performed under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Seedlings of each variety were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300, and 350 mM NaCl. Photosynthetic pigment levels, lipid peroxidation rate, total protein content, antioxidant enzyme activities, and proline concentrations were determined for seedlings treated with salt for 14 da...

  5. Boundary lubrication by sodium salts: a Hofmeister series effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, D A; Norton, I T

    2012-08-01

    Boundary lubrication plays an important role in the function of sliding surfaces in contact. Of particular interest in this study, boundary regime tribology is relevant for understanding textural attributes perceived during oral consumption of food, where the tongue squeezes and slides against the hard palate. This work investigates aqueous lubrication of a sliding/rolling ball-on-disc contact by sodium anions of the Hofmeister series in both water and guar gum solutions. Low concentrations (0.001 M) of strongly kosmotropic salts provide reduced friction coefficients in both systems (water and guar gum solutions), although a different mechanism prevails in each. Surface-bound hydrated ions are responsible in the case of water, and salt-promoted adsorption of hydrated-polymer chains dominate with guar gum. In each system, friction decreases in accordance with the Hofmeister series: iodide, nitrate, bromide, chloride, fluoride, phosphate and citrate. The addition of salt has little impact on solution of bulk viscosity, and so this work demonstrates that significant boundary lubrication can be provided without surface modification and with lubricants of viscosity similar to that of water. PMID:22621913

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Great Salt Lake basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming; environmental setting and study design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Robert L.; Waddell, K.M.; Thiros, S.A.; Giddings, E.M.; Hadley, H.K.; Stephens, D.W.; Gerner, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Salt Lake Basins, Utah, Idaho, and Wyoming is one of 51 study units in the United States where the status and trends of water quality, and the factors controlling water quality, are being studied by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The 14,500-square-mile Great Salt Lake Basins study unit encompasses three major river systems that enter Great Salt Lake: the Bear, the Weber, and the Utah Lake/Jordan River systems. The environmental setting of the study unit includes natural and human-related factors that potentially influence the physical, chemical, and/or biological quality of the surface- and ground-water resources. Surface- and ground-water components of the planned assessment activities are designed to evaluate the sources of natural and human-related factors that affect the water quality in the Great Salt Lake Basins study unit.

  7. Titanium metal obtention by fused salts electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potassium fluorotitanate dissolved in fused sodium chloride or potassium chloride may be electrolyzed under an inert gas atmosphere. Solid electrolysis products are formed on the cathode which contains titanium metal, sodium chloride, lower fluorotitanates and small quantities of alkali metal fluorotitanate. The extraction of titanium from the electrolysis products may be carried out by aqueous leaching (removal of chloride salts of alkali metals and a certain amount of fluorotitanates). Titanium metal obtained is relatively pure. (Author)

  8. Effect of moisture content of concrete on water uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of water and non-polar hexane in Portland cement mortar prisms with different initial moisture contents was investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The amount of water in gel pores strongly affects the penetration of water in much larger capillary pores. Water penetration is reduced by the self-sealing effect as characterized by non-?t dependence of capillary uptake and penetration depth. This is explained by the ongoing redistribution of water from capillaries into gel pores which results in internal swelling and loss of continuity of the capillary pore system; a correlation was observed between the amount of redistributed water and departure from ?t behaviour. A descriptive model is used to explain the dependence of water uptake and penetration on moisture content. For increasing initial moisture contents up to a critical value equivalent to equilibrium with a relative humidity between 65 and 80%, less penetrating water is able to redistribute. Thus more penetrating water is in larger capillaries with less viscous resistance; uptake and penetration depth increase. Above the critical initial moisture content, uptake and penetration depth decrease towards zero. This is explained by (a) an overall reduction in capillary pressure because transport takes places in fewer and larger pores and (b) an increase in viscous resistance due to the connection of penetrating capillary water with pores already containing water. Less capillary pore space is available for transport. The surface region of concrete placed in contact with water is not instantaneously saturated. Water content increases with time depending on the degree of surface saturation. A new transition coefficient for capillary suction ? is defined for the calculation of surface flux.

  9. Prediccin de los contenidos de agua y sal durante el salado de bagre usando diferentes mezclas salinas / Prediction of moisture and salt contents of catfish slices during salting using different salting mixtures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otoniel, Corzo; Nelson, Bracho; Jaime, Rodrguez.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la aplicabilidad del modelo de Weibull para predecir los contenidos de humedad y sal y sus coeficientes de difusin, durante el salado de trozos de bagre utilizando mezclas de NaCl, KCl, CaCl2 y MgCl2. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusin (De) de agua y s [...] al fueron determinados usando el modelo normalizado de Weibull. Los altos valores de los coeficientes de determinacin (R > 0,99) y los bajos errores relativos medios (MRE Abstract in english The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the Weibull model to predict the moisture and salt contents and their diffusion coefficients, during the salting of catfish slices using mixtures of NaCl, KCl, CaCl and MgCl. The effective water and salt diffusion coefficients (De) [...] were determined using the normalized Weibull model. The high coefficients of determination (R > 0.99) and low mean relative error (MRE

  10. Studying on preparation of super water absorbing materials by radiation modification techniques using bentonite and water soluble monomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on preparing water super absorbent materials using Di Linh bentonite and water soluble acrylic monomer has been carried out by gamma radiation grafting and crosslinking techniques. The research results showed that gel formed depends on the absorbed dose and the concentration of bentonite used, and not affected by the cleanliness of them. In the dose range studied, water swelling content reached 579 g.g-1 with swelling rate of 20 g.g-1.min-1, in salting solution water absorption capacity decreased very much in particular at high concentrations. In salting media, the water absorption capacity of studied product depends on the type of salt in order as follows NaCl43)22)2. Absorption capacity of the polymer also depends on pH, particle size and drying temperature. The effect of water retention in sandy soil, the spectral characteristics XRD, FT-IR were also studied. (author)

  11. Conversion of an Aziridine to an Oxazolidinone Using a Salt and Carbon Dioxide in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Justin R.; Lieberman, Deborah L.; Hancock, Matthew T.; Pinhas, Allan R.

    2005-01-01

    A convenient, inexpensive, environment friendly, and regioselective conversion of an aziridine to an oxazolidinone is developed by using iodide salt and CO[2] in water. A description is provided, on the way in which this series of experiments will show students how to change experimental conditions to obtain mainly one desired regiosomer of a

  12. Modeling dense water production and salt transport from Alaskan coastal polynyas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Sergio R.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2002-09-01

    A three-dimensional primitive equation model was used to assess the effects of dense water formation from winter (1996/1997) polynyas on the ambient stratification, salt transport, and circulation in the vicinity of Barrow Canyon. The model, which includes ambient stratification and bottom topography, is forced by time-varying surface heat flux, surface salt flux, and coastal flow. The influence of sea ice drift on the circulation and salt transport is also analyzed by prescribing ice water stress at the sea surface. The surface fluxes and ice drift are derived from satellite observations (Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) and NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) sensors). The coastal flow (Alaska coastal current), which is an extension of the Bering Sea throughflow, is formulated in the model by using a wind-transport regression. One set of experiments was forced by strong and persistent polynyas, simulated by 20-day averaged heat and salt fluxes originating from the largest events. In this set of experiments both strong and weak steady coastal currents were imposed. The amount of salt exported from the generation area depended on the strength of the current. Another set of experiments was forced by weaker and less persistent polynyas using time-varying forcing. The experiments with time-varying polynya forcing were conducted with two ambient vertical stratifications, one representing fall conditions and one representing winter conditions. The amount of salt retained on the shelf was found to be quite sensitive to the initial stratification. Weaker vertical stratification promotes a deeper mixed layer, which develops 20 times faster than the horizontal advective timescale of the coastal current, thus increasing the residence time of the salt generated by the polynya on the shelf. The time-varying northeastward coastal current, combined with the offshore Ekman transport, can export 29-73% of the salt produced by polynyas upstream of Barrow Canyon, depending upon the ambient vertical stratification. The inclusion of ice water stress in the model makes the coastal current much wider due to the resulting offshore Ekman transport and also doubles the amount of salt exported.

  13. Mitochondrial membranes with mono- and divalent salt: changes induced by salt ions on structure and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyry, Sanja; Rg, Tomasz; Karttunen, Mikko; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2009-01-01

    We employ atomistic simulations to consider how mono- (NaCl) and divalent (CaCl(2)) salt affects properties of inner and outer membranes of mitochondria. We find that the influence of salt on structural properties is rather minute, only weakly affecting lipid packing, conformational ordering, and membrane electrostatic potential. The changes induced by salt are more prominent in dynamical properties related to ion binding and formation of ion-lipid complexes and lipid aggregates, as rotational d...

  14. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO

  15. Use spectral derivatives for estimating canopy water content

    OpenAIRE

    Clevers, J. G. P. W.

    2010-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing has demonstrated great potential for accurate retrieval of canopy water content (CWC). This CWC is defined by the product of the leaf equivalent water thickness (EWT) and the leaf area index (LAI). In this paper the spectral information provided by the canopy water absorption feature at 970 nm for estimating and predicting CWC was studied using a modelling approach and in situ spectroradiometric measurements. The relationship of the first derivative at the right s...

  16. Sensitivity of probabilistic MCO water content estimates to key assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-02-25

    Sensitivity of probabilistic multi-canister overpack (MCO) water content estimates to key assumptions is evaluated with emphasis on the largest non-cladding film-contributors, water borne by particulates adhering to damage sites, and water borne by canister particulate. Calculations considered different choices of damage state degree of independence, different choices of percentile for reference high inputs, three types of input probability density function (pdfs): triangular, log-normal, and Weibull, and the number of scrap baskets in an MCO.

  17. Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content

    CERN Document Server

    Maindl, Thomas I; Schfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

  18. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their influence on the water uptake of ammonium sulfate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic behavior of atmospherically relevant water-soluble carboxylic salts and their effects on ammonium sulfate were investigated using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (H-TDMA. No hygroscopic growth is observed for disodium oxalate, while ammonium oxalate shows slight growth (growth factor = 1.05 at 90%. The growth factors at 90% RH for sodium acetate, disodium malonate, disodium succinate, disodium tartrate, diammonium tartrate, sodium pyruvate, disodium maleate, and humic acid sodium salt are 1.79, 1.78, 1.69, 1.54, 1.29, 1.70, 1.78, and 1.19, respectively. The hygroscopic growth of mixtures of organic salts with ammonium sulfate, which are prepared as surrogates of atmospheric aerosols, was determined. A clear shift in deliquescence relative humidity to lower RH with increasing organic mass fraction was observed for these mixtures. Above 80% RH, the contribution to water uptake by the organic salts was close to that of ammonium sulfate for the majority of investigated compounds. The observed hygroscopic growth of the mixed particles at RH above the deliquescence relative humidity of ammonium sulfate agreed well with that predicted using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR mixing rule. Mixtures of ammonium sulfate with organic salts are more hygroscopic than mixtures with organic acids, indicating that neutralization by gas-phase ammonia and/or association with cations of dicarbonxylic acids may enhance the hygroscopicity of the atmospheric particles.

  19. Estimation of water turnover rates of captive West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) held in fresh and salt water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, R. M.; Worthy, G. A.; Byers, F. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ability of West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) to move between fresh and salt water raises the question of whether manatees drink salt water. Water turnover rates were estimated in captive West Indian manatees using the deuterium oxide dilution technique. Rates were quantified in animals using four experimental treatments: (1) held in fresh water and fed lettuce (N=4), (2) held in salt water and fed lettuce (N=2), (3) acutely exposed to salt water and fed lettuce (N=4), and (4) chronically exposed to salt water with limited access to fresh water and fed sea grass (N=5). Animals held in fresh water had the highest turnover rates (145+/-12 ml kg-1 day-1) (mean +/- s.e.m.). Animals acutely exposed to salt water decreased their turnover rate significantly when moved into salt water (from 124+/-15 to 65+/-15 ml kg-1 day-1) and subsequently increased their turnover rate upon re-entry to fresh water (146+/-19 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water had significantly lower turnover rates (21+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1) compared with animals held in salt water and fed lettuce (45+/-3 ml kg-1 day-1). Manatees chronically exposed to salt water and fed sea grass had very low turnover rates compared with manatees held in salt water and fed lettuce, which is consistent with a lack of mariposia. Manatees in fresh water drank large volumes of water, which may make them susceptible to hyponatremia if access to a source of Na+ is not provided.

  20. Effects of Salt and Water Stress on Plant Growth and on Accumulation of Osmolytes and Antioxidant Compounds in Cherry Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad AL HASSAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of salt and water stress on growth and several stress markers were investigated in cherry tomato plants. Some growth parameters (stem length and number of leaves and chlorophyll contents were determined every third day during plant growth, and leaf material was collected after 25 and 33 days of treatment. Both stresses inhibited plant growth; chlorophyll levels, however, decreased only in response to high NaCl concentrations. Proline contents largely increased in leaves of stressed plants, reaching levels high enough to play a major role in cellular osmotic adjustment. Despite reports indicating that tomato does not synthesize glycine betaine, the stress-induced accumulation of this osmolyte was detected in cherry tomato, albeit at lower concentration than that of proline. Therefore, it appears that the plants are able to synthesise glycine betaine as a secondary osmolyte under strong stress conditions. Total sugars levels, on the contrary, decreased in stress-treated plants. Both stress treatments caused secondary oxidative stress in the plants, as indicated by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA contents. Water stress led to an increase in total phenolics and flavonoid contents and a reduction of carotenoid levels in the leaves; flavonoids also increased under high salinity conditions.

  1. WATER AND SALT METABOLISM IN THE GERIATRIC SYNDROMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. Musso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Geriatrics has already described four syndromes of its own: confusional syndrome, incontinence (fecal and/or urinary, and gait disorders and immobility syndrome, naming them geriatric giants. This name reflects their prevalence and great importance in the elderly. Ageing process induces many changes in renal physiology such as a reduction in glomerular filtration rate (senile hyponatremia, and water and sodium reabsorbtion capability. Besides, there are particular water and salt metabolism alteration characteristics of the geriatric syndromes, such as dehydration and hypernatremia in psychiatric disturbances as well as hyponatremia in patients suffering from immobility syndrome. The geriatric giants and nephrogeriatric physiology changes, are a good example of feed-back between geriatric syndromes, clinical entities characteristics in the elderly that predispose and potentiate each other, leading to catastrophic clinical events.

  2. Renal Effects and Underlying Molecular Mechanisms of Long-Term Salt Content Diets in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Rebeca Caldeira Machado; Vassallo, Paula Frizera; Crajoinas, Renato de Oliveira; Oliveira, Marilene Luzia; Martins, Flvia Letcia; Nogueira, Breno Valentim; Motta-Santos, Daisy; Arajo, Isabella Binotti; Forechi, Ludimila; Girardi, Adriana Castello Costa; Santos, Robson Augusto Souza; Mill, Jos Geraldo

    2015-01-01

    Several evidences have shown that salt excess is an important determinant of cardiovascular and renal derangement in hypertension. The present study aimed to investigate the renal effects of chronic high or low salt intake in the context of hypertension and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying such effects. To this end, newly weaned male SHR were fed with diets only differing in NaCl content: normal salt (NS: 0.3%), low salt (LS: 0.03%), and high salt diet (HS: 3%) until 7 months of age. Analysis of renal function, morphology, and evaluation of the expression of the main molecular components involved in the renal handling of albumin, including podocyte slit-diaphragm proteins and proximal tubule endocytic receptors were performed. The relationship between diets and the balance of the renal angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 enzymes was also examined. HS produced glomerular hypertrophy and decreased ACE2 and nephrin expressions, loss of morphological integrity of the podocyte processes, and increased proteinuria, characterized by loss of albumin and high molecular weight proteins. Conversely, severe hypertension was attenuated and renal dysfunction was prevented by LS since proteinuria was much lower than in the NS SHRs. This was associated with a decrease in kidney ACE/ACE2 protein and activity ratio and increased cubilin renal expression. Taken together, these results suggest that LS attenuates hypertension progression in SHRs and preserves renal function. The mechanisms partially explaining these findings include modulation of the intrarenal ACE/ACE2 balance and the increased cubilin expression. Importantly, HS worsens hypertensive kidney injury and decreases the expression nephrin, a key component of the slit diaphragm. PMID:26495970

  3. Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Sanket R. Vora; Prof. Suchen B. Thakore; Prof. Nitin Padhiyar; Ameerkhan Pathan

    2013-01-01

    Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of addition of Lithium Bromide salt i...

  4. Varietal differences in growth vigor, water relations, protein and nucleic acids content of two wheat varieties grown under seawater stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmat S. Aldesuquy

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of seawater salinity (10% and 25% on growth vigor of root and shoot, water relations and protein as well as nucleic acids in flag leaves of two wheat cultivars (Salt sensitive var., Gemmieza-9 and salt resistant var., Sids-1 during grain-filling was investigated. In general, seawater at 10% and 25% caused noticeable reduction in almost all growth criteria of root, shoot and flag leaf which was consistent with the progressive alteration in water relations (RWC & SWD , protein and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA content of both varieties during grain filling. Furthermore, degree of leaf succulence and degree of leaf sclerophylly were severely affected by seawater stress in both wheat cultivars. The magnitude of reduction was more obvious at higher salinity levels than the lower one particularly in Gemmieza-9.

  5. Chapter 1. Direct and surrogate measures of soil water content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this manual is to provide guidance for field scientists who are not instrumentation experts but who wish to determine soil water content as part of their work. This publication is targeted to help those setting up soil water monitoring projects in the developing countries where expertise in many technologies is not readily available. However, it also has value to anyone planning a project involving the determination of field soil water content. Most importantly, it will also give some guidance as to what corroborative measurements are needed to check the performance of water sensing technology being used. A substantial suite of soil water sensors and technologies are available today. Some are well understood as to their technical capability and are both mechanically and electronically reliable. However, some technologies that claim to measure soil water content are quite unsuited to some applications and produce results that have little, if any, relation to soil water content in the field. This manual sets out a decision making process and critical factors for matching various water measurement technologies to project objectives. The first factor is the accuracy required by the user. The second is the degree of water content variability across the field to be measured. The third is the presence of interferences to the measurement process. And the fourth consists of the capabilities of the available devices in light of the spatial variability of water content and the interferences that are present. A successful outcome can only be obtained if all four factors are considered. Because this manual is intended to be a practical guide, it cannot be a simple one. Only reliable measurements are practically useful. The techniques involved in obtaining reliable values of soil water content are not simple, nor are the potential problems, pitfalls, and sensor interferences that can prevent good values from being obtained. The manual is divided into chapters that treat classes of measurement systems, or individual sensors/methods if they do not belong to one of the major classes, which include neutron moisture meters, capacitance sensors that work from within a plastic access tube, time domain reflectometry systems that employ waveform capture and analysis, tensiometers, and direct sampling methods. Obviously, not all sensor systems could be included in the studies that led up to this manual. Much of the work supported by the IAEA involves determination of the soil water balance to determine crop water use and water use efficiency. Thus, many of the systems studied were those that work in access tubes so that measures could be made to well below the crop root zone. However, a few other widely used systems employing probes that are inserted into the soil were also studied

  6. Wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets: A molecular dynamics investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Borg, Matthew K.; Sefiane, Khellil; Reese, Jason M.

    2015-11-01

    We employ molecular dynamics simulations to study the wetting and evaporation of salt-water nanodroplets on platinum surfaces. Our results show that the contact angle of the droplets increases with the salt concentration. To verify this, a second simulation system of a thin salt-water film on a platinum surface is used to calculate the various surface tensions. We find that both the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor surface tensions increase with salt concentration and as a result these cause an increase in the contact angle. However, the evaporation rate of salt-water droplets decreases as the salt concentration increases, due to the hydration of salt ions. When the water molecules have all evaporated from the droplet, two forms of salt crystals are deposited, clump and ringlike, depending on the solid-liquid interaction strength and the evaporation rate. To form salt crystals in a ring, it is crucial that there is a pinned stage in the evaporation process, during which salt ions can move from the center to the rim of the droplets. With a stronger solid-liquid interaction strength, a slower evaporation rate, and a higher salt concentration, a complete salt crystal ring can be deposited on the surface.

  7. Uranium and thorium contents in bottled mineral waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-four types of mineral waters bottled in Japan and 42 types of foreign mineral waters were analyzed especially for U and Th by ICP-MS. Japanese bottled waters exhibited rather low U concentrations below its detection limit of 2 ng/L up to 1.3 ? g/L. They are all below the Japanese water standard for U concentration. Foreign bottles showed a wide range of U contents up to 16 ? g/L and smaller Th contents up to 30 ng/L. Apparently, some foreign mineral waters contained a large amount of U exceeding the Japanese water standard. In spite of this, such mineral waters may be used as a readily-available uranium (and thorium) sample solution. Other various aquatic samples such as rainwater, lake water, river water, and tap water were also analyzed for U and Th. In Japan, U concentrations are of the order of several to several tens of ng/L for various samples in general, which is in accordance with those of bottled mineral waters. Uranium concentrations may be used as a key for environmental monitoring, as exemplified by water of Ashida River, Hiroshima Prefecture. (author)

  8. Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket R. Vora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of addition of Lithium Bromide salt in isopropanol -water binary azeotropic mixture using extractive distillation is discussed. As LiBr is a high boiling point salt, it will not appear in the distillate and moreover LiBr is hygroscopic and has a characteristic to givehigher boiling point elevation with water which is main cause of its use in this application. Addition of salt (40% of watereliminates azeotrope formation and purity of 99.74% (by wt. is achieved.

  9. Effect of varying the salt and fat content in Cheddar cheese on aspects of the performance of a commercial starter culture preparation during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanachkina, Palina; McCarthy, Catherine; Guinee, Tim; Wilkinson, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Production of healthier reduced-fat and reduced-salt cheeses requires careful selection of starter bacteria, as any substantial alterations to cheese composition may prompt changes in the overall performance of starters during cheese ripening. Therefore, it is important to assess the effect of compositional alterations on the individual strain response during cheese ripening for each optimised cheese matrix. In the current study, the effect of varying fat and salt levels in Cheddar cheese on the performance of a commercial Lactococcus lactis culture preparation, containing one L. lactis subsp. lactis strain and one L. lactis subsp. cremoris strain was investigated. Compositional variations in fat or salt levels did not affect overall starter viability, yet reduction of fat by 50% significantly delayed non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) populations at the initial ripening period. In comparison to starter viability, starter autolysis, as measured by release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) or post-proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (Pep X) into cheese juices, decreased significantly with lower salt addition levels in full-fat Cheddar. Conversely, reducing fat content of cheese resulted in a significantly higher release of intracellular Pep X, and to a lesser extent intracellular LDH, into juices over ripening. Flow cytometry (FCM) indicated that the permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations were generally lower in juices from cheeses with reduced salt content, however no significant differences were observed between different salt and fat treatments. Interestingly, fat reductions by 30 and 50% in cheeses with reduced or half added salt contents appeared to balance out the effect of salt, and enhanced cell permeabilisation, cell death, and also cell autolysis in these variants. Overall, this study has highlighted that alterations in both salt and fat levels in cheese influence certain aspects of starter performance during ripening, including autolysis, permeabilisation, and intracellular enzyme release. However, it may be possible to reduce the fat and salt content of Cheddar cheese by 30 or 50%, respectively, without largely altering permeabilised and dead cell sub-populations and, in turn, the amount of released intracellular Pep X activity, such that these performance parameters are similar to those observed for control full-fat, full-salt Cheddar cheese. PMID:26905194

  10. Extensive NMRD studies of Ni(II) salt solutions in water and water-glycerol mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, J; Egorov, A; Kruk, D; Laaksonen, A; Nikkhou Aski, S; Parigi, G; Westlund, P-O

    2008-11-01

    Aqueous solutions of simple nickel(II) salts are a classical test case for theories of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and its dependence on the magnetic field (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion, NMRD), going back to late fifties. We present here new experimental data, extending the NMRD range up to 21T (900 MHz). In addition to salt solutions in (acidified) water, we have also measured on solutions containing glycerol. The aqueous solution data do not show any significant changes compared to the earlier experiments. The interpretation, based on the general ("slow-motion") theory is also similar to the earlier work from our laboratory. The NMRD-data in mixed solvents are qualitatively different, indicating that the glycerol not only changes the solution viscosity, but may also enter the first coordination sphere of the metal ion, resulting in lower symmetry complexes, characterized by non-vanishing averaged zero-field splitting. This hypothesis is corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. A strategy appropriate for interpreting the NMRD-data for the chemically complicated systems of this type is proposed. PMID:18809345

  11. Extensive NMRD studies of Ni(II) salt solutions in water and water glycerol mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, J.; Egorov, A.; Kruk, D.; Laaksonen, A.; Nikkhou Aski, S.; Parigi, G.; Westlund, P.-O.

