Lorenzen, C L; Calkins, C R; Green, M D; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E
2010-08-01
The ability to perform Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef top loin steak was investigated. Three, 2.54-cm steaks from top loins (n=99) were allotted to either Warner-Bratzler only (WBS), slice shear force only (SSF), or Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force (WBS/SSF). Steaks were thawed at 2 degrees C for 48h prior to cooking. Steaks were cooked to 71 degrees C using a conveyor convection oven and allowed to cool at room temperature for a minimum of 4h. Steaks allotted to WBS used six 1.27-cm cores and steaks allotted for WBS/SSF used four cores. Steaks allotted to SSF and WBS/SSF used one, 1 cm x 5 cm slice. Correlations among WBS and SSF for all steaks ranged from 0.49 to 0.69 (P<0.0001). When correlations were generated for steak location within the top loin, the relationships among WBS and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.53 to 0.70 (P<0.05). These results indicate that it may be feasible to conduct WBS and SSF on the same top loin steak, and that the steak taken 2.54 cm from the 13th rib is the optimal location for this combination of procedures. PMID:20416791
Pork tenderness estimation by taste panel, Warner-Bratzler shear force and on-line methods.
Van Oeckel, M J; Warnants, N; Boucqué, C V
1999-12-01
The extent to which modification of Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) determinations, relating to storage and preparation of the meat, aperture of the V-shaped cutting blade and shearing velocity, improve the relationship with sensory tenderness perception of pork was studied. Additionally four on-line methods: pH1, FOP1 (light scattering), PQM1 (conductivity) and DDLT (Double Density Light Transmission), were evaluated for their ability to predict tenderness. Sensory tenderness evaluation was conducted on 120 frozen (at -18°C for several months) samples of m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum. After overnight thawing, the meat was grilled to an internal temperature of 74°C and scored on an eight-point scale, from extremely tough to extremely tender. The standard WBSF procedure (protocol A) consisted of heating fresh meat samples (stored for 48 h at 4°C post slaughter) at 75°C for 50 min, cooling in cold tap water for 40 min, taking cylindrical cores parallel to the fibre direction, and shearing at a velocity of 200 mm/min with a blade aperture of 60°. For the prediction of sensory tenderness, the WBSF standard procedure (protocol A) showed the lowest variance (R(2)=15%) and the highest standard error of the estimate (SEE=0.97 N) compared to the other WBSF protocols. A decrease in shearing velocity, from 200 to 100 mm/min and, a replacement of the cutting blade with an aperture of 60° by one with an aperture of 30° led to improvements of R(2) (respectively, 19% vs. 13% and 47% vs. 23%) and SEE (respectively, 0.93 N vs. 0.97 N and 0.80 N vs. 0.97 N) and thus were better predictors of tenderness. A blade aperture of 30° instead of 60° also led to considerably lower WBSF values (22.1 N vs. 30.0 N). Freezing, frozen storage and thawing of the meat, prior to WBSF measurement, resulted in higher shear force values (32.7 N vs. 28.7 N) and a better prediction of tenderness, R(2) (25% vs. 15%) and SEE (0.94 N vs. 1.00 N). Furthermore, preparing the frozen stored meat for WBSF determination in the same way as for the sensory evaluation, namely grilling instead of boiling, led to higher WBSF values (35.5 N vs. 32.7 N) and a further improvement in the prediction of tenderness (R(2)=31% vs. 25% and SEE=0.90 N vs. 0.94 N). From the on-line instruments: pH, FOP and PQM, pH was best in predicting tenderness. Linear regression with tenderness as dependent variable and the on-line techniques as independent variables revealed the following R(2): 16, 8, 8 and 10% and SEE: 0.96, 1.01, 1.01 and 1.00 N for, respectively, pH1, FOP1, PQM1 and DDLT. Thus, the classical instruments and the DDLT technique, which is analogous to the CGM (Capteur Gras/Maigre), an officially accepted carcass grading apparatus in France and Belgium, are not good predictors of tenderness. PMID:22063468
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marta Madruga
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Sun-dried beef is a frequently consumed and valued product in Brazil, however, there have been no scientific studies on its texture. To assess the tenderness of sun-dried beef, an instrumental analysis (Warner-Bratzler Shear Force; WBSF, a sensory analysis (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis; QDA and the sarcomere length (SL were used as indicators. Significant differences were observed among the sun-dried beef samples. Sample 3 (composed of sun-dried meat purchased at three fairs from Region 3 in the city of João Pessoa-PB was considered the most tender by the assessors, with a score of 6.7, and its WBSF analysis revealed a maximum value of 2.70 kgf. Additionally, this sample exhibited the highest SL value (1.89 µm. Samples 1 and 2 (composed of sun-dried meat purchased at three fairs from Regions 1 and 2, respectively, in the city of João Pessoa exhibited very similar tenderness values (WBSF and QDA but differed in their SL values, which suggested that sample 2 was the least tender. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the studied parameters are complementary and can be used as tenderness indicators for sun-dried beef. However, although the difference was beyond the detection limit of the assessors and the texturometer, the SL analysis appears to have been the most effective.
Brooks, J C; Claus, H C; Dikeman, M E; Shook, J; Hilton, G G; Lawrence, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F
2009-11-01
To determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 6.8 g/t on 90% DM basis) feeding duration (0, 20, 30, and 40 d) on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) muscles, beef from feeding trials was collected and shipped to participating universities. Animals were slaughtered at commercial processing facilities across the United States. Strip loin, shoulder clod, and top sirloin butt subprimals (IMPS 180, 114, and 184, respectively) were obtained from a portion of USDA Choice and Select grade carcasses for WBSF using standardized procedures and equipment. Feeding ZH increased (P < 0.001) LL WBSF values of USDA Choice and Select steaks. A significant linear contrast existed for both quality grades, indicating increased WBSF values were associated with longer feeding durations. Increased postmortem aging decreased LL WBSF of control and treated steaks. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d decreased LL WBSF values by 17.6 and 16.4% for USDA Choice and Select steaks, respectively. The percentage of LL steaks from ZH-supplemented cattle with a WBSF value <4.5 kg was significantly less than control steaks for both quality grades. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d postmortem increased (P < 0.001) the percentage of LL Choice and Select steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg for all ZH feeding durations. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, or 40 d increased (P < 0.01) WBSF of USDA Choice TB and GM steaks compared with 0-d controls. Feeding ZH for 0, 20, and 40 d had a similar effect on WBSF of USDA Select GM steaks, and produced lesser values than steaks from cattle fed ZH for 30 d. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had no effect on WBSF values of USDA Select TB steaks. However, the 20-, 30-, and 40-d duration produced WBSF values greater (P < 0.05) than control (0 d) TB steaks. Postmortem aging decreased (P < 0.05) WBSF of USDA Choice and Select TB and GM steaks, but the percentage improvement in WBSF attributed to aging was less than observed for LL steaks. The results of this study indicate feeding ZH increased (P < 0.001) WBSF of LL, TB, and GM. The ZH feeding also decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg regardless of US quality grade, whereas postmortem aging increased (P < 0.01) the percentage of US Choice and Select steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg. Finally, postmortem aging reduced (P < 0.05) WBSF of steaks from ZH-supplemented beef cattle. PMID:19648496
Claus, H L; Dikeman, M E; Murray, L; Brooks, J C; Shook, J; Hilton, G G; Lawrence, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F; Hunt, M C; Killefer, J
2010-06-01
Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscles from 117 steers plus LL, gluteus medius (GM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles from 132 heifers were evaluated for effects of feeding duration of zilpaterol hydrochloride (Zilmax(R); ZH; 7.56g/907kg on a dry matter basis) and aging time on tenderness. Both genders were blocked by initial weight into six blocks of four pens. Pens were assigned to treatments of control (C), or 20, 30 or 40days on ZH, with a 3day withdrawal. Steaks from each subprimal were vacuum aged individually for 7, 14 or 21days, frozen, thawed, and cooked to 71 degrees C for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). All muscles from steers and heifers from ZH30 and ZH40 treatments had higher (P0.05) for WBSF of GM steaks from heifers. Percentage of intramuscular fat had little effect on tenderness. Percentages of steer LL and heifer TB steaks with WBSF values below thresholds of either 5.0 or 4.6kg from the ZH20 treatment were quite high, whereas percentages of heifer LL and GM muscles below 5.0kg (67%) and 4.6kg (57%) were low. Feeding ZH20days generally increased WBSF values, but mean WBSF values for steer LL and heifer TB were below 4.6kg. Feeding ZH 20days resulted in>40% of GM steaks with WBSF values above 4.6kg. PMID:20374910
Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E; Addist, P B; Katsanidis, E; Pullen, M
2002-07-01
Three groups of 12 high percentage Charolais steers were slaughtered on three dates. Steers (n = 27) were infused immediately after exsanguination at 10% of BW with a solution containing saccharides, NaCl, and phosphates (MPSC solution; MPSC, Inc., St. Paul, MN) plus either 500 ppm vitamin C (MPSC+C), 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+E), or 500 ppm vitamin C plus 500 ppm vitamin E (MPSC+C+E). Noninfused controls (CON) were 9 steers. The longissimus thoracis (LT), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris muscles were removed at 48-h postmortem, vacuum-packaged, and aged until 14-d postmortem. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the LT and ST. The quadriceps was utilized for ground-beef production. Infused steers had higher dressing percentages and heavier heart and liver weights (P infusion with vitamins C, E, or C plus E had no effect (P > 0.05) on USDA yield and quality-grade traits, LT and ST Warner-Bratzler shear force, descriptive-attribute traits, and freshly cooked steak flavor-profile traits. Vascular infusion had little effect on the flavor-profile traits of warmed-over steaks. Therefore, the results of our study indicate that vascular infusion with vitamins C, E, or C plus E can increase dressing percentage and organ weights, but have minimal effects on descriptive-attribute and flavor-profile sensory panel ratings. PMID:12162658
Garmyn, A J; Knobel, S M; Spivey, K S; Hightower, L F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Parr, S L; Rathmann, R J; Starkey, J D; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F
2011-11-01
Our objectives were to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the release rate of trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17β on the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL) and the WBSF of gluteus medius (GM) and psoas major (PM) in response to various aging periods. British × Continental steers (n = 168) were assigned to treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial. The main effects of treatment were implant (no implant, Revalor-S, Revalor-XS, Intervet/Schering Plough Animal Health, De Soto, KS) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d). Slaughter group was included as a random effect to account for the variation in days on feed (153 or 174 d). Loins (n = 96) were fabricated to obtain strip loin, top sirloin butt, and tenderloin subprimals. Five 2.54-cm steaks were cut from each subprimal and assigned to 1 of 5 aging periods (7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d postmortem). Feeding ZH increased (P ≤ 0.01) LL WBSF and SSF values at each aging period compared with controls. Implanting increased (P 0.05). Only Revalor-S increased (P ≤ 0.05) WBSF values at 28 and 35 d compared with no implant or Revalor-XS. The percentage of LL steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period, and by d 28, more than 99% of LL steaks registered WBSF values below 4.6 kg. Feeding ZH increased (P 0.05) on GM WBSF values. The percentage of GM steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period. Neither ZH nor implant strategy affected PM WBSF values (P > 0.05). All PM WBSF values were below 4.6 kg on d 7. The results of this study indicated that feeding ZH increased WBSF and SSF of LL steaks, regardless of the aging period; however, the percentage of steaks with WBSF below 4.6 kg did not differ because of ZH or implant. Implanting increased LL WBSF values, but not SSF values. These results showed that although differences existed between implanting, as well as ZH supplementation of British × Continental steers, 99% of LL steaks were classified as tender based on WBSF values by extending aging to 28 d postmortem. It should be noted that 21.2% of 7-d, 13.8% of 14-d, and 17.3% of 21-d ZH steaks had WBSF values greater than 4.6 kg, but 0% of nonsupplemented steaks were greater than 4.6 kg at these aging periods. However, because ZH and implants can increase retail yield of valuable subprimals, such as the tenderloin, considerable value could be captured through ZH supplementation with anabolic implants because shear force was not affected in PM steaks. PMID:21680791
Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...
Establishing standards for meat tenderness based on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) is complicated by the lack of methods for certifying WBSF testing among texture systems or laboratories. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of using gelatin gels as a reference material ...
Lean, Ian J.; Thompson, John M.; Dunshea, Frank R
2014-01-01
This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We cond...
Assessment of three devices used in shear tests of cooked breast meat.
Lyon, B G; Lyon, C E
1998-10-01
Methods that increase processing efficiency to save energy costs and to improve yield and volume must be evaluated in terms of maintaining or improving final product quality. Shear tests measure the force to cut through fibers of cooked samples. They are the simplest and most common tests used to document cooked meat texture. However, information obtained from shearing devices that perform in a similar way may not be interchangeable. In this study, three shearing devices were assessed. Eight treatments were imposed on broiler breasts processed under commercial conditions to represent ranges of texture characteristics. Treatments included electrical stimulation (S), or no stimulation (NS) of carcasses; postchill deboning at 2 or 6 h; and marination (M), or no marination (NM). Shear force values of cooked breasts were obtained from the benchtop Warner-Bratzler (BT-WB) machine, the Warner-Bratzler blade attachment (TA-WB) and a 45 degrees chisel-end blade attachment (TA-WD). The TA-WB and TA-WD were attached to Model TA.XT2 texture analyzer. For each device, shear value differences were significant (P < 0.05) for deboning time. Marination effects were significant (P < 0.05) for BT-WB and TA-WB. Stimulation by debone interactions were significant (P < 0.05) for BT-WB and TA-WD. The TA-WD values varied the greatest over all treatments (SD = 5.52; SE = 0.65). Variations of BT-WB and TA-WB shear values were similar (SD = 3.25, 2.97, respectively; SE = 0.38, 0.35). PMID:9776069
2004-01-01
It is with great sadness that we learned that our friend and former colleague, David Warner, passed away on Christmas Eve. The funeral was held the following Monday. David was a "linac man". His career centred around linacs, but with a multitude of different subjects. He began at CERN by building the 3 MeV linac in the extension of the South Hall. He did pioneering work on this machine, which paved the way towards the design of the Alvarez cavities for the CERN Linac 2, for which he was responsible. After this challenge was successfully finished, David was the first member of the small but growing team, that was in charge of building the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL). After having been recognised as a proton linac expert, he quickly converted to electron linacs where he soon became the respected key expert for the design, parameters and ultimate performance of LIL. His predilection for precise and detailed documentation, and his vision that the know-how acquired with LIL should be preserved a...
High-angular Resolution Laser Threat Warner
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sushil Kumar
2007-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the design and development aspects of a high-angular resolution laser-threat Warner developed at the Laser Science & Technology Centre (LASTEC, Delhi are presented. It describes a high-angular resolution laser-threat warner capable of giving warning with a resolution of i 3" when it is exposed to laser radiation from visible and near-IR pulsed solid-state laser source. It has a field of view of 90' in the azimuth direction, whereas the elevation coverage is between -5" and + 25". It is capable of handling multiple types of laser threats covering wavelength from 400 nm to 1100 nm and has an operational range of 4 km for a Q-switched laser source energy (10 ns of 10 mJ/pulse and output beam divergence of 1 mrad. The paper also describes its simulated evaluation process and field-testing which it has undergone. The result of field-testing confirms that it meets all its performance specifications mentioned above.
Arp, T S; Howard, S T; Woerner, D R; Scanga, J A; McKenna, D R; Kolath, W H; Chapman, P L; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E
2013-12-01
Effect of ractopamine hydrochloride (RH) and zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) on LM shear force and sensory attributes was determined using pens (n = 40) British × Continental crossbred steers randomly allocated to one of the following treatments: control; RH fed at 200 (RH 200) or 300 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1) (RH 300), or 400 mg • steer(-1) • d(-1) (RH 400) top-dressed for the final 30 d of feeding; or ZH fed at 7.5 mg/kg, beginning 23 d before slaughter with a 3-d withdrawal. Two replicates (pens) per treatment were represented in four blocks. Eighteen carcasses per pen were randomly selected and one 5-cm LM sample was removed from both carcass sides to be used for shear force and sensory evaluation. Samples were aged for 14 d, frozen at -28.8 °C, and cut into 2.5-cm steaks. All steaks were cooked to an internal temperature of 71.1 °C before being evaluated for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), or being fed to trained sensory panelists. Increasing dose and potency of β-agonist increased WBSF by 4 to 17% and SSF by 5 to 24% (P 0.05). Probability of steaks failing to meet shear force standards to be certified tender (WBSF 0.05). Steaks from steers fed RH 300 and RH 400 were comparable for all sensory attributes; however, both RH 300 and RH 400 were rated lower for overall tenderness than controls (P 0.05). Results from this study indicated β-agonists negatively affected beef tenderness and these effects may be more noticeable in steers supplemented with ZH and higher doses of RH. PMID:24166996
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Gomes
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.
Community Connections. Time Warner Community Responsibility Report, 1998-2000.
Owens, Jane; Stein, Carol
This report highlights efforts by Time Warner personnel to strengthen community connections through various programs and services aimed at supporting: education, the arts, volunteerism, diversity, and business-community action. The report is divided into sections focusing on each of these areas. The first section, Education, describes programs
Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Hodgen, J M; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Rathmann, R J; Miller, M F
2014-08-01
Beef steers (n = 1,914) were assigned to 1 of 3 β-adrenergic agonist (βAA) supplementation treatments-zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d with 3-d withdrawal), ractopamine hydrochloride (RH; 308 mg·head(-1)·d(-1) for 28 d), or no βAA (CON)-to determine the effects on consumer eating quality. Strip loins (n = 1,101; CON = 400, RH = 355, and ZH = 346) were obtained and fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick steaks for proximate, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer analyses; steaks were aged until 14 or 21 d postmortem. Fat and moisture contents were not affected by βAA supplementation (P > 0.05), but strip steaks from steers fed ZH had more protein (P 0.05). In steaks aged 21 d, feeding βAA influenced (P 0.05) acceptability. Quality grade impacted (P < 0.01) all traits and acceptability in steaks aged 14 and 21 d. In 14-d steaks, Premium Choice typically was scored higher than Low Choice or Select; however, consumers rated 21-d Low Choice and Premium Choice similarly-both receiving greater scores than Select. Consumers detected several differences in eating quality at 14 d because of βAA supplementation. Increasing aging from 14 to 21 d mitigated differences in shear force and tenderness scores because of feeding ZH, so that tenderness and overall acceptability were similar between ZH, RH, and CON. PMID:24879757
Morfología de Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
Oscar MART\\u00CDNEZ-MORALES; Edith G. Estrada-Venegas; Armando EQUIHUA-MART\\u00CDNEZ; Valdez-Carrasco, Jorge
2014-01-01
En este trabajo se describen e ilustran características morfológicas de Neochetina eichhor- niae (Warner, 1970). Esta especie se ha utilizado para el control biológico del lirio acuático ( Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, 1883). En el huevo, el aspecto cambiante del corion es dado por el desarrollo embrionario. En la larva se realizó una descripción de la quetotaxia de la cápsula cefálica y se identificaron tres ínstares larvales con la medición de su anchura; también se revisó la ...
Lean, Ian J; Thompson, John M; Dunshea, Frank R
2014-01-01
This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We conducted a comprehensive literature search and study assessment using PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, Scirus, and CAB and identification of other studies from reference lists in papers and searches. Searches were based on the key words: zilpaterol, zilmax, ractopamine, optaflexx, cattle and beef. Studies from theses obtained were included. Data were extracted from more than 50 comparisons for both agents and analysed using meta-analysis and meta-regression. Both agents markedly increased weight gain, hot carcase weight and longissimus muscle area and increased the efficiency of gain:feed. These effects were particularly large for ZH, however, fat thickness was decreased by ZH, but not RAC. Zilpaterol also markedly increased WBSF by 1.2 standard deviations and more than 0.8 kg, while RAC increased WBSF by 0.43 standard deviations and 0.2 kg. There is evidence in the ZH studies, in particular, of profound re-partitioning of nutrients from fat to protein depots. This work has provided critically needed information on the effects of ZH and RAC on production, efficiency and meat quality. PMID:25548908
Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wade, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Billig, P. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)
1993-05-01
Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.
Walter Warner (ca.1557-1643) and his notes on Animal Organisms
Prins, Johannes Lambertus Maria
1992-01-01
As opposed to most of his contemporaries, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) assumed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of matter in motion. All the more intriguing is his suggestion that what he wrote came out of his own head. Yet, already during his lifetime he was accused of having taken his natural philosophy from the mathematician and natural philosopher Walter Warner (ca. 1557-1643). Warners posthumous notes were said to suggest that he worked on the development of a ...
Time Warner veab aktsionäriga vägikaigast / Peeter Teder
Teder, Peeter
2005-01-01
Meediafirma Time Warner juhid tõrjuvad aktsionär Carl Icahni süüdistusi firma juhtkonna tegevusetuses ja halvas majandamises. Diagramm: Time Warneri aktsia. Vt. samas: Kes on miljardär Carl Icahn
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.; Gunvig, A.; Rozlosnik, Noemi; Lametsch, R.; Karlsson, A. H.; Ertbjerg, P.
2009-01-01
. biceps femoris was investigated by Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear test and sensory evaluation after injection of brine containing up to 11 g L-1 actinidin-containing kiwi fruit powder and 2, 5 or 9 days of storage. RESULTS: actinidin decreased WB shear force, increased tenderness and did not affect flavour...
Morfología de Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner (Coleoptera: Curculionidae
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar Martínez-Morales
2014-01-01
Full Text Available En este trabajo se describen e ilustran características morfológicas de Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner, 1970. Esta especie se ha utilizado para el control biológico del lirio acuático (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms-Laubach, 1883. En el huevo, el aspecto cambiante del corion es dado por el desarrollo embrionario. En la larva se realizó una descripción de la quetotaxia de la cápsula cefálica y se identificaron tres ínstares larvales con la medición de su anchura; también se revisó la microescultura del cuerpo de la larva, sobresaliendo unas microespinas, cuyo arreglo es diferente en tórax y abdomen, también se observaron dos tipos de espiráculos; el más característico es el espiráculo abdominal por su posición dorsal, que además de ser esclerosado, posee órganos sensoriales en su ápice. La morfología externa de los adultos de N. eichorniae es muy parecida en ambos sexos; su principal diferencia se encuentra en el rostrum. Además se proporciona una descripción de las alas, proventrículo y genitalia, estructuras importantes en la taxonomía. Las características morfológicas de N. eichhorniae encontradas en éste trabajo pueden ser útiles para diferenciar a esta especie de Neochetina bruchi (Hustache, 1926, la cual ha sido liberada en muchos países. Es el primer trabajo de morfología N. eichhorniae en México.
2013-10-31
... Warner Chilcott. Under the terms of the proposed Consent Agreement, Actavis would be required to divest... Actavis to divest to Amneal certain rights and assets related to generic Femcon FE, generic Loestrin 24 FE... to be divested, or that the manner of the divestitures is not acceptable, Actavis must unwind...
ESTIMATED GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR PALATABILITY TRAITS OF STEAKS FROM BRAHMAN CATTLE
Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from carcass and beef palatability data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) born in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits evaluated included Warner-Bratzler shear force (after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging), panel tenderness sc...
PRINCIPAL COMPONENT REGRESSION OF NEAR-INFRARED REFLECTANCE SPECTRA FOR BEEF TENDERNESS PREDICTION
Tenderness is the most important factor affecting consumer perception of eating quality of meat. In this paper, the development of the principal component regression (PCR) models to relate near-infrared (NIR) reflectance spectra of raw meat to Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear force measurement of cooked m...
Felker, Susan B.
2003-01-01
Virginia Governor Mark Warner praised the collaborative effort that created the new Institute for Advanced Learning and Research (IALR) in Danville, calling the effort an inspired new direction in building a new economy for Southside, which has been particularly hard hit by plant closings and the decline of the tobacco industry. The governor's remarks came during a Partners' Pre-opening Preview for the institute.
Brooks, J C; Mehaffey, J M; Collins, J A; Rogers, H R; Legako, J; Johnson, B J; Lawrence, T; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F
2010-05-01
Two trials investigated zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) feeding duration, enhancement, blade tenderization, and postmortem aging effect on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; trial 1) and consumer sensory ratings (trial 2). For trial 1, USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH (6.8 g/t on 90% DM) the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of the feeding period. One-half of each strip loin was enhanced (110%) with a brine solution, whereas the remaining portion was not enhanced. Both pieces were portioned into steaks, which were aged 7, 14, or 21 d for WBSF analysis. For trial 2, paired USDA Select beef strip loins were obtained from carcasses of beef steers fed ZH the last 0 or 20 d of feeding. Paired strip loins were fabricated into 4 pieces and assigned to control, moisture enhanced, blade tenderized, and blade tenderized + moisture enhanced treatments. Strip loin pieces were then portioned into steaks that were aged 14 or 21 d postmortem. Consumers panelists (n = 458) indicated their like or dislike of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall like of each sample using 8-point, verbally anchored scales, as well as tenderness and overall acceptability. With exception of 20 d ZH-treated steaks, results from trial 1 indicate WBSF values decreased (P < 0.05) with enhancement. Among enhanced steaks, steaks from cattle fed ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values than controls. Among nonenhanced steaks, 20 d ZH-treated steaks had WBSF values similar to 0, 30, and 40 d ZH-treated steaks, whereas 30 and 40 d ZH-treated steaks had greater (P < 0.05) WBSF values than controls. Postmortem aging for 21 d improved (P < 0.05) WBSF values for all ZH durations when compared with 7-d aging treatments. Results from trial 2 indicate ZH feeding for 20 d had no effect on flavor scores, decreased tenderness scores (P < 0.05), and tended (P < 0.10) to decrease juiciness and overall like scores when compared with controls for steaks aged 14 d. After 21 d aging, steaks from 20 d ZH-fed cattle had reduced (P < 0.05) tenderness, juiciness, and overall like scores and tended (P < 0.10) to have decreased flavor scores when compared with controls. These results indicate enhancement improved WBSF, but was not sufficient to overcome the detrimental effect of ZH feeding duration on WBSF until steaks were aged for 21 d postmortem. Consumer scores indicate 20 d ZH feeding had no effect on overall acceptability, but decreased tenderness and tenderness acceptability scores when compared with controls. PMID:20081069
Mergers and acquisitions : the case of Comcast and Time Warner Cable
Chissamba, Victor Chia
2014-01-01
Comcast and Time Warner Cable (TWC) merger has been a daily headline in the US business press since the merger announcement in last February 13th of 2014. Meanwhile many questions are raised about the transaction, either in terms of legal issues or in terms related to the strategy fit and financial accretive. These questions are motivated due to the size of both companies in industry where they operate, that leads to witness the largest merger in such industry and the emergence of a potential...
Non-abelian T-duality of Pilch-Warner background
Dimov, H; Rashkov, R C; Vetsov, T
2015-01-01
In this work we obtain the non-abelian T-dual geometry of the well-known Pilch-Warner supergravity solution. We derive the dual metric and the NS two-form by gauging the isometry group of the initial theory and integrating out the introduced auxiliary gauge fields. Then we use the Fourier-Mukai transform from algebraic geometry to find the transformation rules of the R-R fields. Finally, we argue that the dual theory inherit the supersymmetry of the original one by considering the general dependence of the Killing spinor on the spacetime coordinates.
Walter Miles, Pop Warner, B. C. Graves, and the psychology of football.