    2008-11-01

    Aqueous solutions of simple nickel(II) salts are a classical test case for theories of the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) and its dependence on the magnetic field (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion, NMRD), going back to late fifties. We present here new experimental data, extending the NMRD range up to 21 T (900 MHz). In addition to salt solutions in (acidified) water, we have also measured on solutions containing glycerol. The aqueous solution data do not show any significant changes compared to the earlier experiments. The interpretation, based on the general ("slow-motion") theory is also similar to the earlier work from our laboratory. The NMRD-data in mixed solvents are qualitatively different, indicating that the glycerol not only changes the solution viscosity, but may also enter the first coordination sphere of the metal ion, resulting in lower symmetry complexes, characterized by non-vanishing averaged zero-field splitting. This hypothesis is corroborated by molecular dynamics simulations. A strategy appropriate for interpreting the NMRD-data for the chemically complicated systems of this type is proposed.

  12. Physiological and molecular characterization of the enhanced salt tolerance induced by low-dose gamma irradiation in Arabidopsis seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: 50-Gy gamma irradiation markedly promotes the seedling growth under salt stress in Arabidopsis. The contents of H2O2 and MDA are obviously reduced by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Low-dose gamma irradiation stimulates the activities of antioxidant enzymes under salt stress. Proline accumulation is required for the low-gamma-ray-induced salt tolerance. Low gamma rays differentially regulate the expression of genes related to salt stress. - Abstract: It has been established that gamma rays at low doses stimulate the tolerance to salt stress in plants. However, our knowledge regarding the molecular mechanism underlying the enhanced salt tolerance remains limited. In this study, we found that 50-Gy gamma irradiation presented maximal beneficial effects on germination index and root length in response to salt stress in Arabidopsis seedlings. The contents of H2O2 and MDA in irradiated seedlings under salt stress were significantly lower than those of controls. The activities of antioxidant enzymes and proline levels in the irradiated seedlings were markedly increased compared with the controls. Furthermore, transcriptional expression analysis of selected genes revealed that some components of salt stress signaling pathways were stimulated by low-dose gamma irradiation under salt stress. Our results suggest that gamma irradiation at low doses alleviates the salt stress probably by modulating the physiological responses as well as stimulating the stress signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings

  13. Investigating New Innovations to Detect Small Salt-Water Fraction Component in Mineral Oil and Small Oil Fraction Component in Salt-Water Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R.R. Mucunguzi-Rugwebe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to present the key findings on the effects of small salt-water fraction component, ? expressed in volume % per L on rotation are presented in the temperature range of 19.0 to 24.0C. It was found that rotations in oils with low boiling point known as light oils like Final diesel No. 2 were greater than the rotations which occurred in oils with high boiling point called heavy oils such as Esso diesel. Small oil fraction components, ?s expressed in mL/L of salt water down to 10 ppm were detected. The greatest impact on rotation of these oils was found in light oils like Fina No. 2 diesel. At 40 ppm which is the oil content level below which the environment authority considers process water to be free from oil environmental hazards, the observed rotation angles were 23.2 for Esso, 36.7 for Nors Hydro AS, and 71.8 in Fina No. 2 diesel. It was observed that light oils molecules have drastic effect on optical properties of the mixture in which they exist. It was found that for all oils, oil fractions greater than 100 ppm, caused the medium to be optically dense. This technology has shown a very high potential of being used as an environmental monitor to detect oil fractions down to 10 ppm and the technique can use laser beam to control re-injected process water with oil fractions between 100-2000 ppm.

  14. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  15. Electrodialysis-based separation process for salt recovery and recycling from waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    A method for recovering salt from a process stream containing organic contaminants is provided, comprising directing the waste stream to a desalting electrodialysis unit so as to create a concentrated and purified salt permeate and an organic contaminants containing stream, and contacting said concentrated salt permeate to a water-splitting electrodialysis unit so as to convert the salt to its corresponding base and acid.

  16. Salt stress effect on epinasty in relation to ethylene production and water relations in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    El-Iklil, Youssef; Karrou, Mohammed; Benichou, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    A pool of genetic variability is a prerequisite for any practical approach to improving crop salt tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine how epinasty, a morphological response of tomato to salt stress, can be used as a measure of salt tolerance and how it is related to ethylene production and water relations in tomato. Three Lycopersicon esculentum cultivars (Edkawy, Ramy, and Vemar) and one Lycopersicon sheesmanii accession were subjected to four levels of salt stress at the...

  17. Water Dynamics in Salt Solutions Studied with Ultrafast 2D IR Vibrational Echo Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Fayer, Michael D.; Moilanen, David E.; Wong, Daryl; Rosenfeld, Daniel E; Fenn, Emily E.; Park, Sungnam

    2009-01-01

    Water is ubiquitous in nature, but it exists as pure water infrequently. From the ocean to biology, water molecules interact with a wide variety of dissolved species. Many of these species are charged. In the ocean, water interacts with dissolved salts. In biological systems, water interacts with dissolved salts as well as with charged amino acids, the zwitterionic head groups of membranes, and other biological groups that carry charges. Water plays a central role in vast number of chemical p...

  18. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  19. Assessment of iodine content in Brazilian duplicate portion diets and in table salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess dietary intake may increase the risk for the hyperthyroidism in the elderly. This study investigated iodine dietary intake by epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) analyzing duplicate portion diet and fortified table salt samples. Duplicate diet samples were obtained from a group of twenty-five steel mill workers from the city of Sao Paulo, over a 3-day period. The samples were freeze dried, mixed and homogenized. Fortified table salt brands were collected from the market and were analyzed with no pre-treatment. Assays for the iodine concentration in the table salt samples revealed values between 24 to 65 mg/kg. The average iodine daily intake for the worker's diets was 813 ?g/day, ranging from 402 to 1363 ?g/day. In some cases daily intakes were around 10 times higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) value (150 ?g/day). (author)

  20. Elasticidade do solo em funo da umidade e do teor de carbono orgnico Soil elasticity as affected by water and organic carbon content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Alfredo Braida

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O acmulo de carbono orgnico (CO observado em solos sob sistema de semeadura direta pode resultar em aumento de sua elasticidade, levando a maior resistncia compactao. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da umidade e do enriquecimento de CO sobre a elasticidade de dois solos, sendo um Nitossolo Vermelho distrfico latosslico e um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrfico arnico. Amostras superficiais de solo, coletadas no Argissolo e no Nitossolo, com variao significativa do teor de CO, foram equilibradas em quatro diferentes tenses de gua e, ento, submetidas a carregamentos e descarregamentos em uma prensa de compresso uniaxial, determinando-se o coeficiente de descompresso (Cd, o ndice de recuperao do ndice de vazios (Ir e a reduo da densidade (Re, aps remoo das cargas aplicadas. Os resultados demonstram que o Ir variou de 11,4 a 16,4 % no Nitossolo e de 14 a 23,4 % no Argissolo, dependendo da tenso de gua e do teor de CO da amostra. O teor de CO das amostras afetou significativamente o Cd e, conseqentemente, a Re aps a retirada das cargas. A Re mdia observada variou de 0,023 a 0,059 Mg m-3 e de 0,018 a 0,078 Mg m-3, respectivamente para o Argissolo e o Nitossolo. A elasticidade do solo sensivelmente afetada pela variao no teor de gua e de CO.The organic carbon accumulation observed in soils under no-till system can increase the soil elasticity, resulting in a higher resistance to soil compaction. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of water content and soil organic carbon (SOC enrichment on soil elasticity. Samples of a Hapludalf and a Typic Hapludox in southern Brazil, both with a significant variation in SOC content, were equilibrated at four different water tensions, and then loaded and unloaded on a uniaxial apparatus. The decompression coefficient (Cd, the recovery index (Ir of the void ratio and the density rebound (Re after load removal were determined. Results demonstrate that Ir varied from 11.4 to 16.4 % in the Hapludox and from 14 to 23.4 % in the Hapludalf, depending on the water tension and SOC content. The SOC content affected Cd significantly and, consequently, the rebound after load removal. The observed mean rebound varied from 0.023 to 0.059 Mg m-3 and from 0.018 to 0.078 Mg m-3, respectively, for the Hapludalf and the Hapludox. Soil elasticity is affected by variations in the water and SOC content.

  1. Elasticidade do solo em funo da umidade e do teor de carbono orgnico / Soil elasticity as affected by water and organic carbon content

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Joo Alfredo, Braida; Jose Miguel, Reichert; Dalvan Jose, Reinert; Letcia, Sequinatto.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O acmulo de carbono orgnico (CO) observado em solos sob sistema de semeadura direta pode resultar em aumento de sua elasticidade, levando a maior resistncia compactao. Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da umidade e do enriquecimento de CO sobre a elasticidade de dois solos, send [...] o um Nitossolo Vermelho distrfico latosslico e um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrfico arnico. Amostras superficiais de solo, coletadas no Argissolo e no Nitossolo, com variao significativa do teor de CO, foram equilibradas em quatro diferentes tenses de gua e, ento, submetidas a carregamentos e descarregamentos em uma prensa de compresso uniaxial, determinando-se o coeficiente de descompresso (Cd), o ndice de recuperao do ndice de vazios (Ir) e a reduo da densidade (Re), aps remoo das cargas aplicadas. Os resultados demonstram que o Ir variou de 11,4 a 16,4 % no Nitossolo e de 14 a 23,4 % no Argissolo, dependendo da tenso de gua e do teor de CO da amostra. O teor de CO das amostras afetou significativamente o Cd e, conseqentemente, a Re aps a retirada das cargas. A Re mdia observada variou de 0,023 a 0,059 Mg m-3 e de 0,018 a 0,078 Mg m-3, respectivamente para o Argissolo e o Nitossolo. A elasticidade do solo sensivelmente afetada pela variao no teor de gua e de CO. Abstract in english The organic carbon accumulation observed in soils under no-till system can increase the soil elasticity, resulting in a higher resistance to soil compaction. This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of water content and soil organic carbon (SOC) enrichment on soil elasticity. Samples of a [...] Hapludalf and a Typic Hapludox in southern Brazil, both with a significant variation in SOC content, were equilibrated at four different water tensions, and then loaded and unloaded on a uniaxial apparatus. The decompression coefficient (Cd), the recovery index (Ir) of the void ratio and the density rebound (Re) after load removal were determined. Results demonstrate that Ir varied from 11.4 to 16.4 % in the Hapludox and from 14 to 23.4 % in the Hapludalf, depending on the water tension and SOC content. The SOC content affected Cd significantly and, consequently, the rebound after load removal. The observed mean rebound varied from 0.023 to 0.059 Mg m-3 and from 0.018 to 0.078 Mg m-3, respectively, for the Hapludalf and the Hapludox. Soil elasticity is affected by variations in the water and SOC content.

  2. Imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization response by sunflower subjected to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses in arid and semi-arid regions that substantially reduce the germination, growth and average yield of major crops. The study was mainly aimed to select the most salt tolerant cultivar of sunflower. Therefore, a pot culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of four different salinity levels having electrical conductivity viz., 1.19, 9.54, 16.48 and 22.38 mS/cm on the imbibition (water uptake), germination and lipid mobilization of seedlings of 4 varieties of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) i.e., DO-728, DO-730, Hysun-33 and Suncross-843. Salinity levels were prepared by dissolving calculated amount of NaCl, Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, CaCl/sub 2/ and MgCl/sub 2/ (4:10:5:1) in half strength Hoagland culture solution. Imbibition was studied using plastic glasses at an interval of 12 and 24 hours. While germination studies were separately carried out in plastic pots and noted after every 12 hours till 20 days. Whereas, lipid contents of the salt stress germinating seeds were determined at three time intervals viz., 48, 96 and 144 hours of germination. Results showed that there was a linear decrease in imbibition, germination and lipid mobilization as the level of salinity progressively intensifies. Maximum significant reduction in imbibition (12.88%), germination (31.03%) and lipid mobilization (38.62%) is recorded in highest dose of applied salts (22.38 mS/cm). Results further exhibited that maximum significant reduction in imbibition (17.95%) and germination (43.05%) is recorded for variety Suncross-843. While minimum for the same attributes is recorded for variety DO-728. Therefore, in term of imbibitions and germination, DO-728 could be ranked as salt tolerant. Similarly maximum reduction (14.85%) in mobilized lipids is noted for DO-728 and minimum (40.89%) for DO-730. Therefore, in term of lipid mobilization, variety DO-730 could be ranked as salt tolerant and DO-728 as salt sensitive. While remaining 2 varieties i.e., Hysun-33 and Suncross-843 is rated as salt intermediate in response, respectively. (author)

  3. [Application study of the thermal infrared emissivity spectra in the estimation of salt content of saline soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Tashpolat, Tiyip; Mamat, Sawut; Zhang, Fei; Han, Gui-Hong

    2012-11-01

    Studying of soil salinization is of great significance for agricultural production in arid area oasis, thermal infrared remote sensing technology provides a new technology and method in this field. Authors used Fourier transform infrared spectrometer to measure the oasis saline soil in field, employed iterative spectrally smooth temperature/emissivity separation algorithm (ISSTES) to separate temperature and emissivity, and acquired the thermal infrared emissivity data of the saline soil. Through researching the emissivity spectral feature of saline soil, and concluded that soil emissivity will reduce with the increasing of salt content from 8 to 13 microm, so emissivity spectra is more sensitive to salt factor from 8 to 9.5 microm. Then, analyzed the correlation between original emissivity spectra and its first derivative, second derivative and normalized ratio with salt content, the result showed that they have a negative correlation relationship between soil emissivity and salt content, and the correlation between emissivity first derivative and salt content is highest, reach to 0.724 2, the corresponding bands are from 8.370 745-8.390 880 microm. Finally, established the quadratic function regression model, its determination coefficient is 0.741 4, and root mean square error is 0.235 5, the result explained that the approach of using thermal infrared emissivity to retrieve the salt content of saline soil is feasible. PMID:23387157

  4. Simultaneous measurement of bulk density and water content in soil columns by use of 169Yb and 137Cs as source materials for gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study is intended to demonstrate the use of 169Yb and 137Cs gamma sources for rapid and non-destructive simultaneous measurement of bulk density and water content in both swelling and non-swelling soils

  5. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Ohno

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonylimide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S. In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution.

  6. Influences of Salinity Variations on Pore-water Flow in Salt Marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, C.; Jin, G.; Xin, P.; Li, L.

    2013-12-01

    Salt marshes are important wetlands at the ocean-land interface with various ecological functions, serving as essential habitats for intertidal fauna, affecting the productivity of coastal waters through nutrient exchange, moderating the greenhouse gas emission and global warming. They are influenced by various physical and biogeochemical processes, among which the pore-water flow and associated solute transport processes play an important role in determining the material exchange between marsh soils and coastal water. Previous studies have examined such processes under the solo or combined effects of tidal fluctuation, evapotranspiration, stratigraphy, inland freshwater input, and topography. However, these investigations have neglected the spatial and temporal salinity variations in surface water and pore-water, which commonly exist in salt marshes due to the impacts of tidal inundation, precipitation and evapotranspiration. The density contrast between the surface water and pore-water may lead to significant modifications of the pore-water flow. Based on results from laboratory experiments and numerical simulations, we will demonstrate that: (1) under upward salinity gradients, flow instabilities in the form of fingers occur once the salinity contrast reaches a certain level, whereas under downward salinity gradients the system is stable; (2) because of the strong tidally-induced advective process occurring near the creek, both the number and size of fingers change gradually from the near-creek zone to the marsh interior; and (3) both upward and downward salinity gradients enhance the exchange between the surface water and pore-water in the marsh sediments. Keywords: Salt marshes; density effect; salinity gradient; pore-water flow; fingers. Instabilities under upward salinity gradient Stable system under downward salinity gradient

  7. Water Content as a New Tool for Discrimination between some Shellfishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya Hussein Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality requisites of shellfishes are primarily dependent on the water quality, assuring a healthy product and a safe consumption. Water (moisture content of five species from two different environments was conducted for a period of one year (July, 2010-June, 2011 for this purpose. Among the most exploitable and economically important Egyptian species, three brackish (the bivalves Cerastoderma glaucum, Fulvia fragilis and the gastropod Thais carinifera and two salt water (the bivalves Donax semistriatus and Donax trunculus shellfishes were chosen. Estimation on monthly basis revealed the incompatibility of moisture content with spawning period. Present results proved that water content varied according to the environmental factors rather than spawning seasons. Marine species had lower demand of water than brackish species. The differences in the average of the body water content between genera [Donax sp. (0.13, C. glaucum (0.75, F. fragilis (2.35 and T. carinifera (3.68] was greater than that within the same genus [D. semistriatus (0.10 and D. trunculus (0.16]. The gastropod T. carinifera had higher water content than the bivalves. Hierarchical clusters analysis was a good tool to differentiate moisture content between genera, as well as between species from different environments. The present study put in the perception of the probability of use water content in discrimination and classification between species.

  8. The mechanism of sulforaphene degradation to different water contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Guifang; Li, Yuan; Cheng, Li; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Pingwah; Kuang, Pengqun; Hu, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Sulforaphene extracted from radish seeds was strongly associated with cancer prevention. However, sulforaphene was unstable in aqueous medium and at high temperature. This instability impairs many useful applications of sulforaphene. In this paper, the stability of sulforaphene (purity above 95%) during storage at -20C, 4C and 26C was studied. The degradation product was purified by preparative HPLC and identified by ESI/MS, NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR) and FTIR spectroscopy. The degradation pathway of sulforaphene was presented. Furthermore, we found that the degradation rate of sulforaphene was closely related to the water content of sulforaphene sample. The higher the water content was, the faster the sulforaphene sample degraded. A mathematical model was developed to predict the degradation constant at various water contents. It provided a guideline for industry to improve the stability of sulforaphene during preparation, application and storage. PMID:26471648

  9. Salt concentrations during water production resulting from CO2 storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Lena; Class, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in deep geological formations is one possible option to mitigate the greenhouse gas effect by reducing CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. The assessment of the risks related to CO2 storage is an important task. Events such as CO2 leakage and brine displacement and infiltration could result in hazards for human health and the environment and therefore have to be investigated in detail. In this work numerical simulations are performed to estimate the risk related to the displacement of brine. The injected CO2 will displace the brine that is initially present in the saline aquifer. The brine can be displaced over large areas and can reach shallower groundwater resources. High salt concentrations could lead to a degradation of groundwater quality. For water suppliers the most important information is whether and how much salt is produced at a water production well. In this approach the salt concentrations at water production wells depending on different parameters aredetermined for the assumption of a 2D model domain accounting for groundwater flow. Recognized ignorance resulting from grid resolution is qualitatively studied and statistical uncertainty is investigated for three parameters: the well distance, the water production rate, and the permeability of the aquifer. One possible way of estimating statistical uncertainties and providing probabilities is performing numerical Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The MC approach is computationally very demanding because many simulations runs are needed to get an appropriate statistical accuracy. A possible way to handle the complexity and uncertainties with acceptable computational costs is by running MC simulations with a reduced model using a model reduction technique called arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion (aPC) [1]. The aPC is applied in this work to provide probabilities and risk values for salt concentrations at the water production well. Mixing in the aquifer has a key influence on the salt concentration at the well. Dispersion and diffusion are the relevant processes for mixing. Depending on the applied grid the numerical dispersion strongly influence the results as well. The distance of the well is a key parameter that influences the salt concentration at the well, thus the time that the salt has for mixing until reaching the well is relevant. References [1] Oladyshkin, S. und W. Nowak: Data-driven uncertainty quantification using the arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion. Reliability Engineering & System Safety 106 (2012) 179190.

  10. Isotopic and chemical investigation of ground water salinization in upper part of Chaj Doab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental isotopes and chemical composition of water have been used to study the origin of groundwater salts in upper part of Chaj Doab. Three important possible processes of salinization i.e. enrichment of salt content of water by evaporation, mixing with connate marine water and dissolution of salts from soil sediments have been investigated. no evidence for mixing with connate marine water could be found. The dissolution of salts from soil sediments appears as the dominant mechanism for increasing the salt content of water in this area. (author)

  11. Anion exchange extraction of molybdenum (6) by higher quaternary ammonium salts from peroxide media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anion exchange extraction of molybdenum (6) by chloride of trinonyloctadecylammonium from peroxide media is studied. It is established that quaternary ammonium salt extract molybdenum (6) from peroxide media in form of unicharge anion. Arbitrary constants of anion exchange are determined. Affinity of molybdenum peroxoanions to quaternary ammonium salt reaches its maximum value by application as toluene-decane mixture solvent with their equal volumetric content. The arbitrary constant of anion exchange is constant within the pH 3-8 range

  12. [Effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics, photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jian-guo; Yu, Zhen-wen; Shi, Yu; Zhang, Yong-li

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments were conducted during 2012-2014 winter wheat growing seasons. Six irrigation treatments were designed: rainfed, W0; a local irrigation practice that irrigated at jointing and anthesis with 60 mm each time, W1; four irrigation treatments were designed with target relative soil moisture of 65% field capacity (FC) at jointing and 70% FC at anthesis in 0-20 (W2) 0-40 (W3), 0-60 (W4) , and 0-140 cm (W5) soil layers, respectively, to study the effects of supplemental irrigation by measuring moisture content in different soil layers on water consumption characteristics and photosynthesis and grain yield of winter wheat. The irrigation amounts at jointing in W1 and W4 were the highest, followed by W3 treatment, W2 and W5 were the lowest. The irrigation amounts at anthesis and total irrigation amounts were ranked as W5 > Wl, W4 > W3 > W2, the total water consumption in W3 was higher than that in W2, but had no difference with that in W1, W4 and W5 treatments, W3 had the higher soil water consumption than W1, W4 and W5 treatments, and the soil water consumption in 40-140 cm soil layers from jointing to anthesis and in 60-140 cm soil layers from anthesis to maturity in W3 were significantly higher than the other treatments. The photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate and water use efficiency of flag leaf at middle stage of grain filling from the W3 treatment were the highest, followed by the W1 and W4 treatments, and W0 treatment was the lowest. In the two growing seasons, the grain yield and water use efficiency in the W3 were 9077-9260 kg hm(-2) and 20.7-20.9 kg hm(-2) mm(-1), respectively, which were higher than those from the other treatments, and the irrigation water productivity in the W3 was the highest. As far as high-yield and high-water use efficiency were concerned in this experiment, the most appropriate soil layer for measuring moisture content was 0-40 cm. PMID:26685598

  13. Comparison of Vegetation Water Content Estimates from Windsat and Modis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retrieval of soil moisture content from microwave sensors also returns an estimate of vegetation water content. Remotely sensed indices from optical sensors can be used to estimate canopy water content. For corn and soybean in central Iowa, there are allometric relationships between canopy water c...

  14. [Comparative study on hyperspectral inversion accuracy of soil salt content and electrical conductivity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jie; Wang, Jia-Qiang; Xiang, Hong-Ying; Teng, Hong-Fen; Liu, Wei-Yang; Chi, Chun-Ming; Niu, Jian-Long; Guo, Yan; Shi, Zhou

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present article is to ascertain the mechanism of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring for soil salinization, which is of great importance for improving the accuracy of hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring. Paddy soils in Wensu, Hetian and Baicheng counties of the southern Xinjiang were selected. Hyperspectral data of soils were obtained. Soil salt content (S(t)) an electrical conductivity of 1:5 soil-to-water extracts (EC(1:5)) were determined. Relationships between S(t) and EC(1:5) were studied. Correlations between hyperspectral indices and S(t), and EC(1:5) were analyzed. The inversion accuracy of S(t) using hyperspectral technique was compared with that of EC(1:5). Results showed that: significant (psoils in Wensu and Hetian counties, and correlation coefficients were 0.86 and 0.45, respectively; there was no significant relationship between S(t) and EC(1:5) for soils in Baicheng county. Therefore, the correlations between S(t) and EC(1:5) varied with studied sites. S(t) and EC(1:5) were significantly related with spectral reflectance, first derivative reflectance and continuum-removed reflectance, respectively; but correlation coefficients between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those between EC(1:5) and spectral indices, which was obvious in some sensitive bands for soil salinization such as 660, 35, 1229, 1414, 1721, 1738, 1772, 2309 nm, and so on. Prediction equations of St and EC(1:5) were established using multivariate linear regression, principal component regression and partial least-squares regression methods, respectively. Coefficients of determination, determination coefficients of prediction, and relative analytical errors of these equations were analyzed. Coefficients of determination and relative analytical errors of equations between S(t) and spectral indices were higher than those of equations between EC(1:5) and spectral indices. Therefore, the responses of high spectral information to St were more sensitive than those of high spectral information to EC(1:5). Accuracy of St predicted from high spectral data was higher than that of EC(1:5) estimated from high spectral data. The results of this study can provide a theoretical basis to improve hyperspectral remote sensing monitoring accuracy of soil salinization. PMID:24822430

  15. Direct solvation of glycoproteins by salts in spider silk glues enhances adhesion and helps to explain the evolution of modern spider orb webs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vasav; Miyoshi, Toshikazu; Chen, Kelley; Jain, Dharamdeep; Blamires, Sean J; Blackledge, Todd A; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2014-04-14

    The evolutionary origin of modern viscid silk orb webs from ancient cribellate silk ancestors is associated with a 95% increase in diversity of orb-weaving spiders, and their dominance as predators of flying insects, yet the transition's mechanistic basis is an evolutionary puzzle. Ancient cribellate silk is a dry adhesive that functions through van der Waals interactions. Viscid threads adhere more effectively than cribellate threads because of the high extensibility of their axial silk fibers, recruitment of multiple glue droplets, and firm adhesion of the viscid glue droplets. Viscid silk's extensibility is permitted by the glue's high water content, so that organic and inorganic salts present in viscid glue droplets play an essential role in contributing to adhesion by sequestering the atmospheric water that plasticizes the axial silk fibers. Here, we provide direct molecular and macro-scale evidence to show that salts also cause adhesion by directly solvating the glycoproteins, regardless of water content, thus imparting viscoelasticity and allowing the glue droplets to establish good contact. This "dual role" of salts, plasticizing the axial silk indirectly through water sequestration and directly solvating the glycoproteins, provides a crucial link to the evolutionary transition from cribellate silk to viscid silk. In addition, salts also provide a simple mechanism for adhering even at the extremes of relative humidity, a feat eluding most synthetic adhesives. PMID:24588057

  16. Geomicrobiology and hopanoid content of sulfidic subsurface vent biofilms, Little Salt Spring, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E.; Schaperdoth, I.; Albrecht, H.; Freeman, K. H.; Macalady, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Sulfide-rich, oxygen-poor environments are widespread in the subsurface and were prevalent at the earth's surface during critical intervals in the geologic past. Modern microbial communities in sulfidic niches have the potential to shed light on the biogeochemistry and biosignatures of anoxia and euxinia in earth history. Caves and sinkholes provide rare windows into microbially-dominated, sulfidic subsurface environments that are otherwise difficult and expensive to access. Little Salt Spring (Sarasota County, Florida) is a cover-collapse sinkhole lake with oxic surface water and anoxic, sulfidic bottom water (Alvarez Zarikian 2005). The site is famous for excellent preservation of human and animal archaeological remains (Clausen 1979), and its microbiology has never been investigated. Abundant white biofilms develop seasonally at a warm vent that feeds into the anoxic bottom water at 73 m depth below the water surface. The biofilms are of interest both as potential sources of biomarker compounds and because of their likely role in sulfuric acid production and limestone dissolution (speleogenesis). Biofilm samples were collected by expert science divers and investigated using microscopy, nucleic acid, and lipid analytical methods. Microscopy of the live biofilm revealed clusters of microbial filaments with holdfasts and dendritic, sulfur-rich colonial structures similar to those described in the 1960s for Thiobacterium, a sulfur-oxidizing genus with undetermined phylogeny. A 16S rDNA library constructed from the biofilm was split into three main phylotypes, with multiple clones representing (1) a Betaproteobacterial clade with no cultivated representatives, (2) filamentous Epsilonproteobacteria, and (3) a major bacterial lineage without named isolates (OP11/OD2). A full cycle rRNA approach is currently underway to link 16S rDNA phylotypes with specific populations in the biofilm. We confirmed using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) that abundant filamentous cells with holdfasts are Epsilonproteobacteria. Additional FISH experiments will target the Betaproteobacterial and OP11/OD2 phylotypes retrieved by cloning. Based on HPLC-MS analyses, the biofilm contains at least 5 membrane hopanoid structures distinct from the suite of hopanoids present in sinking organic particles from the photic zone of the sinkhole. Future efforts will be aimed at linking hopanoid structures to specific sulfur-oxidizing populations and to geochemical parameters such as sulfide and oxygen concentrations. References Alvarez Zarikian,C. A., P. K. Swart, J. A. Gifford, P. L. Blackwelder, Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 225, 134 (2005). Clausen, C. J., A. D. Cohen, C. Emiliani, J. A. Holman, J. J. Stipp, Science 203, 609 (1979).

  17. Water deprivation and the double- depletion hypothesis: common neural mechanisms underlie thirst and salt appetite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L.A. Jr, De Luca; R.C., Vendramini; D.T.B., Pereira; D.A.S., Colombari; R.B., David; P.M., Paula; J.V., Menani.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Water deprivation-induced thirst is explained by the double-depletion hypothesis, which predicts that dehydration of the two major body fluid compartments, the extracellular and intracellular compartments, activates signals that combine centrally to induce water intake. However, sodium appetite is a [...] lso elicited by water deprivation. In this brief review, we stress the importance of the water-depletion and partial extracellular fluid-repletion protocol which permits the distinction between sodium appetite and thirst. Consistent enhancement or a de novo production of sodium intake induced by deactivation of inhibitory nuclei (e.g., lateral parabrachial nucleus) or hormones (oxytocin, atrial natriuretic peptide), in water-deprived, extracellular-dehydrated or, contrary to tradition, intracellular-dehydrated rats, suggests that sodium appetite and thirst share more mechanisms than previously thought. Water deprivation has physiological and health effects in humans that might be related to the salt craving shown by our species.

  18. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B; Petersen, P

    1999-01-01

    CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water......Quantification of metabolite concentrations by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in the human brain using water as an internal standard is based on the assumption that water content does not change significantly in pathologic brain tissue. To test this, we used 1H-MRS to estimate...... brain water content during the course of cerebral infarction. Measurements were performed serially in the acute, subacute, and chronic phase of infarction. Fourteen patients with acute cerebral infarction were examined as well as 9 healthy controls. To correlate with regional cerebral blood flow (r...

  19. In vitro Responses of Date Palm Cell Suspensions under Osmotic Stress Induced by Sodium, Potassium and Calcium Salts at Different Exposure Durations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz M. Al-Bahrany

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures subjected to salt-stress have been shown to exhibit unique characteristics that are useful for identifying stress status. The objective of this study was to investigate the physiological responses of date palm, Phoenix dactylifera L. cv. Barhee, callus to salinity stress. Callus were cultured on MS medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, or CaCl2 at 0.8 MPa (-8 bars equivalent osmotic potential concentrations. The exposure to salt stress resulted in reduction in callus dry weight as compared to the control. Sodium chloride caused the highest reduction in dry weight followed by KCl then CaCl2. In general, callus water content decreased in response to extending exposure durations regardless of the salt type used. Increasing the exposure duration up to 6 days caused increase in proline content compared to the control. Extending the exposure duration of KCl and CaCl2 to 9 days caused reduction in proline content, due to cell death as indicated by culture browning. Exposure to NaCl initially caused increase in Na+ content but at the ninth day, significant reduction in Na+ content was observed. Increasing salt exposure duration caused significant increase in K+ content as compared to the control, up to 3 days of exposure after which the content decreased but remained higher than the control cultures. The Na+/K+ ratio was also significantly affected by the salt type and the exposure duration. This study has enhanced the understanding of the influence of salinity on physiological aspects of date palm cell cultures.

  20. Proteins induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt effects on protein synthesis in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with (35S)-Methionine. Seeds germinating in NaCl were analyzed at three germination stages (4mm long radicals, 15mm long radicles and expanding cotyledons) and compared to those germinating in water. At the first germination stage several basic proteins of M.W. 13Kd, 16Kd, 17Kd and 18Kd were detected in only salt germinating seeds. Other basic proteins of M.W. 12Kd, 50Kd and 54Kd were salt-induced at the second and third stage of germination. One 14Kd acid protein is observed in every assayed stage and shows several phosphorylated forms. The levels of expression of these proteins are directly correlated to assayed NaCl concentrations. All of these proteins, except 17Kd, are also induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in the same germination stages. A cooperative effect on the synthesis of these proteins is observed when both ABA and NaCl are present

  1. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content

    OpenAIRE

    Lpez-Lpez, I.; Cofrades, Susana; Caeque, V.; M.T Daz; O. Lpez; Jimnez Colmenero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P

  2. Attenuation of salt-induced hypertension by aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojiminiyi, F B O; Audu, Z; Etuk, E U; Ajagbonna, O P

    2012-01-01

    The aqueous calyx extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) has a folk reputation as an antihypertensive agent. On account of its antioxidant properties and probably high K+ concentration, we hypothesized that HS may attenuate the development of salt-induced hypertension. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=8 each) were treated for 12 weeks as follows: control (normal diet + water), salt-loaded (8% salt diet + water), HS (normal diet + 6 mg/ml HS), salt+HS (8% salt diet + 6 mg/ml HS) and furosemide (normal diet+ 0.25mg/Kg furosemide). Their blood pressure and heart rates were measured and responses to noradrenalin and acetylcholine (0.01 mg/kg respectively) were estimated. The cationic concentration of 6 mg/ml HS was determined. The Na+ and K+ concentrations of 6 mg/ml HS were 3.6 and 840 mmol/l respectively. The mean arterial pressure (MAPSEM; mmHg) of salt loaded rats (184.629.8) was significantly higher than control (113.23.0; P<0.05), HS (90.07.4; P<0.001) salt+HS (119.48.9; P<0.05) and furosemide (94.911.5; P<0.01). The MAP of salt+HS and control rats did not differ significantly and the effect of HS was comparable to furosemide. The pressor response to noradrenalin or vasodilator response to acetylcholine remained similar in all groups. These results suggest that HS attenuated the development of salt-induced hypertension and this attenuation may be associated with its high K+ content or high potassium: sodium ratio and not with altered pressor/depressor response to noradrenalin or acetylcholine. Also the effects of HS and furosemide on blood pressure are comparable. PMID:23652235

  3. Rapid myelin water content mapping on clinical MR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkova, Vyara; Arhelger, Volker [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Schenk, Jochen [Radiologisches Institut, Koblenz (Germany); Neeb, Heiko [Fachhochschule Koblenz, RheinAhrCampus Remagen (Germany); Koblenz Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Engineering and Information Processing - MTI Mittelrhein

    2012-07-01

    We present an algorithm for the fast mapping of myelin water content using standard multiecho gradient echo acquisitions of the human brain. The method extents a previously published approach for the simultaneous measurement of brain T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2} and total water content. Employing the multiexponential T{sup *}{sub 2} decay signal of myelinated tissue, myelin water content was measured based on the quantification of two water pools ('myelin water' and 'rest') with different relaxation times. As the existing protocol was focussed on the fast mapping of quantitative MR parameters with whole brain coverage in clinically relevant measurement times, the sampling density of the T{sup *}{sub 2} curve was compromised to 10 echo times with a T {sub Emax} of approx. 40 ms. Therefore, pool amplitudes were determined using a quadratic optimisation approach. The optimisation was constrained by including a priori knowledge about brain water pools. All constraints were optimised in a simulation study to minimise systematic error sources given the incomplete knowledge about the real pool-specific relaxation properties. Based on the simulation results, whole brain in vivo myelin water content maps were acquired in 10 healthy controls and one subject with multiple sclerosis. The in vivo results obtained were consistent with previous reports which demonstrates that a simultaneous whole brain mapping of T{sub 1}, T{sup *}{sub 2}, total and myelin water content is feasible on almost any modern MR scanner in less than 10 minutes. (orig.)

  4. [Estimating canopy water content in wheat based on new vegetation water index].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-juan; Yang, Gui-jun; Xu, Xin-gang; Chen, Tian-en; Li, Zhen-hai; Feng, Hai-kuan; Wang, Dong

    2014-12-01

    Moisture content is an important indicator for crop water stress condition, timely and effective monitoring crop water content is of great significance for evaluate crop water deficit balance and guide agriculture irrigation. In order to improve the saturated problems of different forms of typical NDWI (Normalized Different Water Index), we tried to introduce EVI (Enhanced Vegetation Index) to build new vegetation water indices (NDWI#) to estimate crop water content. Firstly, PROSAIL model was used to study the saturation sensitivity of NDWI, and NDWI# to canopy water content and LAI (Leaf Area Index). Then, the estimated model and verified model were estimated using the spectral data and moisture data in the field. The result showed that the new indices have significant relationships with canopy water content. In particular, by implementing modified standardized for NDWI1450, NDWI1940, NDWI2500. The result indicated that newly developed indices with visible-infrared and shortwave infrared spectral feature may have greater advantage for estimation winter canopy water content. PMID:25881445

  5. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface remedial action was completed at the Salt Lake City, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in the fall of 1987. Results of water sampling for the years 1992 to 1994 indicate that site-related ground water contamination occurs in the shallow unconfined aquifer (the uppermost aquifer). With respect to background ground water quality, contaminated ground water in the shallow, unconfined aquifer has elevated levels of chloride, sodium, sulfate, total dissolved solids, and uranium. No contamination associated with the former tailings pile occurs in levels exceeding background in ground water in the deeper confined aquifer. This document provides the water sampling and analysis plan for ground water monitoring at the former uranium processing site in Salt Lake City, Utah (otherwise known as the ''Vitro'' site, named after the Vitro Chemical Company that operated the mill). All contaminated materials removed from the processing site were relocated and stabilized in a disposal cell near Clive, Utah, some 85 miles west of the Vitro site (known as the ''Clive'' disposal site). No ground water monitoring is being performed at the Clive disposal site, since concurrence of the remedial action plan by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and completion of the disposal cell occurred before the US Environmental Protection Agency issued draft ground water standards in 1987 (52 FR 36000) for cleanup, stabilization, and control of residual radioactive materials at the disposal site. In addition, the likelihood of post-closure impact on the ground water is minimal to nonexistent, due to the naturally poor quality of the ground water. Water sampling activities planned for calendar year 1994 consist of sampling ground water from nine monitor wells to assess the migration of contamination within the shallow unconfined aquifer and sampling ground water from two existing monitor wells to assess ground water quality in the confined aquifer

  6. Rebar corrosion monitoring in concrete structure under salt water enviroment using fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yuheng; Liu, Tiegen; Jiang, Junfeng; Liu, Kun; Wang, Shuang; He, Pan; Yan, Jinlin

    2015-08-01

    Monitoring corrosion of steel reinforcing bars is critical for the durability and safety of reinforced concrete structures. Corrosion sensors based on fiber optic have proved to exhibit meaningful benefits compared with the conventional electric ones. In recent years, Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) has been used as a new kind of sensing element in an attempt to directly monitor the corrosion in concrete structure due to its remarkable advantages. In this paper, we present a novel kind of FBG based rebar corrosion monitoring sensor. The rebar corrosion is detected by volume expansion of the corroded rebar by transferring it to the axial strain of FBG when concrete structure is soaked in salt water. An accelerated salt water corrosion test was performed. The experiment results showed the corrosion can be monitored effectively and the corrosion rate is obtained by volume loss rate of rebar.

  7. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Sren G.; Thauland, T.; Berg, P.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of...... manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  8. Effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature (T(g)') during lyophilization of ganciclovir salt forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Lokesh; Baheti, Ankit; Bansal, Arvind K

    2011-02-01

    This manuscript deals with the effect of a counterion on the glass transition temperature for lyophilization of ganciclovir salts. Salt forms of ganciclovir, namely, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts, were prepared by an in situ technique and analyzed by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) for the determination of the critical process parameter for lyophilization. Nonionized ganciclovir and its salt forms showed a glass transition (T(g)') in the reversing MDSC signal, confirming their amorphous nature. T(g)' of the nonionized ganciclovir and ganciclovir sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium salts followed the order: sodium salt (-34.94C) > nonionized ganciclovir (-40.15C) > potassium salt (-46.23C) > rubidium salt (-49.95C) > cesium salt (-53.62C). The analysis of the freezable water content for ganciclovir and its salts showed the trend: pure water > nonionized ganciclovir > potassium salt ? sodium salt > rubidium salt > cesium salt. This showed that a majority of water in the salts is present as an unfrozen fraction, thus leading to a lowering of T(g)' because of the plasticizing effect of unfrozen water. Density functional theory (DFT) further suggested a positive contribution of the strength of intra- and intermolecular force of interactions to the T(g)' value, with a higher intramolecular and intermolecular force of interaction leading to a higher T(g)'. PMID:21133416

  9. Elemental composition of platelets. Part II. Water content of normal human platelets and measurements of their concentrations of Cu, Fe, K, and Zn by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined the elements Cu, Fe, K, and Zn in normal human platelets by neutron activation analysis. The platelets were obtained from seven donors and treated as described in Part I. The elemental composition is expressed on a wet-weight basis for plasma-free platelets. The following results were obtained (+- values are 1 SD): Pure platelets: trapped plasma = 378 +- 35 mg/g, water content = 715 +- 15 mg/g, mean weight of the single platelet (by two different methods) = 9.9 +- 1.1 pg and 11.2 +- 1.7 pg, K = 4.39 +- 1.06 mg/g, Zn = 49.23 +- 10.97 ?g/g, Fe = 12.28 +- 2.94 ?g/g, and Cu = 1.39 +- 0.25 ?g/g. Impure platelets: trapped plasma = 349 +- 31 mg/g, water content = 736 +- 12 mg/g, K = 3.26 +- 0.78 mg/g, Zn = 35.71 +- 7.99 ?g/g, Fe = 17.11 +- 5.10 ?g/g, and Cu = 1.39 +- 0.21 ?g/g. To our knowledge, no data on Fe and Cu in platelets have hitherto been reported. 7 figures, 4 tables

  10. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pusch, Maximilian; Hammer, Joerg; Ostertag-Henning, Christian [Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C{sub 1} to C{sub 40}) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain boundaries of halite crystals, on the surfaces and knuckles or inside of micro capillary tubes of anhydrite crystals and anhydrite clusters, in newly formed micro cracks due to drilling respectively preparational works or rarely in micro-porous parts of the Hauptsalz. In order to get additional information about the origin of hydrocarbons detected in the Gorleben Hauptsalz organic geochemical analyses of potential source rocks in the vicinity like the Stassfurt Carbonate (z2SK) have been provided. These analyses revealed that the level of maturity of hydrocarbons in the Gorleben Hauptsalz correspond to 0,8 to 1,2% vitrinite-reflection-equivalent for the oil, similar to the organic-petrographical data of Stassfurt Carbonate and Copper schist in the periphery of the Gorleben salt dome (Gerling et al. 2002; Senglaub 2001; Cramer 2005). The analyses of biomarkers (esp. triterpenoid biomarkers) detected in the hydrocarbon mixtures from the Hauptsalz point to the Stassfurt Carbonate as source rocks of most of the hydrocarbons.

  11. Hydrocarbons in the Hauptsalz formation of the Gorleben salt dome. Content, distribution and origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the frame of the geological exploration of the Gorleben salt dome (November 2010 to November 2012) concentrations and compositions of hydrocarbons occuring in the main rock salt (Hauptsalz, Stassfurt series, z2) have been investigated. These exploration works followed former investigations of Gerling et al. (2002) and Bornemann et al. (2008). In order to get fresh, unaltered and representative samples beyond the EDZ (excavation damaged zone) for mineralogical and geochemical analyses, about 45 boreholes have been drilled at the 840 m level of the Gorleben exploration mine. These boreholes have been arranged in equal distances (depending on the mine structure) alongside crosscut 1 west (each 6 m long) and crosscut 1 east (each 9 m long). In addition 20 packer boreholes (10 packer boreholes per crosscut) for pressure build-up recording and hydrocarbon sampling have also been established. Immediately after drilling, core samples from the Hauptsalz for organic geochemical analyses have been retrieved and were dissolved in deionised and degased water. The results of analyses of about 210 samples scattered over all 45 boreholes reveal a total background concentration of hydrocarbons (C1 to C40) of 0,24 mg/kg. 70 samples have concentrations between 1 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg (average 2,66 mg/kg) with 5 outliers up to 442 mg/kg in crosscut 1 west (Hammer et al. 2012, 2013). The drill cores have been investigated and documented by using ultraviolet light (l = 254 nm) in respect of visible indications of the existence of fluorescing aromatic hydrocarbons. Analyses revealed a high level of heterogeneous hydrocarbon distribution in the shape of isolated, irregular streaks, clusters, clouds and occasionally layers mainly located in recrystallized zones of the Hauptsalz. Thin sections and thick sections showed that hydrocarbons in z2HS1 (Knaeuelsalz) and z2HS2 (Streifensalz) samples are either located as black to brownish dendritical fluid inclusions alongside the grain boundaries of halite crystals, on the surfaces and knuckles or inside of micro capillary tubes of anhydrite crystals and anhydrite clusters, in newly formed micro cracks due to drilling respectively preparational works or rarely in micro-porous parts of the Hauptsalz. In order to get additional information about the origin of hydrocarbons detected in the Gorleben Hauptsalz organic geochemical analyses of potential source rocks in the vicinity like the Stassfurt Carbonate (z2SK) have been provided. These analyses revealed that the level of maturity of hydrocarbons in the Gorleben Hauptsalz correspond to 0,8 to 1,2% vitrinite-reflection-equivalent for the oil, similar to the organic-petrographical data of Stassfurt Carbonate and Copper schist in the periphery of the Gorleben salt dome (Gerling et al. 2002; Senglaub 2001; Cramer 2005). The analyses of biomarkers (esp. triterpenoid biomarkers) detected in the hydrocarbon mixtures from the Hauptsalz point to the Stassfurt Carbonate as source rocks of most of the hydrocarbons.

  12. Physiological Changes in Grapevines Induced by Osmotic Stress Originated from Salt and Their Role in Salt Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    S?VR?TEPE, Nuray

    1999-01-01

    Rooted cuttings of avu? (salt-resistant), M?kle (salt-sensitive) and Sultani ekirdeksiz (moderately salt-sensitive) grapevine cultivars, grown in perlite medium, were subjected to salt stress by irrigating them with 1/2 Hoagland nutrient solution including different NaCl concentrations (0.00, 0.50 and 0.75%). It was determined that stomatal conductance and transpiration were strongly inhibited in M?kle and Sultani ekirdeksiz with salt treatments, while these physiological activities we...

  13. Vertical Profiles of Soil Water Content as Influenced by Environmental Factors in a Small Catchment on the Hilly-Gully Loess Plateau

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Bing; Wen, Fenxiang; Wu, Jiangtao; Wang, Xiaojun; Hu, Yani

    2014-01-01

    Characterization of soil water content (SWC) profiles at catchment scale has profound implications for understanding hydrological processes of the terrestrial water cycle, thereby contributing to sustainable water management and ecological restoration in arid and semi-arid regions. This study described the vertical profiles of SWC at the small catchment scale on the hilly and gully Loess Plateau in Northeast China, and evaluated the influences of selected environmental factors (land-use type,...

  14. [Monitoring of water and salt transport in silt and sandy soil during the leaching process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teng-Fei; Jia, Yong-Gang; Guo, Lei; Liu, Xiao-Lei

    2012-11-01

    Water and salt transport in soil and its mechanism is the key point of the saline soil research. The dynamic rule of water and transport in soil during the leaching process is the theoretical basis of formation, flush, drainage and improvement of saline soil. In this study, a vertical infiltration experiment was conducted to monitor the variation in the resistivity of silt and sandy soil during the leaching process by the self-designed automatic monitoring device. The experimental results showed that the peaks in the resistivity of the two soils went down and faded away in the course of leaching. It took about 30 minutes for sandy soil to reach the water-salt balance, whereas the silt took about 70 minutes. With the increasing leaching times, the desalination depth remained basically the same, being 35 cm for sandy soil and 10 cm for the silt from the top to bottom of soil column. Therefore, 3 and 7 leaching processes were required respectively for the complete desalination of the soil column. The temporal and spatial resolution of this monitoring device can be adjusted according to the practical demand. This device can not only achieve the remote, in situ and dynamic monitoring data of water and salt transport, but also provide an effective method in monitoring, assessment and early warning of salinization. PMID:23323426

  15. Salt determination in salted bovine hide

    OpenAIRE

    Morera Prat, Josep Maria; Soler Sol, Jaume; Saborit, Merc

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a simple and inexpensive method has been developed to determine the amount of salt contained in a salted raw hide. Two different systems of analysis have been tested. In both methods, salt is removed by stirring the hide with deionized water and analysing the resulting salt bath. The first method is based on the measurement of the chloride amount in the salt bath by the Mohr method. The second method is based on measuring the density of the salt bath. The second method has yield...