Baugh, Frank G; Benjamin, Ludy T
2006-01-01
In 1926-1927, a graduate student, B. C. Graves, working with Stanford University psychologist Walter Miles and legendary football coach Pop Warner, conducted an investigation of variations in signal calling as they affected the charging times of football players. The study was one of two that involved Miles and the ingenious multiple chronograph that he had invented to time the reactions of seven players simultaneously. These studies represented a brief digression in the career of Miles, who certainly was no sport psychologist. They tell of an interesting collaboration between scientist and coaches that produced one of the richest studies in sport psychology in the first half of the twentieth century. PMID:16345007
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Bonnici
2003-06-01
Full Text Available Durante os ltimos quarenta anos, investigou-se e discutiu-se o aspecto ps-colonial da pea A tempestade, de Shakespeare. O romance Indigo, de Marina Warner, publicado em 1992, a reescrita da pea, na qual os papis femininos so realados e analisados numa narrativa mltipla que compreende a invaso de uma ilha caribenha no sculo XVII e a fortuna dos descendentes desses invasores no sculo XX. Enquanto a ideologia dos colonizadores ingleses se baseava na construo de imprio, as duas personagens femininas, Scorax e Serafine, se esforam na construo de comunidades. Nessa verso feminina de A tempestade, Warner apresenta uma alternativa para suplantar o patriarcalismo e fundar princpios bsicos para uma sociedade mais douradora e mais igualitriaDuring the last four decades the postcoloniality in Shakespeares The Tempest has been investigated and discussed. Marina Warners novel Indigo, published in 1992, is a reworking of the play in which feminine roles are enhanced and analysed in a multiple narrative comprehending the 17th century invasion of a Caribbean island and the fortune of the invaders descendents in the 20th century. In contrast to the English colonizers stance of empire building, the two female characters of the novel, Sycorax and Serafine, endeavour to build communities. In this feminine version of The Tempest, Warner shows an alternative way to replace patriarchy and establish the basic tenets of a more-enduring and equalitarian society
Universal principles for Kazdan-Warner and Pohozaev-Schoen type identities
Gover, A Rod
2010-01-01
The classical Pohozaev identity constrains potential solutions of certain semilinear PDE boundary value problems. The Kazdan-Warner identity is a similar necessary condition important for the Nirenberg problem of conformally prescribing scalar curvature on the sphere. For dimensions $n\\geq 3$ both identities are captured and extended by a single identity, due to Schoen in 1988. In each of the three cases the identity requires and involves an infinitesimal conformal symmetry. For structures with such a conformal vector field, we develop a very wide, and essentially complete, extension of this picture. Any conformally variational natural scalar invariant is shown to satisfy a Kazdan-Warner type identity, and a similar result holds for scalars that are the trace of a locally conserved 2-tensor. Scalars of the latter type are also seen to satisfy a Pohozaev-Schoen type identity on manifolds with boundary, and there are further extensions. These phenomena are explained and unified through the study of total and co...
Marcos Franke Pinto; Elisa Helena Giglio Ponsano; Ana Paula da Silva Almeida
2010-01-01
A padronização da textura é um dos principais problemas relacionados à qualidade da carne bovina. Por isso, a avaliação objetiva da maciez, por métodos mecânicos, vem sendo estudada há muitos anos. Para que a avaliação instrumental da textura seja uma ferramenta efetiva nos estudos envolvendo a maciez da carne, é necessário minimizar as causas de variação envolvidas na análise. Atualmente, a força de cisalhamento Warner-Bratzler é o método mais amplamente empregado para essa finalidade. O pro...
Physical and sensory characterization and consumer preference of corn and barley-fed beef.
Wismer, W V; Okine, E K; Stein, A; Seibel, M R; Goonewardene, L A
2008-11-01
Steaks from corn-fed and barley-fed beef were characterized by a trained panel, which rated corn-fed beef higher (p0.05) for either type of finished beef. Japanese consumers showed a preference (p0.05) were observed for Warner-Bratzler shear, marbling scores, cooking losses or Hunter colorimeter values. There was a trend for higher concentrations (p0.10) in mono or polyunsaturated fatty acids. PMID:22063608
Bronstein, Carolyn
2008-04-01
In the mid-1970s, Women Against Violence Against Women (WAVAW), the first national feminist organization to protest mediated sexual violence against women, pressured the music industry to cease using images of violence against women in its advertising. This article presents a case study of WAVAW's national boycott of Warner Communications, Inc. and documents the activists' successful consumer campaign. The study reveals that media violence was central to feminist organizing efforts, and that WAVAW and related organizations helped establish a climate of concern about violence that motivated scientific research on the relationship between exposure to media violence and subsequent aggression. PMID:18359878
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ern
2006-06-01
Full Text Available In order to incorporate the effect of gravity waves (GWs on the atmospheric circulation most global circulation models (GCMs employ gravity wave parameterization schemes. To date, GW parameterization schemes in GCMs are used without experimental validation of the set of global parameters assumed for the GW launch spectrum. This paper focuses on the Warner and McIntyre GW parameterization scheme. Ranges of parameters compatible with absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GW-MF derived from CRISTA-1 and CRISTA-2 satellite measurements are deduced for several of the parameters and the limitations of both model and measurements are discussed. The findings presented in this paper show that the initial guess of spectral parameters provided by Warner and McIntyre (2001 are some kind of compromise with respect to agreement of absolute values and agreement of the horizontal structures found in both measurements and model results. Better agreement can be achieved by using a vertical wavenumber launch spectrum with a wider saturated spectral range and reduced spectral power in the unsaturated part. Still, even global features of the measurements remain unmatched, and it is inevitable to provide a globally varying source distribution in future.
Barrón Torres, Júlia
2014-01-01
Walt Disney i Warner Bros van ser durant el període de la Segona Guerra Mundial (1939-1945), les productores nord-americanes més importants en el sector cinematogràfic de l'animació. A través de l'anàlisi de continguts que van realitzar aquestes productores, s'intenta esclarir la possible manipulació que es va exercir en l'elaboració dels continguts per generar un discurs persuasiu per a la ciutadania nord-americana d'aquells anys. “Victory Through Air Power”; “Education for death” de Walt Di...
Use of near infrared spectroscopy for assessment of beef quality traits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Gallo
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Chemical and physical traits and fatty acid composition of meat samples from 148 Piemontese beef samples were predicted by near infrared spectroscopy. Coefficients of determination in calibration (R2 ranged between 0.44 and 0.99 for chemical composition and between 0.02 and 0.98 for fatty acid (FA profile, being in general more accurate for the major FA. The calibration results gave inaccurate prediction for cholesterol and collagen content and for most physical traits, such as Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, drip loss, colour (L, a, b and pH.
Rincker, P.J.; Bechtel, P J; Finstadt, G.; Buuren, R.G.C., Van; Killefer, J.; McKeith, F.K.
2006-01-01
The longissimus from caribou (n = 6), reindeer (n = 6) and beef (n = 6) were evaluated to determine differences in composition, color and sensory properties. Caribou contained the least fat followed by reindeer, and then beef (P < 0.05). Both venison sources contained more heme pigment and had a higher glycolytic potential than beef (P < 0.05). A trained sensory panel found both sources of venison to be more tender than beef (P < 0.05); however Warner-Bratzler shear force yielded no significa...
Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.
Sullivan, G A; Calkins, C R
2010-08-01
Exogenous enzymes tenderize meat through proteolysis. Triceps brachii and Supraspinatus were randomly assigned to the seven enzyme treatments, papain, ficin, bromelain, homogenized fresh ginger, Bacillus subtilis protease, and two Aspergillus oryzae proteases or control to determine the extent of tenderization (Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation) and mode of action (myofibrillar or collagen degradation). Sensory evaluation showed improvement (Pficin for water soluble (P=0.0002) and A. oryzae concentrate for salt soluble proteins (P=0.0148). All enzyme treatments can increase tenderness via myofibrillar and collagenous protein degradation with no difference among high and low-connective tissue muscles. PMID:20416788
Bainy, Eduarda Molardi; Bertan, Larissa Canhadas; Corazza, Marcos Lucio; Lenzi, Marcelo Kaminski
2015-08-01
The influence of two common cooking methods, grilling and baking, on chemical composition, water retention, fat retention, cooking yield, diameter reduction, expressible water, color and mechanical texture of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fish burgers was investigated. Texture analyses were performed using a Warner-Bratzler test. The fish burger had a softer texture with a lower shear force than other meat products reported in the literature. There were no significant differences in proximate composition, diameter reduction, fat retention and expressible water between the grilled and oven-baked fish burgers. Cooking methods did not affect the cooking times and cooking rates. Warner-Bratzler parameters and color were significantly influenced by the cooking method. Grilling contributed to a shear force and work of shearing increase due to the lower cooking yield and water retention. Raw burgers had the highest L* (69.13??0.96) and lowest b* (17.50??0.75) values. Results indicated that baking yielded a product with better cooking characteristics, such as a desired softer texture with lower shear values (4.01??0.54) and increased water retention (95.82??0.77). Additionally, the baked fish burgers were lighter (higher L*) and less red (lower a*) than the grilled ones. PMID:26243932
Hillary Clinton / Judith Warner
Warner, Judith
1994-01-01
Kõige mõjuvõimsam naine maailmas - algus EA 22. veebruar 1994. May/4,11,18,25 lk. 22;22;22;21; Jun/1,8,15,22,29 lk. 21; Jul/6,13,20,27 21; Aug/3,10,17,24,31 lk. 21; Sep/7,14,21,28 lk. 21; Oct/5,12,19 lk. 21
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.
2005-08-01
Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.
Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs
Ohira, Yutaka
2013-01-01
We consider particle acceleration by large-scale incompressible turbulence with a lengthscale larger than the particle mean free path. We derive an ensemble-averaged transport equation of energetic charged particles from an extended transport equation which contains the shear acceleration. The ensemble-averaged transport equation describes particle acceleration by incompressible turbulence (turbulent shear acceleration). We find that for Kolmogorov turbulence, the turbulent shear acceleration...
Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus
2015-01-01
Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems -- particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads t...
Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.
2009-01-01
We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ebrahim Alfaig
2014-05-01
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil (TEO as feed additives on the sensory attributes, cooking loss and the texture of broiler chicken meat. Day-old broilers Ross 308 (n = 400 were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Warner Bratzler shear force, cooking loss and the following sensory attributes (colour, odour, taste, texture, meat decomposing and overall acceptability were tested. The obtained results of the Warner Bratzler shear force show that there was significant different (P < 0.05 between control and TEO group and for the cooking loss there was no significant difference between groups. The descriptive sensory analysis results show that the probiotics group results were somewhat similar to that obtained by control while the TEO group and the combination group results were similar. Regarding the sensory analysis we can state that the combination of the probiotics and TEO have a positive effect on the chicken meat sensory characteristics.
Magnetohydrodynamic Shearing Waves
Johnson, B M
2006-01-01
I consider the nonaxisymmetric linear theory of an isothermal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow. The analysis is performed in the shearing box, a local model appropriate for a thin disk geometry. Linear perturbations in this model can be decomposed in terms of shearing waves (shwaves), which appear spatially as plane waves in a frame comoving with the shear. The time dependence of these waves cannot in general be expressed in terms of a frequency eigenvalue as in a normal mode decomposition, and numerical integration of a set of first-order amplitude equations is required for a complete characterization of their behavior. Their generic time dependence, however, is oscillatory with slowly-varying frequency and amplitude, and one can construct accurate analytic solutions by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin method to the full set of amplitude equations. For the bulk of wavenumber space, therefore, the shwaves are well-approximated as modes with time-dependent frequencies and amplitudes. The incompressiv...
Onuki, Akira; Furukawa, Akira; Minam, Akihiko
2004-01-01
We present a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the ela...
Rusconi, Roberto; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Stocker, Roman
2012-11-01
Bacteria are ubiquitously exposed to flow, both in natural environments and artificial devices (e.g., catheters), where confining surfaces create non-uniform shear. While the effects of shear on passive particles are well understood, little is known about the consequences of shear on motile bacteria. We exposed bacteria having different motility strategies (e.g., run-and-tumble, run-and-reverse) to microfluidic Poiseuille flows and quantified the swimming kinematics and cell distribution in the channel using video-microscopy. We discovered that the coupling of motility and a spatially varying shear results in a dramatic trapping of motile cells in high-shear regions, and conversely a strong depletion in the low-shear portion of the channel. We demonstrate experimentally that this trapping process is robust across species such as Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and can have far-reaching consequences on bacterial transport, by (i) counteracting bacterial chemotactic responses; and (ii) enhancing surface attachment and thus biofilm formation by trapping cells near walls. More generally, this work shows that-despite the low Reynolds number-the coupling of flow and self-propulsion can be nonlinear and not simply a superposition of the two effects.
Baek, Hyung M.; Mix, Adam W.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey
2014-05-01
For highly viscous fluids that slip in parallel sliding plate rheometers, we want to use a slightly converging flow to suppress this wall slip. In this work, we first attack the steady shear flow of a highly viscous Newtonian fluid between two gently converging plates with no slip boundaries using the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, which yields no analytical solution. Then we treat the same problem using the lubrication approximation in Cartesian coordinates to yield exact, explicit solutions for dimensionless velocity, pressure and shear stress. This work deepens our understanding of a drag flow through a gently converging slit of arbitrary convergence angle. We also employ the corotational Maxwell model to explore the role of viscoelasticity in this converging shear flow. We then compare these analytical solutions to finite element calculations for both Newtonian and corotational Maxwell cases. A worked example for determining the Newtonian viscosity using a converging shear rheometer is also included. With this work, we provide the framework for exploring other constitutive equations or other boundary conditions in future work. Our results can also be used to design the linear bearings used for the parallel sliding plate rheometer (SPR). This work can also be used to evaluate the error in the shear stress that is caused by bearing misalignment and specify the parallelism tolerance for the linear bearings incorporated into a SPR.
Transport apparatus for location of shear pack in shear machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An apparatus for moving a shear pack of a shear machine between operative and inoperative position is described. It comprises a trolley to support the shear pack, the trolley being mounted on a bogie movable on rails between the inoperative position, at which the shear pack is loaded on to the trolley, and the operative position at which the shear pack is located at the shear machine. The trolley is mounted on inclined runners on the bogie and is releasably connected to the bogie by latching means. This permits the displacement of the trolley relative to the bogie to effect vertical displacement of the shear pack when the shear pack is at the shear machine. (author)
Infrared lateral shearing interferometers
Kwon, O.
1980-04-01
Recently IR interferometry has received much attention for its special capabilities of testing IR materials, diamond-turned metal mirrors, deep aspherics, unpolished rough surface optics, and other unconventional optics. A CW CO2 laser is used as a coherent light source at 10.6 microns, and germanium and zinc selenide optics are used for lenses and beam splitters. A pyroelectric vidicon (PEV) detects the modulated interference pattern through a TV monitor and video recorder-player. This paper presents three methods of IR lateral shear interferometry using (1) a germanium plane-parallel plate, (2) a Ronchi ruling, and (3) a double-grating lateral shear interferometer.
Shear thinning and shear thickening characteristics in electrorheological fluids
Jiang, Jile; Liu, YingDan; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu
2014-01-01
The electrorheology (ER) of suspensions based on polystyrene/polyaniline (PS/PANI) core/shell structured microspheres and those based on disk-like zeolite particles at different electric fields and particle volume fractions have been studied, respectively. Both types of ER fluids showed abrupt shear thickening under high electric fields and low shear rates, as well as shear thinning when the shear rate increased. A normalized method that considers the effects of electric field strength, shear rate and particle volume fraction was proposed to compare the rheological curves of the two ER fluids. The curves evaluated from the normalization method showed similar shear thinning at low shear rates and the hydrodynamic effect at high shear rates. Shear thinning represents the structure destroyed by shearing, and shear thickening at low shear regions indicates the dramatic structure change. The particle volume fraction and structure factor effects demonstrate that the mechanical contact between particles and the wall of the electrodes is crucial to the shear strength of ER fluids, indicating an electric/magnetic field modulated friction mechanism of the ER and magnetorheological (MR) effects.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Klaus
This report gives a summary of the present information on the behaviour of vertical keyed shear joints in large panel structures. An attemp is made to outline the implications which this information might have on the analysis and design of a complete wall. The publications also gives a short...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Akira Onuki; Akira Furukawa; Akihiko Minami
2005-05-01
We present a time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume . For very small the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing , accumulation of around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (coherency loss) under shear strains, where dislocations glide preferentially in the softer regions and are trapped at the interfaces.
Plasticity Approach to Shear Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
1998-01-01
The paper presents some plastic models for shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Distinction is made between two shear failure modes, namely web crushing and crack sliding. The first mentioned mode is met in beams with large shear reinforcement degrees. The mode of crack sliding is met in non...... uncracked concrete. Good agree between theory and tests has been found.Keywords: dsign, plasticity, reinforced concrete, reinforcement, shear, web crushing....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butler, B.D.; Hanley, H.J.M.; Straty, G.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States); Muzny, C.D. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
1995-12-31
An experimental small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study of dense silica gels, prepared from suspensions of 24 nm colloidal silica particles at several volume fractions {theta} is discussed. Provided that {theta}{approx_lt}0.18, the scattered intensity at small wave vectors q increases as the gelation proceeds, and the structure factor S(q, t {yields} {infinity}) of the gel exhibits apparent power law behavior. Power law behavior is also observed, even for samples with {theta}>0.18, when the gel is formed under an applied shear. Shear also enhances the diffraction maximum corresponding to the inter-particle contact distance of the gel. Difficulties encountered when trying to interpret SANS data from these dense systems are outlined. Results of computer simulations intended to mimic gel formation, including computations of S(q, t), are discussed. Comments on a method to extract a fractal dimension characterizing the gel are included.
McWilliams, James C
2011-01-01
A quasi-linear theory is presented for how randomly forced, barotropic velocity fluctuations cause an exponentially-growing, large-scale (mean) magnetic dynamo in the presence of a uniform shear flow, $\\vec{U} = S x \\vec{e}_y$. It is a "kinematic" theory for the growth of the mean magnetic energy from a small initial seed, neglecting the saturation effects of the Lorentz force. The quasi-linear approximation is most broadly justifiable by its correspondence with computational solutions of nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamics, and it is rigorously derived in the limit of large resistivity, $\\eta \\rightarrow \\infty$. Dynamo action occurs even without mean helicity in the forcing or flow, but random helicity variance is then essential. In a sufficiently large domain and with small wavenumber $k_z$ in the direction perpendicular to the mean shearing plane, a positive exponential growth rate $\\gamma$ can occur for arbitrary values of $\\eta$, the viscosity $\
Vacuum skin pack of beef--a consumer friendly alternative.
Lagerstedt, sa; Ahnstrm, Maria L; Lundstrm, Kerstin
2011-07-01
The aim of this study was to assess how beef quality traits are affected by skin packaging compared with vacuum and high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 80% O(2) and 20% CO(2)). Both M. longissimus dorsi from 6 young bulls were cut and aged in vacuum for 7 days and then cut into 3.5-cm steaks, thereafter either frozen directly day 7 or stored in skin pack, vacuum pack or MAP for an additional 7 or 14 days and then frozen. Warner-Bratzler shear force, loss and colour were measured and sensory analysis was performed. The results showed no differences in shear force, sensory analysis and total loss between steaks packed in skin pack or vacuum, but skin packed steaks had lower purge loss. MAP steaks had lower sensory scores than the other treatments at days 14 and 21. Raw MAP-steaks were bright red, but showed signs of premature browning when cooked. PMID:21316869
Tenderness assessments of top loin steaks from retail markets in four U.S. cities.
Igo, M W; Arnold, A N; Miller, R K; Gehring, K B; Mehall, L N; Lorenzen, C L; Delmore, R J; Woerner, D R; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W
2015-10-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the tenderness of beef loin steaks from retail markets in 4 U.S. cities. Beef top loin steaks ( = 1,613) were obtained for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), slice shear force (SSF), and consumer sensory determinations. Personnel at 4 universities (California Polytechnic State University, Colorado State University, University of Missouri, and Texas A&M University) conducted the study over a 12-mo period. Enhanced/blade-tenderized top loin steaks had the lowest ( 0.05) steaks that were enhanced/blade tenderized. The WBSF values and consumer sensory values for top loin steaks were comparable to the 2010 National Beef Tenderness Survey, signifying that no drastic changes in tenderness have occurred due to changes in antemortem or postmortem conditions. PMID:26523552
2009-07-17
This final rule implements section 701 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for FY 2007, Public Law 109-364. Section 701 amends Title 10 of the United States Code (U.S.C.), Chapter 55, Section 1079(a) by authorizing coverage for forensic examinations following a sexual assault or domestic violence for eligible beneficiaries. This authorizes forensic examinations provided in civilian health care facilities (e.g., civilian rape crisis facilities) following sexual assault or domestic violence, which is consistent with the services that are authorized in Military Medical Treatment Facilities for all beneficiaries who are victims of sexual assault or domestic violence. PMID:19634253
Biological aerosol warner and analyser
Schlemmer, Harry; Kürbitz, Gunther; Miethe, Peter; Spieweck, Michael
2006-05-01
The development of an integrated sensor device BiSAM (Biological Sampling and Analysing Module) is presented which is designed for rapid detection of aerosol or dust particles potentially loaded with biological warfare agents. All functional steps from aerosol collection via immuno analysis to display of results are fully automated. The core component of the sensor device is an ultra sensitive rapid analyser PBA (Portable Benchtop Analyser) based on a 3 dimensional immuno filtration column of large internal area, Poly HRP marker technology and kinetic optical detection. High sensitivity despite of the short measuring time, high chemical stability of the micro column and robustness against interferents make the PBA an ideal tool for fielded sensor devices. It is especially favourable to combine the PBA with a bio collector because virtually no sample preparation is necessary. Overall, the BiSAM device is capable to detect and identify living micro organisms (bacteria, spores, viruses) as well as toxins in a measuring cycle of typically half an hour duration. In each batch up to 12 different tests can be run in parallel together with positive and negative controls to keep the false alarm rate low.
Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao linh
1997-01-01
The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange....... The position of the crack in which sliding takes place is determined by the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results reported in the literature. A good agreement has been found.A simplified method to calculate the shear capacity of T...
Shear viscosity of nuclear matter
Xu, Jun
2013-01-01
In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.
Inductive shearing of drilling pipe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ludtka, Gerard M.; Wilgen, John; Kisner, Roger; Mcintyre, Timothy
2016-04-19
Induction shearing may be used to cut a drillpipe at an undersea well. Electromagnetic rings may be built into a blow-out preventer (BOP) at the seafloor. The electromagnetic rings create a magnetic field through the drillpipe and may transfer sufficient energy to change the state of the metal drillpipe to shear the drillpipe. After shearing the drillpipe, the drillpipe may be sealed to prevent further leakage of well contents.
Shear behaviour of ferrocement plates
MADHURI N.SAVALE; PROF. P. M.ALANDKAR
2013-01-01
Ferrocement members can be used in the form of plates Such as for walling unit, marine structures etc. Such plates are subjected to shear buckling hence shear resistance capacity of plate need to be verified. Various authors have studied shear behaviour on different specimens such as box beams, panels, and plates. The ansys software used for finite element analysis (FEM) of plates. In the present study an attempt is made to observe behaviour of ferrocement plate with various mesh patterns. Th...
Reinforced prefabricated timber shear walls
Premrov, Miroslav; Dobrila, Peter
2012-01-01
The paper presents results of shear-bending experiments performed on panel shear walls used as load-carrying capacity walls in the construction of prefabricated timber structures. The aim of research is to determine the difference in resistance and ductility between panel shear walls, reinforced with two different methods. While the first, reinforcing with additional fiberboard, was not improve resistance and especially ductility in the contended sense, we tried to find a solution by insertin...
Magnetorheological dampers in shear mode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, three types of shear mode damper using magnetorheological (MR) fluids are theoretically analyzed: linear, rotary drum, and rotary disk dampers. The damping performance of these shear mode MR dampers is characterized in terms of the damping coefficient, which is the ratio of the equivalent viscous damping at field-on status to the damping at field-off status. For these three types of shear mode MR damper, the damping coefficient or dynamic range is derived using three different constitutive models: the Bingham–plastic, biviscous, and Herschel–Bulkley models. The impact of constitutive behavior on shear mode MR dampers is theoretically presented and compared
Jiang, Weifeng; Xuan, Shouhu; Gong, Xinglong
2015-04-01
Dense non-Brownian suspension has rich rheology and is hard to understand, especially for distinguishing continuous shear thickening (CST) from discontinuous shear thickening (DST). By studying the shear stress dependent rheology of a well-known DST suspension of cornstarch in water, we find that the transition from CST to DST could occur not only by increasing the volume fraction ϕ but also by increasing the shear stress σ. For the recovery process of jammed suspension, we observe that the shear activates the time-dependent nature of particle rearrangement. DST can then be interpreted as the consequence of shear-induced jamming. Based on the test data, we plot the schematic phase diagram in the ϕ-σ plane and find out that ϕ and σ perform almost the same effect on flow-state transition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wesley Oliveira de Sousa
2012-09-01
Full Text Available The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perforations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11 and in two types of treatment, natural non-aerated water and previously boiled water, with four repetitions for each treatment. The tests showed a maximum mortality after 24 hours of immersion in the previously boiled water treatment. The survival of the adults was negative and significantly correlated with the types of treatment employed and within the different time intervals. The values of oxygen dissolved in water (mg/l differed significantly within the types of treatment employed. They were positively correlated with the survival of the adults in the two types of treatment, although more markedly in the treatment with previously boiled water. The mortality of adults after 24 hours of submersion in the treatment with previously boiled water may be associated with the physical-chemical conditions of the non-tested water in this study, such as low surface tension and concentration of solutes. These results suggest plastron functionality in the adults of this species.A teoria plastrão foi testada em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, por meio da análise da estrutura que reveste o tegumento destes insetos e em experimentos laboratoriais de submersão. Os processos tegumentares foram reconhecidos em três tipos: escamas aglutinadas e com perfurações largas; escamas plumosas de tamanhos e formas variadas; e pêlos. Os experimentos realizados com 264 indivíduos adultos os quais permaneciam submersos por diferentes intervalos de tempo (n = 11 e em dois tratamentos, água natural não aerada e água previamente fervida, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento, revelaram uma mortalidade máxima após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento água previamente fervida. A sobrevivência dos adultos foi negativa e significativamente correlacionada com os tratamentos empregados e entre os diferentes intervalos de tempo. Os valores de oxigênio dissolvido (mg/l na água diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos aplicados, sendo positivamente correlacionado com a sobrevivência dos adultos nos dois tratamentos, embora mais acentuadamente no tratamento com água previamente fervida. A mortalidade dos adultos após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento com água previamente fervida pode estar associada às condições físico-químicas da água não testadas neste estudo, como, por exemplo, baixa tensão superficial e concentração de solutos. Estes resultados sugerem uma funcionalidade do plastrão nos adultos desta espécie.
Bayesian Lensing Shear Measurement
Bernstein, Gary M
2013-01-01
We derive an estimator of weak gravitational lensing shear from background galaxy images that avoids noise-induced biases through a rigorous Bayesian treatment of the measurement. The Bayesian formalism requires a prior describing the (noiseless) distribution of the target galaxy population over some parameter space; this prior can be constructed from low-noise images of a subsample of the target population, attainable from long integrations of a fraction of the survey field. We find two ways to combine this exact treatment of noise with rigorous treatment of the effects of the instrumental point-spread function and sampling. The Bayesian model fitting (BMF) method assigns a likelihood of the pixel data to galaxy models (e.g. Sersic ellipses), and requires the unlensed distribution of galaxies over the model parameters as a prior. The Bayesian Fourier domain (BFD) method compresses galaxies to a small set of weighted moments calculated after PSF correction in Fourier space. It requires the unlensed distributi...
Schmidt, J R; Miller, M C; Andrae, J G; Ellis, S E; Duckett, S K
2013-09-01
Angus-cross steers (n = 60) were used to assess the effect of forage species [alfalfa (AL; Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon), chicory (CH; Cichorium intybus L.), cowpea (CO; Vigna unguiculata L.), and pearl millet (PM; Pennisetum glaucum (L. R Br.)] in replicated 2-ha paddocks for finishing on cattle performance, carcass quality, and meat quality in a 2-yr study. Steers were blocked by BW and assigned randomly to finishing-forage treatments before the start of the experiment. Steers grazing AL and CH had greater (P 1 kg/d). Finishing on legumes (AL and CO) increased dressing percentage, reduced Warner-Bratzler shear force values, and increased consumers preference, whereas finishing on grasses (BG and PM) enhanced anticarcinogenic fatty acid concentrations. PMID:23825343
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Girolami
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The experiment was performed with thirty-two Altamurana and Trimeticcio lambs slaughtered at 42 and at 70 days of age. Meat organoleptic characteristics were determined on samples of M. Longissimus lumborum and Longissimus thoracis. Colour parameters were not affected by genotype, while L* value and index of yellow decreased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively as age of slaughtering increased. Meat from Altamurana lambs showed lower juiciness (P<0.01 and fatness (P<0.05 than Trimeticcio lambs. No genotype and age of slaughtering effects were found for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF values. Meat from younger lambs was more tender and chewable (P<0.01 but less juicy (P<0.001 and fatty (P<0.05 than meat from lambs slaughterd at 70 days.