  16. Corrosion of Mullite by Molten Salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Lee, Kang N.; Yoshio, Tetsuo

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of molten salts of different Na2O activities and mullite is examined with furnace and burner tests. The more-acidic molten salts form small amounts of Al2O3; the more-basic molten salts form various Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds. The results are interpreted using the Na2O-Al203-SiO2 ternary phase diagram, and some possible diffusion paths are discussed. The generally higher melting points of Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2 compounds lead to better behavior of mullite in molten salts, as compared to SiO2-protected ceramics such as SiC. Mullite-coated SiC is discussed, and the corrosion behavior is evaluated.

  17. Residual fluxes of water, salt and suspended sediment in the Beypore Estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; Revichandran, C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Josanto, V.

    The monthly trends of the residual fluxes of salt and water and the transportation of suspended sediments in the Beypore estuarine system, Kerala, India were examined. At the river mouth the water flux was directed seaward during the postmonsoon...

  18. Calibrating a Salt Water Intrusion Model with Time-Domain Electromagnetic Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Odlum, Nick

    2013-01-01

    Salt water intrusion models are commonly used to support groundwater resource management in coastal aquifers. Concentration data used for model calibration are often sparse and limited in spatial extent. With airborne and ground-based electromagnetic surveys, electrical resistivity models can be obtained to provide high-resolution three-dimensional models of subsurface resistivity variations that can be related to geology and salt concentrations on a regional scale. Several previous studies have calibrated salt water intrusion models with geophysical data, but are typically limited to the use of the inverted electrical resistivity models without considering the measured geophysical data directly. This induces a number of errors related to inconsistent scales between the geophysical and hydrologic models and the applied regularization constraints in the geophysical inversion. To overcome these errors, we perform a coupled hydrogeophysical inversion (CHI) in which we use a salt water intrusion model to interpret the geophysical data and guide the geophysical inversion. We refer to this methodology as a Coupled Hydrogeophysical Inversion-State (CHI-S), in which simulated salt concentrations are transformed to an electrical resistivity model, after which a geophysical forward response is calculated and compared with the measured geophysical data. This approach was applied for a field site in Santa Cruz County, California, where a time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) dataset was collected. For this location, a simple two-dimensional cross-sectional salt water intrusion model was developed, for which we estimated five uniform aquifer properties, incorporating the porosity that was also part of the employed petrophysical relationship. In addition, one geophysical parameter was estimated. The six parameters could be resolved well by fitting more than 300 apparent resistivities that were comprised by the TDEM dataset. Except for three sounding locations, all the TDEM data could be fitted close to a root-mean-square error of1. Possible explanations for the poor fit of these soundings are the assumption of spatial uniformity, fixed boundary conditions and the neglecting of 3D effects in the groundwater model and the TDEM forward responses. 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Leaching due to hygroscopic water uptake in cemented waste containing soluble salts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, K.

    1992-01-01

    Considerable amounts of easily soluble salts such as sodium nitrate, sulphate, or carbonate are introduced into certain types of cemented waste. When such materials are stored in atmospheres with high relative humidity or disposed or by shallow land burial under unsaturated, but still humid conditions, condensation of water vapour will result in generation of a certain amount of liquid in the form of a strong salt solution. The volume of liquid may well exceed the storage capacity of the pore system in the cemented material and in the release of a limited amount of free contaminated solution. A model of the quantitative aspects for the equilibrium situation is presented. Experiments with hygroscopic water uptake support the model and give indications about the rate of the process. The release mechanism is only thought to be important for radionuclides which are not fixed in a low-solubility form within the cement matrix.

  20. Treatment of plutonium process residues by molten salt oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal process that can remove more than 99.999% of the organic matrix from combustible 238Pu material. Plutonium processing residues are injected into a molten salt bed with an excess of air. The salt (sodium carbonate) functions as a catalyst for the conversion of the organic material to carbon dioxide and water. Reactive species such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulfur, phosphorous and arsenic in the organic waste react with the molten salt to form the corresponding neutralized salts, NaF, NaCl, NaBr, NaI, Na2SO4, Na3PO4 and NaAsO2 or Na3AsO4. Plutonium and other metals react with the molten salt and air to form metal salts or oxides. Saturated salt will be recycled and aqueous chemical separation will be used to recover the 238Pu. The Los Alamos National Laboratory system, which is currently in the conceptual design stage, will be scaled down from current systems for use inside a glovebox

  1. Water in urban planning, Salt Creek Basin, Illinois water management as related to alternative land-use practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, Andrew Maute

    1970-01-01

    Water management can be an integral part of urban comprehensive planning in a large metropolitan area. Water both imposes constraints on land use and offers opportunities for coordinated land and water management. Salt Creek basin in Cook and Du Page Counties of the Chicago metropolitan area is typical of rapidly developing suburban areas and has been selected to illustrate some of these constraints and opportunities and to suggest the effects of alternative solutions. The present study concentrates on the related problems of ground-water recharge, water quality, management of flood plains, and flood-control measures. Salt Creek basin has a drainage area of 150 square miles. It is in flat to. gently rolling terrain, underlain by glacial drift as much as 200 feet thick which covers a dolomite aquifer. In 1964, the population of the basin was about 400,000, and 40 percent of the land was in urban development. The population is expected to number 550,000 to 650,000 by 1990, and most of the land will be taken by urban development. Salt Creek is a sluggish stream, typical of small drainage channels in the headwaters area of northeastern Illinois. Low flows of 15 to 25 cubic feet per second in the lower part of the basin consist largely of sewage effluent. Nearly all the public water supplies in the basin depend on ground water. Of the total pumpage of 27.5 million gallons per day, 17.5 million gallons per day is pumped from the deep (Cambrian-Ordovician) aquifers and 10 million gallons per day is pumped from the shallow (Silurian dolomite and glacial drift) aquifers. The potential yield of the shallow aquifers, particularly glacial drift in the northern part of the basin, far exceeds present use. The largest concentration of pumpage from the shallow ,aquifers is in the Hinsdale-La Grange area. Salt Creek serves as an important source of recharge to these supplies, particularly just east of Hinsdale. The entire reach of Salt Creek south and east of Elmhurst can be regarded as an area of potential recharge to the shallow aquifers. Preservation of the effectiveness of these potential recharge areas should be considered in land-use planning. Salt Creek is polluted in times of both low and high flow. Most communities in the basin in Du Page County discharge their treated sewage into the creek, whereas those in Cook County transfer their sewage to plants of the Metropolitan Sanitary District outside the basin. During periods of high runoff, combined storm runoff and overflow from sanitary sewers enter the creek. Such polluted water detracts from the stream's esthetic and recreational potential and poses a threat to ground-water supplies owing to induced recharge of polluted water to shallow aquifers. Alternative approaches .to the pollution problem include improvement of the degree of sewage treatment, detention and treatment of storm runoff, dilution of sewage through flow augmentation, or transfer of sewage from the basin to a central treatment plant. To result in an enhanced environment, the streambed would have to be cleansed of accumulated sludge deposits. The overbank flooding in Salt Creek basin every 2 to 3 years presents problems because of encroachments and developments on the flood plains. Flood plains in an urban area can be managed by identifying them, by recognizing that either their natural storage capacity or equivalent artificial capacity is needed to accommodate floods, and by planning land use accordingly. Examples of effective floodplain management include (1) preservation of greenbelts or regional parks along stream courses, (2) use of flood plains for recreation, parking lots. or other low-intensity uses, (3) use of flood-proofed commercial buildings, and (4) provision for compensatory storage to replace natural storage capacity. Results of poor flood-plain management include uncontrolled residential development and encroachment by fill into natural storage areas where no compensatory storage has been

  2. Chapter 6. Uranium extraction possibilities from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. 6.1. Some uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition. Various uranium extraction methods from natural uranium-bearing waters of complex salt composition were described.

  3. Monitoring of soil water content and quality inside and outside the water curtain cultivation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, K.; Kim, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Water curtain cultivation system is an energy saving technique for winter season by splashing groundwater on the inner roof of green house. Artificial groundwater recharge application to the water curtain cultivation facilities was adopted and tested to use groundwater sustainably in a rural region of Korea. The groundwater level in the test site shows natural trend corresponding rainfall pattern except during mid-November to early April when groundwater levels decline sharply due to groundwater abstraction for water curtain cultivation. Groundwater levels are also affected by surface water such as stream, small dams in the stream and agricultural ditches. Infiltration data were collected from lysimeter installation and monitoring inside and outside water cultivation facility and compared with each other. The infiltration data were well correlated with rainfall outside the facility, but the data in the facility showed very different from the other. The missing infiltration data were attributed to groundwater level rise and level sensor location below water table. Soil water contents in the unsaturated zone indicated rainfall infiltration propagation at depth and with time outside the facility. According to rainfall amount and water condition at the initial stage of a rainfall event, the variation of soil water content was shown differently. Soil water contents and electrical conductivities were closely correlated with each other, and they reflected rainfall infiltration through the soil and water quality changes. The monitoring results are useful to reveal the hydrological processes from the infiltration to groundwater recharge, and water management planning in the water cultivation areas.

  4. The reaction kinetics of lithium salt with water vapor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of lithium salt (LiH and/or LiD) with water vapor in the partial pressure range of 10-5-2657 Pa has been investigated. The reaction probability of water with LiH cleaved in an ultra high vacuum environment was obtained using the modulated molecular beam technique. This probability was 0.11 and independent of LiH surface temperature, suggesting a negligible activation energy for the reaction in agreement with quantum chemical calculations. The value gradually reduced, however, to 0.007 as the surface concentration of oxygen containing product approached full coverage. As the film grew beyond a monolayer, the phase lag of hydrogen product increased from 0 deg. C to 20 deg. C and the reaction probability reduced further until it approached our detection limit (?10-4). This phase lag was attributed to a diffusion-limited process in this regime. For micrometer thick hydroxide films grown in high moisture concentration environment on LiD and LiH, the reaction probability reduced to ?4x10-7 and was independent of exposure time. In this regime of thick hydroxide films (LiOH and/or LiOD), microcracks generated in the films to release stress provided easier pathways for moisture to reach the interface. A modified microscope, capable of both atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation, was also employed to investigate the surface morphology of hydroxide monohydrate (LiOH H2O and/or LiOD H2O) grown on hydroxide at high water vapor partial pressures and the kinetics of this growth

  5. Design and Implementation of a Low-Cost Non-Destructive System for Measurements of Water and Salt Levels in Food Products Using Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masot, Rafael; Alcaiz, Miguel; Fuentes, Ana; Campos, Franciny; Barat, Jos M.; Gil, Luis; Labrador, Roberto H.; Soto, Juan; Martnez-Mez, Ramn

    2009-05-01

    The IQMA and the DTA have developed a low-cost system to determinate the contents of water and salt in food products as cured ham or pork loin using non-destructive methods. The system includes an electronic equipment that allows the implementation of impedance spectroscopy and an electrode. The electrode is a concentric needle which allows carrying out tests in a non-destructive way. Preliminary results indicate that there is a correlation between the water and salt contents and the module and phase of the impedance of the food sample in the range of 1 Hz to 1 MHz.

  6. Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans, a halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, improves yield and content of secondary metabolites in Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennell under primary and secondary salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Nidhi; Yadav, Deepti; Barnawal, Deepti; Maji, Deepamala; Kalra, Alok

    2013-02-01

    Brahmi (Bacopa monnieri), an integral component of Indian Ayurvedic medicine system, is facing a threat of extinction owing to the depletion of its natural populations. The present study investigates the prospective of exploitation of halotolerant plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in utilising the salt stressed soils for cultivation of B. monnieri. The effects of two salt tolerant PGPR, Bacillus pumilus (STR2) and Exiguobacterium oxidotolerans (STR36) on the growth and content of bacoside-A, an important pharmaceutical compound in B. monnieri, were investigated under primary and secondary salinity conditions. The herb yields of un-inoculated plants decreased by 48 % under secondary salinization and 60 % under primary salinization than the non salinised plants. Among the rhizobacteria treated plants, E. oxidotolerans recorded 109 and 138 %, higher herb yield than non-inoculated plants subjected to primary and secondary salinity respectively. E. oxidotolerans inoculated plants recorded 36 and 76 % higher bacoside-A content under primary and secondary salinity respectively. Higher levels of proline content and considerably lower levels of lipid peroxidation were noticed when the plants were inoculated with PGPR under all salinity regimes. From the results of this investigation, it can be concluded that, the treatments with salt tolerant PGPR can be a useful strategy in the enhancement of biomass yield and saponin contents in B. monnieri, as besides being an eco-friendly approach; it can also be instrumental in cultivation of B. monnieri in salt stressed environments. PMID:23085953

  7. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN GULA MERAH DAN LAMA PENYIMPANAN TERHADAP KADAR GIZI DAN RASA TELUR ITIK ASIN [The Effect of Palm Sugar and Storage on Nutrient Content and Taste of Salted Ducks Egg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenni Yusriani

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This research used 150 duck eggs age one as subject day. There were two factors analyzed here. The first was the amount of palm sugar which consisted of 25 grams, 50 grams, and 75 grams. The second factor were the storage duration which consisted of 3, 4, and 5 weeks. The nutrient content parameters measured were rates protein, fat and ash content. Sensory quality parameters measured were color and taste. The analysis showed that in processing/making salted duck egg, palm sugar addition influenced protein content significantly (Fc = 7,0 > Ftab = 4,5 fat content ( Fc 67,3 > Ftab= 8,7 and ash content (Fc = 64,6 > F tab = 8,7 very significantly. However, organoleptic test showed that palm sugar addition did not influenced color and taste of salted duck egg significantly. Storage duration influenced protein content significantly (Fc= 6,9 F tab = 8,7 but did not significantly influenced ash content (Fc = 3,5 < Ftab = 4,46. Storage duration also influenced taste of salted duck egg, but did not for its color. The interaction of treatment between palm sugar addition and storage duration just influenced fat content of salted duck egg significantly. The salted duck egg made by addition 75 grams palm sugar and stored 5 weeks (A3B3 the highest content of fat. The salted ducks eeg made by addition of 25 grams palm sugar and stored duration produced the salted ducks egg with high content of fat and ash. Organoleptic test indicated that the panelis preferred the salted taste duck egg made by addition of palm sugar 25 grams and storaged for 3 weeks having reddish yellow color.

  8. Water Depletion Effects on Water Infiltration Rate, Salt Behavior, and Leaching Requirements in Saline Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C. Oad

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The field experiment was laid-down in farmers` saline fields near Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam compus, to determine the effects water depletion on water infiltration rate, salt behavior, and leaching requirements in saline soil. The experiment consisted three soil moisture depletion (SMD levels of 30, 50 and 80% on available soil moisture. The pre-project soil Physical and Chemical properties were examined which showed that the soil had clay loam texture for 0-90 cm depth. The bulk density of the soil was 1.25 g/c3 with permanent wilting point 13.5 percent soil moisture. The composite profile sampling for pH ranged between 8.0 to 8.5, ECe 5.7 to 5.9 m.mhos/cm, SAR 9 to 11 and ESP 10.8 to 13.2. The results of the experiment showed that the infiltration rate initially was higher in all the fields, but it decreased sharply and became constant after few hours. However, 80 percent SMD having dry soil due to water stress condition produced cracks and recorded maximum infiltration rate during first 20 minutes then gradually decreased and became constant after 2-3 hours. This trend of infiltration rate was also observed for the other moisture depletion levels as well. In this study the total amount of water applied under 30, 50 and 80 percent soil moisture depletions was 822, 644 and 529 mm and salts leached were 25 and 15.30 meq/l under excess (30 percent SMD and adequate (50 percent SMD levels receptively. It is recommended that saline soils should be irrigated at the rate of 50% SMD. But, for the quick and satisfactory salt leaching the water should be incorporated at the rate of 30% SMD. For satisfactory salt leaching practice it may take four months or greater period.

  9. Parameter sensitivity to climate and landscape variability of a simple, lumped salt and water balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, M. A.; Smettem, K. R. J.

    2005-08-01

    A salt and water balance model is developed to represent salinity generation following land use changes in Western Australia. The model consists of five interconnecting stores: (i) Dry, Wet and Subsurface unsaturated Stores, (ii) a transient Stream zone Store and (iii) a saturated Groundwater Store. The salinity generation process in Western Australia is highly dependent on annual rainfall, potential energy for evaporation, salt fall and land use history of a catchment. We selected six experimental catchments with different land use histories across a climatic gradient to test the model and assess parameter sensitivity. The model was successful in representing the streamflow and salinity generation processes of all catchments. In the process of application, we classified the model parameters into three sets: (i) "known", (ii) "fixed" and (iii) "variable". The "known" parameter set is calculated a priori from catchment attributes. The "fixed" set comprises regionalised parameters that remain unchanged across all catchments once calibrated in one catchment. The "variable" set of seven physically meaningful parameters were calibrated at one catchment, estimated a priori for other catchments and then subsequently adjusted for best fit. The "variable" set represents: (i) the depth (d), spatial distribution (b, c), relationship of the lateral hydraulic conductivity with moisture content (ia) and vertical conductivity (Kuv) of the top soil, (ii) lateral conductivity (Kll) of the groundwater system, and (iii) salt release (Cu) from top soil. Sensitivity analyses of key model parameters show that the relationship of the top soil lateral hydraulic conductivity with soil moisture content (ia) is the most sensitive parameter. Other sensitive parameters include the depth of the top soil and its spatial distribution (d, b, c).

  10. From water to energy: The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector.

  11. From water to energy. The virtual water content and water footprint of biofuel consumption in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy diversification and the use of renewable energy sources are key points in the European energy strategy. Biofuels are the most popular renewable resource option for the transport sector, and the European Union has established objectives that the Member States must adopt and implement. However, biofuel production at such a scale requires a considerable amount of water resources, and this water-energy nexus is rarely taken into account. This paper shows the strong nexus between water and energy in biofuel production and estimates the virtual water (VW) content and the water footprint (WF) from the raw material production that will be needed to reach the Spanish targets for biofuel consumption by 2010. The results show how the impact of such targets on the global and local water situation could be reduced through virtual water imports and, at the same time, how these imports could increase Spain's water and energy dependence. Hence, in order to manage water from an integral perspective of the territory, the inclusion of biofuel consumption objectives should go hand in hand with measures to reduce the demand of energy in the transport sector. (author)

  12. Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide on Carbons Catalyzed by Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wido Schreiner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The reduction of SO2 on different carbons in the presence of the nitrates and sulfides of sodium, potassium and calcium and potassium polysulfides was studied. The presence of salts increased the initial rate 2-5 fold for all of them and did not change the product distribution. The catalysis was not determined by the cation and there was no difference in the catalytic reactivity between nitrates and sulfides. The sulfur content of the activated carbon increased during the reaction on account of the stable reactive intermediates in the reduction of SO2. In the presence of NaNO3 or Na2S, the amount of sulfur incorporated was in the molar ratio Na:S = 3 ± 0.3, and the XPS spectra of the residual carbon showed an increase of ca. 9% of the non-oxidized form of sulfur in the intermediates. In the absence of salt, it is proposed that after the adsorption of SO2 on the carbon, a 1,3,2-dioxathiolane or 1,2-oxathietene 2-oxide are formed and that decompose to produce CO2 and atomic sulfur. The non-oxidized sulfur intermediate would be an episulfide 3, formed from the reaction of the atomic sulfur with the nearest double bond and followed by consecutive reactions of insertion of atomic sulfur to form a trisulfide. Extrusion of S2 from the trisulfide would regenerate the episulfide, establishing a sulfidedisulfide-trisulfide equilibrium that worked as a capture-release cycle of sulfur. In the presence of salt, the results are consistent with the assumption that the episulfide 3 reacts with the corresponding sulfide anion to form a disulfide anion, which upon reaction with atomic sulfur forms a trisulfide anion that decomposes releasing diatomic sulfur S2, transporting the sulfur and generating a thiolate that is part of the catalytic cycle.

  13. Comparative Study of Cadmiumand Arsenic Accumulation in Toothed Carp (Aphanius sophiaein Fresh and Salt Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Ariyaee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anthropogenic activities release high concentrations of heavy metals into the aquatic ecosystems, which can be absorbed by the aquatic organisms. In this study, the accu-mulation of cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As was compared in liver, gill and muscle tissues of toothed carp (Aphanius sophiae in fresh and salt water. Methods: A total of 175 fish samples were collected from the Shoor River, Iran during the spring and summer of 2011. Samples were divided into two groups for salt and freshwater ex-periments. The individuals of each group were also divided into seven groups, a control group and the other six exposed to the concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of arsenic and 5, 10 and 20 mg/L of cadmium. The liver, gills and muscle tissues of the specimens were dissected. The tissues were wet digested in acid and the concentrations of metals were measured using an ICP-OES instrument. Results: The concentrations of both metals were significantly different in various organs in both fresh and salt water and it were in order of liver > gill > muscle (P <0.001. Based on t-test results, no significant difference was observed between the concentrations of As in related tis-sues of fish cultivated in fresh and salt water. However, Cd accumulation was significantly higher in the tissues of fish specimens cultivated in freshwater (P <0.001. Conclusion: The bioaccumulation of Cd and As depends on organs, metals, and water condi-tion.

  14. Using of Hydrogel to Increase Maize Salt Tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of two cultivars (Giza 122 and 129) of Zea mays L. were sown in pots. Pots were divided into two sets; soils of one mixed with hydrogel and the other set considered as control. After germination, pots were irrigated by tap water or by 4500 ppm NaCI solution. The results indicated that salt stress reduced growth characters significantly. Addition of hydrogel to the soil improved growth character especially in cultivar 129, hydrogel ameliorates the harmful effect of salt on plant. In the two cultivars, proline contents increased under salt stress but the presence of hydrogel reduced these contents significantly. Also, the presence of hydrogel appeared to reduce phenol content significantly under salt stress in cultivar (129) or insignificantly in cultivar (122).The appearance or disappearance of protein bands and the alterations in peroxidase and esterase pattern could be used as molecular marker for salt stress and hydrogel

  15. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

  16. Influence of Irrigation Water Discharge Frequency on Soil Salt Removal and Rice Yield in a Semi-Arid and Saline-Sodic Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Huang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation practice for rice culture can be especially challenging in areas with limited water supply and soil salinization. In this study, we carried out a field experiment to assess the effects of different water discharge frequencies on soil salt content, rice yield and water use efficiency on a saline-sodic soil in a semi-arid region of Northeast China. The experiment comprised of three frequency levels of discharge [9-time (I-9-30, 6-time (I-6-30 and 3-time (I-3-30 discharge, all followed with a 30-mm irrigation] in comparison with the traditional irrigation practice of 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation (I-2-80. Our initial hypothesis was that increasing discharge frequency would increase both salt reduction and rice yield. Daily precipitation was recorded by a nearby weather station, and evapotranspiration and soil water percolation rates were measured at experimental sites using soil pits. The measurements were used to establish a water balance for each treatment. Our results showed that soil salt reduction increased with the increasing discharge frequency at a 30-mm irrigation water depth. The 9-time discharge reduced a large amount of soil salt (995.0 kg ha?1 after five months of the study. Rice yield also increased with the increasing discharge frequency with a 30-mm irrigation water depth; however, when compared to the traditional 2-time discharge followed with an 80-mm irrigation, rice yield at the sites with more frequent discharge (i.e., I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30 was 11%18% lower. Because of this, rice yield and irrigation water use efficiency were significantly higher under the traditional practice of high-irrigation with low-frequency discharge (I-2-80 than under I-9-30, I-6-30 and I-3-30. These results indicate a need for a trade-off amongst salt reduction, rice yield and water use when considering selection of irrigation and discharge schedules.

  17. The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva ® , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva ® showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.

  18. Magnesium sulfate salts and historic building materials: experimental simulation of limestone flaking by relative humidity cycling and crystallization of salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinchin, S.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium sulfate salts often result from the combination of incompatible construction materials, such as stone or mortar with high magnesium content and sulfates from adjacent mortars or polluted air. When combined with a source of moisture, these materials react to form soluble salts, often leading to significant damage by flaking of the stone, as the magnesium sulfate responds to fluctuating environmental conditions. Several laboratory experiments were performed to reproduce surface flaking on different types of limestone from Spain and the UK to evaluate the effects of humidity cycling on the damage of stone by salt crystallization. The two salt solutions used for the experiments were a single salt of magnesium sulfate and a mixture of magnesium sulfate, calcium sulfate and sodium chloride, a typical salt mixture found in damaged stone at the site of Howden Minster (UK. A climate chamber with precise and programmable temperature and humidity control was used to test the hypothesis that salt damage in the stone can be readily caused by humidity fluctuations. Damage was monitored using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT, which measure transducers displacement by dimensional change on the order of microns. In addition, Ion Chromatography, Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (ESEM-EDX and X-ray Diffraction analyses (XRD were also carried out to analyze salt behavior. Damage by flaking took place in two types of magnesian limestone cubes impregnated with the salt mixture, from Cadeby quarry and York Minster, apparently by deliquescent salts of low equilibrium relative humidity (RHeq, while the rest of the samples developed a salt crust over the surface, but no damage was observed in the stone. It is important to verify hypotheses developed from field observations with laboratory experiments. By combining both field and laboratory data, a clearer understanding the different mechanisms of decay and associated weathering types under different environmental conditions can be obtained.Las sales de sulfato magnsico a menudo se producen a partir de la combinacin de materiales de construccin incompatibles, tales como piedra o mortero con un alto contenido en magnesio y sulfatos procedentes de morteros adyacentes o del aire contaminado. Cuando estos materiales se combinan con una fuente de humedad, reaccionan para formar sales solubles que con frecuencia dan lugar a un importante deterioro por laminaciones de la piedra, ya que el sulfato magnsico responde a las fluctuaciones de las condiciones ambientales. Varios experimentos de laboratorio se llevaron a cabo para reproducir laminaciones superficiales en diferentes tipos de calizas procedentes de Espaa y Reino Unido, para evaluar los efectos de ciclos de humedad en el deterioro de la piedra por cristalizacin de sales. Una nica sal de sulfato magnsico y una mezcla de sulfato magnsico, sulfato clcico y cloruro sdico, tpica mezcla de sales encontrada en la piedra deteriorada de Howden Minster (UK, fueron las dos soluciones salinas utilizadas para realizar los experimentos. Se utiliz una cmara climtica con control preciso de programacin de temperatura y humedad para probar la hiptesis de que el deterioro por sales en la piedra puede ser fcilmente causada por fluctuaciones de humedad. El deterioro se monitoriz utilizando un Transformador Diferencial de Variable Lineal (TDVL, que mide el desplazamiento de transductores por cambios dimensionales en el orden de micras. Adems, tambin se realizaron anlisis de Cromatografa de Iones, Microscopa Electrnica de Barrido Ambiental con energa dispersiva de rayos-X (MEBA-EDX y Difraccin de rayos-X (DRX para analizar el comportamiento de las sales. El deterioro por laminaciones se produjo en dos tipos de calizas magnsicas impregnadas con la mezcla salina, procedentes de las canteras de Cadeby y de York Min

  19. Significant depth of ground water table for thermal performance of salt gradient solar pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, A.K. [Samrat Ashok Technological Institute, Vidisha, MP (India); Sugandhi, S. [Jawaharlal Institute of Technology, Borawan, Khargone MP 451228 (India); Husain, M. [SSBT' s College of Engineering and Technology, Bambhori, 94 Jalgaon, MS (India)

    2009-03-15

    In case of noninsulated salt gradient solar pond, heat losses through bottom and sides are significant. The magnitude of losses depends upon the location (depth) of water table, which act as a heat sink. Simulation analysis indicates that deeper the water table, lesser are the heat losses and higher is the temperature achieved by the pond. The present analysis, however, reveals two more significant conclusions - firstly; increase in depth of water table increases the maturation temperature and highest temperature of the pond, but does not affect the time of acquiring these temperatures. Secondly, there is a significant depth of water table, below which, further depression does not have significant impact on thermal performance of pond. This conclusion is of practical significance where efforts are done to depress the water table. (author)

  20. Development of integrated aquaculture : agriculture with brackish and salt water, Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, P.G.M. van der; Blom-Zandstra, G.; Sadek, S.; Elsamadony, E.; Eweas, M.; El-Dib, H.; Sabry, M.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the development of an integrated saltwater aquaculture agriculture farming system at Wadi El Natroun, Egypt. During the first two years of the project promising salt-tolerant plant species were identified, the methods for seed germination and growing of three salt-tolerant plant species with potential for human consumption and animal fodder were developed, and the culture of red tilapia in a so-called biofloc system with salt water was tested. Report number CDI-13-004

  1. Structure Development in Amorphous Starch as Revealed by X-ray Scattering: Influence of the Network Structure and Water Content

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, R. K.; Cagiao, M, E.; Balt Calleja, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    The evolution of the amorphous structure of starch was characterized during the drying process by real time X-ray wide-angle scattering. The X-ray diffractograms of injection-molded starch show two superposed, rather broad, scattering maxima indicative of noncrystalline structures. The location of the two peaks has been associated to disordered starch single helices. A third maximum that arises upon drying the material in vacuum is associated to the scattering emerging from regions ...

  2. Soil water diffusivity as a function of water content and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil-water diffusivity has been studied as a function of water content and time. From the idea of studying the horizontal movement of water in swelling soils, a simple formulation has been achieved which allows for the diffusivity, water content dependency and time dependency, to be estimated, not only of this kind of soil, but for any other soil as well. It was observed that the internal rearrangement of soil particles is a more important phenomenon than swelling, being responsible for time dependency. The method 2γ is utilized, which makes it possible to simultaneously determine the water content and density, point by point, in a soil column. The diffusivity data thus obtained are compared to those obtained when time dependency is not considered. Finally, a new soil parameter, α, is introduced and the values obtained agrees with the internal rearrangment assumption and time dependency for diffusivity (Author)

  3. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt

  4. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  5. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Maedeh; Vaezi, Mohammad Reza; Kazemzadeh, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we used one-step sol-gel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H2O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other sol-gel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH4OH, EtOH and H2O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission.

  6. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhi; Mller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology i...

  7. Estimation of Areal Soil Water Content through Microwave Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Oevelen, P.J., van

    2000-01-01

    In this thesis the use of microwave remote sensing to estimate soil water content is investigated. A general framework is described which is applicable to both passive and active microwave remote sensing of soil water content. The various steps necessary to estimate areal soil water content are discussed through literature review, laboratory experimental results and results of extensive field experimental work. Even with the large amount of field data being available, no experiment provided a...

  8. Bread Water Content Measurement Based on Hyperspectral Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhi; Mller, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    Water content is one of the most important properties of the bread for tasting assesment or store monitoring. Traditional bread water content measurement methods mostly are processed manually, which is destructive and time consuming. This paper proposes an automated water content measurement for bread quality based on near-infrared hyperspectral imaging against the conventional manual loss-in-weight method. For this purpose, the hyperspectral components unmixing technology is used for measuring ...

  9. Comment on the paper: "Water content and its effect on ultrasound propagation in concrete- the possibility of NDE". Ultrasonic 38(2000) 546-552 by Etsuzo Ohdaira and Nobuyoshi Masuzawa

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Manuel Rodriguez; Caceres, Rolando Bonal

    2002-01-01

    The fundamental application of the ultrasonic pulse velocity method (UPV) in the study of concrete, consist in the analysis and estimation of the mechanical properties (compressive strength). The precission of the estimation may be dependent on the incidence of various factors, one of which is the water content acquired by the sample of concrete. In [Etsuzo] a lineal dependence of the UPV in terms of the water content for different dosifications of concrete is proposed. This paper presents an...

  10. EFFECTS OF GLYPHOSATE AMMONIUM SALT ON THE BIOAVAILABLE PHOSPHORUS CONTENT AND THE ACTIVITY OF SELECTED PHOSPHATASES IN LOAMY SAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej P?atkowski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of glyphosat? ammonium salt on the activity of some enzymes involved in the metabolism of phosphorus in the soil: acid phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.2, alkaline phosphomonoeaterase (EC 3.1.3.1, phosphotrieaterase (EC 3.1.5.1, inorganic pyrophosphatase (EC 3.1.6.1, and a phosphorus content in a form available to plants. The experiment was carried out on loamy sand samples with organic carbon content 8.7 g kg-1. Into soil samples the aqueous solutions of Avans Premium 360 SC (360 g glyphosate ammonium salt in 1 dm3 were added. The amount of introduced glyphosate ammonium salt was 0 (control, 1, 10, 50 and 100 mgkg-1, on days 0 (1 hour after glyphosate application, 7, 14, 28 and 56 measured parameters were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results showed that the application of glyphosate ammonium salt resulted in changes of available phosphorus content and the activity of enzymes involved in the metabolism of this element in loamy sand. The effects glyphosate ammonium salt dosage and effect of day of experiment were ambiguous. Among the determined parameters the most sensitive to the presence of the glyphosate ammonium was alkaline phosphomonoesterase.

  11. Salt clean-up for recycling by electrolysis with a cathode-perforated ceramic container assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyroprocessing is a promising way for the recovery of actinide elements from the used nuclear fuel. Electro-refining is a key technology of pyroprocessing and the electro-refining is generally composed of two recovery steps-deposit of uranium onto a solid cathode and the recovery of actinide elements by a liquid cathode. After the electro-refining process, it is necessary to remove the solutes from the molten salt for the salt regeneration. In this study, it was attempted to clean up a molten salt with a solid cathode- perforated ceramic container assembly and a glassy carbon anode. LiCl-KCl eutectic salt was used as a medium of the electrolytic bath. Uranium and cerium were used as solutes, where uranium was used as a surrogate for the actinide elements. The initial contents of uranium and cerium in the salt were varied in the range of 0-5 wt%. Electrolysis experiments were carried out by passing a constant current between the anode and cathode at 500 deg C. The solute contents were measured using ICP-AES spectroscopy. The initial cathode potential was about -1.6 V. This value decreased with increasing time in the salt. The solutes in the saline phase were successfully recovered onto the cathode. (author)

  12. Salts on Europa's surface detected by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Hansen, G.B.; Fanale, F.P.; Carlson, R.W.; Matson, D.L.; Johnson, T.V.; Smythe, W.D.; Crowley, J.K.; Martin, P.D.; Ocampo, A.; Hibbitts, C.A.; Granahan, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    Reflectance spectra in the 1- to 2.5-micrometer wavelength region of the surface of Europa obtained by Galileo's Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer exhibit distorted water absorption bands that indicate the presence of hydrated minerals. The laboratory spectra of hydrated salt minerals such as magnesium sulfates and sodium carbonates and mixtures of these minerals provide a close match to the Europa spectra. The distorted bands are only observed in the optically darker areas of Europa, including the lineaments, and may represent evaporite deposits formed by water, rich in dissolved salts, reaching the surface from a water-rich layer underlying an ice crust.

  13. Can PAHs influence Cu accumulation by salt marsh plants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, C Marisa R; Mucha, Ana P; Delgado, Marta F C; Caador, M Isabel; Bordalo, A A; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2008-09-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may change the mechanisms of metal uptake, thus influencing kinetics and extent of metal phytoextraction. Studies on the subject are scarce, particularly for salt marsh plants. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of PAHs on the uptake of Cu by Halimione portulacoides, a plant commonly found in salt marshes. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory, either in hydroponics (sediment elutriate) or in sediment soaked in elutriate, which were prepared with sediment and water from a salt marsh of the Cavado river estuary (NW Portugal). Groups of H. portulacoides (grown in a greenhouse) were exposed to those media during six days. Cu2+ (as Cu(NO3)2), 10(2) and 10(4) microg l(-1), was added to the media as well as 1.6 microg l(-1) of the sixteen EPA priority PAHs (0.1 microg l(-1) of each PAHs). Cu was assayed in solutions, sediments and different plant tissues before and after experiments. After exposure, photosynthetic efficiency and levels of chlorophylls were also measured, indicating that plant stress indicators were identical in all plants independently of the media to which the plants were exposed. PAHs influenced both the soluble Cu fraction and Cu uptake by plants. The amounts of metal accumulated in both roots and stems were significantly higher when the 10(4) microg l(-1) of Cu enriched elutriate was amended with PAHs. Thus, results suggest that PAHs may modify Cu solubility, the Cu sorption by plants and/or the passive penetration of Cu into the root cells. Therefore, the combined effects of different types of pollutants should be taken in consideration when studying the remediation potential of plants, namely in terms of phytoextraction. PMID:18539325

  14. The effect of salt stress on growth, chlorophyll content, proline and nutrient accumulation, and k/na ratio in walnut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irrigation water salinity on growth, chlorophyll contents, proline and nutrients accumulation and K/Na ratio in three walnut cultivars was investigated. Three irrigation water salinity levels with electrical conductivities of 1,5, 3, and 5.0 dS/m and tap water as a control treatment were used in a randomized design with four replications. Irrigation practices were realized by considering the weight of each pot. Sodium, clor, proline, K/Na and Ca/Na ratio of leaf were increased under salinity conditions. But growth of plant and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b content were decreased under saline condition. There were significant differences between in irrigation water salinity levels in proline and chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, Na content. But there were not any significant differences in LRWC (%). Results showed that, regarding fresh shoot weight, dry shoot and root weight, there were significant differences between cultivars, but chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, proline accumulation and leaf relative water content (LRWC) there weren't any significant differences between cultivars. Kaman 1 and Bilecik walnut cultivars showed higher accumulation of proline than Kaman 5 but was not observed significant difference between them. (author)

  15. Maxwell-Wagner relaxation in common minerals and a desert soil at low water contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcone, Steven A.; Boitnott, Ginger E.

    2012-06-01

    Penetration of 100- to 1000-MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) signals is virtually non-existent in arid and desert soils despite their low water content and moderate conductivity, the latter of which cannot explain the loss. Under the hypothesis that strong dielectric relaxation supplements DC conductivity to cause high intrinsic attenuation rates, we compared the complex permittivity of a desert soil sample with that of controlled samples of quartz, feldspars, calcite, coarse and crystallite gypsum, kaolinite and montmorillonite. The soil had 80% quartz, 10% feldspars and 10% gypsum by weight, with the latter composed of crystallites and crustations. All samples had 4-7% volumetric water content. We measured permittivity most accurately from 1.6 MHz to 4 GHz with Fourier Transform time domain reflectometry, and used grain sizes less than 53 ?m. All samples show low-frequency dispersion with the soil, gypsum crystallites and montmorillonite having the strongest below 100 MHz, the highest attenuation rates, and conductivity values unable to account for these rates. The soil rate exceeded 100 dB m- 1 by 1 GHz. Through modeling we find that a broadened relaxation centered from 2 to 16 MHz sufficiently supplements losses caused by conductivity and free water relaxation to account for loss rates in all our samples, and accounts for low-frequency dispersion below 1 GHz. We interpret the relaxation to be of the Maxwell-Wagner (MW) type because of the 2- to 16-MHz values, relaxation broadening, the lack of salt, clay and magnetic minerals, and insufficient surface area to support adsorbed water. The likely MW dipolar soil inclusions within the predominantly quartz matrix were gypsum particles coated with water containing ions dissolved from the gypsum, and the conducting water layers themselves. The inclusions for the monomineralic soils were likely ionized partially or completely water-filled interstices, and partially filled galleries for the montmorillonite. The low water content may be necessary to help isolate these inclusions. For our common, low conductivity minerals, the MW contributions to attenuation rates are significant above 10 MHz, whereas they are significant above about 100 MHz for the more conductive minerals and soil.

  16. UMTRA Project water sampling and analysis plan, Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This water sampling and analysis plan describes planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site in Salt Lake City, Utah. This plan identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequencies for routine monitoring of ground water, sediments, and surface waters at monitoring stations on the site

  17. The correlation of metal content in medicinal plants and their water extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ran?elovi? Saa S.; Kosti? Danijela A.; Zarubica Aleksandra R; Miti? Sneana S.; Miti? Milan N.

    2013-01-01

    The quality of some medicinal plants and their water extracts from South East Serbia is determined on the basis of metal content using atomic absorption spectrometry. The two methods were used for the preparation of water extracts, to examine the impact of the preparation on the content of metals in them. Content of investigated metals in both water extracts is markedly lower then in medicinal plants, but were higher in water extract prepared by method (I), with exception of lead conten...

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF SALT TOLERANCE IN DURUM WHEAT BY ASCORBIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fercha Azzedine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to examine whether exogenously applied Ascorbic acid (AsA may enhance the salt tolerance in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. var. Waha. Two weeks old seedling, grown in plastic pots of 1kg, were subjected to salt stress by adding 25ml of NaCl (150mm, and treated or not with the addition of ascorbic acid (0.7 mM. Two weeks after salt stress, plants were harvested and the various measures were recorded.The effects of salt stress, in the presence and absence of vitamin C, on the leaf growth, leaf area (LA and some physiological and biochemical changes were investigated. It was established that the application of vitamin C mitigate to variable extent the adverse effect of salt stress on plant growth, may be due, in part, to increased leaf area, improved chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, enhanced proline accumulation and decreased H2O2 content.In conclusion, we can say that treatment with ascorbic acid improve salt tolerance in durum wheat through the enhancement of multiple processes.

  19. Enhanced salt tolerance in maize plants induced by H2O2 leaf spraying is associated with improved gas exchange rather than with non-enzymatic antioxidant system

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Franklin Arago, Gondim; Rafael de Souza, Miranda; Enas, Gomes-Filho; Jos Tarquinio, Prisco.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is an essential signaling molecule that mediates plant responses against several biotic and abiotic stresses. H2O2 pretreatment has emerged as a signaling way, inducing salt stress acclimation in plants. Here, we analyzed the effects of H2O2 leaf pretreatment on the non-enzy [...] matic defense system (ascorbate and glutathione), plant growth, relative water content (RWC), relative chlorophyll content, H2O2 content, and gas exchange in maize plants under NaCl stress. The results showed that salinity reduced the leaf area and shoot and root dry mass as compared to control, and the leaf spraying with H2O2 significantly improved the growth of salt stressed plants. Photosynthesis and transpiration, stomatal conductance and intercellular CO2 concentration were strongly decreased by salinity after 7 and 14 days of salt exposure; however, the decrease was lower in plants sprayed with H2O2. The improved gas exchange in H2O2-sprayed stressed plants correlated positively with higher RWC and relative chlorophyll content and lower leaf H2O2 accumulation under NaCl stress conditions. Ascorbate and glutathione did not play any obvious effects as non-enzymatic antioxidants in the ROS scavenging. In conclusion, the salt tolerance induced by H2O2 leaf pretreatment is attributed to a reduction in the H2O2 content and maintenance of RWC and chlorophyll in maize leaves. These characteristics allow maize plants to maintain high rates of photosynthesis under salt stress and improve the growth.

  20. Influence of water and salt solutions on UVB irradiation of normal skin and psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of tap-water (TW) and salt solutions on the minimal erythema dose (MED) was investigated for normal human skin and uninvolved skin of psoriasis patients. MED (UVB) determinations on the forearm revealed that: (1) the MED definitely decreases whenever the arm is immersed in TW or NaCl solutions with a low concentration (4%) prior to UVB exposure, whereas almost saturated NaCl solution (26%), as well as locum Dead Sea water (LDSW), do not produce a change in the MED, and (2) the decrease in MED obtained by wetting the skin with TW was no longer present when the skin was allowed to dry for 20 min. A decrease in water uptake by skin (in vivo) and by callus (in vitro) was found as the salt concentration of the external solution increased. It is proposed that water taken up by the skin plays an important role in the sensitivity of the skin to UVB exposure. Bathing in TW or 4% NaCl prior to UVB exposure offered a slight to moderate improvement in psoriasis over UVB irradiation alone. Finally, it was shown that there is no obvious difference in clearance of the psoriatic skin between a bath in TW, 4% NaCl, or LDSW prior to UVB exposure. (orig.)

  1. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  2. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  3. NAMMA CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  4. CAMEX-4 CVI CLOUD CONDENSED WATER CONTENT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) was used to measure condensed water content (liquid water or ice in particles about 8 microns in diameter and up) and cloud...

  5. Numerical modeling of water flow and salt transport in bare saline soil subjected to evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xiaolong; Boufadel, Michel C.

    2015-05-01

    A numerical study, based on a density-dependent variably saturated groundwater flow model MARUN, was conducted to investigate subsurface flow and salt transport in bare saline aquifers subjected to evaporation, which was simulated using the bulk aerodynamic formulation. As evaporation was assumed to depend on the pore moisture, the evaporation flux evolved gradually causing a gradual increase in the pore salinity. This is in contrast to prior studies where the high salinity was imposed instantaneously on the ground surface. Key factors likely affecting subsurface hydrodynamics were investigated, including saturated hydraulic conductivity, capillary drive, relative humidity in the air, and surrounding groundwater replenishment. The simulations showed two temporal regimes where the first consists of rapid evaporation for a duration of hours followed by slow evaporation, until evaporation ceases. In the absence of surrounding groundwater replenishment, evaporation-induced density gradient generated an upward water flow initially, and then the flow decreased at which time a high density salt "finger" formed and propagated downwards. Capillary properties and atmospheric condition had significant impacts on subsurface moisture distribution and salt migration in response to the evaporation. The results also suggested that the presence of subsurface water replenishment to the evaporation zone tended to produce a steady evaporation rate at the ground surface.

  6. Unique inhibition of bile salt-induced apoptosis by lecithins and cytoprotective bile salts in immortalized mouse cholangiocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komichi, Daisuke; Tazuma, Susumu; Nishioka, Tomoji; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Une, Mizuho; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2003-12-01

    Bile duct epithelium is physiologically exposed to high concentrations of bile salts, suggesting the presence of a cytoprotective mechanism(s). The aim of this study was to clarify whether bile salts cause bile duct cell damage and to elucidate the mechanism(s) providing protection against such an action of bile salts. Immortalized mouse cholangiocytes were incubated with taurocholate, taurochenodeoxycholate, glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC), taurodeoxycholate, and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC), followed by flow-cytometric analysis and caspase activity assay to evaluate the induction of apoptosis. GCDC time-dependently induced caspase 3 (3.4-fold)- and caspase 9 (1.4-fold)-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocytes, but this was inhibited by lecithins and TUDC. Further, expression of cholangiocyte bile salt transporters (apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter [Asbt] and multidrug resistance protein 3 [Mrp3]) was examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, and cholangiocyte bile salt uptake was determined using radiolabeled bile salts. Expression of cholangiocyte Asbt and Mrp3 was increased by bile salts, whereas lecithins interestingly reduced bile salt uptake to inhibit cholangiocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, bile salts themselves cause cholangiocyte apoptosis when absorbed by and retained inside the cell, but this is inhibited by washing out cytotoxic bile salts according to Mrp3, a rescue exporting molecule. Biliary lecithin is seemingly another cytoprotective player against cytotoxic bile salts, reducing their uptake, and this is associated with a reduced expression of Mrp3. PMID:14714619

  7. Characteristic monitoring of groundwater-salt transportation and input-output in inland arid irrigation area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cundong; Zhang, Hongyang; Han, Liwei; Zhai, Luxin

    2014-11-01

    The rules of microscopic water-salt transportation can be revealed and the impact on the macroscopic water and soil resources can be further predicted by selecting a typical study area and carrying out continuous monitoring. In this paper, Jingtaichuan Electrical Lifting Irrigation District in Gansu Province (hereinafter called as JingDian irrigation district (JID)) located at the inland desert region of northwest China was selected as study area. Based on the groundwater-salt transportation data of representative groundwater monitoring wells in different hydrogeological units, the groundwater-salt evolution and transportation tendency in both closed and unclosed hydrogeological units were analyzed and the quantity relative ratio relationship of regional water-salt input-excretion was calculated. The results showed that the salt brought in by artificial irrigation accounts for the highest proportion of about 63.99% and the salt carried off by the discharge of irrigation water accounts for 66.42%, namely, the water-salt evolution and transportation were mainly controlled by artificial irrigation. As the general features of regional water-salt transportation, groundwater salinity and soil salt content variation were mainly decided by the transportation of soil soluble salt which showed an obvious symbiosis gathering regularity, but the differentiation with insoluble salt components was significant in the transportation process. Besides, groundwater salinity of the unclosed hydrogeological unit presented a periodically fluctuating trend, while the groundwater salinity and soil salt content in water and salt accumulation zone of the closed hydrogeological unit showed an increasing tendency, which formed the main occurrence area of soil secondary salinization. PMID:25522523

  8. Further data on elevational changes and water circulation in a Cumbrian salt marsh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, A. P.; Blackley, M. W. L.