Muchenje, V; Dzama, K; Chimonyo, M; Raats, J G; Strydom, P E
2008-05-01
The current study compared meat quality of Nguni, Bonsmara and Angus steers raised on natural pasture. Fifteen seven-month-old weaners of each breed were kept at the University of Fort Hare Farm for 12 months till slaughter. Monthly weights of the steers were recorded. Carcasses were electrically stimulated. The m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum was sampled for the measurement of meat colour, pH, drip loss, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation length and Warner Bratzler (WB) shear force. The Nguni had the highest (PAngus steers had higher (PAngus steers were 36.5, 38.6 and 39.9. There were significant (PAngus. Meat quality from Nguni compares favourably with that from established breeds, when raised on natural pasture. PMID:22062594
Hope-Jones, M; Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Webb, E C
2010-11-01
Beta agonists used as growth enhancers are known to affect the aging potential of beef muscle negatively. On the other hand, procedures like electrical stimulation could accelerate rigor and the aging process. In this study, 20 out of 40 young steers received no beta agonist (C), the remaining twenty steers received a beta agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride) (Z) for the 30 days prior to slaughter followed by 4 days withdrawal. After slaughter carcasses were split, the left side electrically stimulated (ES) and the right side not stimulated (NES). Samples were aged for 3 or 14 days post mortem. Parameters included Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril filament length (MFL), sarcomere length and calpastatin and calpain enzyme activity. Zilpaterol resulted in increased (Pzilpaterol supplemented steers, although steers without zilpaterol will still have an advantage in final tenderness. PMID:20619545
The Hypertrophic Marchigiana: physical and biochemical parameters for meat quality evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. M. Sarti
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of double muscled Marchigiana young bulls characterized by different genotypes for the hypertrophy: normal and mutated (heterozygous. Calpain and calpastatin activities were determined to verify the state of aging meat on a sample of Longissimus thoracis muscle (XIII thoracic rib taken at slaughtering (0h and after 24 hours (24h. After 14 days of aging, another sample of muscle was taken to evaluate physical and chemical parameters of meat quality. The results showed a better meat quality of mutated animals respect normal animals. Another interesting result was the correlation between the biochemical parameters and some physical parameters, such as WBS (Warner Bratzler Shear Force, CL (Cooking loss. These results showed the relationship between the proteolytic activity of calpain system and meat tenderness.
Matsukawa, T; Tilakaratne, N; Buvanendran, V
1976-08-01
Growth and carcass characteristics were measured on calves from three cattle breeds-the Sinhala, Red Sindhi and Friesian-and two buffalo breeds-the local buffalo and Murrah. The growth study was carried out on Brachiaria brizantha pasture over a period of 48 weeks. The two buffalo breeds grew fastest followed by the two Bos indicus breeds. The Friesian cattle grew at the slowest rate. The Sinhala and local buffalo had normal haematocrit values while the values for all other breeds were lower. The Sinhala and local buffalo had the highest carcass dressing percentages and the highest muscle; bone ratios. Tenderness measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force values and palatability scores by a taste panel were similar for meat from cattle and buffalo. PMID:968951
Miller, M F; Kerth, C R; Wise, J W; Lansdell, J L; Stowell, J E; Ramsey, C B
1997-03-01
A boneless beef strip loin (IMPS #180) was fabricated from each of 320 carcasses to study the effects of slaughter plant location, quality grade, fat thickness, and aging time on beef tenderness and palatability. Carcasses were selected for fat thickness ( or = .5 cm fat thickness) and USDA quality grade (Select or Low Choice) from two slaughter facilities (IBP, Inc., Garden City, KS or Excel Inc., Plainview, TX), and the strips were aged for either 7 or 14 d. Aging steaks 14 d improved all sensory traits and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values regardless of all other main effects (P .05). Therefore, aging beef strip loin steaks for 14 compared with 7 d improved sensory score and decreased WBS values, but fat thickness had no effect on the palatability of loin strip steaks processed under these conditions. PMID:9078481
Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in an Embden×Toulouse Goose Cross Raised in Organic Dehesa.
Solé, M; Peña, F; Domenech, V; Clemente, I; Polvillo, O; Valera, M; Verona, J C; Rubí, M; Molina, A
2016-06-01
This study assessed the influence of genetic type (Embden-Anser anser, EE; Toulouse-Anser anser, TT and F1 cross, ET) for meat characteristics (carcass, meat quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles), of domestic geese "Anser anser domesticus" raised in dehesa as an alternative, organic feeding system. Carcass and breast muscle weight (pliver with this type of feeding. Higher values were found for maximum Warner-Bratzler shear force (between 7.62 and 8.87 kg/cm(2)), which implies the improvement of this parameter. High levels of oleic FAs were obtained, especially for the TT group. The polyunsaturated/saturated FA ratio was highest for the ET group (pdiet. PMID:26954156
SEDflume - High Shear Stress Flume
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers High Shear Stress flume (SEDflume) is designed for estimating erosion rates of fine-grained and mixed fine/coarse grained sediments...
Grafted polymer under shear flow
Kumar, Sanjiv; Foster, Damien P.; Giri, Debaprasad; Kumar, Sanjay
2016-04-01
A self-attracting-self-avoiding walk model of polymer chain on a square lattice has been used to gain an insight into the behaviour of a polymer chain under shear flow in a slit of width L. Using exact enumeration technique, we show that at high temperature, the polymer acquires the extended state continuously increasing with shear stress. However, at low temperature the polymer exhibits two transitions: a transition from the coiled to the globule state and a transition to a stem-flower like state. For a chain of finite length, we obtained the exact monomer density distributions across the layers at different temperatures. The change in density profile with shear stress suggests that the polymer under shear flow can be used as a molecular gate with potential application as a sensor.
Shear Alfven waves in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shear Alfven waves in an axisymmetric tokamak are examined within the framework of the linearized ideal MHD equations. Properties of the shear Alfven continuous spectrum are studied both analytically and numerically. Implications of these results in regards to low frequency rf heating of toroidally confined plasmas are discussed. The structure of the spatial singularities associated with these waves is determined. A reduced set of ideal MHD equations is derived to describe these waves in a very low beta plasma
Shear behaviour of ferrocement plates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MADHURI N.SAVALE
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Ferrocement members can be used in the form of plates Such as for walling unit, marine structures etc. Such plates are subjected to shear buckling hence shear resistance capacity of plate need to be verified. Various authors have studied shear behaviour on different specimens such as box beams, panels, and plates. The ansys software used for finite element analysis (FEM of plates. In the present study an attempt is made to observe behaviour of ferrocement plate with various mesh patterns. The results gives that Increasing the volume fraction (VF of the wire mesh layer subsequently increases the shear carrying capacity of the plate To attain this advantage, supports and loading points should be design and strengthened to prevent local failure, Shear behaviour of ferrocement plates (SBFP.The stress intensity is determined using FEM (Ansys and compared with the available results. it is observed that stress intensity as well as cracking shear strength of plate depends upon volume fraction. the available equations from literature can be used for analysis of mesh plate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Márcia Arocha Gularte
2000-06-01
Full Text Available A maciez da carne geralmente é o atributo mais importante para o consumidor. Vários são os fatores que influem sobre esSe aspecto no animal, como por exemplo: genótipo, idade, sexo, entre outros. Neste estudo, verificou-se a influência da idade e do sexo na maciez do músculo Longissimus dorsi de ovinos da raça Corriedale, através de métodos sensoriais e instrumentais. Após o abate, realizou-se a avaliação visual da textura do músculo pela granulação da superfície do mesmo. As amostras foram congeladas por 5 meses. Após a cocção, foi analisada a maciez da carne pelo equipamento Warner-Bratzler shear medindo a força de cisalhamento, e por avaliação sensorial realizada por uma equipe treinada de julgadores. Resultados obtidos pela avaliação sensorial e instrumental indicaram que o músculo Longissimus dorsi de fêmeas e de animais de menor idade foram mais macios.The meat tenderness is the most important atribute to the consumer. Several factors have influence in this aspect, for exemple: genotype, age, sex and others. The objective of this work was to study the influence of age and sex on Longissimus dorsi muscle tenderness of Corriedale lineage lamb, through sensory and instrumental methods. After slaughter Longissimus dorsi, texture was evaluated by granite’s surface method. The samples were frozen for five months. After thawing and cooking, meat tenderness was evaluated by Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation by a group of trained judges. The results indicated that female and younger animals produced more tender meat.
Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao linh
1997-01-01
The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...... model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The model takes into account the resistance against formation of cracks due to prestressing as well as the variation of the prestressing force in the transfer zone.Due to the fact that the anchorage of the reinforcement takes place by bond, a rotation failure, which is...... induced by a crack formed at the support with subsequent slip of the reinforcement, is also considered. This failure mode is likely to occur in cases with a high prestressing force combined with a short shear span.The theoretical calculations are compared with test results from the literature. A good...
Behavior of Tilted Angle Shear Connectors
Khorramian, Koosha; Maleki, Shervin; Shariati, Mahdi; Ramli Sulong, N. H.
2015-01-01
According to recent researches, angle shear connectors are appropriate to transfer longitudinal shear forces across the steel-concrete interface. Angle steel profile has been used in different positions as L-shaped or C-shaped shear connectors. The application of angle shear connectors in tilted positions is of interest in this study. This study investigates the behaviour of tilted-shaped angle shear connectors under monotonic loading using experimental push out tests. Eight push-out specimen...
Generality of shear thickening in suspensions
Brown, Eric; Forman, Nicole A.; Orellana, Carlos S.; Zhang, Hanjun; MAYNOR, BENJAMIN W.; Betts, Douglas E.; DeSimone, Joseph M.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.
2009-01-01
Suspensions are of wide interest and form the basis for many smart fluids. For most suspensions, the viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate, i.e. they shear thin. Few are reported to do the opposite, i.e. shear thicken, despite the longstanding expectation that shear thickening is a generic type of suspension behavior. Here we resolve this apparent contradiction. We demonstrate that shear thickening can be masked by a yield stress and can be recovered when the yield stress is decrease...
Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao linh
1997-01-01
The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model is...... based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams with...... combined loading, prestressed beams and beams with different reinforcement area at top and bottom....
Isogeometric analysis of shear bands
Berger-Vergiat, Luc; McAuliffe, Colin; Waisman, Haim
2014-08-01
Numerical modeling of shear bands present several challenges, primarily due to strain softening, strong nonlinear multiphysics coupling, and steep solution gradients with fine solution features. In general it is not known a priori where a shear band will form or propagate, thus adaptive refinement is sometimes necessary to increase the resolution near the band. In this work we explore the use of isogeometric analysis for shear band problems by constructing and testing several combinations of NURBS elements for a mixed finite element shear band formulation. Owing to the higher order continuity of the NURBS basis, fine solution features such as shear bands can be resolved accurately and efficiently without adaptive refinement. The results are compared to a mixed element formulation with linear functions for displacement and temperature and Pian-Sumihara shape functions for stress. We find that an element based on high order NURBS functions for displacement, temperature and stress, combined with gauss point sampling of the plastic strain leads to attractive results in terms of rate of convergence, accuracy and cpu time. This element is implemented with a -bar strain projection method and is shown to be nearly locking free.
Cosmic Shear at Cosmological Distances
Ratnatunga, Kavan
2001-07-01
Weak gravitational lensing has become an important probe of the geometry and large-scale structure of the universe. Galaxy-galaxy lensing is a well established result, and the focus has now shifted to the measurement of `cosmic shear', i.e. the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. A number of ground based programs have announced the presence of this shear and using the HST Medium Deep Survey database we have tentatively detected such a shear at smaller angular scales, corresponding to larger cosmological distances. Confirmation and reduction of errors in the detection of this elusive effect has however, been complicated by various systematics in the observational data which can masquerade the true signal. The MDS database was optimized for galaxy morphology ignoring several second order effects which could not be addressed a few years ago. Recent reconstruction by ST-ECF of the jitter files for all HST WFPC2 observations, and the detailed models for the HST focus position has set the stage for a more rigorous reanalysis as required for a more confident measurement of cosmic shear. Well characterized WFPC2 observations from the rigorously monitored HST provide the best hope for the robust measurement of cosmic shear in the near future and will set the stage for more precise measurements with the Advanced Camera.
Mass loading in velocity shears
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Durand-Manterola, H. [Institute of Geophysics, National University of Mexico, D.F. 04510 (Mexico)
1996-02-01
An analysis is presented on the motion of contaminant ions picked up by the solar wind within velocity shears. An expression is obtained for the ion density in terms of the flow speed across the velocity shear. It is argued that enhanced densities occur in the region where the flow speed is small and that local values may become significantly larger than the ion density outside the velocity shear. A comparison is made with measurements obtained across the plasma wake of comet Giacobini{endash}Zinner with the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft. Within the velocity shear of that comet{close_quote}s ionosheath the cometary ion density becomes large and reaches values that are different from those expected when the ion population depends only on the ionization of a uniform outflow of neutral particles from the cometary nucleus. The enhanced plasma density expected within the velocity shear is compatible with the shape of the density profile of contaminant ions detected in that region. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Shear Brillouin light scattering microscope.
Kim, Moonseok; Besner, Sebastien; Ramier, Antoine; Kwok, Sheldon J J; An, Jeesoo; Scarcelli, Giuliano; Yun, Seok Hyun
2016-01-11
Brillouin spectroscopy has been used to characterize shear acoustic phonons in materials. However, conventional instruments had slow acquisition times over 10 min per 1 mW of input optical power, and they required two objective lenses to form a 90° scattering geometry necessary for polarization coupling by shear phonons. Here, we demonstrate a confocal Brillouin microscope capable of detecting both shear and longitudinal phonons with improved speeds and with a single objective lens. Brillouin scattering spectra were measured from polycarbonate, fused quartz, and borosilicate in 1-10 s at an optical power level of 10 mW. The elastic constants, phonon mean free path and the ratio of the Pockels coefficients were determined at microscopic resolution. PMID:26832263
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experiments at RHIC suggest that the quark-gluon plasma created in heavy-ion collisions is an almost-perfect fluid. Furthermore, the η/s ratio (shear viscosity per entropy density) turns out to be minimal at the phase transition. We discuss the formalism which connects quantum field theory at finite temperature and the macroscopic transport coefficients for dissipative hydrodynamical systems. Within the framework of ChPT we compute the shear viscosity of an interacting pion gas in the confined phase. The results are compared to the AdS/CFT bound of 1/4π.
Hypermixing in linear shear flow
Bolster, Diogo; Dentz, Marco; Le Borgne, Tanguy
2011-01-01
[1] In this technical note we study mixing in a two‐dimensional linear shear flow. We derive analytical expressions for the concentration field for an arbitrary initial condition in an unbounded two‐dimensional shear flow. We focus on the solution for a point initial condition and study the evolution of (1) the second centered moments as a measure for the plume dispersion, (2) the dilution index as a measure of the mixing state, and (3) the scalar dissipation rate as a measure for the rate of...
Localization in shear flow turbulence
Schneider, Tobias M.; Gibson, John F.; Burke, John
2012-11-01
Transitional turbulence in shear flows such as Couette flow is often characterized by spatio-temporal patterns and the coexistence of laminar and turbulent flow. Some of those spatial features are captured by new classes of spatially localized exact coherent structures. They are related to their known periodic counterparts and some show bifurcation structures very similar to those observed in simpler pattern-forming systems. Characterizing those solutions and generalizing the dynamical systems view of turbulence to capture the full spatio-temporal dynamics is a step towards developing a general theory of patterns in shear flows.
Shear loading of costal cartilage
Subit, Damien
2014-01-01
A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.
Cosmic Shear Bias and Calibration in Cosmic Shear Studies
Taylor, A N
2016-01-01
With the advent of large-scale weak lensing surveys there is a need to understand how realistic, scale-dependent systematics bias cosmic shear and dark energy measurements, and how they can be removed. Here we describe how spatial variations in the amplitude and orientation of realistic image distortions convolve with the measured shear field, mixing the even-parity convergence and odd-parity modes, and bias the shear power spectrum. Many of these biases can be removed by calibration to external data, the survey itself, or by modelling in simulations. The uncertainty in the calibration must be marginalised over and we calculate how this propagates into parameter estimation, degrading the dark energy Figure-of-Merit. We find that noise-like biases affect dark energy measurements the most, while spikes in the bias power have the least impact, reflecting their correlation with the effect of cosmological parameters. We argue that in order to remove systematic biases in cosmic shear surveys and maintain statistica...
Unexpected shear strength change in magnetorheological fluids
Tian, Yu; Chen, KaiKai; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang
2014-09-01
Smart materials of magnetorheological (MR) fluids could be turned from a liquid state into a solid state, which solidification extent or shear strength often increases monotonically with the applied magnetic field. In this study, the shear stress of a dilute MR fluid decreased with increasing applied magnetic field at a constant shear rate. The dynamic shear stress was significantly higher than the stable counterpart at medium magnetic fields. They are ascribed to the slow particle structure transformation. A higher shear rate and particle volume fraction could reduce the transient time and the shear strength difference.
Unexpected shear strength change in magnetorheological fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Tian
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Smart materials of magnetorheological (MR fluids could be turned from a liquid state into a solid state, which solidification extent or shear strength often increases monotonically with the applied magnetic field. In this study, the shear stress of a dilute MR fluid decreased with increasing applied magnetic field at a constant shear rate. The dynamic shear stress was significantly higher than the stable counterpart at medium magnetic fields. They are ascribed to the slow particle structure transformation. A higher shear rate and particle volume fraction could reduce the transient time and the shear strength difference.
Shear jamming in granular materials
Zhang, Jie
2013-11-01
For frictionless particles with purely repulsive interactions, there is a critical packing fraction ?J below which no jammed states exist. Recent experiments have shown that applying shear to a stress-free initial state can generate states which are either fragile or shear jammed depending on the way the force-network is percolated (Bi et al. Nature 2011). The nature of the jamming transition however is obscured because the existence of friction between the system and the third dimension. A new apparatus at SJTU has been designed to completely eliminate this friction by letting the particles float on the surface of a shallow water layer, which allows a study of the more detailed nature of the shear-jammed states and the transition from an unjammed state to a shear-jammed state. In this study, we also use high-precision force sensors to monitor the dynamical changes near the jamming transition. We further combine numerical simulations with the experiments to diagnose the nature of this jamming transition and its possible dependence on certain particle properties. The work at SJTU is in collaboration with Ling Zhang and Jie Zheng. The numerical simulations are in collaboration with Maobin Hu at Univ. of Sci. & Tech. of China.
Grouted Connections with Shear Keys
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars; Clausen, H. B.; Andersen, K.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so that dif...
Shear history effect of magnetorheological fluids
Shan, Lei; Chen, Kaikai; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu
2015-10-01
The rheological properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluids are usually determined by particle structures and polarized particle interactions. However, the particle structures may undergo various evolutions at different shear states and history; this evolution leads to shear stress hysteresis. Therefore, the shear history effect of MR fluids was experimentally investigated in this study. In a shear rate ramp test, the shear stress at low shear rate was higher in the shear rate ramp-down process than in the shear rate ramp-up process. If the next shear test started after a rest time, the start shear stress decayed slowly and approached the original value of the first test when the interval was long enough. The MR fluids also displayed obvious hysteresis loops during the current ramp test. A high shear rate and magnetic field could reduce the shear history effect by accelerating particle structure evolutions, and then hysteresis decreased. This effect was ascribed to the evolution of particle structures during different test modes and durations, and the evolution is governed by interparticle interactions, viscous forces, and the Brownian motions of particles. These results indicated that the accuracy of the force control of MR fluids could be enhanced under high magnetic fields and high shear rates. Thus, these factors should be considered in MR actuator designs.
Bloomberg, B D; Mafi, G G; Pye, B J; Wahrmund, J L; Richards, C J; Morgan, J B; Vanoverbeke, D L
2013-07-01
Two hundred sixty-eight strip loins were collected from heifers fed at Oklahoma State University in Stillwater, OK. In Exp. 1, heifers (n = 127) were assigned to 1 of 3 health management treatment groups: antimicrobial administrations were given based on standard feedlot protocol (SFP) or ruminal temperature (RT) or given a metaphylactic treatment of tulathromycin (MT) followed by visual assessment (VA). In Exp. 2, heifers (n = 155) were assigned to the same treatment groups as above and were supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) or control (CON). Three steaks were collected from each strip loin, 1 each for retail display, sensory evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Color was evaluated from the retail display steak using a trained color panel and objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE. An Instron Universal Testing Machine with a Warner-Bratzler head was used for evaluation of instrumental tenderness, and a trained sensory panel was used to assess palatability traits. Heifers treated by VA had the least number of antimicrobial administrations and lowest yield grade and also had the lightest HCW (P 0.05) across all health management systems or antimicrobial administrations. There were no differences in carcass and performance traits for any antimicrobial administrations treatment groups (P > 0.05). Heifers who had 0 or 1 antimicrobial administrations had lower (P Zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in internal fat and yield grade, but no interactions were observed between the number of antimicrobial administrations and ZH supplementation. With the supplementation of ZH, WBSF significantly increased (P < 0.05). At the end of retail display, the control group had a greater (P < 0.05) surface discoloration when compared with the ZH group. Treatment and detection of bovine respiratory diseases (BRD) is critical to the industry economically and results from this study show that different methods can be used to detect BRD without dramatically impacting carcass, sensory, and retail case life characteristics. PMID:23658348
Static shear modulus of electrorheological fluids.
Shi, Lihong; Tam, Wing Yim; Huang, Xianxiang; Sheng, Ping
2006-05-01
We report measurements of the static shear modulus of electrorheological (ER) fluids consisting of water-wetted silica microspheres in silicone oil. A shear-annealing method, using creep-recovery (CR) cycles under an external electric field, is used to enhance ER properties of the fluid. The shear-annealing method enables the silica spheres in the ER fluid to form better aligned and denser column microstructures. A stable state with elastic shear deformation is obtained after a sufficient number of CR cycles, with an optimal combination of stress duration and shear strength. Static shear modulus is obtained by measuring the elastic deformations at different shear stresses for an electric field frequency from 10 to 1000 Hz. A water-bridge model is proposed to explain the enhanced shear modulus. PMID:16802937
Shear viscosity of the quark matter
Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Fukutome, Takahiko
2007-01-01
We discuss shear viscosity of the quark matter by using Kubo formula. The shear viscosity is calculated in the framework of the quasi-particle RPA for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. We obtain a formula that the shear viscosity is expressed by the quadratic form of the quark spectral function in the chiral symmetric phase. The magnitude of the shear viscosity is discussed assuming the Breit-Wigner type for the spectral function.
Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ► Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ► Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.
Three-dimensional shear in granular flow
Cheng, Xiang; Lechman, Jeremy B.; Barbero, Antonio F.; Grest, Gary S.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Karczmar, Greg S.; Möbius, Matthias E.; Nagel, Sidney R.
2005-01-01
The evolution of granular shear flow is investigated as a function of height in a split-bottom Couette cell. Using particle tracking, magnetic-resonance imaging, and large-scale simulations we find a transition in the nature of the shear as a characteristic height $H^*$ is exceeded. Below $H^*$ there is a central stationary core; above $H^*$ we observe the onset of additional axial shear associated with torsional failure. Radial and axial shear profiles are qualitatively different: the radial...
Gap opening in graphene by shear strain
Cocco, Giulio; Cadelano, Emiliano; Colombo, Luciano
2010-01-01
We exploit the concept of strain-induced band structure engineering in graphene through the calculation of its electronic properties under uniaxial, shear, and combined uniaxial-shear deformations. We show that by combining shear deformations to uniaxial strains it is possible modulate the graphene energy gap value from zero up to $0.9$ eV. Interestingly enough, the use of a shear component allows for a gap opening at moderate absolute deformation, safely smaller than the graphene failure str...
Effects of shear on proteins in solution
Thomas, C. R.; Geer, D.
2010-01-01
Abstract The effects of ?shear? on proteins in solution are described and discussed. Research on this topic covers many decades, beginning with investigations of possible denaturation of enzymes during processing, whilst more recent concerns are how the quality of therapeutic proteins might be affected by shear or shear related effects. The paradigm that emerges from most studies is that shear in the fluid mechanical sense is unlikely by itself to damage most proteins and that inte...
Developments in Plasticity Approach to Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
The paper deals with plastic methods applied to shear design of reinforced concrete beams. Emphasis is put on the recently developed crack sliding model applicable to non-shear reinforced and lightly shear reinforced beams and slabs. The model, which is an upper bound plasticity approach, takes...
Shear instability in skin tissue
Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L
2013-01-01
We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.
Kraus, Martin; Wintz, Wolfgang; Seifert, Udo; Lipowsky, Reinhard
1996-01-01
The shape dynamics of fluid vesicles is governed by the coupling of the flow within the two-dimensional membrane to the hydrodynamics of the surrounding bulk fluid. We present a numerical scheme which is capable of solving this flow problem for arbitrarily shaped vesicles using the Oseen tensor formalism. For the particular problem of simple shear flow, stationary shapes are found for a large range of parameters. The dependence of the orientation of the vesicle and the membrane velocity on sh...
Phase Dynamic of Shear Melting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manko N.N.
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The melting of an ultrathin lubricating film clamped between two atomically smooth solid surfaces that are in relative motion is analyzed. The influence of additive stresses fluctuations, strain and temperature on the process of lubricant melting is investigated taking into account the shear modulus deformation defect. The influence of the system parameters on the phase diagram, where the temperature noise intensity and the temperature of friction surfaces define the areas of dry, liquid and stick-slip friction, is analyzed.
Haptic Edge Detection Through Shear.
Platkiewicz, Jonathan; Lipson, Hod; Hayward, Vincent
2016-01-01
Most tactile sensors are based on the assumption that touch depends on measuring pressure. However, the pressure distribution at the surface of a tactile sensor cannot be acquired directly and must be inferred from the deformation field induced by the touched object in the sensor medium. Currently, there is no consensus as to which components of strain are most informative for tactile sensing. Here, we propose that shape-related tactile information is more suitably recovered from shear strain than normal strain. Based on a contact mechanics analysis, we demonstrate that the elastic behavior of a haptic probe provides a robust edge detection mechanism when shear strain is sensed. We used a jamming-based robot gripper as a tactile sensor to empirically validate that shear strain processing gives accurate edge information that is invariant to changes in pressure, as predicted by the contact mechanics study. This result has implications for the design of effective tactile sensors as well as for the understanding of the early somatosensory processing in mammals. PMID:27009331
Shear properties of the temporomandibular joint disc in relation to compressive and shear strain.
Tanaka, E; Kawai, N; Hanaoka, K; Van Eijden, T; Sasaki, A; Aoyama, J; Tanaka, M; Tanne, K
2004-06-01
Shear stress can result in fatigue, damage, and irreversible deformation of the temporomandibular joint disc. Insight into the dynamic shear properties of the disc may give insight into the mechanism inducing tissue failure due to shear. We tested the hypothesis that the dynamic shear properties of the disc depend on the amount of shear and compressive strain. Twenty-four porcine discs were used for dynamic shear tests. The specimens were clamped between the plates of a loading apparatus under compressive strains of 5%, 10%, and 15%. Dynamic shear was applied to the specimen by a sinusoidal strain of, respectively, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5%. Both the dynamic elasticity and viscosity were proportional to compressive strain and inversely proportional to shear strain. These shear characteristics suggest a significant role of compressive and shear strain on the internal friction of the disc. PMID:15153455
Apparatus for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method and apparatus are described for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type comprising an array of fuel pins disposed within an outer metal shell or shroud. A spent fuel assembly is first compacted in a known manner and then incrementally sheared using fixed and movable shear blades having matched laterally projecting teeth which slidably intermesh to provide the desired shearing action. Incremental advancement of the fuel assembly after each shear cycle is limited to a distance corresponding to the lateral projection of the teeth to ensure fuel assembly breakup into small uniform segments which are amenable to remote chemical processing
Shear instability of a gyroid diblock copolymer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eskimergen, Rüya; Mortensen, Kell; Vigild, Martin Etchells
2005-01-01
-frequency shear deformations. The bicontinuous cubic gyroid structure (G) transforms to the hexagonally cylinder phase (HEX). The transition is perfectly reversible, but with a significant difference in time constants. Upon application of shear the G --> HEX transition is instantaneous within experimental...... resolution, while the HEX --> G relaxation after cessation of shear takes hours. The texture of the shear-induced cylinder phase is shown to be a near ideal monodomain, while the relaxed gyroid phase constitutes a two-dimensional powder with the characteristic 10-spot scattering pattern. The shear...
Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields
Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Jiang, Jile; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu
2010-01-01
Shear thickening is a phenomenon of significant viscosity increase of colloidal suspensions. While electrorheological (ER) fluids can be turned into a solid-like material by applying an electric field, their shear strength is widely represented by the attractive electrostatic interaction between ER particles. By shearing ER fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (100 V/mm), which could be characterized by a m...