    1987-01-01

    A further year's elevational data has been obtained from creek profiles at a salt marsh site on the north side of the Esk estuary, Cumbria. Comparative sections were taken on the south shore. The 'seasonality' found previously on the north shore and again recorded was less well defined at the southern site probably reflecting smaller proportions of clay minerals and greater exposure. Porewater pressure data from an upper salt marsh location showed a similar situation to that obtained previously from a lower marsh site, i.e. when tides overtopped the marsh surface the uppermost transducers responded first. Neap tides were only registered by the lowest transducers (or not at all) with upper sensors showing draining except during periods of precipitation. Only low quantities of artificial radionuclides were measured but their distribution appears to reflect the proportions of fine sediment present and the water circulation pattern.

  9. Progress In Methods Of Measuring The Free Water Content Of Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisk, David J.

    1983-09-01

    Providing ground truth for the backscatter and absorption effects of a snow cover on electromagnetic waves has long been a problem. One characteristic of the snow cover which has been particularly difficult to measure is its free, or liquid, water content - the fraction of the snow's volume which exists in the liquid state. Five methods which have been used for measuring this parameter are described and their merits and deficiencies discussed. Two of the methods are calorimetric, measuring the free water content as a function of the heat added to or removed from a snow sample while completely melting or freezing it. The third uses the freezing point depression observed on adding a salt solution to a snow sample to calculate the snow's free water content. In the fourth procedure, a snow sample is completely dissolved in ethyl or methyl alcohol. The corresponding decrease in temperature is inversely related to the free water content of the snow. The final technique is electronic: above a certain frequency, the electrical capacitance of snow is related to its density and free water content. With accurate calibration, devices which measure snow capacitance are likely to be the simplest and fastest means of providing free water measurements.

  10. Involvement of ethylene in reversal of salt-inhibited photosynthesis by sulfur in mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazar, Rahat; Khan, Md Iqbal R; Iqbal, Noushina; Masood, Asim; Khan, Nafees A

    2014-10-01

    Sulfur (S) assimilation results in the synthesis of cysteine (Cys), a common metabolite for the formation of both reduced glutathione (GSH) and ethylene. Thus, ethylene may have regulatory interaction with GSH in the alleviation of salt stress. The involvement of ethylene in the alleviation of salt stress by S application was studied in mustard (Brassica juncea cv. Pusa Jai Kisan). First, the effects of 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0?mM SO4 (2) (-) were studied on photosynthetic and growth parameters to ascertain the S requirement as sufficient-S and excess-S for the plant. In further experiments, the effects of sufficient-S (1?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) and excess-S (2?mM SO4 (2) (-) ) were studied on the alleviation of salt stress-induced by 100?mM NaCl, and ethylene involvement in the alleviation of salt stress by S. Under non-saline condition, excess-S increased ethylene with less content of Cys and GSH and adversely affected photosynthesis and growth. In contrast, excess-S maximally alleviated salt stress due to high demand for S and optimal ethylene formation, which maximally increased GSH and promoted photosynthesis and growth. The involvement of ethylene in S-mediated alleviation of salt stress was further substantiated by the reversal of the effects of excess-S on photosynthesis by aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), ethylene biosynthesis inhibitor. The studies suggest that plants respond differentially to the S availability under non-saline and salt stress and excess-S was more potential in the alleviation of salt stress. Further, ethylene regulates plants' response and excess S-induced alleviation of salt stress and promotion of photosynthesis. PMID:24547902

  11. Water Content of Basalt Erupted on the ocean floor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.G.

    1970-01-01

    Deep sea pillow basalts dredged from the ocean floor show that vesicularity changes with composition as well as with depth. Alkalic basalts are more vesicular than tholeiitic basalts erupted at the same depth. The vesicularity data, when related to experimentally determined solubility of water in basalt, indicate that K-poor oceanic tholeiites originally contained about 0.25 percent water, Hawaiian tholeiites of intermediate K-content, about 0.5 percent water, and alkali-rich basalts, about 0.9 percent water. Analyses of fresh basalt pillows show a systematic increase of H2O+ as the rocks become more alkalic. K-poor oceanic tholeiites contain 0.06-0.42 percent H2O+, Hawaiian tholeiites, 0.31-0.60 percent H2O+, and alkali rich basalts 0.49-0.98 percent H2O+. The contents of K2O, P2O5, F, and Cl increase directly with an increase in H2O+ content such that at 1.0 weight percent H2O+, K2O is 1.58 percent, P2O5 is 0.55 percent, F is 0.07 percent, and Cl is 0.1 percent. The measured weight percent of deuterium on the rim of one Hawaiian pillow is -6.0 (relative to SMOW); this value, which is similar to other indications of magmatic water, suggests that no appreciable sea water was absorbed by the pillow during or subsequent to eruption on the ocean floor. Concentrations of volatile constituents in the alkali basalt melts relative to tholeiitic melts can be explained by varying degrees of partial melting of mantle material or by fractional crystallization of a magma batch. ?? 1970 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Interferometric tomography of fuel cells for monitoring membrane water content

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Laura; Kim, Jungik; Shao-Horn, Yang; Barbastathis, George

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a system that uses two 1D interferometric phase projections for reconstruction of 2D water content changes over time in situ in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system. By modifying the filtered backprojection tomographic algorithm, we are able to incorporate a priori information about the object distribution into a fast reconstruction algorithm which is suitable for real-time monitoring.

  13. Images of Water in School Textbooks: A Content Analysis --- ???? ???? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?????

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Afkhami, hafkhami48@yahoo.co.uk - ???? ?????

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Education as a social process is under the influence of the society, its institutions and the environment that it operates in. Schools as a part of the social structure shape students both attitudes and behavior and reflect the society's values. Students socialization is heavily influenced by their family, neighborhoods, and schools including teachers and textbooks. School textbooks are an important source for socialization in the process of learning during the course of schooling for children aged between 6 to 18 years old. This age group is including population of over 15 million boys and girls in Iran. These are a reflection of the culture, knowledge and values considered important by authorities in society. Iran, like other Middle Eastern societies, is facing higher population and water resources shortage in the future. Therefore, the impact of environmental images or knowledge about the resources and predicted risk would worth to be studied. The purpose of this paper is to show the way school textbooks shape Iranian kids attitudes towards the word or concept of water in terms of natural resources or water consumption. This study analyzed the presentation of concept of water in Iranian school textbooks. Some 82 school textbooks were investigated by utilizing content analysis method. Content analyses of the 11 different subjects showed that there were significant differences among science, humanities and social science books in terms of structure and social values. The study examined school textbooks used in grades 1 through 11 published 1984 by the Ministry of Education. The study revealed an interesting finding that about two percent of total content devoted to water related issues under 20 different categories, but less than 0.05 percent related to the way of consumptions or quality of healthy water. The images of water portrayed here, show the richness of natural resources including sea, rivers and the level of rain or snow for different parts of the country or the world. In contrast, data from WRI indicate that in the next two decades sanitation, healthy water and drought would be the major challenge for the people who are living in some part of the world including the Middle East and Central Asian regions. Results implied important directions for educational administrators and policy makers in the preparation and use of right educational content to support the environmental cause. ??? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ??? 82 ????? ???? ???? ?? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???. ??? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ??????-??????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???. ????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ? ????? ??? ? ????? ?????? ? ?????? ???? ???. ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ? ??????????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ????. ?? ???? ???? ??? ? ?? ??? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ???. ??????? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ????. ?????? ??? ???? ? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ? ????? ?? ? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???. ??????

  14. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step solgel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramezani, Maedeh, E-mail: m.ramezani@merc.ac.ir [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vaezi, Mohammad Reza [Division of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kazemzadeh, Asghar [Division of Semiconductors, Materials and Energy Research Center, P.O. Box 31787-316, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-01-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by solgel co-precursor process. Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step solgel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H{sub 2}O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other solgel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH{sub 4}OH, EtOH and H{sub 2}O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission.

  15. The influence of the hydrophobic agent, catalyst, solvent and water content on the wetting properties of the silica films prepared by one-step solgel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Transparent, hydrophobic, uniform silica film by solgel co-precursor process. Preparation of silica coatings from ETES and Iso-OTMS in different molar ratios. Decreasing in hydrophobicity of the films with increasing in Iso-TMS molar ratio. By changing the molar ratio of component, different size of particles was obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, we used one-step solgel process to prepare the hydrophobic silica films on the glass substrate from the ethyltriethoxysilane (ETES) as a precursor and iso-octyltrimethoxysilane (Iso-OTMS) as a hydrophobic agent. In order to study the effect of the hydrophobic agent on the water repellent properties of the silica films, the alcosol was prepared by keeping constant the molar ratio of ETES:EtOH:H2O at 1:36.2:6.3, with 6 M ammonium hydroxide and Iso-OTMS/ETES molar ratio varied from 0.2 to 1.4. Also, we investigated the influence of the other solgel reaction parameters, such as catalyst, solvent and water content and their effect on the morphology and hydrophobic properties of the silica films. The results revealed that by altering the molar ratio of NH4OH, EtOH and H2O, different sizes of silica nanoparticles from 41.24 to 86.16 nm were obtained. The silica films were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images, contact angle measurement (CA) and percentage of optical transmission

  16. Ice crystallization in ultrafine water-salt aerosols: nucleation, ice-solution equilibrium, and internal structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudait, Arpa; Molinero, Valeria

    2014-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a strong influence on Earth's climate. Elucidating the physical state and internal structure of atmospheric aqueous aerosols is essential to predict their gas and water uptake, and the locus and rate of atmospherically important heterogeneous reactions. Ultrafine aerosols with sizes between 3 and 15 nm have been detected in large numbers in the troposphere and tropopause. Nanoscopic aerosols arising from bubble bursting of natural and artificial seawater have been identified in laboratory and field experiments. The internal structure and phase state of these aerosols, however, cannot yet be determined in experiments. Here we use molecular simulations to investigate the phase behavior and internal structure of liquid, vitrified, and crystallized water-salt ultrafine aerosols with radii from 2.5 to 9.5 nm and with up to 10% moles of ions. We find that both ice crystallization and vitrification of the nanodroplets lead to demixing of pure water from the solutions. Vitrification of aqueous nanodroplets yields nanodomains of pure low-density amorphous ice in coexistence with vitrified solute rich aqueous glass. The melting temperature of ice in the aerosols decreases monotonically with an increase of solute fraction and decrease of radius. The simulations reveal that nucleation of ice occurs homogeneously at the subsurface of the water-salt nanoparticles. Subsequent ice growth yields phase-segregated, internally mixed, aerosols with two phases in equilibrium: a concentrated water-salt amorphous mixture and a spherical cap-like ice nanophase. The surface of the crystallized aerosols is heterogeneous, with ice and solution exposed to the vapor. Free energy calculations indicate that as the concentration of salt in the particles, the advance of the crystallization, or the size of the particles increase, the stability of the spherical cap structure increases with respect to the alternative structure in which a core of ice is fully surrounded by solution. We predict that micrometer-sized particles and nanoparticles have the same equilibrium internal structure. The variation of liquid-vapor surface tension with solute concentration is a key factor in determining whether a solution-embedded ice core or vapor-exposed ice cap is the equilibrium structure of the aerosols. In agreement with experiments, we predict that the structure of mixed-phase HNO3-water particles, representative of polar stratospheric clouds, consists of an ice core surrounded by freeze-concentrated solution. The results of this work are important to determine the phase state and internal structure of sea spray ultrafine aerosols and other mixed-phase particles under atmospherically relevant conditions. PMID:24820354

  17. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  18. On the Variation of Water Diffusion Coefficient in Stratum Corneum With Water Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Johnson, Robert; Kasting, Gerald B

    2016-03-01

    Water permeability and transient water sorption data in human and porcine stratum corneum (SC) are analyzed in conjunction with equilibrium water sorption data and a dynamic skin swelling model to develop a quantitative model for water diffusivity in the SC as a function of its water content. The recommended function (model 1) is phenomenological and treats the SC as a uniform, swellable slab. This approach yields satisfactory agreement with experimental data over a wide range of RH and associated equilibrium SC water content, Cw. It is supported by two alternative approaches. Model 2 considers the SC to be a multilaminate membrane consisting of alternating lipid and protein layers. Diffusivity in the protein phase is estimated from water diffusivity in other keratinized tissues, whereas diffusivity in the lipid phase is assumed to be linearly related to the swelling strain on intercellular lipids. Model 3 uses an analysis previously suggested by Stockdale to rationalize transepidermal water loss data in humans over a wide range of relative humidity. All models yield similar results for 0.20 ? Cw ? 0.78 g/cm(3), the usual range of SC water content invivo. PMID:26886319

  19. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  20. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ΔP rather than sigma ΔP2 (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ΔP is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model

  1. Remote sensing of leaf, canopy and vegetation water contents for satellite climate data records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foliar water content is a dynamic quantity depending on water losses from transpiration and water uptake from the soil. Absorption of shortwave radiation by water is determined by various frequency overtones of fundamental bending and stretching molecular transitions. Leaf water potential and rela...

  2. Ion contents, relative electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation, photosynthetic abilities and growth characters of oil palm seedlings in response to salt stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil palm seedlings were photo-autotrophically grown in MS medium and subsequently exposed to 0 (control), 25, 50, 100 or 200 mM NaCl. Sodium ions, proline content and the percentage of relative electrolyte leakage in seedlings subjected to salt stress increased, depending on the degree of salt concentrations. Sodium ion accumulation in oil palm seedlings grown under 200 mM NaCl was enriched and positively related to membrane injury or relative electrolyte leakage subsequently correlated with total chlorophyll degradation. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb), total chlorophyll (TC), total carotenoids (Cx+c), maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm), photon yield of PSII (OEPSII) and quantum efficiency of PSII (qP) in the seedlings under salt stress dropped significantly in comparison to the control group, leading to a reduction in net-photosynthetic rate (Pn) and growth, especially in 200 mM NaCl. A positive correlation between physiological and growth parameters, including sodium ion, relative electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments and water oxidation in photosystem II, Pn and plant dry weight was found. These data may further be applied to establish criteria for salt tolerance screening in oil palm breeding programs. (author)

  3. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaeenezhad

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were selected for this study and the amount of salt in different bread was measured once during spring and summer, using the method of Irans Organization for Standards and Industrial Investigation. The study was performed on 6 different kinds of bread baked in different districts of Shiraz city.Results: This study demonstrated that 17.9% of breads salt level in Shiraz exceeds the standard level and the remaining 82.1% is within the standard range. Mean percentage of breads salt was reported as 1.31 gram% . Conclusion: Compared to the previous reports, the results of present study fortunately showed a reduction of salt in bread during the last two decades. However, 17.9% of breads salt is yet more than the standard level.

  4. Changes in contents of somatostatin in hypophysis and arginine vasopressin in hypothalamus of postnatal developing brain induced by low level prenatal ?-irradiation of tritiated water in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in contents of the two kinds of neuropeptides have been measured in the brains of postnatal G57BL/6J strain mice that received accumulative doses of 0, 0.05, 0.10 or 0.30 Gy respectively in utero from tritium ?-irradiation during the mother mice's pregnancy from the 12.5th day of gestation to the day of delivery. Dose response relationship for alteration in somatostatin content due to exposure to 0.10 Gy or above was observed, and it was also noted that 0.30 Gy could cause decrease in arginine vasopressin in hypothalamus. These results were consistent with findings in research on brain development and reflex behavior in the literature. 0.10 Gy exposure may represent a threshold for exposure to tritiated water within the range from day 12.5 of gestation to the day of delivery using change in content of somatostatin in hypophysis as a parameter

  5. Water and Salt Stress in the Germination of Anadenanthera colubrina (Veloso Brenan Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvano Ebling Brondani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify levels of tolerance in Anadenanthera colubrina seeds to water and saltstress simulated for polyethyleneglycol 6000 (PEG 6000, manitol and KCl. The seeds was collected from nine treesand stored in cold chamber at 5 C. For the evaluation of the germination under it water stress was used PEG 6000solutions and manitol, and under salt stress solutions of KCl in different osmotic potentials: 0.0 Mpa (control, -0.6MPa, -0.8 MPa, -1.0 MPa, -1.2 MPa and -1.4 Mpa. The seeds were made use in gerbox and placed in germinationchambers, under constant light to the temperature of 25 C. The percentage and the germination speed index (GSIwere evaluated. The seeds of Anadenanthera colubrina showed moderate tolerance to the water stress simulated byPEG 6000. The percentage of germination was affected from -1.0 MPa, and the GSI from -0.6 Mpa. Manitol did notreveal efficient in the simulation of water stress, therefore it did not reduce the percentage of germination. Under itsalt stress, simulated for KCl, the germination percentage was affected from the potential -1.2 MPa, characterizinga high limit of tolerance to this salt.

  6. Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ovesen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages. Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41...... geographical (and seasonal) variations in iodine concentrations were found in different beverages supplying an appreciable part of the iodine in the Danish diet. This knowledge is important when calculating the iodine intake from dietary intake studies....

  7. The effects of different salt concentrations on growth and chlorophyll content of some pumpkin rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kksal AYD?N?AK?R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of different salinity levels, (0.7, 4.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0 dS m-1 on some physiological parameters of Obez F1, Ferro F1, RS841 F1, which are used as rootstocks in watermelon cultivation. Salty irrigation water was obtained through mixing of NaCl and CaCl2 salt into tap water. When the plants were at the 3-4 leaf stage, different salinity levels were applied. Plants were harvested during the phase of florescence. The study was carried out using split plots in randomized complete block design while rootstocks are main plot, salinity levels are sub-plot with three replications. While the salinity level was increasing, the physiological parameters decreased in each three rootstocks. While the plant height changed between 14.4-107.1 cm, the plant leaf area varied between 152.0-2182.7 cm2. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b and total carotenoid values decreased as the salinity level increased. Excluding the maximum value obtained from control plot, the highest chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, and total carotenoid values were obtained in Obez variety under 4.0 dS m-1 application with 14.8 mg l-1, 12.8 mg l-1 and 0.28 mg g-1 fw, respectively.

  8. Elementary Analyses and Heavy Metal Contents of Tap Waters in Konuralp District: Comparison of Mains Water, Spring Water and Zamzam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muammer Y?lmaz 1

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We meet our water needs such as city water supply, natural spring water, Zamzam water was aimed to compare in terms of chemical ion concentration and heavy metal content. Methods: City water from the four regions with different source, Zamzam water and bottled natural spring water in samples, ions and heavy metal values measured. Results have been assessed according to the criteria specified in the United States environmental protection agency (EPA and the World Health Organization (WHO. Results: In the sample of tap water taken from Konuralp, Al and Fe values were found over the EPA-WHO limit value. In the sample of bottled natural spring water, heavy metals are within the limits established. In the sample of Zamzam water Ca+2, Mg+2 values were higher than other samples but not exceeding the limits. In the sample of Zamzam water nitrate (NO3-, and vanadium (V values is very high from samples taken of the city water. Conclusion: Water content may be different with the water supply and environmental effects. More extensive analysis should be done by municipalities to drinking water that contains ions and heavy metal and citizens to know the measurements of the water they drink should be informed periodically of local authoritys websites.

  9. Boron content of the Freetown drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for the analyses of water samples in the Freetown area of Sierra Leone for their boron concentrations. The method involves alpha counting during thermal neutron irradiation of the samples utilising the 10Ba(n,?)7Li reaction. The alpha counting is via a liquid scintillator which also incorporates the water samples. A detailed outline of the experimental setup is given and the results obtained from measurement on water samples presented. (author)

  10. Calidad del agua de riego y afectacin de los suelos por sales en la pennsula de Paraguan, Venezuela / Water quality and its affect soils by salts in the Paraguan peninsula, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Fernndez; Roberto, Villafae; Ruperto, Hernndez.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiz una investigacin diagnstica en doce unidades de produccin de la pennsula de Paraguan, estado Falcon, Venezuela, con el objetivo de relacionar la afectacin de los suelos por sales con la condicin de uso del suelo, la profundidad de muestreo, el porcentaje de humedad de la pasta (%H) [...] y la calidad del agua de riego. Se colectaron muestras de agua y de suelo en tres condiciones de uso: vegetacin nativa (VN), cultivo (C) y en descanso (D), a 20, 40 y 60 cm de profundidad. Con los datos de conductividad elctrica del extracto de la pasta del suelo a 25 C (CEe) se analiz el efecto de la condicin de uso y la profundidad de muestreo, colocando en un cuadro de doble entrada el nmero de muestras con valores de salinidad igual o superior a 2 dS m-1 en cada combinacin de estas variables categricas, encontrando en los suelos bajo cultivo el mayor nmero de muestras con salinidad igual o superior al valor preestablecido. El efecto del %H sobre la CEe se evalu en un anlisis de correlacin, obtenindose un valor bajo (r = 0,426 P = 0,0000). El efecto de la calidad del agua sobre la afectacin de los suelos por sales se llev a cabo con dos calificaciones predictivas: Ayers y Westcot (1985) y Villafae (2011). Las aguas de riego califican con restricciones fuertes por salinidad. Las predicciones fueron acertadas, aunque los suelos mostraron valores de CEe y relacin de adsorcin de sodio, inferiores a los esperados; quizs por la textura, en su mayora arenosa. Abstract in english A diagnostic research was done to assess the relationship between the affectation of soils by salts and soil use, sample depth, saturated pasta percentage (H), and irrigation water quality. Samples of water and soil were collected from twelve farms in the Paraguan Peninsula, north of Falcn state, [...] Venezuela. Soil samples were taken under three soil use conditions: under native vegetation (VN), under cultivation (C) and fallow (D). Each of those samples were taken at three different depths: 0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm. Using data from the soil electrical conductivity of a saturation extract at 25 C (ECe) the effects of soil use and sample depth were analized by placing in a table of double entrance the number of samples with ECe ? 2 dS m-1 in each combination of these categorical variables, finding that soils under cultivation (C) had the highest number of samples with ECe ? 2 dS m m-1. The effect of the saturation percentage (H) was evaluated through a correlation between H and the ECe, obtaining low correlation (r=0.426 P= 0.0000). Ayers and Westcot (1985) and Villafae (2011) procedures for assessing the effect of salts of irrigation water on soils (irrigation water quality) were used. Results indicated strong restrictions that may limit irrigation water utilization due the effect of NaCl of irrigation water on soil. Nevertheless, the sampled soils showed lower values of the ECe and sodium adsorption ratio which may be due to the sandy texture in most of sampled soils.

  11. Water and sediment chemistry of Sutton Salt Lake, east Otago, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sutton Salt Lake is the only saline lake in New Zealand, and has formed in a windy cool-temperate maritime climate. Consequently, the lake is distinctly different from most of the world's saline lakes that form in arid continental settings. Sutton Salt Lake forms annually in a shallow (5 m) bedrock-floored depression c. 50 km from the nearest coast. The site receives c. 500 mm/year rainfall compared with coastal rainfall of near 1000 mm/year because of a minor rain-shadow effect of coastal hills. Surface evaporation rate is high (c. 700 mm/year) because of frequent strong winds. Sediments on the lake floor are derived by rain and wind erosion of the surrounding quartzofeldspathic schist bedrock, with a contribution from organic sources, particularly ostracods, and evaporative halite. The sediments have a higher proportion of phyllosilicates (muscovite, kaolinite, and chlorite) than the source rocks because of differential transport of these minerals into the lake depression. Lake water is entirely derived from rain, rather than groundwater, and the lake waters have had minimal chemical interaction with bedrock. Lake water pH is near 9 and pH of pore waters in drying lake sediments is near 8, compared with a pH near 7 for regional surface and ground waters. When full, the lake has salinity about one quarter to one third of that of sea-water, and ion ratios are similar to sea-water. The lake salinity is derived from marine aerosols in rainwater concentrated by c. 20,000 evaporation and refilling cycles in the lake depression. (author). 35 refs., 9 figs.; 2 tabs

  12. Short communication. Suitable growth stage to start irrigation with saline water to increase salt tolerance and decrease ion accumulation of Kochia scoparia (L. Schrad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch ia scoparia L. Schard (common name: kochia) is a mesohalophyte, C4 plant. It has the potential of being an important fodder crop in arid and semi arid environments. In order to evaluate the effect of saline irrigation water on the seedling growth stage and to select the best growth stage to start using saline water, an experiment was conducted with seven different saline water treatments (1.5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 dS m-1) at four growth stages [after emergence (T1), 5 cm (T2), 10 cm (T3), and 15 cm (T4) of plant height]. Results showed that shoot dry biomass increased slightly up to 7 dS m-1 and after that decreased with increasing salinity. Salt tolerance of kochia increased at the T3 and T4 growth stages. Sodium content of the plant was increased by using high saline water. The adverse effect of salinity on the Na content of the plant was lower at the 10-15 cm growth stage than at earlier growth stages. Potassium content was not greatly affected by salinity. As conclusion, kochia is sensitive to saline irrigation at the earliest stages of growth, and the best plant height to start saline irrigation is between 10 and 15 cm. (Author) 18 refs.

  13. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in transpiration, depending on the availability of water in their surrounding soil. Results of applying different treatments of salinity and drought will be shown. Available models of root water uptake will be employed to simulate the obtained results.

  14. Salts Production from Dead Sea by using Different Technological Methods: Prospective Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan M. Al-Harahsheh; Hossam I. Al-Itawi

    2005-01-01

    This study presents alternative methods for the utilizing of Dead Sea resources. These include crystallization through cooling by passing the Dead Sea water across cooled surfaces, or by direct contact between a cooling agent and the water solution. The cooling process of the Dead Sea water leads to the saturation state, after which precipitation of the main salts occurs. However, more work is required to study the effect of freezing on the crystallization process and to obtain the equilibriu...

  15. Gas migration through salt rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt as a host rock for a repository for radioactive waste may appear as a layered formation as observed at the WIPP site in the USA or as domed salt, which is abundant in the northern part of central Europe. Planned or actual repository sites like Gorleben, Morsleben or Asse in Germany are located in such salt domes. They have risen up in geological time from Permian salt beds until their upward movement has come to an end. Rock salt exists under geological conditions as an extremely dry material with a residual moisture content well below 1 %. Due to its crystalline nature, its permeability and porosity are very low. In addition, because of its plastic behaviour under stress salt has a high self-healing capacity. In fact, under undisturbed conditions, rock salt is considered as impermeable (permeability less than 10-22 m2). This is demonstrated impressively by brine inclusions which have been included millions of years ago and are kept in place until today. Thus, in considering conditions for two phase flow, undisturbed salt neither offers sufficient water nor appropriate hydraulic properties for scenarios involving normal two-phase flow to occur. Therefore, there is a fundamental difference to other host rock material, in that long term safety analyses for waste repositories in salt have, in general, to assume accident scenarios or some kind of faulted conditions to produce a scenario where gas production and two-phase flow become relevant. The main focus of those safety analyses is on compacted crushed salt as backfill material, possibly on seals and plugs for emplacement rooms or borehole closures and on the engineering disturbed zone (EDZ). (author)

  16. Cyclization of lapachol induced by thallium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work describes the cyclization of lapachol (1) induced by thallium triacetate (TTA) and thallium trinitrate (TTN) in several solvents using magnetic stirring and under microwave irradiation. ?-Xyloidone (2) - dehydro-a-lapachone - was obtained as the main product in these reactions in 20 - 75% yield. However, rhinacanthin-A (4) was isolated as main product in a 40% yield, using TTA and acetic anhydride:water (1:1) as solvent, and dehydroiso- a-lapachone (3) in 21% yield, using TTA and dichloromethane as solvent. The reaction time decreased drastically under microwave conditions, but the yields of these reactions were not the expected. (author)

  17. 4.2.1. Water content: nuclear radiation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric methods of measuring the soil water distribution are presented. The neutron method consists of measuring the thermal neutron density around a fast neutron source. Since the moisture in the soil is usually the principle hydrogen compound the thermal neutron density is a function of the water content. The neutron gauge may be of the subsurface type, placed in a vertical access tube, or of the surface type, resting on the soil surface. Cf 252 is a useful neutron source, having low mean energy and being cheap. Tritium-target deuterium bombarded neutron generators may be used in large volume single or dual tube measurements. The hydrogen content of the dry soil matrix and the dry density profile should be determined. Epithermal measurements eliminate the effect of thermal neutron absorbers. The ideal access tube is of thin-walled aluminium, but this in many cases lacks the required strength and durability, and iron or stainless steel may be used. The measured volume ranges from 20cm to 110cm radius, and the resolution is limited to 30cm layers, with measurement intervals of 15cm. Gamma ray sources may also be used, both in single-well density gauges in conjunction with a neutron gauge, and in a dual-tube arrangement, measuring the water content by attenuation, using a Cs 137 source. This can give a resolution of down to 0.5cm, and an accuracy of 0.0015g/cm3. Finally radiation dose calculations are briefly discussed. (JIW)

  18. ESKIMO1 is a key gene involved in water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchabke-Coussa, O.; Quashie, M.L.; Seoane, Jose Miguel; Fortabat, M.N.; Gery, C.; Yu, A.; Linderme, D.; Trouverie, J.; Granier, F.; Teoule, E.; Durand-Tardif, M.

    2008-01-01

    key gene involved in plant water economy as well as cold acclimation and salt tolerance. Results: All esk1 mutants were more tolerant to freezing, after acclimation, than their wild type counterpart. esk1 mutants also showed increased tolerance to mild water deficit for all traits measured. The mutant......Background: Drought is a major social and economic problem resulting in huge yield reduction in the field. Today's challenge is to develop plants with reduced water requirements and stable yields in fluctuating environmental conditions. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent model for identifying......'s improved tolerance to reduced water supply may be explained by its lower transpiration rate and better water use efficiency (WUE), which was assessed by carbon isotope discrimination and gas exchange measurements. esk1 alleles were also shown to be more tolerant to salt stress. Transcriptomic analysis of...

  19. Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made available to participating farmers. Yields obtained by farmers with these varieties at both Noakhali and Satkhira ranged from 1 to 3 tons per hectare. Such a harvested yield, compared with nothing if land were left fallow, would provide a substantial increase in food crop production and a significant economic benefit to resource-poor farmers. The soil moisture neutron probe (SMNP) was used to measure the soil content in order to ensure optimal irrigation scheduling. The soil salinity observed after the harvest of the crops in March/April averaged 1.5 ppt with drip irrigation, compared to 6.9 ppt on fallow land, hence showing that there is no adverse effect on soil salinity associated with the sustainable and productive use of these fallow lands for additional food production and income generation.

  20. Evidence on dynamic effects in the water content water potential relation of building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Hygrothermal simulation has become a widely applied tool for the design and assessment of building structures under possible indoor and outdoor climatic conditions. One of the most important prerequisites of such simulations is reliable material data. Different approaches exist here to derive the required material functions, i.e. the moisture storage characteristic and the liquid water conductivity, from measured basic properties. The current state of the art in material modelling as well as the corresponding transport theory implies that the moisture transport function is unique and that the moisture storage characteristic is process dependent with varying significance for the numerical simulation. On the basis of different building materials, a comprehensive instantaneous profile measurement study has been accomplished. Profiles of water content and relative humidity were obtained during a series of adsorption and desorption processes. The data provides clear evidence that the water content water potential relationship is not only dependent on the process history, but also on the process dynamics. The higher moisture potential gradients were induced, the larger was the deviation between static and dynamic moisture storage data and the more pronounced was the corresponding dynamic hysteresis. The paper thus provides clear experimental evidence on dynamic effects in the water content water potential relation of building materials. By that, data published by previous authors as Topp et al. (1967), Smiles et al. (1971) and Plagge et al. (1999) is confirmed. Moreover, it is shown that moisture transport processes are well susceptible to dynamic effects already within the hygroscopic moisture content range.

  1. Further Studies, About New Elements Production, by Electrolysis of Cathodic Pd ThinLong Wires, in Alcohol-Water Solutions (H, D) and Th-Hg Salts. New Procedures to Produce Pd Nano-Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Celani, F; Righi, E; Trenta, G; Catena, C; DAgostaro, G; Quercia, P; Andreassi, V; Marini, P; Di Stefano, V; Nakamura, M; Mancini, A; Sona, P G; Fontana, F; Gamberale, L; Garbelli, D; Celia, E; Falcioni, F; Marchesini, M; Novaro, E; Mastromatteo, U

    2005-01-01

    Abstract They were continued, at National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Frascati National Laboratories-Italy, the systematic studies about detection of new elements, some even with isotopic composition different from natural one, after prolonged electrolysis of Pd wires. The electrolytic solution adopted is the, unusual, used from our experimental group since 1999. In short, it was a mixture of both heavy ethyl alcohol (C2H5OD at 90-95%) and water (D2O, at 10-5%), with Th salts at micromolar concentration and Hg at even lower concentration (both of spectroscopic purity). The liquid solutions, before use, were carefully vacuum distilled (and on line 100nm filtered) at low temperatures (30-40C) and analysed by ICP-MS. The pH was kept quite mild (acidic at about 3-4). The cathode is Pd (99.9% purity) in the shape of long (60cm) and thin wires (diameter only 0.05mm). Before use, it is carefully cleaned and oxidised by Joule heating in air following a (complex) procedure from us continuously improved (since 1995...

  2. Molecular dynamics simulations of freezing of water and salt solutions.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vrbka, Lubo; Jungwirth, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 134, ?. 1 (2007), s. 64-70. ISSN 0167-7322 R&D Projects: GA Mk LC512; GA ?R(CZ) GD203/05/H001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : ice freezing * salt ions * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.982, year: 2007

  3. Effect Of Addition Of LiBr Salt In Iso-Propanol - Water Binary Azeotropic Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Sanket R. Vora, Prof. Suchen B. Thakore, Prof. Nitin Padhiyar, Ameerkhan Pathan

    2013-01-01

    Isopropanol is a very useful solvent for many industries and it requires in pure form for specific applications. It makes an azeotrope with water at 80.3 0C having composition of 87.4 % by weight. It is seen that conventionally methods used are not much effective or large energy consuming. Another alternative is to add salt which is helpful in changing the relative volatility of the mixture and separation gets is much more easier. In this paper the effect of ad...

  4. Variability in salt flux and water circulation in Ota River Estuary, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SOLTANIASL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the sub-tidal and intra-tidal variations of salt fluxes in the upstream section of a shallow estuary (with a water depth of less than 3 m were investigated. The salt fluxes were estimated based on the cross-sectional average salinity and velocity measured by the fluvial acoustic tomography system (FATS. The results indicate that the magnitude of seaward fluxes is approximately two times greater than that of landward fluxes under normal conditions. The results of short-term observation in the study area indicate that there is a phase lag of the bottom and surface salinities between the regions with the largest and smallest depths. The vertical shear flux with a peak value of ?0.7 m2/s during the ebb tide indicated an important contribution to the total salt flux compared with the advective flux. A phase lag occurred between the vertical shear terms in the regions with the largest and smallest depths, which resulted from the correlation between the vertical variations of the salinity and velocity and the existence of transversal velocity circulations.

  5. Alleviation of Adverse Effects of Salt Stress in Wheat Cultivars by Foliar Treatment with Antioxidant 2Changes in Some Biochemical Aspects, Lipid Peroxidation, Antioxidant Enzymes and Amino Acid Contents

    OpenAIRE

    Ebtihal M. Abd Elhamid; Mervat Sh. Sadak; Medhat M. Tawfik

    2014-01-01

    Ascobin (compound composed of ascorbic acid and citric acid) is considered one of exogenous protectants which may alleviate the harmful effects of salinity stress. Pot experiments were performed at the screen greenhouse of National Research Centre, Cairo, Egypt to study the effect of foliar treatment of two cultivars of wheat plant with different concentrations of ascobin (0, 200, 400 and 600 mg/l) on some biochemical parameters, antioxidant enzymes, element contents an...

  6. Salt tectonics on Venus?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of a surprisingly high deuterium/hydrogen ratio on Venus immediately led to the speculation that Venus may have once had a volume of surface water comparable to that of the terrestrial oceans. The authors propose that the evaporation of this putative ocean may have yielded residual salt deposits that formed various terrain features depicted in Venera 15 and 16 radar images. By analogy with models for the total evaporation of the terrestrial oceans, evaporite deposits on Venus should be at least tens to hundreds of meters thick. From photogeologic evidence and in-situ chemical analyses, it appears that the salt plains were later buried by lava flows. On Earth, salt diapirism leads to the formation of salt domes, anticlines, and elongated salt intrusions - features having dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 km. Due to the rapid erosion of salt by water, surface evaporite landforms are only common in dry regions such as the Zagros Mountains of Iran, where salt plugs and glaciers exist. Venus is far drier than Iran; extruded salt should be preserved, although the high surface temperature (4700C) would probably stimulate rapid salt flow. Venus possesses a variety of circular landforms, tens to hundreds of kilometers wide, which could be either megasalt domes or salt intrusions colonizing impact craters. Additionally, arcurate bands seen in the Maxwell area of Venus could be salt intrusions formed in a region of tectonic stress. These large structures may not be salt features; nonetheless, salt features should exist on Venus

  7. Fluoride removal from water by nano filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As any oligo element, fluoride is necessary and beneficial for human health to low concentrations, but an excess amount of fluoride ions in drinking water has been known to cause undesirable effects, especially tooth and bones fluoro sis. The maximum acceptable concentration of fluoride in drinking water was fixed by the World Health Organization according to the climate in the range of 1 mg.L-1 to 1,2 mg.L-1. Many methods have been used to remove fluoride from water such as precipitation, adsorption, electrocoagulation and membrane processes. Technologies using membrane processes are being used in many applications, particularly for brackish water desalination. Nano filtration seems to be the best process for a good selective defluorination of fluorinated waters. The main objective of this work was to investigate the retention of fluoride anions by nano filtration. The first part of this study deals with the characterisation of the NF HL2514TF membrane. The influence of various experimental parameters such as initial fluoride content, feed pressure, permeate flux, ionic strength, type of cation associated to fluoride and pH were studied in the second part. Results show that the retention order for the salts tested was TR(Na2SO4) > TR(CaCl2) > TR(NaCl), showing a retention sequence inversely proportional to the salt diffusion coefficients in water. It was also shown that charge effects could not be neglected, and a titration experiments confirmed that the NF membrane carry a surplus of negatively charged groups. Fluoride retention exceeds 60 pour cent, and increases with increasing concentration, where the rejection mechanism is related to the dielectric effects. Speigler-Kedem model was applied to experimental results in the aim to determine phenomenological parametersσand Ps respectively, the reflexion coefficient of the membrane and the solute permeability of ions. The convective and diffusive parts of the mass transfer were quantified with predominance of the diffusive contribution.

  8. Salt tolerant plants increase nitrogen removal from biofiltration systems affected by saline stormwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szota, Christopher; Farrell, Claire; Livesley, Stephen J; Fletcher, Tim D

    2015-10-15

    Biofiltration systems are used in urban areas to reduce the concentration and load of nutrient pollutants and heavy metals entering waterways through stormwater runoff. Biofilters can, however be exposed to salt water, through intrusion of seawater in coastal areas which could decrease their ability to intercept and retain pollutants. We measured the effect of adding saline stormwater on pollutant removal by six monocotyledonous species with different levels of salt-tolerance. Carex appressa, Carex bichenoviana, Ficinia nodosa, Gahnia filum, Juncus kraussii and Juncus usitatus were exposed to six concentrations of saline stormwater, equivalent to electrical conductivity readings of: 0.09, 2.3, 5.5, 10.4, 20.0 and 37.6mScm(-1). Salt-sensitive species: C.appressa, C.bichenoviana and J.usitatus did not survive ?10.4mScm(-1), removing their ability to take up nitrogen (N). Salt-tolerant species, such as F.nodosa and J.kraussii, maintained N-removal even at the highest salt concentration. However, their levels of water stress and stomatal conductance suggest that N-removal would not be sustained at concentrations ?10.4mScm(-1). Increasing salt concentration indirectly increased phosphorus (P) removal, by converting dissolved forms of P to particulate forms which were retained by filter media. Salt concentrations ?10mScm(-1) also reduced removal efficiency of zinc, manganese and cadmium, but increased removal of iron and lead, regardless of plant species. Our results suggest that biofiltration systems exposed to saline stormwater ?10mScm(-1) can only maintain N-removal when planted with salt-tolerant species, while P removal and immobilisation of heavy metals is less affected by species selection. PMID:26150068

  9. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekar Sudharshan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salinity (110% w/v of tannery wastewater makes it difficult to be treated by conventional biological treatment. Salt tolerant microbes can adapt to these saline conditions and degrade the organics in saline wastewater. Results Four salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from marine and tannery saline wastewater samples were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth factors of the identified strains were optimized. Tannery saline wastewater obtained from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP near Chennai (southern India was treated with pure and mixed consortia of four salt tolerant bacterial strains. Experiments with optimized conditions and varying salt content (between 2 and 10% (w/v were conducted. Salt inhibition effects on COD removal rate were noted. Comparative analysis was made by treating the tannery saline wastewater with activated sludge obtained from CETP and with natural habitat microbes present in raw tannery saline wastewater. Conclusion Salt tolerant bacterial mixed consortia showed appreciable biodegradation at all saline concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% w/v with 80% COD reduction in particular at 8% salinity level the consortia could be used as suitable working cultures for tannery saline wastewater treatment.

  10. Salt tolerance underlies the cryptic invasion of North American salt marshes by an introduced haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, E.A.; Glenn, E.P.; Brown, J.J.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Nelson, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    A distinct, non-native haplotype of the common reed Phragmites australis has become invasive in Atlantic coastal Spartina marshes. We compared the salt tolerance and other growth characteristics of the invasive M haplotype with 2 native haplotypes (F and AC) in greenhouse experiments. The M haplotype retained 50% of its growth potential up to 0.4 M NaCl, whereas the F and AC haplotypes did not grow above 0.1 M NaCl. The M haplotype produced more shoots per gram of rhizome tissue and had higher relative growth rates than the native haplotypes on both freshwater and saline water treatments. The M haplotype also differed from the native haplotypes in shoot water content and the biometrics of shoots and rhizomes. The results offer an explanation for how the M haplotype is able to spread in coastal salt marshes and support the conclusion of DNA analyses that the M haplotype is a distinct ecotype of P. australis.

  11. Determination of the Thermal Properties of Sands as Affected by Water Content, Drainage/Wetting, and Porosity Conditions for Sands With Different Grain Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, K. M.; Sakaki, T.; Limsuwat, A.; Illangasekare, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    It is widely recognized that liquid water, water vapor and temperature movement in the subsurface near the land/atmosphere interface are strongly coupled, influencing many agricultural, biological and engineering applications such as irrigation practices, the assessment of contaminant transport and the detection of buried landmines. In these systems, a clear understanding of how variations in water content, soil drainage/wetting history, porosity conditions and grain size affect the soil's thermal behavior is needed, however, the consideration of all factors is rare as very few experimental data showing the effects of these variations are available. In this study, the effect of soil moisture, drainage/wetting history, and porosity on the thermal conductivity of sandy soils with different grain sizes was investigated. For this experimental investigation, several recent sensor based technologies were compiled into a Tempe cell modified to have a network of sampling ports, continuously monitoring water saturation, capillary pressure, temperature, and soil thermal properties. The water table was established at mid elevation of the cell and then lowered slowly. The initially saturated soil sample was subjected to slow drainage, wetting, and secondary drainage cycles. After liquid water drainage ceased, evaporation was induced at the surface to remove soil moisture from the sample to obtain thermal conductivity data below the residual saturation. For the test soils studied, thermal conductivity increased with increasing moisture content, soil density and grain size while thermal conductivity values were similar for soil drying/wetting behavior. Thermal properties measured in this study were then compared with independent estimates made using empirical models from literature. These soils will be used in a proposed set of experiments in intermediate scale test tanks to obtain data to validate methods and modeling tools used for landmine detection.

  12. The production of metal salts by anodic dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millington, P.; Surfleet, B. [EA Technology Ltd. (United Kingdom); Hoy, A. [Sherman Chemicals Ltd. (United Kingdom); Crowle, V.A. [ERG, Environmental Resource Group PLC (United Kingdom)

    1992-12-31

    Electrochemical technology and its application to the production of metal salts was discussed. Electrochemical techniques offer high product yield and operate at high electrical efficiency. A minimum amount of effluent is produced which is an important environmental advantage. Three production techniques for salt were described. Salts can be produced by the reaction of an acid with a base, such as in the case of sodium sulphate. The process production technique is used for the manufacture of salts of more valuable metals by initiating a reaction between the metal or the metal oxide with the appropriate acid, such as in the case of cobalt bromide. An alternative to both these techniques is to use an electrochemical technique to aid the dissolution of the metal. This process involves pumping a solution of an appropriate acid through an electrochemical cell which contains, as an anode, a metal ingot. This last process is the one most environmentally acceptable. 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. A salt-water reservoir as the source of a compositionally stratified plume on Enceladus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postberg, F; Schmidt, J; Hillier, J; Kempf, S; Srama, R

    2011-06-30

    The discovery of a plume of water vapour and ice particles emerging from warm fractures ('tiger stripes') in Saturn's small, icy moon Enceladus raised the question of whether the plume emerges from a subsurface liquid source or from the decomposition of ice. Previous compositional analyses of particles injected by the plume into Saturn's diffuse E ring have already indicated the presence of liquid water, but the mechanisms driving the plume emission are still debated. Here we report an analysis of the composition of freshly ejected particles close to the sources. Salt-rich ice particles are found to dominate the total mass flux of ejected solids (more than 99 per cent) but they are depleted in the population escaping into Saturn's E ring. Ice grains containing organic compounds are found to be more abundant in dense parts of the plume. Whereas previous Cassini observations were compatible with a variety of plume formation mechanisms, these data eliminate or severely constrain non-liquid models and strongly imply that a salt-water reservoir with a large evaporating surface provides nearly all of the matter in the plume. PMID:21697830

  14. Water repellency and critical soil water content in a dune sand

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker, L.W.; Doerr, S.H.; Oostindie, K.; Ziogas, A.K.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2001-01-01

    Assessments of water repellency of soils are commonly made on air-dried or oven-dried samples, without considering the soil water content. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial and temporal variability of soil water content, actual water repellency over short distances, and the variations in critical soil water contents. Between 22 April and 23 November 1999, numerous samples were collected from a grass-covered dune sand (typic Psammaquent), at six depths, eight times in tr...

  15. Lorentz Force on Sodium and Chlorine Ions in a Salt Water Solution Flow under a Transverse Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, R.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that, by applying elementary concepts in electromagnetism and electrochemistry to a system consisting of salt water flowing in a thin rectangular pipe at an average velocity v[subscript A] under the influence of a transverse magnetic field B[subscript 0], an electromotive force generator can be conceived. In fact, the Lorentz force

  16. Characterizing the dynamics of Orimulsion spills in salt, fresh, and brackish water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to characterize the behaviour of Orimulsion spills under dynamic conditions in salt, fresh, and brackish water. The effect of surface or subsurface release of Orimulsion was also examined. A 600 litre tank filled with 400 litres of water was used for the experiments. A motorized hoop oscillated vertically beneath the surface of the water. A bitumen-to-water ratio of 1:1000 was used for all experiments. Water samples were withdrawn from the top and the bottom of the tank at different time intervals to analyze particle size distribution and concentration. Results showed that in brackish water, the coalescence of bitumen droplets was rapid. In fresh water, no increase in median particle size was detected. In all water types, bitumen concentration decreased significantly within 48 hours. There was also a significant difference in bitumen concentrations between the top and bottom addition runs with salt water. 2 refs., 7 tabs., 13 figs

  17. Access tube devices to monitor soil water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuder, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Neutron Probe is considered to be one of the best indirect measurement-systems to obtain the soil water content. However, due to health problems and new measuring-techniques, other measurement systems have been developed and placed on the market. The IAEA in special tried hard to find alternatives to the radioactive measurement-techniques. Consequently, the IAEA in co-operation with institutes from Australia, France, Austria, and the USA compared the TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry) and the FDR (Frequency Domain Reflectometry) to the radioactive Neutron Probe. During the period from June 2000 to May 2002 those three measurement-systems were tested in practice at three locations in Lower Austria (sandy, loamy, and clay soil conditions) by the Institute of Hydraulics and Rural Water-Management (University of Agricultural Sciences, Vienna). The used equipment consisted of access tube devices TRIME (TDR), DIVINER 2000 (FDR), and SOLO 40 (radioactive). Once a week, measurements of soil water content were taken every 10 cm down to a depth of 1 m with three replications each. In the course of this experiment, all systems were field-calibrated and compared to standard-calibration. Concerning the practical utilisation the Diviner by Sentek is best to handle. After comparing those three systems for more than two years, the FDR-method has proved to be better in results and handling than TDR. The availability of appropriate measurement systems to determine the soil water content is a basic prerequisite for further descriptions of subsurface flow and solute transport process as well as for agricultural aspects.