Shear Stabilization in the Levitron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The levitron is a toroidal hard-core tube of 30-cm minor diameter, with a ring core left unsupported for 20 msec. A 5-kG toroidal field, and a comparable poloidal field based on a ring-core current, are pulsed on with 60-to 16,000-μsec rise times. The magnetic shear is always large, insuring infinite-conductivity hydromagnetic stability. Finite-resistivity and non-hydromagnetic instabilities are expected, however; and their study is the object of the experiment. Levitron experiments in the high-current regime (for example, ∼50-kA induced current, lasting 1 to 2 msec, at ∼3 x 1013 -cm-3 plasma density and electron temperatures in the 100-eV range) show a small-scale ''magnetic flutter'' (≲5 G, ∼100 kc/sec) of flutelike structure. The stability analysis for the hard-core geometry, however, proves categorically that the observed mode cannot be of the finite-resistivity ''tearing'' type. To what extent shear stabilization is valid even in the absence of directed current, is theoretically still disputed. In this context we are studying electron-cyclotron heating at 10 Gc/sec. Hot-electron plasmas with the usual dilute high-energy (10 to 1000 keV) and dense (∼1012 cm-3) low-energy components have been contained for 1 to 10 msec times after μ-wave cut off. When the initially generated high-energy component is left by itself, it proves highly unstable to cross-field transport, with or without shear, due partly to the mirror localization associated with the hard-core field in toroidal geometry. In the absence of shear (pure poloidal field), the flute instability limits the electron temperature of the dense-plasma component to ≲ 5 eV. With an additional toroidal field ≳150 G, electron temperatures of 50 eV are attained, but they are still limited by a (presumably resistive) flute instability that is insensitive to a further 10-fold increase in shear. (author)
Stability Criteria of 3D Inviscid Shears
Li, Y Charles
2009-01-01
The classical plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and pipe Poiseuille flow share some universal 3D steady coherent structure in the form of "streak-roll-critical layer". As the Reynolds number approaches infinity, the steady coherent structure approaches a 3D limiting shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. All such 3D shears are steady states of the 3D Euler equations. This raises the importance of investigating the stability of such inviscid 3D shears in contrast to the classical Rayleigh theory of inviscid 2D shears. Several general criteria of stability for such inviscid 3D shears are derived. In the Appendix, an argument is given to show that a 2D limiting shear can only be the classical laminar shear.
Influence of shear stress on erythrocyte aggregation.
Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Hoyoon; Lee, Byoung-Kwon; Shin, Sehyun
2015-09-25
Shear stress is known to induce platelet activation and aggregation. The red blood cell (RBC) aggregation test requires the application of shear stress for the cells to disaggregate for initialization. We tested the hypothesis that applying shear stress may activate platelets, which can influence RBC aggregation. The present study used a commercial microchip-based aggregometer (RheoSCan-AnD300) with a rotating stirrer for RBC disaggregation. Whole blood samples were exposed to different magnitudes of shear stress with various shearing times. As the rotational speed was increased up to 2800 rpm, the RBC aggregation index (AI) of the whole blood increased by up to 30% (p < 0.05), whereas that of the platelet-excluded blood samples did not show any apparent alteration. The AI also increased in proportion with the stirring time. The data suggest that high shear stress affects RBC aggregation through shear-induced platelet aggregation. PMID:26444600
Mixing in shear thinning fluids
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
H., Ameur; M., Bouzit.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a CFD characterization of the flow generated by curved-blade impellers in a cylindrical unbaffled vessel was carried out. The tank diameter was 300 mm, with a flat bottom. The liquid height was equal to the vessel diameter. The fluids simulated have a shear thinning behavior. A [...] nalyses concern the effect of the impeller speed, the fluid rheology and the number of impeller blades on the induced flow patterns and the power consumption. The predictions were compared with literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.
Magnetorheological Shear Flow Near Jamming
Vgberg, Daniel; Tighe, Brian
2015-03-01
Flow in magnetorheological (MR) fluids and systems near jamming both display hallmarks of complex fluid rheology, including yield stresses and shear thinning viscosities. They are also tunable, which means that both phenomena can be used as a switching mechanism in ``smart'' fluids, i.e. fluids where properties can be tuned rapidly and reversibly by changing external parameters. We use numerical simulations to investigate the rheological properties of MR fluids close to the jamming transition as a function of the applied field and volume fraction. We are especially interested in the crossover region where both phenomena are needed to describe the observed dynamics. Funded by the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
Does Shear Thickening Occur in Semisolid Metals?
Atkinson, Helen V.; Favier, Veronique
2016-04-01
In the various forms of semisolid processing such as thixoforming and thixoforging, the entry into the die occurs in a fraction of a second so it is the transient rheological behavior which governs the initial stages of flow. In experiments in the literature, this rheological behavior is probed through applying rapid transitions in shear rate under isothermal conditions. There is contradictory evidence as to whether the behavior during these transitions is shear thinning or shear thickening, although it is clear that once in the die the material is thinning. Here the data in the literature are reanalyzed to obtain a rationalization of the contradictions which has not previously been available. It is argued that if a suspension is initially in a disagglomerated state ( i.e., one which is initially sheared), the instantaneous behavior with a jump-up in shear rate is shear thickening (even if the long-term steady-state behavior is shear thinning) provided the fraction solid is greater than about 0.36 and the final shear rate at the end of the jump is greater than about 100 s-1. If the jump-up in shear rate is made from rest then yield masks the shear thickening.
Shear Mechanics of the TMJ Disc
Juran, C.M.; Dolwick, M.F.; McFetridge, P.S.
2012-01-01
The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex hinge and gliding joint that induces significant shear loads onto the fibrocartilage TMJ disc during jaw motion. The purpose of this study was to assess regional variation in the disc’s shear loading characteristics under physiologically relevant loads and to associate those mechanical findings with common clinical observations of disc fatigue and damage. Porcine TMJ discs were compressed between an axially translating bottom platen and a 2.5-cm-diameter indenter within a hydrated testing chamber. Discs were cyclically sheared at 0.5, 1, or 5 Hz to 1, 3, or 5% shear strain. Within the anterior and intermediate regions of the disc when sheared in the anteroposterior direction, both shear and compressive moduli experienced a significant decrease from instantaneous to steady state, while the posterior region’s compressive modulus decreased approximately 5%, and no significant loss of shear modulus was noted. All regions retained their shear modulus within 0.5% of instantaneous values when shear was applied in the mediolateral direction. The results of the disc’s regional shear mechanics suggest an observable and predictable link with the common clinical observation that the posterior region of the disc is most often the zone in which fatigue occurs, which may lead to disc damage and perforation. PMID:23166043
Martin, Stefan; Szwaykowski, Piotr
2007-01-01
A technique for measuring optical beam shear is based on collecting light from the four quadrants of the beam and comparing the optical power collected from each quadrant with that from the other three quadrants. As used here, "shear" signifies lateral displacement of a beam of light from a nominal optical axis. A sensor for implementing this technique consists of a modified focusing lens and a quad-cell photodetector, both centered on the nominal optical axis. The modification of the lens consists in cutting the lens into four sectors (corresponding to the four quadrants) by sawing along two orthogonal diameters, then reassembling the lens following either of two approaches described next. In one approach, the lens is reassembled by gluing the sectors back together. In the simplest variant of this approach, the kerf of the saw matches the spacing of the photodetector cells, so that the focus of each sector crosses the axis of symmetry to fall on the opposite photodetector cell (see figure). In another variant of this approach, the lens sectors are spaced apart to make their individual foci to fall on separate photodetector cells, without crossing the optical axis. In the case of a sufficiently wide beam, the modified lens could be replaced with four independent lenses placed in a square array, each focusing onto an independent photodetector
Shear-Induced Reactive Gelation.
Brand, Bastian; Morbidelli, Massimo; Soos, Miroslav
2015-11-24
In this work, we describe a method for the production of porous polymer materials in the form of particles characterized by narrow pore size distribution using the principle of shear-induced reactive gelation. Poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) primary particles with diameter ranging from 80 to 200 nm are used as building blocks, which are assembled into fractal-like clusters when exposed to high shear rates generated in a microchannel. It was found that independent of the primary particle size, it is possible to modulate the internal structure of formed fractal-like aggregates having fractal dimension ranging from 2.4 to 2.7 by varying the residence time in the microchannel. Thermally induced postpolymerization was used to increase the mechanical resilience of such formed clusters. Primary particle interpenetration was observed by SEM and confirmed by light scattering resulting in an increase of fractal dimension. Nitrogen sorption measurements and mercury porosimetry confirmed formation of a porous material with surface area ranging from 20 to 40 m(2)/g characterized by porosity of 70% and narrow pore size distribution with an average diameter around 700 nm without the presence of any micropores. The strong perfusive character of the synthesized material was confirmed by the existence of a plateau of the height equivalent to a theoretical plate measured at high reduced velocities using a chromatographic column packed with the synthesized microclusters. PMID:26488233
Hierarchical Cosmic Shear Power Spectrum Inference
Alsing, Justin; Jaffe, Andrew H; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till
2016-01-01
We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models \\emph{a posteriori} without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear $E$-...
Shear banding in mesoscopic dusty plasma liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We experimentally demonstrate shear banding and construct a microscopic dynamic picture of a sheared 2D mesoscopic dust Coulomb liquid at the kinetic level. Under the topological constraints from the discreteness and finite boundary, the nonlinear threshold-type response of motion to the local stress induced by thermal and external drives leads to shear thinning and the enhanced avalanche-type local topological transitions with stress relaxation in the form of clusters. It causes the formation of the outer shear bands in which the mean shear rate, the velocity fluctuations, and the structural rearrangement rate are all enhanced, and leaves a weakly perturbed center band. The typical size of the cooperative hopping vortex (about three interparticle distance) sets up a common length scale for the widths of the confinement induced layering and the shear band
Anisotropic thermal conductivity in sheared polypropylene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dai, Shao Cong; Tanner, Roger I. [The University of Sydney, Rheology Research Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia)
2006-01-01
We discuss the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity tensor in polymer flow in this paper. Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) specimens were deformed by injection moulding at high shear rates and by steady shear at low shear rates, and were then quenched. The thermal conductivities parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction were measured using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) in accordance with the ASTM E1952-01. The measured results showed that the thermal conductivity of the sheared polymer was anisotropic with an increase in the shear direction. The thermal conductivity can be regarded as varying either with the strain or the stress, as suggested by Van den Brule (1989). In addition to the Van den Brule mechanism, crystallization during flow also changes the thermal conductivity and this effect may often be dominant. Suggestions for procedures in processing computations, based on both effects, are given. (orig.)
Shear strength properties of wet granular materials
Richefeu, V; Radja"i, F; Richefeu, Vincent; Youssoufi, Moulay Sa\\"{i}d El; Radja\\"{i}, Farhang
2006-01-01
We investigate shear strength properties of wet granular materials in the pendular state (i.e. the state where the liquid phase is discontinuous) as a function of water content. Sand and glass beads were wetted and tested in a direct shear cell and under various confining pressures. In parallel, we carried out three-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations by using an explicit equation expressing capillary force as a function of interparticle distance, water bridge volume and surface tension. We show that, due to the peculiar features of capillary interactions, the major influence of water content over the shear strength stems from the distribution of liquid bonds. This property results in shear strength saturation as a function of water content. We arrive at the same conclusion by a microscopic analysis of the shear strength. We propose a model that accounts for the capillary force, the granular texture and particle size polydispersity. We find fairly good agreement of the theoretical estimate of the shear...
Shear wall experiments and design in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the available experimental data bases and design codes/standards for reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall structures in Japan. Information related to the seismic design of RC reactor buildings and containment structures was emphasized in the survey. The seismic requirements for concrete structures, particularly those related to shear strength design, are outlined. Detailed descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements
Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear
Henrich, O.; Stratford, K.; Marenduzzo, D; Coveney, P. V.; Cates, M.E.
2011-01-01
We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direct...
Low-rise shear wall failure modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs
Sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears
Kottapalli, Sesi
1993-01-01
Sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears are identified using simplified equations and the full aeroelastic analysis code, CAMRAD/JA (Johnson, 1988). Analytical results are obtained for an articulated rotor operating at moderate thrust and high airspeed. It is found that the blade chordwise inplane shear, which includes the aerodynamic component, the Coriolis contribution, and the inertial component, and the hub inplane shears are strongly dependent on the out-of-plane response. The sources of helicopter rotor hub inplane shears lie not only in the inplane response but depend on the flap and elastic flatwise responses/modes.
Periodically sheared 2D Yukawa systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We have identified a non-monotonic frequency dependence of the viscosity at high frequencies and shear rates, an energy absorption maximum (local resonance) at the Einstein frequency of the system at medium shear rates, an enhanced collective wave activity, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion, and the emergence of significant configurational anisotropy at small frequencies and high shear rates
Novel shear mechanism in nanolayered composites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mara, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bhattacharyya, Dhriti [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hirth, John P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dickerson, Patricia O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Amit [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
Recent studies have shown that two-phase nanocomposite materials with semicoherent interfaces exhibit enhanced strength, deformability, and radiation damage resistance. The remarkable behavior exhibited by these materials has been attributed to the atomistic structure of the bi-metal interface that results in interfaces with low shear strength and hence, strong barriers for slip transmission due to dislocation core spreading along the weak interfaces. In this work, the low interfacial shear strength of Cu/Nb nanoscale multilayers dictates a new mechanism for shear banding and strain softening during micropillar compression. Previous work investigating shear band formation in nanocrystalline materials has shown a connection between insufficient strain hardening and the onset of shear banding in Fe and Fe-10% Cu, but has also shown that hardening does not necessarily offset shear banding in Pd nanomaterials. Therefore, the mechanisms behind shear localization in nanocrystalline materials are not completely understood. Our findings, supported by molecular dynamics simulations, provide insight on the design of nanocomposites with tailored interface structures and geometry to obtain a combination of high strength and deformability. High strength is derived from the ability of the interfaces to trap dislocations through relative ease of interfacial shear, while deformability can be maximized by controlling the effects of loading geometry on shear band formation.
Study on magnetorheological shear thickening fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper, a magnetic-field-controlled and speed-activated magnetorheological shear thickening fluid (MRSTF) is presented. We fabricated a kind of shear thickening fluid (STF) which was composed of nanosize silica particles suspended in a solvent, ethylene glycol, at high concentrations. Then the micron-size carbonyl iron particles with different volume fractions were added to the STF to fabricate the MRSTF. Their dynamic properties in different shear strain rates and magnetic fields were tested by using a rheometer. The suspension shows an abrupt increase in complex viscosity beyond a critical dynamic shear rate and a magnetic-field-controllable characteristic, as well as being reversible
Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels
1997-01-01
shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact...... are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling....
Confined cubic blue phases under shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disclination network of blue phase II continuously breaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very thin samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a ‘stick-slip’ motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size. (paper)
Confined Cubic Blue Phases under Shear
Henrich, O; Marenduzzo, D; Coveney, P V; Cates, M E
2011-01-01
We study the behaviour of confined cubic blue phases under shear flow via lattice Boltzmann simulations. We focus on the two experimentally observed phases, blue phase I and blue phase II. The disinclination network of blue phase II continuously b reaks and reforms under shear, leading to an oscillatory stress response in time. The oscillations are only regular for very th in samples. For thicker samples, the shear leads to a "stick-slip" motion of part of the network along the vorticity direction. Blue phase I responds very differently: its defect network undergoes seemingly chaotic rearrangements under shear, irrespective of system size.
Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Mike F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.
Arch generated shear bands in granular systems
Bordignon, A. L.; Sigaud, L.; Tavares, G.; Lopes, H.; Lewiner, T.; Morgado, W. A. M.
2009-06-01
We propose an arch based model, on cubic and square lattices, to simulate the internal mobility of grains, in a dense granular system under shear. In this model, the role of the arches in granular transport presents a non-linear dependence on the local values of the stress components that can be modeled geometrically. This non-linearity is very important since a linear dependence on the stress will make the models behave similarly to viscous fluids, which will not reproduce highly interesting properties of the sheared systems such as shear bands. In particular, we study a modified Couette flow and find the appearance of shear bands in accordance with the literature.
Shear bands in aluminium-lithium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The formation of shear bands in Al-Li alloys in cold rolling and their influence on mechanical properties of rolled and heat treated sheets are under consideration. It is shown that shear bands as well as the network of recrystallized grains along previous bands are undesirable structural constituents in aluminum alloy sheets as they decrease processing and operational properties of alloys. In further metal forming the localization of strain is observed along shear bands or zones of recrystallized grains. To avoid failure due to shear band formation it is recommended to roll alloys in as-annealed state and properly regulate reduction degree
Low-rise shear wall failure modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farrar, C.R. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Hashimoto, P.S. (EQE Engineering, Inc., Costa Mesa, CA (USA)); Reed, J.W. (Benjamin (J.R.) and Associates, Inc., Mountain View, CA (USA))
1991-01-01
A summary of the data that are available concerning the structural response of low-rise shear walls is presented. This data will be used to address two failure modes associated with the shear wall structures. First, data concerning the seismic capacity of the shear walls with emphasis on excessive deformations that can cause equipment failure are examined. Second, data concerning the dynamic properties of shear walls (stiffness and damping) that are necessary to compute the seismic inputs to attached equipment are summarized. This case addresses the failure of equipment when the structure remains functional. 23 refs.
Shear strength in one- and two-way slabs according to the critical shear crack theory
Muttoni, Aurelio; Fernndez Ruiz, Miguel
2008-01-01
Currently, there is no generally-accepted theory giving a physical explanation of the shear strength in one- and two-way slabs. Furthermore, for members without transverse reinforcement, shear strength is estimated in most codes of practice following empirical or semi-empirical approaches. In this paper, the fundamentals of the Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT) are introduced. This theory, based on a mechanical model, is shown to provide a unified approach for one- and two-way shear in...
Statistical Model of Extreme Shear
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.
2005-01-01
model that, on a statistically consistent basis, describes the most likely spatial shape of an extreme wind shear event. Predictions from the model have been compared with results from an extreme value data analysis, based on a large number of full-scale measurements recorded with a high sampling rate......In order to continue cost-optimisation of modern large wind turbines, it is important to continuously increase the knowledge of wind field parameters relevant to design loads. This paper presents a general statistical model that offers site-specific prediction of the probability density function...... experimental results are consistent, given the inevitable uncertainties associated with the model as well as with the extreme value data analysis....
Inverse Magnetic/Shear Catalysis
McInnes, Brett
2015-01-01
It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce ``inverse magnetic catalysis'', signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magne...
Quadruple Lap Shear Processing Evaluation
Thornton, Tony N.; McCool, A. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The Thiokol, Science and Engineering Huntsville Operations (SEHO) Laboratory has previously experienced significant levels of variation in testing Quadruple Lap Shear (QLS) specimens. The QLS test is used at Thiokol / Utah for the qualification of Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) nozzle flex bearing materials. A test was conducted to verify that process changes instituted by SEHO personnel effectively reduced variability, even with normal processing variables introduced. A test matrix was designed to progress in a series of steps; the first establishing a baseline, then introducing additional solvents or other variables. Variables included normal test plan delay times, pre-bond solvent hand-wipes and contaminants. Each condition tested utilized standard QLS hardware bonded with natural rubber, two separate technicians and three replicates. This paper will report the results and conclusions of this investigation.
Tensile and shear strength of adhesives
Stibolt, Kenneth A.
1990-01-01
This experiment is conducted in a freshman-level course: Introduction to Engineering Materials. There are no prerequisites for the course although students should have some knowledge of basic algebra. The objectives are to tension and shear test adhesives and to determine the tensile and shear properties of adhesives. Details of equipment of procedure are given.
Finite element modelling of fabric shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this study, a finite element model to predict shear force versus shear angle for woven fabrics is developed. The model is based on the TexGen geometric modelling schema, developed at University of Nottingham and orthotropic constitutive models for yarn behaviour, coupled with a unified displacement-difference periodic boundary condition. A major distinction from prior modelling of fabric shear is that the details of picture frame kinematics are included in the model, which allows the mechanisms of fabric shear to be represented more accurately. Meso- and micro-mechanisms of deformation are modelled to determine their contributions to energy dissipation during shear. The model is evaluated using results obtained for a glass fibre plain woven fabric, and the importance of boundary conditions in the analysis of deformation mechanisms is highlighted. The simulation results show that the simple rotation boundary condition is adequate for predicting shear force at large deformations, with most of the energy being dissipated at higher shear angles due to yarn compaction. For small deformations, a detailed kinematic analysis is needed, enabling the yarn shear and rotation deformation mechanisms to be modelled accurately
Plastic deformation: Shearing mountains atom by atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: ► Rocks, wood, ceramics, semiconductors, and metals all deform in the same way, namely by heterogeneous shear banding via hierarchical orthogonal shear modes. ► While the governing principles of deformation are the same for rocks, wood, ceramics, semiconductors, and metals, these materialsdiffer in their microscopic deformation mechanisms and in the width of the shear band, which covers twelve orders of magnitude from angstroms to hundreds of meters. ► Microscopic deformation mechanisms couple to macroscopic deformation mechanisms, i.e. shear banding, through the collective properties of defect groups on the mesoscale. -- Abstract: Conventional wisdom established atomistic defects, dislocations, as agents of plastic deformation. On macroscopic scale, rock, wood, steel, tough ceramics, fiber reinforced composites, and silicon all deform in the same way and produce the same pattern; shear bands. The argumentation presented here, starts on the largest length scale of the problem at hand and leads through a number of hierarchical levels down to the atomistic mechanism. Shear bands develop discontinuously by the motion of a process zone. Locally, i.e. in the process zone, deformation proceeds perpendicularly to the macroscopic shear, in combination with a rotation. The microscopic shear itself may occur again in a discontinuous manner and again orthogonally to the intermediate level and so on at ever smaller scale. Material properties come into play at the highest hierarchical level, i.e. at the smallest length scale where they control the well-known micromechanisms
Study of shear-stiffened elastomers
Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua; Ding, Jie; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping
2013-06-01
Shear thickening fluids, which are usually concentrated colloidal suspensions composed of non-aggregating solid particles suspended in fluids, exhibit a marked increase in viscosity beyond a critical shear rate. This increased viscosity is seen as being both 'field-activated', due to the dependence on shearing rate, as well as reversible. Shear thickening fluids have found good applications as protection materials, such as in liquid body armor, vibration absorber or dampers. This research aims to expand the protection material family by developing a novel solid status shear thickening material, called shear-stiffened elastomers. These new shear-stiffened elastomers were fabricated with the mixture of silicone rubber and silicone oil. A total of four SSE samples were fabricated in this study. Their mechanical and rheological properties under both steady-state and dynamic loading conditions were tested with a parallel-plate. The effects of silicone oil composition and angular frequency were summarized. When raising the angular frequency in dynamic shear test, the storage modulus of conventional silicone rubber shows a small increasing trend with the frequency. However, if silicone oil is selected to be mixed with silicone rubber, the storage modulus increases dramatically when the frequency and strain are both beyond the critical values.
Shear buckling of square perforated plates
Grosskurth, J. F., Jr.; White, R. N.; Gallagher, R. H.; Thomas, G. R.
1974-01-01
The behavior of thin square perforated plates under the action of uniform shear deformation is studied experimentally and analytically using finite element analysis. Elastic Shear buckling strength is established as a function of the diameter of a round, centrally located hole in the plate. Post buckling behavior and the behavior of perforated plates with various ring stiffeners are also studied experimentally.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jarić Jovo P.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The algebraic proof of the fundamental theorem concerning pure shear, by making use only of the notion of orthogonal projector, is presented. It has been shown that the state of pure shear is the same for all singular symmetric traceless tensors in E3, up to the rotation.
Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)
2012-10-24
Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.
Squirming through shear-thinning fluids
Datt, Charu; Elfring, Gwynn J; Pak, On Shun
2015-01-01
Many microorganisms find themselves immersed in fluids displaying non-Newtonian rheological properties such as viscoelasticity and shear-thinning viscosity. The effects of viscoelasticity on swimming at low Reynolds numbers have already received considerable attention, but much less is known about swimming in shear-thinning fluids. A general understanding of the fundamental question of how shear-thinning rheology influences swimming still remains elusive. To probe this question further, we study a spherical squirmer in a shear-thinning fluid using a combination of asymptotic analysis and numerical simulations. Shear-thinning rheology is found to affect a squirming swimmer in nontrivial and surprising ways; we predict and show instances of both faster and slower swimming depending on the surface actuation of the squirmer. We also illustrate that while a drag and thrust decomposition can provide insights into swimming in Newtonian fluids, extending this intuition to problems in complex media can prove problemat...
Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test
Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields
Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Jiang, Jile; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu
2011-01-01
By shearing electrorheological (ER) fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (100 V/mm), which can be characterized by a critical apparent viscosity. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced interparticle friction forces are considered to play an important role in the origin of lateral shear resistance of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric-field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance electrorheological -magnetorheological fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying a local electric field, other field-responsive materials, and intelligent systems.
Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields.
Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Jiang, Jile; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu
2011-01-01
By shearing electrorheological (ER) fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (100 V/mm), which can be characterized by a critical apparent viscosity. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced interparticle friction forces are considered to play an important role in the origin of lateral shear resistance of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric-field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance electrorheological-magnetorheological fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying a local electric field, other field-responsive materials, and intelligent systems. PMID:21405692
Transient dynamics in dense colloidal suspensions under shear: shear rate dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A combination of confocal microscopy and rheology experiments, Brownian dynamics (BD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and mode coupling theory (MCT) have been applied in order to investigate the effect of shear rate on the transient dynamics and stress-strain relations in supercooled and glassy systems under shear. Immediately after shear is switched on, the microscopic dynamics display super-diffusion and the macroscopic rheology a stress overshoot, which become more pronounced with increasing shear rate. MCT relates both to negative sections of the generalized shear modulus, which grow with increasing shear rate. When the inverse shear rate becomes much smaller than the structural relaxation time of the quiescent system, relaxation through Brownian motion becomes less important. In this regime, larger stresses are accumulated before the system yields and the transition from localization to flow occurs earlier and more abruptly.
Wind shear and turbulence simulation
Bowles, Roland L.
1987-01-01
The aviation community is increasing its reliance on flight simulators. This is true both in pilot training and in research and development. In moving research concepts through the development pipeline, there is a sequence of events which take place: analysis, ground based simulation, inflight simulation, and flight testing. Increasing fidelity as progress toward the flight testing arena is accompanied by increasing cost. The question that seems to be posed in relation to the meteorological aspects of flight simulation is, How much fidelity is enough and can it be quantified. As a part of the Langley Simulation Technology Program, there are three principal areas of focus, one being improved simulation of weather hazards. A close liaison with the JAWS project was established because of the Langley Simulation Technology interests regarding reliable simulation of severe convective weather phenomena and their impact on aviation systems. Simulation offers the only feasible approach for examining the utility of new technology and new procedures for coping with severe convective weather phenomena such as wind shear. These simulation concepts are discussed in detail.
Inverse magnetic/shear catalysis
McInnes, Brett
2016-05-01
It is well known that very large magnetic fields are generated when the Quark-Gluon Plasma is formed during peripheral heavy-ion collisions. Lattice, holographic, and other studies strongly suggest that these fields may, for observationally relevant field values, induce "inverse magnetic catalysis", signalled by a lowering of the critical temperature for the chiral/deconfinement transition. The theoretical basis of this effect has recently attracted much attention; yet so far these investigations have not included another, equally dramatic consequence of the peripheral collision geometry: the QGP acquires a large angular momentum vector, parallel to the magnetic field. Here we use holographic techniques to argue that the angular momentum can also, independently, have an effect on transition temperatures, and we obtain a rough estimate of the relative effects of the presence of both a magnetic field and an angular momentum density. We find that the shearing angular momentum reinforces the effect of the magnetic field at low values of the baryonic chemical potential, but that it can actually decrease that effect at high chemical potentials.
IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippe Lopez
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.
New combined shear and compression test method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A new test method was developed to determine shear/compression properties of composite insulation systems used in superconducting magnets. It was developed specifically to enable in-situ testing (without warm-up) of insulation systems in a high flux neutron radiation and cryogenic (4 K) temperature environment at the Munich Research Reactor (FRM - Forschungsreaktor Munchen). The new shear/compression specimen consists of two sections of composite insulation bonded at a specific angle between three pieces of 316 stainless steel. During the test, the specimen is compressed between two loading platens. By varying the angle of the test specimen, different shear/compression ratios can be evaluated and a shear/compression envelope for various materials can be produced. This test method produces the same shear and compressive strengths found in other shear/compression tests, but the test fixture is smaller, and multiple test specimens are not required. The composite insulation systems were tested at 45 degrees to demonstrate the feasibility of the test. Specimens were produced from a vacuum pressure impregnation (VPI) resin system and a prepreg resin system. Design and fabrication of the test specimens and their shear and compressive properties are presented
Hierarchical cosmic shear power spectrum inference
Alsing, Justin; Heavens, Alan; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Kiessling, Alina; Wandelt, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Till
2016-02-01
We develop a Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach for cosmic shear power spectrum inference, jointly sampling from the posterior distribution of the cosmic shear field and its (tomographic) power spectra. Inference of the shear power spectrum is a powerful intermediate product for a cosmic shear analysis, since it requires very few model assumptions and can be used to perform inference on a wide range of cosmological models a posteriori without loss of information. We show that joint posterior for the shear map and power spectrum can be sampled effectively by Gibbs sampling, iteratively drawing samples from the map and power spectrum, each conditional on the other. This approach neatly circumvents difficulties associated with complicated survey geometry and masks that plague frequentist power spectrum estimators, since the power spectrum inference provides prior information about the field in masked regions at every sampling step. We demonstrate this approach for inference of tomographic shear E-mode, B-mode and EB-cross power spectra from a simulated galaxy shear catalogue with a number of important features; galaxies distributed on the sky and in redshift with photometric redshift uncertainties, realistic random ellipticity noise for every galaxy and a complicated survey mask. The obtained posterior distributions for the tomographic power spectrum coefficients recover the underlying simulated power spectra for both E- and B-modes.
Electrorheological fluid under elongation, compression, and shearing.
Tian, Y; Meng, Y; Mao, H; Wen, S
2002-03-01
Electrorheological (ER) fluid based on zeolite and silicone oil under elongation, compression, and shearing was investigated at room temperature. Dc electric fields were applied on the ER fluid when elongation and compression were carried out on a self-constructed test system. The shear yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of shearing and perpendicular to the direction of the electric field, was also obtained by a HAAKE RV20 rheometer. The tensile yield stress, presenting the macroscopic interactions of particles in the ER fluid along the direction of the electric field, was achieved as the peak value in the elongating curve with an elongating yield strain of 0.15-0.20. A shear yield angle of about 15 degrees -18.5 degrees reasonably connected tensile yield stress with shear yield stress, agreeing with the shear yield angle tested well by other researchers. The compressing tests showed that the ER fluid has a high compressive modulus under a small compressive strain lower than 0.1. The compressive stress has an exponential relationship with the compressive strain when it is higher than 0.1, and it is much higher than shear yield stress. PMID:11909066
Convectively driven shear and decreased heat flux
Goluskin, David; Flierl, Glenn R; Spiegel, Edward A
2014-01-01
We report on direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection, focusing on its ability to drive large-scale horizontal flow that is vertically sheared. For the Prandtl numbers ($Pr$) between 1 and 10 simulated here, this large-scale shear can be induced by raising the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) sufficiently, and we explore the resulting convection for $Ra$ up to $10^{10}$. When present in our simulations, the sheared mean flow accounts for a large fraction of the total kinetic energy, and this fraction tends towards unity as $Ra\\to\\infty$. The shear helps disperse convective structures, and it reduces vertical heat flux; in parameter regimes where one state with large-scale shear and one without are both stable, the Nusselt number of the state with shear is smaller and grows more slowly with $Ra$. When the large-scale shear is present with $Pr\\lesssim2$, the convection undergoes strong global oscillations on long timescales, and heat transport occurs in bursts. N...
Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moayyad M. Al-Nasra
2013-10-01
Full Text Available - This study focuses on the use of different types of shear reinforcement in the reinforced concrete beams. Four different types of shear reinforcement are investigated; traditional stirrups, welded swimmer bars, bolted swimmer bars, and u-link bolted swimmer bars. Beam shear strength as well as beam deflection are the main two factors considered in this study. Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams is one of the most undesirable modes of failure due to its rapid progression. This sudden type of failure made it necessary to explore more effective ways to design these beams for shear. The reinforced concrete beams show different behavior at the failure stage in shear compare to the bending, which is considered to be unsafe mode of failure. The diagonal cracks that develop due to excess shear forces are considerably wider than the flexural cracks. The cost and safety of shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete beams led to the study of other alternatives. Swimmer bar system is a new type of shear reinforcement. It is a small inclined bars, with its both ends bent horizontally for a short distance and welded or bolted to both top and bottom flexural steel reinforcement. Regardless of the number of swimmer bars used in each inclined plane, the swimmer bars form plane-crack interceptor system instead of bar-crack interceptor system when stirrups are used. Several reinforced concrete beams were carefully prepared and tested in the lab. The results of these tests will be presented and discussed. The deflection of each beam is also measured at incrementally increased applied load.
Shear resistance for concrete dams : Laboratory tests
Colio Gutiérrez, Manuel
2013-01-01
The Mohr-Coulomb shear strength failure criterion is used nowadays by most of the countries in their guidelines to estimate the shear capacity between the dam and the foundation. However, the Mohr-Coulomb model does not take into consideration the roughness of the concrete-to-rock interface. The fact the roughness the influence of the roughness is ignored by the guidelines leads to an overestimation of the shear capacity between the dam and the rock. Therefore, there is a need to increase the...
Method for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method is disclosed for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies of the type wherein a plurality of long metal tubes packed with ceramic fuel are supported in a spaced apart relationship within an outer metal shell or shroud which provides structural support to the assembly. Spent nuclear fuel assemblies are first compacted in a stepwise manner between specially designed gag-compactors and then sheared into short segments amenable to chemical processing by shear blades contoured to mate with the compacted surface of the fuel assembly
Shear instability in magnetized, collisional dusty plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pandey, B. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, New South Wales 2109 (Australia); Vladimirov, S. V.; Samarian, A. A. [School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)
2012-06-15
The shear instability of magnetized, collisional dusty plasma is investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that the relative drift between the charged dust and magnetised electrons and ions which give rise to the Hall effect is crucial to this instability. Although the nature of present shear instability is similar to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the role of magnetic field in the present case is important in destabilising waves. The maximum growth rate of the instability is proportional only to the shear gradient and is independent of the ambient magnetic field strength. Most unstable wavenumber is a function of ambient dust parameters.
Stability Criteria of 3D Inviscid Shears
Li, Y. Charles
2009-01-01
The classical plane Couette flow, plane Poiseuille flow, and pipe Poiseuille flow share some universal 3D steady coherent structure in the form of "streak-roll-critical layer". As the Reynolds number approaches infinity, the steady coherent structure approaches a 3D limiting shear of the form ($U(y,z), 0, 0$) in velocity variables. All such 3D shears are steady states of the 3D Euler equations. This raises the importance of investigating the stability of such inviscid 3D shears in contrast to...
Shear Dynamics in Bianchi I Cosmology
Caceres, Diego; Tejeiro, Juan M
2010-01-01
We present the exact equation for evolution of Bianchi I cosmological model, considering a non-tilted perfect fluid in a matter dominated universe. We use the definition of shear tensor and later we prove it is consistent with the evolution equation for shear tensor obtained from Ricci identities and widely known in literature [3], [5], [9]. Our result is compared with the equation given by Ellis and van Elst in [3] and Tsagas, Challinor and Maartens [5]. We consider that it is important to clarify the notation used in [3], [5] related with the covariant derivative and the behavior of the shear tensor.
Reactively driven drift modes in sheared flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vranjes, J.; Jovanovic, D. [Institute of Physics, Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Shukla, P.K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Fakultaet fueur Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Bochum (Germany)
2000-07-01
Equations describing drift waves in strongly inhomogeneous plasma with a sheared flow and a sheared magnetic field are derived. New stabilization criteria are obtained in the linear regime. In the nonlinear regime, it is found that the governing equations admit stationary solutions in the form of tri polar vortex and vortex chains that are driven by the equilibrium plasma flow and magnetic shear. The tri polar vortex obtained in this paper is surprisingly similar to corresponding structures in two-dimensional flows in ordinary fluids. (author)
Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)
Two-fluid tokamak equilibria with reversed magnetic shear and sheared flow
Poulipoulis, G; Tasso, H
2005-01-01
The aim of the present work is to investigate tokamak equilibria with reversed magnetic shear and sheared flow, which may play a role in the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs), within the framework of two-fluid model. The study is based on exact self-consistent solutions in cylindrical geometry by means of which the impact of the magnetic shear, s, and the "toroidal" (axial) and "poloidal" (azimuthal) ion velocity components on the radial electric field, its shear and the shear of the ExB velocity is examined. For a wide parametric regime of experimental concern it turns out that the contributions of the toroidal and poloidal velocity and pressure gradient terms to the electric field, its shear and ExB velocity shear are of the same order of magnitude. The impact of s on ExB velocity shear through the pressure gradient term is stronger than that through the velocity terms. The results indicate that, alike MHD, the magnetic shear and the sheared toroidal and poloidal velocities act synergetically ...
Magnetized stratified rotating shear waves.
Salhi, A; Lehner, T; Godeferd, F; Cambon, C
2012-02-01
We present a spectral linear analysis in terms of advected Fourier modes to describe the behavior of a fluid submitted to four constraints: shear (with rate S), rotation (with angular velocity Ω), stratification, and magnetic field within the linear spectral theory or the shearing box model in astrophysics. As a consequence of the fact that the base flow must be a solution of the Euler-Boussinesq equations, only radial and/or vertical density gradients can be taken into account. Ertel's theorem no longer is valid to show the conservation of potential vorticity, in the presence of the Lorentz force, but a similar theorem can be applied to a potential magnetic induction: The scalar product of the density gradient by the magnetic field is a Lagrangian invariant for an inviscid and nondiffusive fluid. The linear system with a minimal number of solenoidal components, two for both velocity and magnetic disturbance fields, is eventually expressed as a four-component inhomogeneous linear differential system in which the buoyancy scalar is a combination of solenoidal components (variables) and the (constant) potential magnetic induction. We study the stability of such a system for both an infinite streamwise wavelength (k(1) = 0, axisymmetric disturbances) and a finite one (k(1) ≠ 0, nonaxisymmetric disturbances). In the former case (k(1) = 0), we recover and extend previous results characterizing the magnetorotational instability (MRI) for combined effects of radial and vertical magnetic fields and combined effects of radial and vertical density gradients. We derive an expression for the MRI growth rate in terms of the stratification strength, which indicates that purely radial stratification can inhibit the MRI instability, while purely vertical stratification cannot completely suppress the MRI instability. In the case of nonaxisymmetric disturbances (k(1) ≠ 0), we only consider the effect of vertical stratification, and we use Levinson's theorem to demonstrate the stability of the solution at infinite vertical wavelength (k(3) = 0): There is an oscillatory behavior for τ > 1+|K(2)/k(1)|, where τ = St is a dimensionless time and K(2) is the radial component of the wave vector at τ = 0. The model is suitable to describe instabilities leading to turbulence by the bypass mechanism that can be relevant for the analysis of magnetized stratified Keplerian disks with a purely azimuthal field. For initial isotropic conditions, the time evolution of the spectral density of total energy (kinetic + magnetic + potential) is considered. At k(3) = 0, the vertical motion is purely oscillatory, and the sum of the vertical (kinetic + magnetic) energy plus the potential energy does not evolve with time and remains equal to its initial value. The horizontal motion can induce a rapid transient growth provided K(2)/k(1)>1. This rapid growth is due to the aperiodic velocity vortex mode that behaves like K(h)/k(h) where k(h)(τ)=[k(1)(2) + (K(2) - k(1)τ)(2)](1/2) and K(h) =k(h)(0). After the leading phase (τ > K(2)/k(1)>1), the horizontal magnetic energy and the horizontal kinetic energy exhibit a similar (oscillatory) behavior yielding a high level of total energy. The contribution to energies coming from the modes k(1) = 0 and k(3) = 0 is addressed by investigating the one-dimensional spectra for an initial Gaussian dense spectrum. For a magnetized Keplerian disk with a purely vertical field, it is found that an important contribution to magnetic and kinetic energies comes from the region near k(1) = 0. The limit at k(1) = 0 of the streamwise one-dimensional spectra of energies, or equivalently, the streamwise two-dimensional (2D) energy, is then computed. The comparison of the ratios of these 2D quantities with their three-dimensional counterparts provided by previous direct numerical simulations shows a quantitative agreement. PMID:22463311
Nucleation and initial propagation of shear cracks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. MULARGIA
1977-06-01
Full Text Available SUMMARY. - By means of the dislocation theory, an explanation is found
for the antientropic process of microcracking-macrocracking transition in the
shear fracture initial propagation.
Stress analysis of shear/compression test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stress analysis has been made on the glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) subjected to the combined shear and compression stresses by means of finite element method. The two types of experimental set up were analyzed, that is parallel and series method where the specimen were compressed by tilted jigs which enable to apply the combined stresses, to the specimen. Modified Tsai-Hill criterion was employed to judge the failure under the combined stresses that is the shear strength under the compressive stress. The different failure envelopes were obtained between the two set ups. In the parallel system the shear strength once increased with compressive stress then decreased. On the contrary in the series system the shear strength decreased monotonicly with compressive stress. The difference is caused by the different stress distribution due to the different constraint conditions. The basic parameters which control the failure under the combined stresses will be discussed
Recent progress in shear punch testing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shear punch test was developed in response to the needs of the materials development community for small-scale mechanical properties tests. Such tests will be of great importance when a fusion neutron simulation device is built, since such a device is expected to have a limited irradiation volume. The shear punch test blanks a circular disk from a fixed sheet metal specimen, specifically a TEM disk. Load-displacement data generated during the test can be related to uniaxial tensile properties such as yield and ultimate strength. Shear punch and tensile tests were performed at room temperature on a number of unirradiated aluminum, copper, vanadium, and stainless steel alloys and on several irradiated aluminum alloys. Recent results discussed here suggest that the relationship between shear punch strength and tensile strength varies with alloy class, although the relationship determined for the unirradiated condition remains valid for the irradiated aluminum alloys
Wall Shear Rates in Taylor Vortex Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. Sobolik
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Wall shear rate and its axial and azimuthal components were evaluated in stable Taylor vortices. The measurements were carried out in a broad interval of Taylor numbers (52-725 and several gap width (R1/R2 = 0.5 – 0.8 by two three-segment electrodiffusion probes and three single probes flush mounted in the wall of the outer fixed cylinder. The axial distribution of wall shear rate components was obtained by sweeping the vortices along the probes using a slow axial flow. The experimental results were verified by CFD simulations. The knowledge of local wall shear rates and its fluctuations is of primordial interest for industrial applications like tangential filtration, membrane reactors and bioreactors containing shear sensitive cells.
Turbulence evolution in plasma shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The renormalized nonlinear analysis of the temporal evolution of drift-type modes in plasma shear flows is developed. The theory accounts for the effect of the turbulent motions of plasma on the saturation of the resistive drift instability. The nonlinear balance equation, which determines the saturation level of the resistive drift instability in shear flow is obtained. It was prowed that the nonlinear effect of the enhanced decorrelation by shear flow has nothing in common with process of the saturation. The same conclusion is applicable to all fluid models of plasma, obtained in drift approximation, in which all nonlinearities, other than EB are ignored. The linear non-modal kinetic theory to the Vlasov-Poisson system is developed. This theory reveals the velocity shear in a non-modal time-dependent effect of the finite Larmor radius. (author)
Acoustic waves in unbounded shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The linear evolution of acoustic waves in fluid flow with constant density and uniform shear of velocity is investigated. The process of the mean flow energy extraction by the three-dimensional acoustic waves which is due to the non-normality of linear dynamics in shear flows is analyzed. The thorough examination of the dynamics of different physical quantities, specifying the wave evolution, is outlined. The revealing of the behaviour becomes possible owing to the nonmodal approach that has been extensively used in the study of the perturbations evolution in shear flows since the beginning of the nineties. In addition, a detailed analyses of the physics of shear energy gain by vortex and acoustic perturbations is presented. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs
Shear joint capability versus bolt clearance
Lee, H. M.
1992-10-01
The results of a conservative analysis approach into the determination of shear joint strength capability for typical space-flight hardware as a function of the bolt-hole clearance specified in the design are presented. These joints are comprised of high-strength steel fasteners and abutments constructed of aluminum alloys familiar to the aerospace industry. A general analytical expression was first arrived at which relates bolt-hole clearance to the bolt shear load required to place all joint fasteners into a shear transferring position. Extension of this work allowed the analytical development of joint load capability as a function of the number of fasteners, shear strength of the bolt, bolt-hole clearance, and the desired factor of safety. Analysis results clearly indicate that a typical space-flight hardware joint can withstand significant loading when less than ideal bolt hole clearances are used in the design.
Shear thickening, frictionless and frictional rheologies
Mari, Romain; Morris, Jeffrey F; Denn, Morton M
2014-01-01
Particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid raise the viscosity and also generally give rise to a shear-rate dependent rheology. In particular, pronounced shear thickening is observed at large solid volume fractions. In a recent article (R. Seto, R. Mari, J. F. Morris, and M. M. Denn., Phys. Rev. Lett., 111:218301, 2013) we have considered the minimum set of components to reproduce the experimentally observed shear thickening behavior, including Discontinuous Shear Thickening (DST). We have found frictional contact forces to be essential, and were able to reproduce the experimental behavior by a simulation including this physical ingredient. In the present article, we thoroughly investigate the effect of friction and express it in the framework of the jamming transition. The viscosity divergence at the jamming transition has been a well known phenomenon in suspension rheology, as reflected in many empirical laws for the viscosity. Friction can affect this divergence, and in particular the jamming packing fractio...
Mesoscale Elucidation of Biofilm Shear Behavior
Barai, Pallab; Mukherjee, Partha P
2015-01-01
Formation of bacterial colonies as biofilm on the surface/interface of various objects has the potential to impact not only human health and disease but also energy and environmental considerations. Biofilms can be regarded as soft materials, and comprehension of their shear response to external forces is a key element to the fundamental understanding. A mesoscale model has been presented in this article based on digitization of a biofilm microstructure. Its response under externally applied shear load is analyzed. Strain stiffening type behavior is readily observed under high strain loads due to the unfolding of chains within soft polymeric substrate. Sustained shear loading of the biofilm network results in strain localization along the diagonal direction. Rupture of the soft polymeric matrix can potentially reduce the intercellular interaction between the bacterial cells. Evolution of stiffness within the biofilm network under shear reveals two regions: a) initial increase in stiffness due to strain stiffe...
Torsion and shear stresses in ships
Shama, Mohamed
2010-01-01
This book covers an area of ship structure analysis and design that has not been exhaustively examined by other references. It presents the basic concepts of the methods and procedures required to calculate torsion and shear stresses in ship structures.
Scaling and intermittency in incoherent ?-shear dynamo
Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel
2012-03-01
We consider mean-field dynamo models with fluctuating ? effect, both with and without large-scale shear. The ? effect is chosen to be Gaussian white noise with zero mean and a given covariance. In the presence of shear, we show analytically that (in infinitely large domains) the mean-squared magnetic field shows exponential growth. The growth rate of the fastest growing mode is proportional to the shear rate. This result agrees with earlier numerical results of Yousef et al. and the recent analytical treatment by Heinemann, McWilliams & Schekochihin who use a method different from ours. In the absence of shear, an incoherent ?2 dynamo may also be possible. We further show by explicit calculation of the growth rate of third- and fourth-order moments of the magnetic field that the probability density function of the mean magnetic field generated by this dynamo is non-Gaussian.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Suryati
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Effect of low voltage electrical stimulation (LVES; 45 volt, 3 amps for approx 100 sec and calcium chloride (CaCl2 injection on physical properties of meat were evaluated. Six mutton were devided into 3 groups. One carcass of each group was subjected to within 30 min postmortem (PM. After LVES, longissimi thoracis et lumbarum muscles were removed and treated: without CaCl2 injection, CaCl2 injection (200 mM, 5% w/w at about 2 h and 24 h PM. Samples were stored in vacuum pack at 1 1o C. Physical properties evaluated were WarnerBratzler (WB shear force, cooking loss and sarcomere length. The LVES had no significant effect on WB shear force, cooking loss and sarcomere length. There wasnt interaction effect between LVES and CaCl2 injection on WB shear force, cooking loss and sarcomere length. CaCl2 injection decreased sarcomere length (P<0.01, therefore resulted in tougher meat with higher cooking loss.
Shear viscosity in antikaon condensed matter
Nandi, Rana; Banik, Sarmistha; Bandyopadhyay, Debades
2009-01-01
We investigate the shear viscosity of neutron star matter in the presence of an antikaon condensate. The electron and muon number densities are reduced due to the appearance of a $K^-$ condensate in neutron star matter, whereas the proton number density increases. Consequently the shear viscosity due to scatterings of electrons and muons with themselves and protons is lowered compared to the case without the condensate. On the other hand, the contribution of proton-proton collisions to the pr...
Velocity Profiles in Slowly Sheared Bubble Rafts
Lauridsen, John; Chanan, Greg; Dennin, Michael
2003-01-01
Measurements of average velocity profiles in a bubble raft subjected to slow, steady-shear demonstrate the coexistence between a flowing state and a jammed state similar to that observed for three-dimensional foams and emulsions [Coussot {\\it et al,}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 218301 (2002)]. For sufficiently slow shear, the flow is generated by nonlinear topological rearrangements. We report on the connection between this short-time motion of the bubbles and the long-time averages. We find ...
Adiabatic shearing study by dynamic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The adiabatic shearing study was carried out by dynamic compression tests made on a Hopkinson's rod. The deformation rate is around 2x103 s-1; the materials studied are in martensitic steel and a titanium alloy, at ambient temperature and up to 5000C. Microscopic observations show how the break appears, associated with the development of adiabatic shearing bands. The mechanical results are discussed and compared against the theoretical approaches
Transition to turbulence in a shear flow
Eckhardt, B; Eckhardt, Bruno; Mersmann, Alois
1999-01-01
We analyze the properties of a 19 dimensional Galerkin approximation to a parallel shear flow. The laminar flow with a sinusoidal shape is stable for all Reynolds numbers Re. For sufficiently large Re additional stationary flows occur; they are all unstable. The lifetimes of finite amplitude perturbations show a fractal dependence on amplitude and Reynolds number. These findings are in accord with observations on plane Couette flow and suggest a universality of this transition szenario in shear flows.
Transition to turbulence in a shear flow.
Eckhardt, B; Mersmann, A
1999-07-01
We analyze the properties of a 19-dimensional Galerkin approximation to a parallel shear flow. The laminar flow with a sinusoidal shape is stable for all Reynolds numbers Re. For sufficiently large Re additional stationary flows occur; they are all unstable. The lifetimes of finite amplitude perturbations shows a fractal dependence on amplitude and Reynolds number. These findings are in accord with observations on plane Couette flow and suggest a universality of this transition scenario in shear flows. PMID:11969790
Particle acceleration in astrophysical shear flows
Frank M. Rieger; Duffy, Peter
2005-01-01
We consider the acceleration of particles due to a velocity shear in relativistic astrophysical flows. The basic physical picture and the formation of power law momentum spectra is discussed for a non-relativistic velocity field using a microscopic approach. We identify possible sites for shear acceleration in relativistic astrophysical jets and analyze their associated acceleration timescales. It is shown in particular that for a mean scattering time $\\tau$ scaling with the gyro-radius, the ...
Linear Shear Rheology of Incompressible Foams
Buzza, D.; D. Lu, C.-Y.; Cates, M.
1995-01-01
We discuss various mechanisms for viscous dissipation in the linear response to oscillatory shear of incompressible foams (such as biliquid foams or dense emulsions). These include viscous flow of liquid in films and plateau borders; intrinsic viscosity of the surfactant layers; and diffusion resistance. Marangoni-type and marginal regeneration mechanisms are considered for the transport of surfactant. We predict (on the basis of typical parameters for biliquid foams) that the zero shear visc...
Liquid migration in sheared unsaturated granular media
Mani, Roman; Herrmann, Hans J
2012-01-01
We show how liquid migrates in sheared unsaturated granular media using a grain scale model for capillary bridges. Liquid is redistributed to neighboring contacts after rupture of individual capillary bridges leading to redistribution of liquid on large scales. The liquid profile evolution coincides with a recently developed continuum description for liquid migration in shear bands. The velocity profiles which are linked to the migration of liquid as well as the density profiles of wet and dry granular media are studied.
4-D ultrafast shear-wave imaging.
Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Provost, Jean; Deffieux, Thomas; Papadacci, Clément; Imbault, Marion; Pernot, Mathieu; Tanter, Mickael
2015-06-01
Over the last ten years, shear wave elastography (SWE) has seen considerable development and is now routinely used in clinics to provide mechanical characterization of tissues to improve diagnosis. The most advanced technique relies on the use of an ultrafast scanner to generate and image shear waves in real time in a 2-D plane at several thousands of frames per second. We have recently introduced 3-D ultrafast ultrasound imaging to acquire with matrix probes the 3-D propagation of shear waves generated by a dedicated radiation pressure transducer in a single acquisition. In this study, we demonstrate 3-D SWE based on ultrafast volumetric imaging in a clinically applicable configuration. A 32 × 32 matrix phased array driven by a customized, programmable, 1024-channel ultrasound system was designed to perform 4-D shear-wave imaging. A matrix phased array was used to generate and control in 3-D the shear waves inside the medium using the acoustic radiation force. The same matrix array was used with 3-D coherent plane wave compounding to perform high-quality ultrafast imaging of the shear wave propagation. Volumetric ultrafast acquisitions were then beamformed in 3-D using a delay-and-sum algorithm. 3-D volumetric maps of the shear modulus were reconstructed using a time-of-flight algorithm based on local multiscale cross-correlation of shear wave profiles in the three main directions using directional filters. Results are first presented in an isotropic homogeneous and elastic breast phantom. Then, a full 3-D stiffness reconstruction of the breast was performed in vivo on healthy volunteers. This new full 3-D ultrafast ultrasound system paves the way toward real-time 3-D SWE. PMID:26067040
Assessment of Shear Strength in Silty Soils
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefaniak Katarzyna
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of shear strength values in silty soils from the area of Poznań, determined based on selected Nkt values recommended in literature, with values of shear strength established on the basis of Nkt values recommended by the author. Analysed silty soils are characterized by the carbonate cementation zone, which made it possible to compare selected empirical coefficients both in normally consolidated and overconsolidated soils
Transient dynamics in dense colloidal suspensions under shear : shear rate dependence
Laurati, Marco; Mutch, K. Jacob; Koumakis, Nikos; Zausch, Jochen; Amann, Christian P.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Petekidis, George; Brady, John F.; Horbach, Jürgen; Fuchs, Matthias; Egelhaaf, Stefan Ulrich
2012-01-01
A combination of confocal microscopy and rheology experiments, Brownian dynamics (BD) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and mode coupling theory (MCT) have been applied in order to investigate the effect of shear rate on the transient dynamics and stress–strain relations in supercooled and glassy systems under shear. Immediately after shear is switched on, the microscopic dynamics display super-diffusion and the macroscopic rheology a stress overshoot, which become more pronounced with ...
Schematic mode coupling theories for shear thinning, shear thickening, and jamming
Cates, Michael E.; Holmes, Colin B.; Fuchs, Matthias; Henrich, Oliver
2003-01-01
Mode coupling theory (MCT) appears to explain several, though not all, aspects of the glass transition in colloids (particularly when short-range attractions are present). Developments of MCT, from rational foundations in statistical mechanics, account qualitatively for nonlinear flow behaviour such as the yield stress of a hard-sphere colloidal glass. Such theories so far only predict shear thinning behaviour, whereas in real colloids both shear thinning and shear thickening can be found. Th...
Accurate shear measurement with faint sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Jun; Foucaud, Sebastien [Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 955 Jianchuan road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Luo, Wentao, E-mail: betajzhang@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: walt@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: foucaud@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai, 200030 (China)
2015-01-01
For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.
Two-dimensional magnetic colloids under shear.