  18. Remote analysis of high-tritium-content water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems to safely analyze for tritium in moisture collected from glovebox atmospheres are being developed for use at Savannah River Site (SRS) tritium facilities. Analysis results will guide whether the material contains sufficient tritium for economical recovery, or whether it should be stabilized for disposal as waste. In order to minimize potential radiation exposures that could occur in handling and diluting high-tritium-content water, SRS sought alternatives to the process laboratory's routine analysis by liquid-scintillation counting. The newer systems determine tritium concentrations by measuring bremsstrahlung radiation induced by low-energy beta interactions. One of the systems determines tritium activity in liquid streams, the other determines tritium activity in water vapor. Topics discussed include counting results obtained by modeling and laboratory testing and corrections that are made for low-energy photon attenuation. (authors)

  19. Polydipsia induced by intermittent delivery of salted liquid foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poling, Alan; Krafft, Kathy; Chapman, Linda; Lyon, David

    1980-01-01

    Food-deprived rats given constant access to water were exposed to fixed-time presentations of soybean milk and diluted sweetened condensed cows' milk. In some conditions these liquid foods were adulterated with varying amounts of sodium chloride. Under a fixed-time 30-sec schedule of food delivery, little water was consumed when the food was soybean milk alone, or soybean milk with sodium chloride added in concentrations of .9, 1.8, or 3.6%. However, schedule-induced polydipsia appeared when soybean milk adulterated with 7.2 or 14.4% sodium chloride was delivered under this schedule. When soybean milk containing 7.2% sodium chloride was presented under fixed-time 15-, 30-, 60-, 120-, and 240-sec schedules, schedule-induced drinking increased with the fixed-time value from 15 to 120 seconds, and decreased at 240 seconds. Like soybean milk, diluted sweetened condensed milk delivered under fixed-time schedules of 30, 60, and 120 seconds failed to evoke schedule-induced polydipsia, but did so when adulterated with 7.2% sodium chloride. Drinking induced by salted liquid foods resembled the polydipsia engendered by spaced dry-food presentations in several ways, including temporal relation to food delivery, persistence within and across sections, sensitivity to interfood interval, and magnitude relative to intake evoked by bulk-food presentation. PMID:7381361

  20. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content Correo da resistncia penetrao usando uma umidade do solo de referncia e pedofunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Tuzzin de Moraes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR, using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U. For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox, at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes; in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD. Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.A resistncia do solo penetrao (SPR um dos principais indicadores do estado de compactao do solo; contudo, a SPR altamente influenciada pelo contedo de gua no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver modelos matemticos para a correo da SPR para um valor de umidade gravimtrica (U de referncia. Para isso, a SPR foi determinada, por meio de um penetrmetro de impacto, em um experimento instalado sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrofrrico, usando seis nveis de compactao do solo, obtidos por meio da escarificao mecnica e da compactao adicional, pelo trfego de uma colhedora de gros autopropelida (quatro, oito, 10 e 20 passadas, alm de uma testemunha, a qual foi mantida sob sistema plantio direto sem escarificao ou compactao adicional. A fim de obter ampla variao nos valores de U, as avaliaes da SPR foram realizadas em diferentes pocas. Amostras de solo com estrutura preservada foram coletadas para determinar a densidade do solo (BD. Foram geradas funes de pedotransferncia relacionando os valores de SPR, de U e de BD. Usando essas funes, a correo da SPR foi satisfatria para todas as amplitudes de U e BD. O mtodo requer apenas SPR e U como variveis de entrada dos modelos. No entanto, so necessrias diferentes equaes, em funo da camada de solo avaliada. A aplicao das funes de pedotransferncia, obtidas neste trabalho, permite observar diferenas no estado de compactao do solo entre os tratamentos, que antes no eram detectadas, em funo de variaes na U.

  1. Correction of resistance to penetration by pedofunctions and a reference soil water content / Correo da resistncia penetrao usando uma umidade do solo de referncia e pedofunes

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moacir Tuzzin de, Moraes; Henrique, Debiasi; Julio Cezar, Franchini; Vanderlei Rodrigues da, Silva.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A resistncia do solo penetrao (SPR) um dos principais indicadores do estado de compactao do solo; contudo, a SPR altamente influenciada pelo contedo de gua no solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver modelos matemticos para a correo da SPR para um valor de umidade gravimtrica [...] (U) de referncia. Para isso, a SPR foi determinada, por meio de um penetrmetro de impacto, em um experimento instalado sobre um Latossolo Vermelho distrofrrico, usando seis nveis de compactao do solo, obtidos por meio da escarificao mecnica e da compactao adicional, pelo trfego de uma colhedora de gros autopropelida (quatro, oito, 10 e 20 passadas), alm de uma testemunha, a qual foi mantida sob sistema plantio direto sem escarificao ou compactao adicional. A fim de obter ampla variao nos valores de U, as avaliaes da SPR foram realizadas em diferentes pocas. Amostras de solo com estrutura preservada foram coletadas para determinar a densidade do solo (BD). Foram geradas funes de pedotransferncia relacionando os valores de SPR, de U e de BD. Usando essas funes, a correo da SPR foi satisfatria para todas as amplitudes de U e BD. O mtodo requer apenas SPR e U como variveis de entrada dos modelos. No entanto, so necessrias diferentes equaes, em funo da camada de solo avaliada. A aplicao das funes de pedotransferncia, obtidas neste trabalho, permite observar diferenas no estado de compactao do solo entre os tratamentos, que antes no eram detectadas, em funo de variaes na U. Abstract in english The soil penetration resistance is an important indicator of soil compaction and is strongly influenced by soil water content. The objective of this study was to develop mathematical models to normalize soil penetration resistance (SPR), using a reference value of gravimetric soil water content (U). [...] For this purpose, SPR was determined with an impact penetrometer, in an experiment on a Dystroferric Red Latossol (Rhodic Eutrudox), at six levels of soil compaction, induced by mechanical chiseling and additional compaction by the traffic of a harvester (four, eight, 10, and 20 passes); in addition to a control treatment under no-tillage, without chiseling or additional compaction. To broaden the range of U values, SPR was evaluated in different periods. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled to quantify the soil bulk density (BD). Pedotransfer functions were generated correlating the values of U and BD to the SPR values. By these functions, the SPR was adequately corrected for all U and BD data ranges. The method requires only SPR and U as input variables in the models. However, different pedofunctions are needed according to the soil layer evaluated. After adjusting the pedotransfer functions, the differences in the soil compaction levels among the treatments, previously masked by variations of U, became detectable.

  2. Control of dermestes Maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) Through Combination Treatment of Salt Contents and Gamma Radiation on Dried Swordfish, Lepturacanthus Savala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of combination treatment of salt content and radiation against D. maculatus for the reduction of damage to dried swordfish were investigated. The developmental period of first instar larvae was prolonged with increasing salt content in fish sample. No adults were emerged from the first instar larvae in dried swordfish containing 14.48% salt. Maximum mortality of first and last instar larvae was found in 9.90 to 14.48% salt containing dried fish sample at treated with 1 kGy radiation dose within the two days after treatment.(author)

  3. Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP and scanning electron microscope (SEM. In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

  4. Swelling pressure, water uptake, and permeability of 70/30 crushed salt/bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experiments were conducted on specimens consisting of 70 percent by dry weight crushed salt and 30 percent by dry weight bentonite. The experiments included fifteen tests and were designed to measure the swell pressures induced by the introduction of saturated Brine A, a high magnesium-content brine, and to measure permeability. Specimens of three dry densities were used: 1600 kgm-3, 1800 kgm-3, and 2100 kgm-3. Experiments were conducted in an oedometer which is a stiff pressure vessel designed to maintain specimens at constant volume. Test durations ranged from 3 to 112 days. When specimens were put into contact with brine, their swelling was inhibited by the oedometer, and the pressures that were required to restrict swelling were recorded. Permeability measurements were made on specimens with densities of 1600 kgm-3 and 1800 kgM-3 using the constant hydraulic head, steady-state flow method. Flow was neverestablished for the 2100 kgm-3 specimens. Including recent data, permeability changed approximately two orders of magnitude (from 1 x 10-15m2 to 1 x 10-17m2) as density increased from 1600 kg m-3 to 1950 kgm-3. Moisture content and distribution measurements were made on all specimens post-test. On the average, all specimens reached saturation; however, moisture content distributions were nonuniform in many specimens

  5. Effect of post treatments on the corrosion resistance of plasma sprayed duplex stainless steel coating in salt water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uniform composition of a thermally sprayed duplex stainless steel coating is essential to ensure its good corrosion resistance in salt water. Stainless steel coatings made by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) always contain pores and oxides accompanied with chromium-depleted zones which destroy the corrosion resistance of such coatings. To reduce porosity and oxidation of the coatings, several post treatments for the coatings sprayed by APS and by APS with gas shielding around the plasma jet (APS/S) were studied including resin impregnation, hot isostatic pressing (HIP), shot peening and vacuum annealing. Electrochemical corrosion tests revealed that the corrosion resistance of the APS coatings could not be improved by any post treatments because oxidation during spraying caused chromium-depleted zones in the coating. The best corrosion resistance was obtained by using the shielding gas shroud with APS. Such coatings had a very low oxide content and primarily ferritic structure. The corrosion resistance of these APS/S coatings can be further improved by shot peening to densify the coating or by post annealing, which balances the austenite/ferrite ratio of the coating as well as reduce porosity

  6. Comparison of hyperspectral retrievals with vegetation water indices for leaf and canopy water content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond, Jr.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.; Qu, John J.; Wang, Lingli; Hao, Xianjun

    2011-09-01

    Leaf and canopy water contents provide information for leaf area index, vegetation biomass, and wildfire fuel moisture content. Hyperspectral retrievals of leaf and canopy water content are determined from the relationship of spectral reflectance and the specific absorption coefficient of water over the wavelength range of a water absorption feature. Vegetation water indices such as the Normalized Difference Water Index [NDWI = (R850 - R1240)/(R850 + R1240)] and Normalized Difference Infrared Index [NDII = (R850 - R1650)/(R850 + R1650)] may be calculated from multispectral sensors such as Landsat Thematic Mapper, SPOT HRG, or MODIS. Predicted water contents from hyperspectral data were much greater than measured water contents for both leaves and canopies. Furthermore, simulated spectral reflectances from the PROSPECT and SAIL models also had greater retrieved leaf and canopy water contents compared to the inputs. Used simply as an index correlated to leaf and canopy water contents, hyperspectral retrievals had better predictive capability than NDII or NDWI. Atmospheric correction algorithms estimate canopy water content in order to estimate the amount of water vapor. These results indicate that estimated canopy water contents should have a systematic bias, even though this bias does not affect retrieved surface reflectances from hyperspectral data. Field campaigns in a variety of vegetation functional types are needed to calibrate both hyperspectral retrievals and vegetation water indices.

  7. Water transfer in soil at low water content. Is the local equilibrium assumption still appropriate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, F.; Cherblanc, F.; Naon, B.; Bnet, J.-C.

    2013-06-01

    The dynamics of water content in the superficial layers of soils is critical in the modelling of land-surface processes. In arid regions, vapour flux contributes significantly to the global water mass balance. To account for it in theoretical descriptions, most of the models proposed in the literature rely on the local equilibrium assumption that constrains the vapour pressure to remain at its equilibrium value. It implicitly amounts to consider an instantaneous phase change. Recent works underlined a retardation time and a decrease in phase change rate as the water content gets lower. Therefore, the objective is to revisit water transport modelling by rejecting the local equilibrium assumption. This requires developing a non-equilibrium model by taking into account the phase change kinetics. To assess the interest of this approach, a natural soil of Burkina-Faso has been experimentally characterized from independent tests and soil column experiments have been carried out. The comparison of experimental drying kinetics and water content profiles with computational predictions confirms the reliability of this description. Liquid/gas non-equilibrium is significant in a limited subsurface zone which defines explicitly the transition from liquid transport in lower layers to vapour transport in upper layers, i.e., the evaporation front. The overall moisture dynamics is governed by the coupling between water transport mechanisms (liquid filtration, vapour diffusion, phase change) that mainly occurs in this transition zone.

  8. A Study of Salt (Sodium Chloride) Content in Different Bread Consumed in Shiraz City in Spring/Summer 2009

    OpenAIRE

    MJ ZibaeeNezhad; F Abtahi; M Hooshangi; ST Heydari

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized controlled studies over the last 4 decades demonstrated that controlling blood pressure could reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between diet ingredient (particularly the salt) and blood pressure has been well established and since bread is the main element in population diet, especially in our country, the determination of sodium content of bread is of high priority and warrants further investigation.Method: A total of 204 bakeries were select...

  9. Modeling Soil Water Retention Curves in the Dry Range Using the Hygroscopic Water Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Arthur, Emmanuel; Ren, Tusheng

    2014-01-01

    curves of soils and to predict SWRCs at the dry end using the hygroscopic water content at a relative humidity of 50% (?RH50). The Oswin model yielded satisfactory fits to dry-end SWRCs for soils dominated by both 2:1 and 1:1 clay minerals. Compared with the Oswin model, the Campbell and Shiozawa model...

  10. Cement slurries, unaffected by salts of magnesium, for cementing wells traversing salt formations, and related cementing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberste-Padtberg, R.; Garnier, A.

    1990-08-07

    A cement slurry composition is provided for the cementing of wells, particularly oil wells, drilled through formations containing soluble salts of magnesium. The composition of the invention contains a cement, mixing water, at least 18% NaCl by weight of water, sodium silicate in a proportion of between 35 and ca 150 liters per metric ton of slurry, and an admixture of compatibility with magnesium. This admixture consists of more than 0.5% H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} by weight of cement and more than 0.25% of hydroxyethylenediphosphonate by weight of cement. The cement slurry of the invention remains liquid, and thus pumpable, whether or not it has been contaminated by soluble magnesium mineral products such as carnallite, bischofite, and/or tachyhydrite, even in very large quantities. The setting time of the slurry is substantially constant, irrespective of magnesium contamination or noncontamination, even in very large quantities. The cement's compressive strength is not significantly deteriorated even if the slurry has been highly contaminated by a soluble salt of magnesium. 1 tab.

  11. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration The water content of clouds, whether in liquid or ice form, is a key variable to be measured when either calibrating remote sensing systems or when calculating the...

  12. Droplet-Sizing Liquid Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Icing is one of the most significant hazards to aircraft. A sizing supercooled liquid water content (SSLWC) sonde is being developed to meet a directly related need...

  13. Low-Power, Lightweight Cloud Water Content Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The measurement of cloud water content is of great importance in understanding the formation of clouds, their structure, and their radiative properties which in...

  14. Ecosystem-groundwater interactions under changing land uses: Linking water, salts, and carbon across central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbagy, E. G.; Nosetto, M. D.; Santoni, C. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2007-05-01

    Although most ecosystems display a one-way connection with groundwater based on the regulation of deep water drainage (recharge), this link can become reciprocal when the saturated zone is shallow and plants take up groundwater (discharge). In what context is the reciprocal link most likely? How is it affected by land use changes? Has it consequences on salt and carbon cycling? We examine these questions across a precipitation gradient in the Pampas and Espinal of Argentina focusing on three vegetation change situations (mean annual rainfall): afforestation of humid (900-1300 mm) and subhumid grassland (700-900 mm/yr of rainfall), annual cultivation of subhumid grasslands (700-800 mm/yr), and annual cultivation of semiarid forests (500-700 mm). Humid and subhumid grasslands have shallow (soil moisture and water table level records, and sapflow measurements. Groundwater contributions enhance carbon uptake in plantations compared to grasslands as suggested by aboveground biomass measurements and satellite vegetation indexes from sites with and without access to groundwater. Where rainfall is soils and groundwater that is ultimately limited by the tolerance to salinity of tree species. Cultivation with corn and soybean can lead to groundwater consumption in the driest belt of subhumid grassland. Up to five-fold yield increases in lowlands vs. uplands during the driest years indicate a dramatic impact of groundwater use on carbon uptake and groundwater salinization suggests a recharge-to- discharge switch. In dry forests groundwater is not accessible (> 15 m deep) and recharge under natural conditions is null. The establishment of crops, however, triggers the onset of recharge, as evidenced by vadose zones getting wetter and leached of atmospheric chloride. Cropping may cause water table raises leading to a two-way coupling of ecosystems and groundwater in the future, as it has been documented for similar settings in Australia and the Sahel. In the Pampas land use change interacts with groundwater consumption leading to higher carbon uptake (humid and subhumid grasslands) and salt accumulation (subhumid grasslands). In the Espinal (semiarid forest) land use change currently involves a one-way effect on groundwater recharge that may switch to a reciprocal connection if regional water table raises occur. Neglecting the role of groundwater in flat sedimentary plains can obscure our understanding of carbon and salt cycling and curtail our attempts to sustain soil and water resources under changing land uses.

  15. Effect of higher water vapor content on TBC performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Coal gasification, or IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle), is one pathway toward cleaner use of coal for power generation with lower emissions. However, when coal-derived synthesis gas (i.e., syngas) is burned in turbines designed for natural gas, turbine manufacturers recommend 'derating,' or lowering the maximum temperature, which lowers the efficiency of the turbine, making electricity from IGCC more expensive. One possible reason for the derating is the higher water vapor contents in the exhaust gas. Water vapor has a detrimental effect on many oxidation-resistant high-temperature materials. In a turbine hot section, Ni-base superalloys are coated with a thermal barrier coating (TBC) allowing the gas temperature to be higher than the superalloy solidus temperature. TBCs have a low thermal conductivity ceramic top coating (typically Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, or YSZ) and an oxidation-resistant metallic bond coating. For land-based gas turbines, the industry standard is air plasma sprayed (APS) YSZ and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed NiCoCrAlY bond coatings. To investigate the role of higher water vapor content on TBC performance and possible mitigation strategies, furnace cycling experiments were conducted in dry O{sub 2} and air with 10% (typical with natural gas or jet fuel) or 50 vol% water vapor. Cycle frequency and temperature were accelerated to one hour at 1100 C (with 10 minute cooling to {approx}30 C between each thermal cycle) to induce early failures in coatings that are expected to operate for several years with a metal temperature of {approx}900 C. Coupons (16 mm diameter x 2 mm thick) of commercial second-generation single crystal superalloy CMSX4 were HVOF coated on both sides with {approx}125 {micro}m of Ni-22wt%Co-17Cr-12Al either with 0.7Y or 0.7Y-0.3Hf-0.4Si. One side was then coated with 190-240 {micro}m of APS YSZ. Coatings were cycled until the YSZ top coating spalled. Figure 2 shows the results of the initial phase of experiments. Compared to dry O{sub 2}, the addition of 10% water vapor decreased the lifetime of MCrAlY by {approx}30% for the conventional CMSX4 substrates. Higher average lifetimes were observed with Hf in the bond coating, but a similar decrease in lifetime was observed when water vapor was added. The addition of Y and La to the superalloy substrate did not change the YSZ lifetime with 10% water vapor. However, increasing water vapor content from 10 to 50% did not further decrease the lifetime of either bond coating with the doped superalloy substrate. Thus, these results suggest that higher water vapor contents cannot explain the derating of syngas-fired turbines, and other factors such as sulfur and ash from imperfect syngas cleanup (or upset conditions) need to be explored. Researchers continue to study effects of water vapor on thermally grown alumina scale adhesion and growth rate, and are looking for bond coating compositions more resistant to oxidation in the presence of water vapor.

  16. IMPACT OF INORGANIC SALT SOLUTIONS ON ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYMES ACTIVITY AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PIGMENTS CONTENT IN TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacramioara Oprica

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum is known to have several pharmacological effects such ashypoglycemia, hypocholesterolemia, gastroprotective, chemopreventive, antioxidant, antiinflammatory, antipyretic andappetite stimulation attributes. This plant is known to contain many secondary metabolites like alkaloids, flavonoids,salicylate, and nicotinic acid. Present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of salinity on fenugreekantioxidative defense mechanism. The response of the superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and peroxidase(POD activities as well as the pigment content in fenugreek seedlings was investigated after 24 days of treatment withinorganic salt solutions. It was used for treatment different concentration of NaCl alone and in combination with CaCl 2 aswell as MgCl 2 . The fenugreek treatment was effected to elucidate the adverse effect of NaCl salinity and its possibleamelioration by CaCl 2 or MgCl 2 . Generally, all treatments diminished the activity of antioxidant enzymes take in thestudy with one exception (150mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 in case of SOD. Only a few concentrations (50mM NaCl,100mM NaCl, 50mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 , 150mM NaCl+10mM CaCl 2 , 100mM NaCl+20 MgCl 2 increased thefenugreek soluble protein content. Both CaCl 2 and MgCl 2 treatments applied alone and in combination determined anincrease of photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b and carotenoids contents compared with control

  17. Modelling Ontogenetic Changes of Nitrogen and Water Content in Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    SEGINER, IDO; BLEYAERT, PETER; BREUGELMANS, MAAIKE

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims It is well established that the nitrogen content of plants, including lettuce, decreases with time. It has also been observed that water content of lettuce increases between planting and harvest. This paper is an attempt at modelling these observations.

  18. Salt water intrusion in the aquifers in the south oriental coastal zones of Sicily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the oriental south coast Sicily are present a plurality of phenomenons of interest concomitant hydrogeological, they had focused the attention both of the Authorities of the control of the water resources and those of the researchers interested to the study of the environmental problems. The progressive salting up of the aquifers coastal it is becoming, in Sicily, one of the maximum problems. The causes of such phenomenon are well noted and resume in two terms: ground water mining and irrationality of the wells use. Every lack of control in the distribution of the wells and the wrong and having opposite effect modalities with which water is extracted, are to the origin of the instant lowering phenomenons and, finally, progressive of the piezometric level of the underground aquifer coastal. By now, in different coast lines, also to different kilometers from the shore- line, depression zones are found in which the dynamic level also reaches negative values some times superior to the 150 meters under the sea level and the static level also superior to the 60 meters always under the sea level. This situation determines, within the coastal aquifers, a rapids salt water intrusion with consequent progressive salting up of the sweet aquifers. Such pollution manifests it in very persistent way and alone slow the native conditions could also be recovered after the elimination of the phenomenon causes. The salinity increase in the underground aquifer it happens with greater rapidity and with so much greater gravity when aquifer is carbonatic type, as that of the study areas, that is interested from karst phenomenons and from tectonic fractures. The thematic that, under these conditions, attracted the attention of the researchers were: The underground runs of the submarine springs feeding, to be able to value possibility of earth intercept. The relationships established along the coastal lines, in the coastal aquifers, among sweet water and sea water and the preferential streets followed by intrusion. The pollutants diffusion, organic and chemical, particularly hydrocarbons and heavy metals, in the round waters and their dispersion in the sea water. The induced variations to the phenomenons above- mentioned, from the antropic interventions realized in the hinterland: obstruction dams, springs intercept, wells distribution and exploitation modality. A project, on purpose compiled, financed by UNESCO and IAEA, and finalized to the phenomenons study of which above, it has as object the possibility to experiment the methodologies applicability of isotopic analysis in the wells and springs study, with particular reference to those submarine, observing and attentively valuing the complexes relationships that coexist between underground waters and sea waters along the Sicily coastal regions. To such purpose has been formulated a research program based on the samplings and analysis of the springs waters individualized to inland and to sea and some wells on purpose selected present along the coast line from North Syracuse to South-West Donnalucata. We had retained opportune to effect, in coincidence with the seasonal variations, 4 series of annual drawing of water samples to be submitted to analysis chemical-physics; the study program had beginning with the first series of samplings in the individualized zones in the March's month 2002 and they still continues in the year 2004. Shown are the water points of which the periodic sampling is foreseen. The sampled points are 31, it are divided in the 5 zones: Zone A. - Ciane: n. 4 inland springs and n.5 wells; Zone B - Ognina: n. 1 submarine springs n. 2 wells; Zone C - Cassibile: n. 5 wells and 2 submarine springs; Zone D - Avola: n. 2 inland springs and n. 2 submarine springs; Zone E - Donnalucata: n. 5 wells and n. 2 submarine springs and n. 1 inland springs. The analyses are conducted by different groups of search of three Italian Universities and precisely: 1. Palermo University will effect the analyses inherent: Heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Ni, As, Hg); Microcontaminants (NO2-, NO

  19. Measurement of Soil Water Content Using GroundPenetrating Radar.

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, DI

    2012-01-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is an effective tool to measure the geol