Mohorič, Tomaž; Dobnikar, Jure; Horbach, Jürgen
2016-04-01
Complex rheological properties of soft disordered solids, such as colloidal gels or glasses, inspire a range of novel applications. However, the microscopic mechanisms of their response to mechanical loading are not well understood. Here, we elucidate some aspects of these mechanisms by studying a versatile model system, i.e. two-dimensional superparamagnetic colloids in a precessing magnetic field, whose structure can be tuned from a hexagonal crystal to a disordered gel network by varying the external field opening angle θ. We perform Langevin dynamics simulations subjecting these structures to a constant shear rate and observe three qualitatively different types of material response. In hexagonal crystals (θ = 0°), at a sufficiently low shear rate, plastic flow occurs via successive stress drops at which the stress releases due to the formation of dislocation defects. The gel network at θ = 48°, on the contrary, via bond rearrangement and transient shear banding evolves into a homogeneously stretched network at large strains. The latter structure remains metastable after switching off of the shear. At θ = 50°, the external shear makes the system unstable against phase separation and causes a failure of the network structure leading to the formation of hexagonal close packed clusters interconnected by particle chains. At a microcopic level, our simulations provide insight into some of the mechanisms by which strain localization as well as material failure occur in a simple gel-like network. Furthermore, we demonstrate that new stretched network structures can be generated by the application of shear. PMID:26877059
Cosmology with cosmic shear observations: a review.
Kilbinger, Martin
2015-07-01
Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as the implications for cosmology. We then conclude with an outlook on the various future surveys and missions, for which cosmic shear is one of the main science drivers, and discuss promising new weak cosmological lensing techniques for future observations. PMID:26181770
Surface instability of sheared soft tissues
Destrade, M; Prikazchikov, D A; Saccomandi, G
2008-01-01
When a block made of an elastomer is subjected to large shear, its surface remains flat. When a block of biological soft tissue is subjected to large shear, it is likely that its surface in the plane of shear will buckle (apparition of wrinkles). One factor that distinguishes soft tissues from rubber-like solids is the presence -- sometimes visible to the naked eye -- of oriented collagen fibre bundles, which are stiffer than the elastin matrix into which they are embedded but are nonetheless flexible and extensible. Here we show that the simplest model of isotropic nonlinear elasticity, namely the incompressible neo-Hookean model, suffers surface instability in shear only at tremendous amounts of shear, i.e., above 3.09, which corresponds to a 72 degrees angle of shear. Next we incorporate a family of parallel fibres in the model and show that the resulting solid can be either reinforced or strongly weakened with respect to surface instability, depending on the angle between the fibres and the direction of s...
Perspectives on the application of zilpaterol hydrochloride in the United States beef industry.
Delmore, R J; Hodgen, J M; Johnson, B J
2010-08-01
Zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) is a beta-adrenergic agonist approved to be fed at a rate of 8.3 mg/kg (100% DM basis) during the final 20 to 40 d of the finishing period in beef cattle followed by a minimum 3-d withdrawal period antemortem. The Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved label claims of increased rate of BW gain, improved feed efficiency, and increased carcass leanness. Before the release of ZH for commercial use in 2007, approximately 10 independent research trials at various universities and commercial feedlots were initiated. Articles in recent issues of the Journal of Animal Science are a result of the large comprehensive body of research designed to increase the understanding of the effect of ZH on beef cattle growth, carcass traits, and beef quality. The feeding of ZH for 20 to 40 d with a 3-d withdrawal resulted in significantly increased ADG. The increases equate to an average of 9 kg heavier BW in ZH-fed steers. Hot carcass weight has been shown to increase to a larger degree compared with BW, with an average improvement of 15 kg. Dressing percent is increased by 1.5 to 2.0% with the feeding of ZH. Increases in carcass leanness were reported for cattle fed ZH mainly through a reduction in yield grades. The LM area was increased, along with yield of subprimal cuts from the round, flank, and loin. Warner-Bratzler shear force studies have shown LM steaks from ZH-treated cattle to have increased shear force values of 1.1 to 1.7 kg for 7-d-aged steaks, 0.4 to 1.3 kg for 14-d-aged steaks, and 0.27 to 1.4 kg for 21-d-aged steaks compared with controls. Recent research has suggested that the aging response is normal in ZH steaks. Consumers were able to identify tenderness differences in 14-d-aged Choice steaks from cattle fed ZH for 20 d compared with 14-d-aged steaks from control cattle; this difference was mitigated with 21 d of postmortem aging. Zilpaterol hydrochloride has been shown to increase cattle growth and efficiency as well as lean tissue deposition in the carcass, with some impact on carcass traits such as Warner-Bratzler shear force. PMID:20382871
Influence of Shear on Rotation Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Members Without Shear Reinforcement
Vaz Rodrigues, Rui; Muttoni, Aurelio; Fernández Ruiz, Miguel
2010-01-01
The influence of shear on the rotation capacity of one-way slabs without shear reinforcement is investigated in this paper by means of an experimental study. The experimental program consisted of 11 slab strips 8400 mm (331 in.) long and 450 mm (17.7 in.) thick with a flexural reinforcement ratio of 0.79%. The rotation capacity was investigated for various values of the shear span and for two types of flexural reinforcement (hot-rolled and cold-worked bars). The specimens developed shear fail...
Fan-structure shear rupture mechanism as a source of shear rupture rockbursts
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
B.G., Tarasov.
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes the further development of a recently identified shear rupture mechanism (fan mechanism) that elucidates a paradoxical feature of hard rocks - the possibility of shear rupture propagation through a highly confined intact rock mass at shear stresses that can be significantly less [...] than frictional strength. In the fan mechanism, failure is associated with consecutive creation of small slabs (known as 'domino blocks') from the intact rock in the rupture tip, driven by a fan-shaped domino structure representing the rupture head. The fan head combines such unique features as extremely low shear resistance, self-sustaining stress intensification, and self-unbalancing conditions. Consequently, the failure process caused by the mechanism is inevitably spontaneous and violent. Physical and mathematical models explain unique and paradoxical features of the mechanism, which can be generated in primary ruptures and segmented faults. The fan mechanism provides a novel point of view for understanding the nature of spontaneous failure processes, including shear rupture rockbursts. The process explains, in particular, features of shear rupture rockbursts such as activation at great depths, generation of new shear ruptures in intact rock mass, nucleation of hypocentres at significant distances from the excavation, shear rupture development at low shear stresses, and abnormal rupture violence.
Nonlinear shear-current dynamo and magnetic helicity transport in sheared turbulence
Rogachevskii, I.; Kleeorin, N.; E. Liverts
2006-01-01
The nonlinear mean-field dynamo due to a shear-current effect in a nonhelical homogeneous turbulence with a mean velocity shear is discussed. The transport of magnetic helicity as a dynamical nonlinearity is taken into account. The shear-current effect is associated with the ${\\bf W} {\\bf \\times} {\\bf J}$ term in the mean electromotive force, where ${\\bf W}$ is the mean vorticity due to the large-scale shear motions and ${\\bf J}$ is the mean electric current. This effect causes the generation...
How to create mylonitic shear zones in the presence of shear heating
Thielmann, Marcel; Rozel, Antoine; Kaus, Boris; Ricard, Yanick
2013-04-01
Lithospheric-scale shear zones are commonly defined as regions inhomogeneous and localized deformation. Strain softening has been demonstrated to be necessary for localization in those shear zones, but there is still debate about the physical cause of this softening. Here, we investigate the interplay between two mechanisms that have been suggested to have a significant impact on lithospheric localization: shear heating and grain size reduction. Shear heating has been suggested to play an important role in i) creating deep focus as well as intermediate-depth earthquakes (Ogawa (1987), Kelemen and Hirth (2007)) and ii) creating lithospheric-scale shear zones, thus creating a weak decoupling interface that enables subsequent subduction initiation (Kaus and Podlatchikov (2006), Crameri and Kaus (2010)). As natural shear zones typically have a significantly reduced grain size, it has been put forward that grain size reduction provides the necessary strain softening to localize deformation. As grain size reduces, the dominant deformation mechanism switches from dislocation to diffusion creep, thus requiring less stress to deform the rock. Usually, the equilibrium grain size is thought to follow a piezometric relationship, thus indicating the stress under which a shear zone deformed. Recent work (Austin and Evans (2007), Rozel et al. (2011)) suggests that the equilibrium grain size is not dependent on stress, but rather on the deformational work. In our study, we employ the grain size evolution law of Rozel et al. and use 1D viscoelastic numerical models of simple shear deformation to investigate the influence of both weakening mechanisms and their interaction for a variety of boundary conditions. We find that grain size reduction in pure olivine does not localize very efficiently, as grain size very rapidly reaches a steady state. Even when a fraction of the deformational work is used by grain size reduction processes, shear heating is found to localize very efficiently (Kaus & Podlatchikov (2005), Braeck et al. (2009)) and the significant temperature increase induced by shear heating severely affects the grain size in the shear zone. Generally, we find that the elevated temperature inside the shear zone results in a larger grain size inside the shear zone compared to the surrounding rock matrix. This finding is not compatible with field observations, where shear zones are usually characterized by small grain sizes. This indicates that further mechanisms are needed to keep either the grain size small (e.g. pinning by secondary phases (Herwegh et. al (2011), Bercovici and Ricard (2012) ) or to limit the temperature increase inside the shear zone.
Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1999-01-01
solutions of this equation are presented for various possible cases. It is shown that, for a critical value of the velocity shear asymmetric dipolar vortices can arise which are strongly modified as a localized vortex chain at resonance. For strong velocity shear these structures are destroyed and...
Punching shear capacity of reinforced concrete slabs with headed shear studs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoang, Linh Cao; Pop, Anamaria
2015-01-01
design. For this purpose, an extension of the upper-bound crack sliding model is proposed. This involves analysis of sliding mechanisms in yield lines developed both within and outside the zone with shear reinforcement. Various types of headed shear studs were considered. The results obtained using the...
Shear-current effect in a turbulent convection with a large-scale shear.
Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan
2007-04-01
The shear-current effect in a nonrotating homogeneous turbulent convection with a large-scale constant shear is studied. The large-scale velocity shear causes anisotropy of turbulent convection, which produces the mean electromotive force epsilon (W) proportional to W x J and the mean electric current along the original mean magnetic field, where W is the background mean vorticity due to the shear and J is the mean electric current. This results in a large-scale dynamo even in a nonrotating and nonhelical homogeneous sheared turbulent convection, whereby the alpha effect vanishes. It is found that turbulent convection promotes the shear-current dynamo instability, i.e., the heat flux causes positive contribution to the shear-current effect. However, there is no dynamo action due to the shear-current effect for small hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers even in a turbulent convection, if the spatial scaling for the turbulent correlation time is tau(k) proportionalto to k-2, where k is the small-scale wave number. PMID:17500991
Extreme model reduction of shear layers
Qawasmeh, Bashar Rafee
The aim of this research is to develop nonlinear low-dimensional models (LDMs) to describe vortex dynamics in shear layers. A modified Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD)/Galerkin projection method is developed to obtain models at extremely low dimension for shear layers. The idea is to dynamically scale the shear layer along y direction to factor out the shear layer growth and capture the dynamics by only a couple of modes. The models are developed for two flows, incompressible spatially developing and weakly compressible temporally developing shear layers, respectively. To capture basic dynamics, the low-dimensional models require only two POD modes for each wavenumber/frequency. Thus, a two-mode model is capable of representing single-wavenumber/frequency dynamics such as vortex roll-up, and a four-mode model is capable of representing the nonlinear dynamics involving a fundamental wavenumber/frequency and its subharmonic, such as vortex pairing/merging. Most of the energy is captured by the first mode of each wavenumber/frequency, the second POD mode, however, plays a critical role and needs to be included. In the thesis, we first apply the approach on temporally developing weakly compressible shear layers. In compressible flows, the thermodynamic variables are dynamically important, and must be considered. We choose isentropic Navier-Stokes equations for simplicity, and choose a proper inner product to present both kinetic energy and thermal energy. Two cases of convective Mach numbers are studied for low compressibility and moderate compressibility. Moreover, we study the sensitivity of the compressible four-mode model to several flow parameters: Mach number, the strength of initial perturbations of the fundamental and its subharmonic, and Reynolds number. Secondly we apply the approach on spatially developing incompressible shear layers with periodicity in time. We consider a streamwise parabolic form of the Navier-Stokes equations. When we add arbitrary excitation at different harmonics to the model, we observe the promoting or delaying/eliminating of vortex merging events as a result of mode competition. To study coherent structures in shear layers, we solve the Direct Lyapunov Exponents (DLEs) to identify the Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS). The negative-time LCS provide structures similar to the ones shown by flow visualization in experiments. The positive-time LCS are also important in describing the dynamics. Both negative and positive LCS are plotted together to give a complete picture of dynamics in shear layers.
Repeated buckling of composite shear panels
Singer, Josef; Weller, Tanchum
1990-01-01
Failures in service of aerospace structures and research at the Technion Aircraft Structures Laboratory have revealed that repeatedly buckled stiffened shear panels might be susceptible to premature fatigue failures. Extensive experimental and analytical studies have been performed at Technion on repeated buckling, far in excess of initial buckling, for both metal and composite shear panels with focus on the influence of the surrounding structure. The core of the experimental investigation consisted of repeated buckling and postbuckling tests on Wagner beams in a three-point loading system under realistic test conditions. The effects of varying sizes of stiffeners, of the magnitude of initial buckling loads, of the panel aspect ratio and of the cyclic shearing force, V sub cyc, were studied. The cyclic to critical shear buckling ratios, (V sub cyc/V sub cr) were on the high side, as needed for efficient panel design, yet all within possible flight envelopes. The experiments were supplemented by analytical and numerical analyses. For the metal shear panels the test and numerical results were synthesized into prediction formulas, which relate the life of the metal shear panels to two cyclic load parameters. The composite shear panels studied were hybrid beams with graphite/epoxy webs bonded to aluminum alloy frames. The test results demonstrated that composite panels were less fatigue sensitive than comparable metal ones, and that repeated buckling, even when causing extensive damage, did not reduce the residual strength by more than 20 percent. All the composite panels sustained the specified fatigue life of 250,000 cycles. The effect of local unstiffened holes on the durability of repeatedly buckled shear panels was studied for one series of the metal panels. Tests on 2024 T3 aluminum panels with relatively small unstiffened holes in the center of the panels demonstrated premature fatigue failure, compared to panels without holes. Preliminary tests on two graphite epoxy shear panels with small holes in the center showed no similar fatigue life degradation and no shift in failure mode. Further tests on the effect of holes are in progress.
Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)
2011-10-01
Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.
Stochastic parametric resonance in shear flows
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. J. Poulin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Time-periodic shear flows can give rise to Parametric Instability (PI, as in the case of the Mathieu equation (Stoker, 1950; Nayfeh and Mook, 1995. This mechanism results from a resonance between the oscillatory basic state and waves that are superimposed on it. Farrell and Ioannou (1996a, b explain that PI occurs because the snap-shots of the velocity profile are subject to transient growth. If the flows were purely steady the transient growth would subside and not have any long lasting effect. However, the coupling between transient growth and the time variation of the basic state create PI. Mathematically, transient growth, and therefore PI, are due to the nonorthogonal eigenspace in the linearized system. Poulin et al. (2003 studied a time-periodic barotropic shear flow that exhibited PI, and thereby produced mixing at the interface between Potential Vorticity (PV fronts. The instability led to the formation of vortices that were stretched. A later study of an oscillatory current in the Cape Cod Bay illustrated that PI can occur in realistic shear flows (Poulin and Flierl, 2005. These studies assumed that the basic state was periodic with a constant frequency and amplitude. In this work we study a shear flow similar to that found in Poulin et al. (2003, but now where the magnitude of vorticity is a stochastic variable. We determine that in the case of stochastic shear flows the transient growth of perturbations of the snapshots of the basic state still generate PI.
Colloidal Aggregate Structure under Shear by USANS
Chatterjee, Tirtha; van Dyk, Antony K.; Ginzburg, Valeriy V.; Nakatani, Alan I.
2015-03-01
Paints are complex formulations of polymeric binders, inorganic pigments, dispersants, surfactants, colorants, rheology modifiers, and other additives. A commercially successful paint exhibits a desired viscosity profile over a wide shear rate range from 10-5 s-1 for settling to >104 s-1 for rolling, and spray applications. Understanding paint formulation structure is critical as it governs the paint viscosity profile. However, probing paint formulation structure under shear is a challenging task due to the formulation complexity containing structures with different hierarchical length scales and their alterations under the influence of an external flow field. In this work mesoscale structures of paint formulations under shear are investigated using Ultra Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (rheo-USANS). Contrast match conditions were utilized to independently probe the structure of latex binder particle aggregates and the TiO2 pigment particle aggregates. Rheo-USANS data revealed that the aggregates are fractal in nature and their self-similarity dimensions and correlations lengths depend on the chemistry of the binder particles, the type of rheology modifier present and the shear stress imposed upon the formulation. These results can be explained in the framework of diffusion and reaction limited transient aggregates structure evolution under simple shear.
Nonmonotonic flow curves of shear thickening suspensions
Mari, Romain; Seto, Ryohei; Morris, Jeffrey F.; Denn, Morton M.
2015-05-01
The discontinuous shear thickening (DST) of dense suspensions is a remarkable phenomenon in which the viscosity can increase by several orders of magnitude at a critical shear rate. It has the appearance of a first-order phase transition between two hypothetical "states" that we have recently identified as Stokes flows with lubricated or frictional contacts, respectively. Here we extend the analogy further by means of stress-controlled simulations and show the existence of a nonmonotonic steady-state flow curve analogous to a nonmonotonic equation of state. While we associate DST with an S -shaped flow curve, at volume fractions above the shear jamming transition the frictional state loses flowability and the flow curve reduces to an arch, permitting the system to flow only at small stresses. Whereas a thermodynamic transition leads to phase separation in the coexistence region, we observe a uniform shear flow all along the thickening transition. A stability analysis suggests that uniform shear may be mechanically stable for the small Reynolds numbers and system sizes in a rheometer.
Viscoelasticity and shear thinning of nanoconfined water
Kapoor, Karan; Amandeep, Patil, Shivprasad
2014-01-01
Understanding flow properties and phase behavior of water confined to nanometer-sized pores and slits is central to a wide range of problems in science, such as percolation in geology, lubrication of future nano-machines, self-assembly and interactions of biomolecules, and transport through porous media in filtration processes. Experiments with different techniques in the past have reported that viscosity of nanoconfined water increases, decreases, or remains close to bulk water. Here we show that water confined to less than 20-nm-thick films exhibits both viscoelasticity and shear thinning. Typically viscoelasticity and shear thinning appear due to shearing of complex non-Newtonian mixtures possessing a slowly relaxing microstructure. The shear response of nanoconfined water in a range of shear frequencies (5 to 25 KHz) reveals that relaxation time diverges with reducing film thickness. It suggests that slow relaxation under confinement possibly arises due to existence of a critical point with respect to slit width. This criticality is similar to the capillary condensation in porous media.
Internal hydraulic jumps with large upstream shear
Ogden, Kelly; Helfrich, Karl
2015-11-01
Internal hydraulic jumps in approximately two-layered flows with large upstream shear are investigated using numerical simulations. The simulations allow continuous density and velocity profiles, and a jump is forced to develop by downstream topography, similar to the experiments conducted by Wilkinson and Wood (1971). High shear jumps are found to exhibit significantly more entrainment than low shear jumps. Furthermore, the downstream structure of the flow has an important effect on the jump properties. Jumps with a slow upper (inactive) layer exhibit a velocity minimum downstream of the jump, resulting in a sub-critical downstream state, while flows with the same upstream vertical shear and a larger barotropic velocity remain super-critical downstream of the jump. A two-layer theory is modified to account for the vertical structure of the downstream density and velocity profiles and entrainment is allowed through a modification of the approach of Holland et al. (2002). The resulting theory can be matched reasonably well with the numerical simulations. However, the results are very sensitive to how the downstream vertical profiles of velocity and density are incorporated into the layered model, highlighting the difficulty of the two layer approximation when the shear is large.
Shear-enhanced adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Lecuyer, Sigolene; Rusconi, Roberto; Shen, Yi; Forsyth, Alison; Stone, Howard
2010-03-01
Bacterial adhesion is the first step in the development of surface-associated communities known as biofilms, which are the cause of many problems in medical devices and industrial water systems. However the underlying mechanisms of initial bacterial attachment are not fully understood. We have investigated the effects of hydrodynamics on the probability of adsorption and detachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 on model surfaces under flow, in straight microfluidic channels, and measured the distribution of bacteria residence time as a function of the shear rate. Our main discovery is a counter-intuitive enhanced adhesion as the shear stress is increased over a wide range of shear rates. In order to identify the origin of this phenomenon, we have performed experiments with several mutant strains. Our results show that shear-enhanced adhesion is not regulated by primary surface organelles, and that this process is not specific to a certain type of surface, but rather appears a general feature of the adhesive behavior of P. aeruginosa. These results suggest that shear-induced adhesion could be a very widespread strategy in nature.
Review article: Cosmology with cosmic shear observations
Kilbinger, Martin
2014-01-01
Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as ...
Parametric Study of Multi-Spot Welded Lap Shear Specimen for Shear Strength
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raghunath T Bandgar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The effect of number of spots, spot spacing, squeezing force, welding current, weld time , overlapping length and sheet thicknesson the shear strength of two similar galvanized steel sheets are investigated through experiments using RSM method. Similar sheets of galvanized steel sheets are made by resistance spot welding at different processing conditions and these joint populations were tested under lap-shear loading conditions. Specially fabricated fixture is used to load the lap shear specimen in the universal testing machine Regression analysis is done to obtain relationship between shear strength and selected parameters. The experimental results indicate that the failure loads of spot welds in lap-shear specimens increase when number of spot, squeezing force, welding current and sheet thickness increase for the given ranges.
Shear viscosity of a hot pion gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shear viscosity of an interacting pion gas is studied using the Kubo formalism as a microscopic description of thermal systems close to global equilibrium. We implement the skeleton expansion in order to approximate the retarded correlator of the viscous part of the energy-momentum tensor. After exploring this in g?4 theory we show how the skeleton expansion can be consistently applied to pions in chiral perturbation theory. The shear viscosity ? is determined by the spectral width, or equivalently, the mean free path of pions in the heat bath. We derive a new analytical result for the mean free path which is well conditioned for numerical evaluation and discuss the temperature and pion-mass dependence of the mean free path and the shear viscosity. The ratio ?/s of the interacting pion gas exceeds the lower bound 1/4? from AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)
Shear viscosity in magnetized neutron star crust
Ofengeim, D. D.; Yakovlev, D. G.
2015-12-01
The electron shear viscosity due to Coulomb scattering of degenerate electrons by atomic nuclei throughout a magnetized neutron star crust is calculated. The theory is based on the shear viscosity coefficient calculated neglecting magnetic fields but taking into account gaseous, liquid and solid states of atomic nuclei, multiphonon scattering processes, and finite sizes of the nuclei albeit neglecting the effects of electron band structure. The effects of strong magnetic fields are included in the relaxation time approximation with the effective electron relaxation time taken from the field-free theory. The viscosity in a magnetized matter is described by five shear viscosity coefficients. They are calculated and their dependence on the magnetic field and other parameters of dense matter is analyzed. Possible applications and open problems are outlined.
Shear banding in thixotropic and normal emulsions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
When made to flow, yield stress materials rarely flow homogeneously. This is mostly attributed to the fact that such materials show a transition from a solid- to a liquid-like state when the stress exceeds some critical value: the yield stress. Thus, if the stress is heterogeneous, so is the flow. Here we consider emulsion flows in a cone-plate geometry that, for Newtonian fluids, correspond to a homogeneous stress situation and show that shear banding can also be observed either due to wall slip or to the existence of a critical shear rate. By means of velocity profiles obtained using a confocal laser scanning microscope combined with a rheometer we conclude that the last type of shear banding occurs only in thixotropic yield stress materials.
Shear banding in thixotropic and normal emulsions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paredes, Jose; Bonn, Daniel [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Shahidzadeh-Bonn, Noushine [Institut Navier, ENPC-IFSTTAR-CNRS, 6 et 8 Avenue Blaise-Pascal, F-77455 Champs-sur-Marne Cedex 2 (France)
2011-07-20
When made to flow, yield stress materials rarely flow homogeneously. This is mostly attributed to the fact that such materials show a transition from a solid- to a liquid-like state when the stress exceeds some critical value: the yield stress. Thus, if the stress is heterogeneous, so is the flow. Here we consider emulsion flows in a cone-plate geometry that, for Newtonian fluids, correspond to a homogeneous stress situation and show that shear banding can also be observed either due to wall slip or to the existence of a critical shear rate. By means of velocity profiles obtained using a confocal laser scanning microscope combined with a rheometer we conclude that the last type of shear banding occurs only in thixotropic yield stress materials.
Couette membrane filtration with constant shear stress.
Fischel, R J; Fischel, H; Shatzel, A; Lange, W P; Cahill, D; Gervais, D; Ascher, N L
1988-01-01
Recent developments in the field of blood component separation have revealed the usefulness of membrane filtration using couette type configurations and Taylor vortices as an efficient and effective method. The authors have analyzed in detail the physical and chemical effects on whole blood separated into protein rich plasma, and concentrated red blood cell suspensions, using this technique. The authors also have calculated and demonstrated the technical specifications required to provide laminar flow with Taylor Vortex formation throughout the device, as well as those required to retain constant shear stress on the blood components as viscosity changes. By maintaining constant shear stress below a critical level, it is possible to avoid shear induced hemolysis and to maintain maximal separation efficiency throughout the procedure. The device has further been designed to alter the filtration velocity along the membrane so that the critical filtration velocity is nowhere exceeded, i.e., concentration polarization effects are prevented. PMID:3196536
Shear viscosity in magnetized neutron star crust
Ofengeim, D D
2015-01-01
The electron shear viscosity due to Coulomb scattering of degenerate electrons by atomic nuclei throughout a magnetized neutron star crust is calculated. The theory is based on the shear viscosity coefficient calculated neglecting magnetic fields but taking into account gaseous, liquid and solid states of atomic nuclei, multiphonon scattering processes, and finite sizes of the nuclei albeit neglecting the effects of electron band structure. The effects of strong magnetic fields are included in the relaxation time approximation with the effective electron relaxation time taken from the field-free theory. The viscosity in a magnetized matter is described by five shear viscosity coefficients. They are calculated and their dependence on the magnetic field and other parameters of dense matter is analyzed. Possible applications and open problems are outlined.
Vorticity production through rotation, shear and baroclinicity
Del Sordo, Fabio
2010-01-01
In the absence of rotation and shear, and under the assumption of constant temperature or specific entropy, purely potential forcing by localized expansion waves is known to produce irrotational flows that have no vorticity. Here we study the production of vorticity under idealized conditions when there is rotation, shear, or baroclinicity, to address the problem of vorticity generation in the interstellar medium in a systematic fashion. We use three-dimensional periodic box numerical simulations to investigate the various effects in isolation. We find that for slow rotation, vorticity production in an isothermal gas is small in the sense that the ratio of the root-mean-square values of vorticity and velocity is small compared with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. For Coriolis numbers above a certain level, vorticity production saturates at a value where the aforementioned ratio becomes comparable with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. Shear also raises the vorticity production, but...
The many faces of shear Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
One of the fundamental waves in magnetized plasmas is the shear Alfven wave. This wave is responsible for rearranging current systems and, in fact all low frequency currents in magnetized plasmas are shear waves. It has become apparent that Alfven waves are important in a wide variety of physical environments. Shear waves of various forms have been a topic of experimental research for more than fifteen years in the large plasma device (LAPD) at UCLA. The waves were first studied in both the kinetic and inertial regimes when excited by fluctuating currents with transverse dimension on the order of the collisionless skin depth. Theory and experiment on wave propagation in these regimes is presented, and the morphology of the wave is illustrated to be dependent on the generation mechanism. Three-dimensional currents associated with the waves have been mapped. The ion motion, which closes the current across the magnetic field, has been studied using laser induced fluorescence. The wave propagation in inhomogeneous magnetic fields and density gradients is presented as well as effects of collisions and reflections from boundaries. Reflections may result in Alfvenic field line resonances and in the right conditions maser action. The waves occur spontaneously on temperature and density gradients as hybrids with drift waves. These have been seen to affect cross-field heat and plasma transport. Although the waves are easily launched with antennas, they may also be generated by secondary processes, such as Cherenkov radiation. This is the case when intense shear Alfven waves in a background magnetoplasma are produced by an exploding laser-produced plasma. Time varying magnetic flux ropes can be considered to be low frequency shear waves. Studies of the interaction of multiple ropes and the link between magnetic field line reconnection and rope dynamics are revealed. This manuscript gives us an overview of the major results from these experiments and provides a modern prospective for the earlier studies of shear Alfven waves.
Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, H. P., E-mail: patel.harshal2@gmail.com; Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakore@rediffmail.com; Prajapati, A. V., E-mail: anand0prajapati@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Sonvane, Y. A., E-mail: yas@ashd.svnit.ac.in [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)
2015-05-15
Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (?) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (?) of liquid lanthanides.
Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides
Shear and Compression Bioreactor for Cartilage Synthesis.
Shahin, Kifah; Doran, Pauline M
2015-01-01
Mechanical forces, including hydrodynamic shear, hydrostatic pressure, compression, tension, and friction, can have stimulatory effects on cartilage synthesis in tissue engineering systems. Bioreactors capable of exerting forces on cells and tissue constructs within a controlled culture environment are needed to provide appropriate mechanical stimuli. In this chapter, we describe the construction, assembly, and operation of a mechanobioreactor providing simultaneous dynamic shear and compressive loading on developing cartilage tissues to mimic the rolling and squeezing action of articular joints. The device is suitable for studying the effects of mechanical treatment on stem cells and chondrocytes seeded into three-dimensional scaffolds. PMID:26445842
Velocity Profiles in Slowly Sheared Bubble Rafts
Lauridsen, J; Dennin, M; Lauridsen, John; Chanan, Greg; Dennin, Michael
2004-01-01
Measurements of average velocity profiles in a bubble raft subjected to slow, steady-shear demonstrate the coexistence between a flowing state and a jammed state similar to that observed for three-dimensional foams and emulsions [Coussot {\\it et al,}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 218301 (2002)]. For sufficiently slow shear, the flow is generated by nonlinear topological rearrangements. We report on the connection between this short-time motion of the bubbles and the long-time averages. We find that a smooth, average velocity is reached after averaging over only a relatively few number of rearrangement events.
The Rotation and Shear of a String
Roberts, M D
2003-01-01
Whether a string has rotation and shear can be investigated by an anology with the point particle. Rotation and shear involve first covariant spacetime derivatives of a vector field and, because the energy-momentum tensor for both the point particle and the string have no such derivatives, the best vector fields can be identified by requiring the conservation of energy-momentum. It is found that the best vector field is a non-unit accelerating field in x, rather than a unit non-accelerating vector involving the momenta; it is also found that there is an equation obeyed by the spacetime derivative of the Lagrangian.
Shears Mechanism in the A ? 110 Region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lifetimes of states in a rotational-like M1 band in 110Cd have been determined through a Doppler-shift attenuation method measurement performed with the Gammasphere array. The deduced B(M1) values, which agree well with the predictions of the tilted axis cranking model, clearly confirm that it has the character of a shears band. Using a semiclassical scheme of the coupling of two long j vectors we deduce information on the strength and form of the effective interaction between the constituent nucleons. These results are the first definitive evidence of the shears mechanism and magnetic rotation' in this mass region. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society
Bubbles in sheared two-dimensional foams
Quilliet, C.; Idiart, M. A. P.; Dollet, B.; Berthier, L.; Yekini, A.
2005-01-01
Oscillatory shear on two-dimensional monodisperse liquid foams was performed. We show that the effect of the oscillatory shear is to cause the migration of bubbles which size is greater than that of a typical bubble of the foam. These so-called flaws move towards the periphery of the foam in a non random motion, thus realizing size segregation in a system which is by construction gravity insensitive. We also show that elongated cavities in the foam could be relaxed towards a more isotropic fo...
Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear
Leahy, Brian D.
2013-05-29
Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas
Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten
2007-01-01
The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio \\eta/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg-> gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic ggggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For \\alpha_s=0.3 we find \\eta/s=0.13 and for \\alpha_s=0.6, \\eta/s=0.076. The small \\eta/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrah...
Shear viscosity in a gluon gas
Xu, Zhe
2007-01-01
The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio \\eta/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg-> gg pQCD scatterings as well as inelastic ggggg pQCD bremsstrahlung. For \\alpha_s=0.3 we find \\eta/s=0.13 and for \\alpha_s=0.6 \\eta/s=0.076. The small \\eta/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to the gluon bremsstrahlung incorporated.
Dynamic Modes of Red Blood Cells in Oscillatory Shear Flow
Noguchi, Hiroshi
2010-01-01
The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) in oscillatory shear flow was studied using differential equations of three variables: a shape parameter, the inclination angle $\\theta$, and phase angle $\\phi$ of the membrane rotation. In steady shear flow, three types of dynamics occur depending on the shear rate and viscosity ratio. i) tank-treading (TT): $\\phi$ rotates while the shape and $\\theta$ oscillate. ii) tumbling (TB): $\\theta$ rotates while the shape and $\\phi$ oscillate. iii) intermediate motion: both $\\phi$ and $\\theta$ rotate synchronously or intermittently. In oscillatory shear flow, RBCs show various dynamics based on these three motions. For a low shear frequency with zero mean shear rate, a limit-cycle oscillation occurs, based on the TT or TB rotation at a high or low shear amplitude, respectively. This TT-based oscillation well explains recent experiments. In the middle shear amplitude, RBCs show an intermittent or synchronized oscillation. As shear frequency increases, the vesicle oscillation beco...
Dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride. II. Carcass composition and meat palatability of beef cattle.
Leheska, J M; Montgomery, J L; Krehbiel, C R; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M; Blanton, J R; Miller, M F
2009-04-01
Experiments were conducted at 3 US locations (California, Idaho, and Texas) to determine the effects of dietary zilpaterol hydrochloride and duration of zilpaterol feeding on carcass composition and beef palatability. At each site, 160 steers and 160 heifers were stratified within sex by initial BW (study d -1) and assigned randomly within BW strata to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (4 blocks/treatment for each sex). The 4 treatments were arranged in a 2 (no zilpaterol vs. zilpaterol) x 2 (20- or 40-d duration of zilpaterol feeding) factorial. When included in the diet, zilpaterol was supplemented at 8.3 mg/kg (DM basis). Each pen consisted of 10 animals. After slaughter 2 carcasses per pen (n=64 per trial site) were selected. The entire right side of the selected carcasses was collected for dissection and chemical analysis of the soft tissue. Additionally, the left strip loin was collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determinations and aged to 28 d postmortem. Sensory analysis was conducted on the Idaho trial site samples only. All data were pooled for analyses. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass muscle deposition (P0.11) by the zilpaterol treatment. In heifer carcasses, carcass moisture percentage was increased (P=0.04) and bone percentage was decreased (P=0.02), whereas in steer carcasses, carcass moisture and bone percentage were not affected (P>0.10). In heifer carcasses, carcass ash percentage was not affected (P=0.61) by zilpaterol, whereas in steer carcasses, carcass ash percentage tended (P=0.07) to be increased. The protein-to-bone ratio was increased (Pzilpaterol hydrochloride treatment in both steers and heifers, whereas the protein-to-fat ratio was not affected (P=0.10). Cooking loss of the LM was not affected (P=0.41) by zilpaterol treatment of steers or heifers. However, LM Warner-Bratzler shear force was increased (P=0.003) on average (3.3 vs. 4.0 kg) due to zilpaterol hydrochloride treatment of both steers and heifers. In both steers and heifers, LM sensory panel scores of overall juiciness (6.2 vs. 6.0), tenderness (6.2 vs. 6.0), and flavor intensity (6.2 vs. 6.0) tended (P=0.06) to be decreased in cattle supplemented with zilpaterol. Zilpaterol hydrochloride is a repartitioning agent that seems to affect carcass composition primarily through protein deposition. However, zilpaterol treatment can adversely affect tenderness and other palatability traits. PMID:18849379
Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Drouillard, J S
2015-04-01
Dietary Ca concentrations were manipulated during supplementation of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) to evaluate impact on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef tenderness using 96 heifers (BW 392 kg ± 3.2). We hypothesized that temporary depletion followed by repletion of dietary Ca before harvest would increase intracellular Ca concentrations, thus stimulating postmortem activity of Ca-dependent proteases to effect changes in tenderness. Heifers were stratified by initial BW and randomly assigned, within strata (block), to treatments consisting of a finishing diet in which Ca was added in the form of limestone (+Ca) or removed (-Ca) during ZH supplementation. Cattle were fed a common diet, including limestone, before ZH supplementation, and 28 d before slaughter, ZH was added to the diet with and without supplemental Ca. Calcium content of the diets during ZH supplementation was 0.74% or 0.19% (diet DM) for +Ca and -Ca, respectively. Zilpaterol hydrochloride was fed for 25 d then removed from the diet 3 d before harvest. The final 3 d before harvest, all cattle were fed Ca at 0.74% of diet DM. Heifers were housed in concrete-surfaced pens with 8 animals/pen (6 pens/treatment). At the end of the finishing phase, animals were weighed and transported to an abattoir in Holcomb, KS. Severity of liver abscesses and HCW were collected the day of harvest, and after 48 h of refrigeration, USDA yield and quality grades, KPH, LM area, and 12th-rib subcutaneous fat thickness were determined. Boneless loin sections were also collected for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination. Removal of Ca did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force values (P = 0.64). In addition, ADG, DMI, final BW, and feed efficiency were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05). Carcass measurements also were unaffected by the temporary decrease in dietary Ca (P > 0.05). In conclusion, temporary depletion of dietary Ca during ZH supplementation did not alter beef tenderness, live animal performance, or carcass measurements. PMID:26020219
Bartz, B; Collins, M; Stoddard, G; Appleton, A; Livingood, R; Sobcynski, H; Vogel, K D
2015-09-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning followed by electrical induction of cardiac arrest on veal calf welfare, veal quality, and blood yield. Ninety calves from the same farm were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatment groups in a balanced unpaired comparison design. The first treatment group (the "head-only" method-application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating stun to the frontal plate of the skull at the intersection of 2 imaginary lines extending from the lateral canthus to the opposite poll [CONTROL]) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun ( = 45). The second group ( = 45) was stunned with a nonpenetrating captive bolt gun followed by secondary electrical induction of cardiac arrest (the "head/heart" method-initial application of the pneumatic nonpenetrating captive bolt stun followed by 1 s application of an electrical stun to the ventral region of the ribcage directly caudal to the junction of the humerus and scapula while the stunned calf was in lateral recumbence [HEAD/HEART]). Stunning efficacy was the indicator of animal welfare used in this study. All calves were instantly rendered insensible by the initial stun and did not display common indicators of return to consciousness. For meat quality evaluation, all samples were collected from the 12th rib region of the longissimus thoracis. Meat samples were evaluated for color, drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The L* values (measure of meat color lightness) were darker ( CONTROL group (47.10 ± 0.72). There were no differences ( > 0.05) observed in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values between treatments. No differences ( > 0.05) were observed in drip loss, ultimate pH, cook loss, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. The blood yield from the CONTROL group (7,217.9 ± 143.5 g) was greater ( CONTROL and HEAD/HEART groups with regard to animal welfare because the initial stun was effective in all calves. However, longissimus thoracis L* and blood yield were negatively impacted by the HEAD/HEART method. The data in this study suggest that secondary induction of cardiac arrest is not necessary with effective nonpenetrating captive bolt stunning in veal calves. PMID:26440354
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disk chamber or ‘spinning disk’ in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologies. Recent observations suggest that cells may remodel their morphology and align during acute shear exposure, but contrary to intuition, shear is not orthogonal to the radial direction. Here we theoretically derive the magnitude and direction of applied shear and demonstrate that cells, under certain physiological conditions, align in this direction within minutes. Shear force magnitude is also experimentally verified which validates that for spread cells shear forces and not torque or drag dominate in this assay, and demonstrates that the applied force per cell area is largely independent of initial morphology. These findings suggest that direct quantified comparison of the effects of shear on a wide array of cell types and conditions can be made with confidence using this assay without the need for computational or numerical modeling. (paper)
Jacobson, William R.; Hooyer, Thomas S.
2015-12-01
Herein we present data on the shearing rate (glacier velocity) and effective pressure (difference between the ice-overburden pressure and pore-water pressure) in the development of magnetic fabric (anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) using a rotary ring-shear device. A Wisconsin-age basal till was used in the experiments and deformed to its critical state at shear strains as high as 93. We also present data from hysteresis and high temperature susceptibility experiments to identify the magnetic carrier in the basal till. Results showed little change in fabric strength when varying the shearing rate in the speed range of 110-860 m year- 1. Moreover, the effective pressure tests also showed an inconsistency in fabric between 30 and 150 kPa; however, a slight strengthening effect was documented. Thus, the k1 magnetic fabric strength is independent of the shearing rate and effective pressure. This suggests that the fabric strength upon these variables cannot be used as a benchmark for estimating shear deformation to the geological record. The k1 fabric strength in this study; however, remained consistent with respect to other till particle fabric methods (e.g., sand and pebble) in which the same conclusion was drawn; all particles align parallel to the direction of shear and plunge mildly up glacier.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The non-potentiality of solar magnetic fields is traditionally measured in terms of a magnetic shear angle, i.e., the angle between the observed and potential field azimuths. Here, we introduce another measure of the shear that has not been previously studied in solar active regions, i.e., the one that is associated with the inclination angle of the magnetic field. This form of the shear, which we call 'dip shear', can be calculated by taking the difference between the observed and the potential field inclination. In this Letter, we study the evolution of the dip shear as well as the conventional twist shear in a ?-sunspot using high-resolution vector magnetograms from the Hinode space mission. We monitor these shears in a penumbral region located close to a flaring site during 2006 December 12 and 13. It is found that (1) the penumbral area close to the flaring site shows a high value of the twist shear and dip shear as compared with other parts of the penumbra, (2) after the flare, the value of the dip shear drops in this region while the twist shear tends to increase, (3) the dip shear and twist shear are correlated such that pixels with a large twist shear also tend to exhibit a large dip shear, and (4) the correlation between the twist shear and dip shear is tighter after the flare. The present study suggests that monitoring the twist shear alone during the flare is not sufficient, but we need to monitor it together with the dip shear.
Zhao, Ji-Song; Scholz, Peter; Gu, Liang-Xian
2012-10-01
The global wall shear stress measurement technique using shear-sensitive liquid crystal (SSLC) is extended to wind tunnel measurements. Simple and common everyday equipment is used in the measurement; in particular a tungsten-halogen light bulb provides illumination and a saturation of SSLC coating color change with time is found. Spatial wall shear stress distributions of several typical flows are obtained using this technique, including wall-jet flow, vortex flow generated by a delta wing and junction flow behind a thin cylinder, although the magnitudes are not fully calibrated. The results demonstrate that SSLC technique can be extended to wind tunnel measurements with no complicated facilities used.
Two-Phase Shear Band Structures at Uniform Stress
Britton, Melanie M.; Callaghan, Paul T.
1997-06-01
Using NMR microscopy we measure the velocity distribution for a wormlike surfactant solution in the gap of a small angle cone-and-plate rheometer. This system, cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate 100 mM/60 mM, exhibits biphasic shear band structure when the applied shear rate exceeds the critical rate of strain beyond which a plateau is observed in the shear stress. The structure is characterized by two low/high shear interfaces and the region of high shear evolves by increasing width as the average gap shear is increased.
Zonal flow formation in the presence of ambient mean shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences and Department of Physics, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0424 (United States)
2015-02-15
The effect of mean shear flows on zonal flow formation is considered in the contexts of plasma drift wave turbulence and quasi-geostrophic turbulence models. The generation of zonal flows by modulational instability in the presence of large-scale mean shear flows is studied using the method of characteristics as applied to the wave kinetic equation. It is shown that mean shear flows reduce the modulational instability growth rate by shortening the coherency time of the wave spectrum with the zonal shear. The scalings of zonal flow growth rate and turbulent vorticity flux with mean shear are determined in the strong shear limit.
Shear buckling analysis of a hat-stiffened panel
Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.
1994-01-01
A buckling analysis was performed on a hat-stiffened panel subjected to shear loading. Both local buckling and global buckling were analyzed. The global shear buckling load was found to be several times higher than the local shear buckling load. The classical shear buckling theory for a flat plate was found to be useful in predicting the local shear buckling load of the hat-stiffened panel, and the predicted local shear buckling loads thus obtained compare favorably with the results of finite element analysis.
Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system
Cornman, Larry
1991-01-01
Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.
Hydrodynamic and contact contributions to shear thickening in colloidal suspensions
Lin, Neil Y C; Hermes, Michiel; Ness, Chris; Sun, Jin; Poon, Wilson C K; Cohen, Itai
2015-01-01
Shear thickening is a widespread phenomenon in suspension flow that, despite sustained study, is still the subject of much debate. The longstanding view that shear thickening is due to hydrodynamic clusters has been challenged by recent theory and simulations suggesting that contact forces dominate, not only in discontinuous, but also in continuous shear thickening. Here, we settle this dispute using shear reversal experiments on micron-sized silica and latex colloidal particles to measure directly the hydrodynamic and contact force contributions to shear thickening. We find that contact forces dominate even continuous shear thickening. Computer simulations show that these forces most likely arise from frictional interactions.
Vortex-shear interaction and vortex identification
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolář, Václav
Jalan : Institution of Engineers, 2006, s. 1015-1020. ISBN 983-42965-0-9. [Asian Congress of Fluid Mechanics /11./. Kuala Lumpur (MY), 22.05.2006-25.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : vortex identification * vortex-shear interaction Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Granular dynamics under shear with deformable boundaries
Geller, Drew; Backhaus, Scott; Ecke, Robert
2015-03-01
Granular materials under shear develop complex patterns of stress as the result of granular positional rearrangements under an applied load. We consider the simple planar shear of a quasi two-dimensional granular material consisting of bi-dispersed nylon cylinders confined between deformable boundaries. The aspect ratio of the gap width to total system length is 50, and the ratio of particle diameter to gap width is about 10. This system, designed to model a long earthquake fault with long range elastic coupling through the plates, is an interesting model system for understanding effective granular friction because it essentially self tunes to the jamming condition owing to the hardness of the grains relative to that of the boundary material, a ratio of more than 1000 in elastic moduli. We measure the differential strain displacements of the plates, the inhomogeneous stress distribution in the plates, the positions and angular orientations of the individual grains, and the shear force, all as functions of the applied normal stress. There is significant stick-slip motion in this system that we quantify through our quantitative measurements of both the boundary and the grain motion, resulting in a good characterization of this sheared 2D hard sphere system.
Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Riahi
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.
Collapsing shear-free radiating fluid spheres
Tewari, B. C.
2013-08-01
We present a new class of exact solutions of relativistic field equations for a collapsing spherically symmetric shear-free isotopic fluid undergoing radial heat flow. The interior solutions are matched with Vaidya exterior metric over the boundary. Initially the interior solutions represent a static configuration of perfect fluid which then gradually starts evolving into radiating collapse.
Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence
Riahi, M.; Lili, T.
2011-06-01
Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT). The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS) of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997)] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995)] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10) in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The experimental data from RHIC, especially the measured elliptic flow indicate that the matter produced in Au+Au collisions exhibit properties which are more like a strongly interacting liquid than a weakly interacting gas. The shear viscosity ? or the internal friction of the fluid symbolizes the ability to transfer momentum over a distance of ? mean free path. Therefore, in a system where the constituents interact strongly the transfer of momentum is performed easily - resulting in lower values of ?. Consequently such a system may be characterized by a small value of ?/s. The importance of viscosity also lies in the fact that it damps out the variation in the velocity and make the fluid flow laminar. A very small viscosity (large Reynold number) may make the flow turbulent. Although a large amount of work has been done on shear viscosity in QGP phase, the shear viscosity in hadronic matter has received much less attention so far. In the present work shear viscosity has been evaluated in a kinetic theory approach by solving Boltzmann transport equation using the relaxation time approximation
Shear strength of aluminum fillet welds
Lovoy, C. V.
1980-01-01
Shear-strength tests on aluminum fillet welds are documented in report. Test were made on aluminum alloy 2219 to aid designers in specifying sizes and lengths of fillet welds necessary to sustain expected loads in this material. Report discusses fillet-weld size and geometry, including root penetration and surface contour.
MHD stability of reversed shear configurations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a review of MHD stability issues in reversed shear configurations. This work will focus on identifying issues relevant to existing and proposed devices. The aim is to provide a framework for assessing the value of different designs. We will use available experimental data to support our conclusions where it is possible
Shear reinforced beams in autoclaved aerated concrete
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornelius, Thomas
Shear behaviour in concrete materials is very well documented, for normal density concrete materials. In this paper results of various tests on low density concrete materials like aerated autoclaved concrete (in the following denoted aircrete) will be presented and analyzed for different combinat...
Shear stress in magnetorheological finishing for glasses.
Miao, Chunlin; Shafrir, Shai N; Lambropoulos, John C; Mici, Joni; Jacobs, Stephen D
2009-05-01
We report in situ, simultaneous measurements of both drag and normal forces in magnetorheological finishing (MRF) for what is believed to be the first time, using a spot taking machine (STM) as a test bed to take MRF spots on stationary parts. The measurements are carried out over the entire area where material is being removed, i.e., the projected area of the MRF removal function/spot on the part surface, using a dual force sensor. This approach experimentally addresses the mechanisms governing material removal in MRF for optical glasses in terms of the hydrodynamic pressure and shear stress, applied by the hydrodynamic flow of magnetorheological fluid at the gap between the part surface and the STM wheel. This work demonstrates that the volumetric removal rate shows a positive linear dependence on shear stress. Shear stress exhibits a positive linear dependence on a material figure of merit that depends upon Young's modulus, fracture toughness, and hardness. A modified Preston's equation is proposed that better estimates MRF material removal rate for optical glasses by incorporating mechanical properties, shear stress, and velocity. PMID:19412219
Solvable groups and a shear construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Freibert, Marco; Swann, Andrew Francis
The twist construction is a geometric model of T-duality that includes constructions of nilmanifolds from tori. This paper shows how one-dimensional foliations on manifolds may be used in a shear construction, which in algebraic form builds certain solvable Lie groups from Abelian ones. We discus...
Shear bands as bottlenecks in force transmission
Tordesillas, Antoinette; Pucilowski, Sebastian; Tobin, Steven; Kuhn, Matthew R.; Andò, Edward; Viggiani, Gioacchino; Druckrey, Andrew; Alshibli, Khalid
2015-06-01
The formation of shear bands is a key attribute of degradation and failure in soil, rocks, and many other forms of amorphous and crystalline materials. Previous studies of dense sand under triaxial compression and two-dimensional analogues from simulations have shown that the ultimate shear band pattern may be detected in the nascent stages of loading, well before the band's known nucleation point (i.e., around peak stress ratio), as reported in the published literature. Here we construct a network flow model of force transmission to identify the bottlenecks in the contact networks of dense granular media: triaxial compression of Caicos ooid and Ottawa sand and a discrete element simulation of simple shear. The bottlenecks localise in the nascent stages of loading —in the location where the persistent shear band ultimately forms. This corroborates recent findings on vortices that suggest localised failure is a progressive process of degradation, initiating early in the loading history at sites spanning the full extent, yet confined to a subregion, of the sample. Bottlenecks are governed by the local and global properties of the sample fabric and the grain kinematics. Grains with large rotations and/or contacts having minimal load-bearing capacities per se do not identify the bottlenecks early in the loading history.
Structural relaxation monitored by instantaneous shear modulus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil
1998-01-01
time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....
Herle, V.; Manneville, S.; Fischer, P.
2008-05-01
We carried out pointwise local velocity measurements on 40mM cetylpyridinium chloride-sodium salicylate (CPyCl-NaSal) wormlike micellar solution using high-frequency ultrasound velocimetry in a Couette shear cell. The studied wormlike solution exhibits Newtonian, shear-thinning and shear-thickening rheological behavior in a stress-controlled environment. Previous rheology, flow visualization and small-angle light/neutron scattering experiments in the shear-thickening regime of this system showed the presence of stress-driven alternating transparent and turbid rings or vorticity bands along the axis of the Couette geometry. Through local velocity measurements we observe a homogeneous flow inside the 1mm gap of the Couette cell in the shear-thinning (stress-plateau) region. Only when the solution is sheared beyond the critical shear stress (shear-thickening regime) in a stress-controlled experiment, we observe inhomogeneous flow characterized by radial or velocity gradient shear bands with a highly sheared band near the rotor and a weakly sheared band near the stator of the Couette geometry. Furthermore, fast measurements performed in the shear-thickening regime to capture the temporal evolution of local velocities indicate coexistence of both radial and vorticity shear bands. However the same measurements carried out in shear rate controlled mode of the rheometer do not show such rheological complexity.
Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.
2012-09-19
The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.
Gap size and shear history dependencies in shear thickening of a suspension ordered at rest
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An investigation is made of the flow properties of a suspension of uniform 197 nm diameter spheres at a volume fraction of 0.50 dialyzed to equilibrium against 10-3 M KCl which displayed long-range orientational order at rest. In wide gap rheometers (i.e., tool gaps ?0.5 mm), microstructures and flow properties are similar to those seen in many suspensions which are ordered at rest. Low shear rate response is found to be independent of rheometer tool gap down to 4.5 ?m. However, the shear rate marking the onset of thickening is a decreasing function of rheometer tool gap for gaps smaller than 15 ?m. These results are consistent with abrupt shear thickening seen in dense suspensions containing uniform particles arising from the formation of percolating clusters produced during shear melting
Schematic mode coupling theories for shear thinning, shear thickening, and jamming
Cates, M E; Fuchs, M; Henrich, O
2003-01-01
Mode coupling theory (MCT) appears to explain several, though not all, aspects of the glass transition in colloids (particularly when short-range attractions are present). Developments of MCT, from rational foundations in statistical mechanics, account qualitatively for nonlinear flow behaviour such as the yield stress of a hard-sphere colloidal glass. Such theories so far only predict shear thinning behaviour, whereas in real colloids both shear thinning and shear thickening can be found. The latter observation can, however, be rationalised by postulating an MCT vertex that is not only a decreasing function of strain rate (as found from first principles) but also an increasing function of stress. Within a highly simplified, schematic MCT model this can lead not only to discontinuous shear thickening but also to complete arrest of a fluid phase under the influence of an external stress (`full jamming').
Parametric Study of Multi-Spot Welded Lap Shear Specimen for Shear Strength
Raghunath T Bandgar; Pravin.A Dhawale
2015-01-01
The effect of number of spots, spot spacing, squeezing force, welding current, weld time , overlapping length and sheet thicknesson the shear strength of two similar galvanized steel sheets are investigated through experiments using RSM method. Similar sheets of galvanized steel sheets are made by resistance spot welding at different processing conditions and these joint populations were tested under lap-shear loading conditions. Specially fabricated fixture is used to load the la...
Influence of material properties on the sheared impact process of shear-cap in squib valve
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Background: Squib valve is a key valve in the new generation nuclear power plant, which has not been localized and the research on the failure process of shear-cap is necessary. Purpose: This research aims to study the influence of material on the failure process of shear-cap in squib valve. Methods: The finite element method is used to simulate the shear-caps' sheared process of different materials-Inconel 690, 304 stainless steel and 321 stainless steel. Results: As a result, the failure time and the final speed of piston are shown at each impact speed. Conclusions: The shear-cap of Inconel 690 is hardest to shear. A method to get the critical impact speed in the open process of valve is proposed. It can be found that the residual kinetic energy of the piston has the common feature and is 25% of the initial kinetic energy. Piston's final speed has a linear relationship to its initial speed for all three materials. (authors)
Lpez-Barrn, Carlos R.; Gurnon, A. Kate; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J.
2014-04-01
We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.
López-Barrón, Carlos R; Gurnon, A Kate; Eberle, Aaron P R; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J
2014-04-01
We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations. PMID:24827245
Flexible Micropost Arrays for Shear Stress Measurement
Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Hopkins, John W.; Jackson, Allen M.; Connell, John W.; Lin, Yi; Cisotto, Alexxandra A.
2015-01-01
Increased fuel costs, heightened environmental protection requirements, and noise abatement continue to place drag reduction at the forefront of aerospace research priorities. Unfortunately, shortfalls still exist in the fundamental understanding of boundary-layer airflow over aerodynamic surfaces, especially regarding drag arising from skin friction. For example, there is insufficient availability of instrumentation to adequately characterize complex flows with strong pressure gradients, heat transfer, wall mass flux, three-dimensionality, separation, shock waves, and transient phenomena. One example is the acoustic liner efficacy on aircraft engine nacelle walls. Active measurement of shear stress in boundary layer airflow would enable a better understanding of how aircraft structure and flight dynamics affect skin friction. Current shear stress measurement techniques suffer from reliability, complexity, and airflow disruption, thereby compromising resultant shear stress data. The state-of-the-art for shear stress sensing uses indirect or direct measurement techniques. Indirect measurements (e.g., hot-wire, heat flux gages, oil interferometry, laser Doppler anemometry, small scale pressure drag surfaces, i.e., fences) require intricate knowledge of the studied flow, restrictive instrument arrangements, large surface areas, flow disruption, or seeding material; with smaller, higher bandwidth probes under development. Direct measurements involve strain displacement of a sensor element and require no prior knowledge of the flow. Unfortunately, conventional "floating" recessed components for direct measurements are mm to cm in size. Whispering gallery mode devices and Fiber Bragg Gratings are examples of recent additions to this type of sensor with much smaller (?m) sensor components. Direct detection techniques are often single point measurements and difficult to calibrate and implement in wind tunnel experiments. In addition, the wiring, packaging, and installation of delicate micro-electromechanical devices impede the use of most direct shear sensors. Similarly, the cavity required for sensing element displacement is sensitive to particulate obstruction. This work was focused on developing a shear stress sensor for use in subsonic wind tunnel test facilities applicable to an array of test configurations. The non-displacement shear sensors described here have minimal packaging requirements resulting in minimal or no disturbance of boundary layer flow. Compared to previous concepts, device installation could be simple with reduced cost and down-time. The novelty lies in the creation of low profile (nanoscale to 100 µm) micropost arrays that stay within the viscous sub-layer of the airflow. Aerodynamic forces, which are related to the surface shear stress, cause post deflection and optical property changes. Ultimately, a reliable, accurate shear stress sensor that does not disrupt the airflow has the potential to provide high value data for flow physics researchers, aerodynamicists, and aircraft manufacturers leading to greater flight efficiency arising from more in-depth knowledge on how aircraft design impacts near surface properties.
Shear viscosity of CFT plasma at finite coupling
Buchel, Alex
2008-01-01
We present evidence for the universality of the shear viscosity of conformal gauge theory plasmas beyond infinite coupling. We comment of subtleties of computing the shear viscosity in effective models of gauge/gravity correspondence rather than in string theory.
Turbulent Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with Rotational Shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are conducted to investigate turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear. At sufficiently large flow shears, linear instabilities are suppressed, but transiently growing modes drive subcritical turbulence whose amplitude increases with flow shear. This leads to a local minimum in the heat flux, indicating an optimal ExB shear value for plasma confinement. Local maxima in the momentum fluxes are observed, implying the possibility of bifurcations in the ExB shear. The critical temperature gradient for the onset of turbulence increases with flow shear at low flow shears; at higher flow shears, the dependence of heat flux on temperature gradient becomes less stiff. The turbulent Prandtl number is found to be largely independent of temperature and flow gradients, with a value close to unity.
Measurement and modelling of bed shear induced by solitary waves
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
JayaKumar, S.
generated in the laboratory and the corresponding shear stresses were measured using a Shear Plate apparatus. A physical model was set up in the laboratory that represented the deep horizontal ocean floor, inclined continental slope and the shallow...
Turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear.
Barnes, M; Parra, F I; Highcock, E G; Schekochihin, A A; Cowley, S C; Roach, C M
2011-04-29
Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are conducted to investigate turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear. At sufficiently large flow shears, linear instabilities are suppressed, but transiently growing modes drive subcritical turbulence whose amplitude increases with flow shear. This leads to a local minimum in the heat flux, indicating an optimal E×B shear value for plasma confinement. Local maxima in the momentum fluxes are observed, implying the possibility of bifurcations in the E×B shear. The critical temperature gradient for the onset of turbulence increases with flow shear at low flow shears; at higher flow shears, the dependence of heat flux on temperature gradient becomes less stiff. The turbulent Prandtl number is found to be largely independent of temperature and flow gradients, with a value close to unity. PMID:21635042
Interfacial Shear Strength Evaluation of Jute/Poly(Lactic Acid)
Kobayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tatsuro; Nakai, Asami
In order to evaluate the interfacial shear strength between fiber bundle and matrix of jute/poly(lactic acid) (PLA), a fiber bundle pull-out test method is proposed. Shear stress distribution was calculated based on the parabolic shear-lag analysis. Fiber bundle pull-out tests were conducted to evaluate the effects of molding condition on the interfacial shear strength. The interfacial shear strength increased with increasing molding temperature up to 185C. Then gradual decrease in the interfacial shear strength with molding temperature was observed. Similar tendency was also observed in the effect of molding time, whereas the interfacial shear strength decreased with increasing molding pressure. Comparing the result of the tensile tests in the previous study, interfacial shear strength has corelations with tensile strength.
Adaptive Estimation of Intravascular Shear Rate Based on Parameter Optimization
Nitta, Naotaka; Takeda, Naoto
2008-05-01
The relationships between the intravascular wall shear stress, controlled by flow dynamics, and the progress of arteriosclerosis plaque have been clarified by various studies. Since the shear stress is determined by the viscosity coefficient and shear rate, both factors must be estimated accurately. In this paper, an adaptive method for improving the accuracy of quantitative shear rate estimation was investigated. First, the parameter dependence of the estimated shear rate was investigated in terms of the differential window width and the number of averaged velocity profiles based on simulation and experimental data, and then the shear rate calculation was optimized. The optimized result revealed that the proposed adaptive method of shear rate estimation was effective for improving the accuracy of shear rate calculation.
Transient Response of An Electrorheological Fluid in Shear Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transient shear stress response of an electrorheological fluid is investigated experimentally. The characteristic time constants of an electrorheological fluid sheared between two concentric cylinders were obtained under various electric field strengths and shear rates. Also, two experimental modes are adopted to investigate the effect of the shear flow on the dynamic behavior of the fluid; one is that the electric field is induced before shearing, and the other is the electric field is induced after shearing. From the difference in the response time between two modes, the cluster formation time were obtained. The response times were decreased with the increase of the shear rate, irrelatively of the electric field strength. The cluster formation time were monotonically increased with increase of shear rate, and thereafter, were converged with a certain value
Transient Response of an Electrorheological Fluid in Shear Flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The transient shear stress response of an electrorheological fluid is investigated experimentally. The characteristic time constants of an electrorheological fluid sheared between two concentric cylinders were obtained under various electric field strengths and shear rates. Also, two experimental modes are adopted to investigate the effect of the shear flow on the dynamic behavior of the fluid; one is that the electric field is induced before shearing, and the other is the electric field is induced after shearing. From the difference in the response time between two modes, the cluster formation time were obtained. The response times were decreased with the increase of the shear rate, irrelatively of the electric field strength. The cluster formation time were monotonically increased with increase of shear rate, and thereafter, were converged with a certain value
Transient Response of An Electrorheological Fluid in Shear Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Byung Ha; Nam, Yun Joo; Park, Myeong Kwan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2007-07-01
The transient shear stress response of an electrorheological fluid is investigated experimentally. The characteristic time constants of an electrorheological fluid sheared between two concentric cylinders were obtained under various electric field strengths and shear rates. Also, two experimental modes are adopted to investigate the effect of the shear flow on the dynamic behavior of the fluid; one is that the electric field is induced before shearing, and the other is the electric field is induced after shearing. From the difference in the response time between two modes, the cluster formation time were obtained. The response times were decreased with the increase of the shear rate, irrelatively of the electric field strength. The cluster formation time were monotonically increased with increase of shear rate, and thereafter, were converged with a certain value.
Transient Response of an Electrorheological Fluid in Shear Flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Byung Ha; Nam, Yun Joo; Park, Myeong Kwan [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2009-06-15
The transient shear stress response of an electrorheological fluid is investigated experimentally. The characteristic time constants of an electrorheological fluid sheared between two concentric cylinders were obtained under various electric field strengths and shear rates. Also, two experimental modes are adopted to investigate the effect of the shear flow on the dynamic behavior of the fluid; one is that the electric field is induced before shearing, and the other is the electric field is induced after shearing. From the difference in the response time between two modes, the cluster formation time were obtained. The response times were decreased with the increase of the shear rate, irrelatively of the electric field strength. The cluster formation time were monotonically increased with increase of shear rate, and thereafter, were converged with a certain value.
Shear Viscosity from the Effective Coupling of Gravitons
Cai, Rong-gen; Nie, Zhang-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wen
2010-01-01
We review the progress in the holographic calculation of shear viscosity for strongly coupled field theories. We focus on the calculation of shear viscosity from the effective coupling of transverse gravitons and present some explicit examples.
Shear viscosity for a moderately dense granular binary mixture
Garzo, Vicente; Montanero, Jose Maria
2003-01-01
The shear viscosity for a moderately dense granular binary mixture of smooth hard spheres undergoing uniform shear flow is determined. The basis for the analysis is the Enskog kinetic equation, solved first analytically by the Chapman-Enskog method up to first order in the shear rate for unforced systems as well as for systems driven by a Gaussian thermostat. As in the elastic case, practical evaluation requires a Sonine polynomial approximation. In the leading order, we determine the shear v...
Aligning self-assembled gelators by drying under shear.
Draper, Emily R; Mykhaylyk, Oleksandr O; Adams, Dave J
2016-05-25
We show how drying under shear can be used to prepare aligned fibres and worm-like micelles from low molecular weight gelators. Shearing followed by drying leads to the dealignment before the water can be removed; continuous shear whilst drying is required to maintain the alignment. Combining a slow pH change with continuous shear allows alignment of the gelling fibres, which can then be dried. PMID:27146964
Analysis of Shear Band Propagation in Amorphous Glassy Polymers
Wu, P.D.; Van Der Giessen, E.
1994-01-01
Similar to the well-known neck propagation phenomenon, shearing of polymer materials often reveals the initiation and subsequent propagation of a shear band. Finite element analysis is used to numerically simulate large plane strain, simple shear tests, focussing attention on the initiation and propagation of the shear band. The mesh sensitivity and effects of initial imperfection, strain softening, orientation hardening, strain-rate as well as the edge effects are discussed in detail. It app...
The shear dynamo problem for small magnetic Reynolds numbers
Sridhar, S; Singh, Nishant K.
2009-01-01
We study large-scale dynamo action due to turbulence in the presence of a linear shear flow, in the low conductivity limit. Our treatment is nonperturbative in the shear strength and makes systematic use of both the shearing coordinate transformation and the Galilean invariance of the linear shear flow. The velocity fluctuations are assumed to have low magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) but could have arbitrary fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic fluctuations are determined to lowest order in Rm b...
Anisotropy of force distributions in sheared soft particle systems
Boberski, Jens; Shaebani, M. Reza; Wolf, Dietrich E.
2014-01-01
In this numerical study, measurements of the contact forces inside a periodic two-dimensional sheared system of soft frictional particles are reported. The distribution of normalized normal forces exhibits a gradual broadening with increasing the pure shear deformation, leading to a slower decay for large forces. The process however slows down and the distribution approaches an invariant shape at high shear deformations. By introducing the joint probability distribution in sheared configurati...
Seismic behavior of semi-supported steel shear walls
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jahanpour, A.; Jnsson, J.; Moharrami, H.
2012-01-01
During the recent past decade semi-supported steel shear walls (SSSW) have been introduced as an alternative to the traditional type of steel plate shear walls. In this system the shear wall does not connect directly to the main columns of the building frame; instead it is connected to a pair of...
Reda, Daniel C.; Wilder, Michael C.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
The shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating (SSLCC) method is an image-based technique for both visualizing dynamic surface-flow phenomena, such as transition and separation, and for measuring the continuous shear-stress vector distribution acting on an aerodynamic surface. Under proper lighting and viewing conditions (discussed below), the coating changes color in response to an applied aerodynamic shear. This color-change response is continuous and reversible, with a response time of milliseconds, and is a function of both the shear magnitude and the shear vector orientation relative to the observer. The liquid crystal phase of matter is a weakly-ordered, viscous, non-Newtonian fluid state that exists between the nonuniform liquid phase and the ordered solid phase of certain organic compounds. Cholesteric liquid crystal compounds possess a helical molecular arrangement that selectively scatters white light, incident along the helical axis, as a three-dimensional spectrum. This property is linked to the helical pitch length, which is within the range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The pitch length, and hence the wavelength of the scattered light, is influenced by shear stress normal to the helical axis. This unique optical property produces a measurable color change in response to an applied shearing force. The full-surface shear stress vector measurement method, developed at NASA-Ames, is schematically illustrated. As with the visualization method, the coated test surface is illuminated from the normal direction with white light and the camera is positioned at an above-plane view angle of approximately 30 deg. Experiments have been initiated at NASA Ames to begin the process of quantifying surface-inclination (surface-curvature) effects on shear vector measurement accuracy. In preliminary experiments, surface-inclination angles theta(sub x), theta(sub y) of 0, +/-5, +/-10, and +/-15 deg were employed. In this arrangement, white-light illumination was positioned normal to the untilted test surface, and the camera above-plane view angle was set at 30 deg relative to the untilted test surface. As can be seen, vector-aligned lambda(sub d) values showed no dependence on theta(sub x) or theta(sub y) for absolute values of these tilt angles is less than or equal to 15 deg. Acquisition and analyses of full-surface color images are presently underway to definitively document the insensitivity limits of the shear vector measurement methodology to surface-slope variations.
Shear instabilities in shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics
Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W
2016-01-01
Within the framework of shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the linear instability of horizontal shear flows, influenced by an aligned magnetic field and stratification. Various classical instability results, such as H{\\o}iland's growth rate bound and Howard's semi-circle theorem, are extended to this shallow-water system for quite general profiles. Two specific piecewise-constant velocity profiles, the vortex sheet and the rectangular jet, are studied analytically and asymptotically; it is found that the magnetic field and stratification (as measured by the Froude number) are generally both stabilising, but weak instabilities can be found at arbitrarily large Froude number. Numerical solutions are computed for corresponding smooth velocity profiles, the hyperbolic-tangent shear layer and the Bickley jet, for a uniform background field. A generalisation of the long-wave asymptotic analysis of Drazin & Howard (1962) is employed in order to understand the instability characteristics for both ...
Influence of particle elasticity in shear testers
Kadau, D; Theuerkauf, J; Wolf, D E; Kadau, Dirk; Schwesig, Dominik; Theuerkauf, Joerg; Wolf, Dietrich E.
2005-01-01
Two dimensional simulations of non-cohesive granular matter in a biaxial shear tester are discussed. The effect of particle elasticity on the mechanical behavior is investigated using two complementary distinct element methods (DEM): Soft particle molecular dynamics simulations (Particle Flow Code, PFC) for elastic particles and contact dynamics simulations (CD) for the limit of perfectly rigid particles. As soon as the system dilates to form shear bands, it relaxes the elastic strains so that one finds the same stresses for rigid respectively elastic particles in steady state ow. The principal stresses in steady state ow are determined. They are proportional to each other, giving rise to an effective macroscopic friction coefficient which is about 10 % smaller than the microscopic friction coefficient between the grains.
Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 2.1 and 2.42 0.32 GPa, respectively
Undulatory swimming in shear-thinning fluids
Gagnon, David A; Arratia, Paulo E
2014-01-01
The swimming behaviour of microorganisms can be strongly influenced by the rheology of their fluid environment. In this manuscript, we experimentally investigate the effects of shear-thinning viscosity on the swimming behaviour of an undulatory swimmer, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tracking methods are used to measure the swimmer's kinematic data (including propulsion speed) and velocity fields. We find that shear-thinning viscosity modifies the velocity fields produced by the swimming nematode but does not modify the nematode's speed and beating kinematics. Velocimetry data show significant enhancement in local vorticity and circulation, and an increase in fluid velocity near the nematode's tail, compared to Newtonian fluids of similar effective viscosity. These findings are in good agreement with recent theoretical and numerical results.
Velocity Profiles in Slowly Sheared Bubble Rafts
Lauridsen, John; Chanan, Gregory; Dennin, Michael
2004-07-01
Measurements of average velocity profiles in a bubble raft subjected to slow, steady shear demonstrate the coexistence between a flowing state and a jammed state similar to that observed for three-dimensional foams and emulsions [P. Coussot et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-9007 88, 218301 (2002)10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.218301]. For sufficiently slow shear, the flow is generated by nonlinear topological rearrangements. We report on the connection between this short-time motion of the bubbles and the long-time averages. We find that velocity profiles for individual rearrangement events fluctuate, but a smooth, average velocity is reached after averaging over only a relatively few events.
Yield strain in shear banding amorphous solids
Dasgupta, Ratul; Hentschel, H. George E.; Procaccia, Itamar
2013-02-01
In recent research it was found that the fundamental shear-localizing instability of amorphous solids under external strain, which eventually results in a shear band and failure, consists of a highly correlated array of Eshelby quadrupoles all having the same orientation and some density ρ. In this paper we calculate analytically the energy E(ρ,γ) associated with such highly correlated structures as a function of the density ρ and the external strain γ. We show that for strains smaller than a characteristic strain γY the total strain energy initially increases as the quadrupole density increases, but that for strains larger than γY the energy monotonically decreases with quadrupole density. We identify γY as the yield strain. Its value, derived from values of the qudrupole strength based on the atomistic model, agrees with that from the computed stress-strain curves and broadly with experimental results.
Plasticity Approach to HSC Shear Wall Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Lunying; Nielsen, Mogens Peter
The paper describes a simple theory for determining the ultimate strength of shear walls. It is based on application of the theory of perfectly plastic materials. When applied to concrete the theoretical solutions must be modified by inserting into the solutions a reduced compressive strength of...... longitudinal reinforcement. Upper bound solutions are summarized briefly. The lower bound method has been compared with around 200 tests taken from the literature. With very simple formulas for the effectiveness factor, excellent agreement has been obtained. The tests cover concrete compressive strengths up to...... 140 MPa and reinforcement yield strengths up to 1420 MPa. The work was carried out as a Ph.D. study by the first author, the second author supervising the study.Keywords: shear wall, plasticity, strut and tie, load-carrying capacity, concrete, reinforcement....
Thixotropy of MR shear-thickening fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Particle sedimentation is a key issue of conventional magnetorheological (MR) fluids. We recently fabricated MR shear-thickening fluids (MRSTF), which can work as novel MR fluids without particle settling. This merit of the material against particle settling is attributed to the thixotropy property. By using shear-thickening fluids as a base medium, a series of MRSTF samples was prepared and their rheological properties were tested. It was found that when the weight fraction of the STF base is above a threshold value of 15%, the MRSTF exhibits a significant thixotropy phenomenon, which greatly reduces the settling problem of MR fluids and consequently increases the stability of MR fluids. A theoretical approach was proposed to verify the experimental studies
Holographic Chiral Shear Waves from Anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study dispersion relations of hydrodynamic waves of hot N=4 SYM plasma at strong coupling with a finite U(1) R-charge chemical potential via holography. We first provide complete equations of motion of linearized fluctuations out of a charged AdS blackhole background according to their helicity, and observe that helicity 1 transverse shear modes receive a new parity-odd contribution from the 5D Chern-Simons term, which is dual to 4D U(1)3 anomaly. We present a systematic solution of the helicity 1 wave equations in long wave-length expansion, and obtain the corresponding dispersion relations. The results depen d on the sign of helicity, which may be called chiral shear waves. (author)
Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Oliveira, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Serkiz, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)
2014-09-15
As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar{sup } 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 2.1 and 2.42 0.32 GPa, respectively.
Shear viscosity, cavitation and hydrodynamics at LHC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study evolution of quark-gluon matter in the ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within the frame work of relativistic second-order viscous hydrodynamics. In particular, by using the various prescriptions of a temperature-dependent shear viscosity to the entropy ratio, we show that the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic fluid becomes invalid due to the phenomenon of cavitation. For most of the initial conditions relevant for LHC, the cavitation sets in very early stage. The cavitation in this case is entirely driven by the large values of shear viscosity. Moreover we also demonstrate that the conformal terms used in equations of the relativistic dissipative hydrodynamic can influence the cavitation time.
Super-diffusion in sheared suspensions
Souzy, Mathieu; Yin, Xiaolong; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Abid, Chérifa; Metzger, Bloen
2015-04-01
We investigate the dispersion of a layer of dye initially applied at the outer wall of a cylindrical Couette-cell into a sheared suspension of non-Brownian spherical particles. The process is directly visualized and quantified at the particle scale. A "rolling-coating" mechanism is found to convectively transport the dye at a constant rate directly from the wall towards the bulk. The fluid velocity fluctuations, u', measured with particle image velocimetry, and the imposed shear-rate, γ ˙ , are used to define a diffusion coefficient, D ∝ / γ ˙ , which is found to increase linearly with the distance from the wall. A solution of the transport equation accounting for this inhomogeneous stirring field describes quantitatively the concentration profiles measured experimentally. It exhibits a super-diffusive character, a consequence of the increase of the stirring strength with distance from the wall. Movies are available with the online version of the paper.
Shear and rotation in Chaplygin cosmology
Del Popolo, A; Maydanyuk, S P; Lima, J A S; Jesus, J F; 10.1103/PhysRevD.87.043527
2013-01-01
We study the effect of shear and rotation on results previously obtained dealing with the application of the spherical collapse model (SCM) to generalized Chaplygin gas (gCg) dominated universes. The system is composed of baryons and gCg and the collapse is studied for different values of the parameter $\\alpha$ of the gCg. We show that the joint effect of shear and rotation is that of slowing down the collapse with respect to the simple SCM. This result is of utmost importance for the so-called unified dark matter models, since the described slow down in the growth of density perturbation can solve one of the main problems of the quoted models, namely the instability described in previous papers [e.g., H. B. Sandvik {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. D {\\bf 69}, 123524 (2004)] at the linear perturbation level.
Hierarchical probabilistic inference of cosmic shear
Schneider, Michael D; Marshall, Philip J; Dawson, William A; Meyers, Joshua; Bard, Deborah J; Lang, Dustin
2014-01-01
Point estimators for the shearing of galaxy images induced by gravitational lensing involve a complex inverse problem in the presence of noise, pixelization, and model uncertainties. We present a probabilistic forward modeling approach to gravitational lensing inference that has the potential to mitigate the biased inferences in most common point estimators and is practical for upcoming lensing surveys. The first part of our statistical framework requires specification of a likelihood function for the pixel data in an imaging survey given parameterized models for the galaxies in the images. We derive the lensing shear posterior by marginalizing over all intrinsic galaxy properties that contribute to the pixel data (i.e., not limited to galaxy ellipticities) and learn the distributions for the intrinsic galaxy properties via hierarchical inference with a suitably flexible conditional probabilitiy distribution specification. We use importance sampling to separate the modeling of small imaging areas from the glo...
Drop impact of shear thickening liquids
Boyer, Francois; Dijksman, J Frits; Lohse, Detlef
2013-01-01
The impact of drops of concentrated non-Brownian suspensions (cornstarch and polystyrene spheres) onto a solid surface is investigated experimentally. The spreading dynamics and maxi- mal deformation of the droplet of such shear thickening liquids are found to be markedly different from the impact of Newtonian drops. A particularly striking observation is that the maximal de- formation is independent of the drop velocity and that the deformation suddenly stops during the impact phase. Both observations are due to the shear-thickening rheology of the suspensions, as is theoretically explained from a balance between the kinetic energy and the viscously-dissipated en- ergy, from which we establish a scaling relation between drop maximal deformation and rheological parameters of concentrated suspensions.
On statistically stationary homogeneous shear turbulence
Schumacher, Joerg; Eckhardt, Bruno
2000-01-01
A statistically stationary turbulence with a mean shear gradient is realized in a flow driven by suitable body forces. The flow domain is periodic in downstream and spanwise directions and bounded by stress free surfaces in the normal direction. Except for small layers near the surfaces the flow is homogeneous. The fluctuations in turbulent energy are less violent than in the simulations using remeshing, but the anisotropy on small scales as measured by the skewness of derivatives is similar ...
Shear viscosity of a crosslinked polymer melt
Broderix, Kurt; Loewe, Henning; Mueller, Peter; Zippelius, Annette
1998-01-01
We investigate the static shear viscosity on the sol side of the vulcanization transition within a minimal mesoscopic model for the Rouse-dynamics of a randomly crosslinked melt of phantom polymers. We derive an exact relation between the viscosity and the resistances measured in a corresponding random resistor network. This enables us to calculate the viscosity exactly for an ensemble of crosslinks without correlations. The viscosity diverges logarithmically as the critical point is approach...
Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Frnd, Ernst; Yong Kim, Won
Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations...... are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels....
Axisymmetric single shear element combustion instability experiment
Breisacher, Kevin J.
1993-01-01
The combustion stability characteristics of a combustor consisting of a single shear element and a cylindrical chamber utilizing LOX and gaseous hydrogen as propellants are presented. The combustor geometry and the resulting longitudinal mode instability are axisymmetric. Hydrogen injection temperature and pyrotechnic pulsing were used to determine stability boundaries. Mixture ratio, fuel annulus gap, and LOX post configuration were varied. Performance and stability data were obtained for chamber pressures of 300 and 1000 psia.
Friction welding; Magnesium; Finite element; Shear test.
Leonardo Contri Campanelli; Armando Ítalo Sette Antonialli 2; Nelson Guedes de Alcântara; Claudemiro Bolfarini; Uceu Fuad Hasan Suhuddin; Jorge Fernandez dos Santos
2013-01-01
Friction spot welding (FSpW) is one of the most recently developed solid state joining technologies. In this work, based on former publications, a computer aided draft and engineering resource is used to model a FSpW joint on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets and subsequently submit the assembly to a typical shear test loading, using a linear elastic model, in order to conceive mechanical tests results. Finite element analysis shows that the plastic flow is concentrated on the welded zo...
Optimisation and control of shear flows
Monokrousos, Antonios
2011-01-01
Transition to turbulence and flow control are studied by means of numerical simulations for different simple shear flows. Linear and non-linear optimisation methods using the Lagrange multiplier technique are employed. In the linear framework as objective function the standard disturbance kinetic energy is chosen and the constraints involve the linearised Navier–Stokes equations. We consider both the optimal initial condition leading to the largest disturbance energy growth at finite times an...
Transition to turbulence in a shear flow
Eckhardt, Bruno; Mersmann, Alois
1999-01-01
We analyze the properties of a 19 dimensional Galerkin approximation to a parallel shear flow. The laminar flow with a sinusoidal shape is stable for all Reynolds numbers Re. For sufficiently large Re additional stationary flows occur; they are all unstable. The lifetimes of finite amplitude perturbations show a fractal dependence on amplitude and Reynolds number. These findings are in accord with observations on plane Couette flow and suggest a universality of this transition szenario in she...
Surface shear rheology of saponin adsorption layers.
Golemanov, Konstantin; Tcholakova, Slavka; Denkov, Nikolai; Pelan, Edward; Stoyanov, Simeon D
2012-08-21
Saponins are a wide class of natural surfactants, with molecules containing a rigid hydrophobic group (triterpenoid or steroid), connected via glycoside bonds to hydrophilic oligosaccharide chains. These surfactants are very good foam stabiliziers and emulsifiers, and show a range of nontrivial biological activities. The molecular mechanisms behind these unusual properties are unknown, and, therefore, the saponins have attracted significant research interest in recent years. In our previous study (Stanimirova et al. Langmuir 2011, 27, 12486-12498), we showed that the triterpenoid saponins extracted from Quillaja saponaria plant (Quillaja saponins) formed adsorption layers with unusually high surface dilatational elasticity, 280 ± 30 mN/m. In this Article, we study the shear rheological properties of the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins. In addition, we study the surface shear rheological properties of Yucca saponins, which are of steroid type. The experimental results show that the adsorption layers of Yucca saponins exhibit purely viscous rheological response, even at the lowest shear stress applied, whereas the adsorption layers of Quillaja saponins behave like a viscoelastic two-dimensional body. For Quillaja saponins, a single master curve describes the data for the viscoelastic creep compliance versus deformation time, up to a certain critical value of the applied shear stress. Above this value, the layer compliance increases, and the adsorption layers eventually transform into viscous ones. The experimental creep-recovery curves for the viscoelastic layers are fitted very well by compound Voigt rheological model. The obtained results are discussed from the viewpoint of the layer structure and the possible molecular mechanisms, governing the rheological response of the saponin adsorption layers. PMID:22830458
Testing modified gravity with cosmic shear
Harnois-Draps, J.; Munshi, D.; Valageas, P.; van Waerbeke, L.; Brax, P.; Coles, P.; Rizzo, L.
2015-12-01
We use the cosmic shear data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey to place constraints on f(R) and Generalized Dilaton models of modified gravity. This is highly complementary to other probes since the constraints mainly come from the non-linear scales: maximal deviations with respects to the General Relativity (GR) + ? cold dark matter (?CDM) scenario occurs at k 1 h Mpc-1. At these scales, it becomes necessary to account for known degeneracies with baryon feedback and massive neutrinos, hence we place constraints jointly on these three physical effects. To achieve this, we formulate these modified gravity theories within a common tomographic parametrization, we compute their impact on the clustering properties relative to a GR universe, and propagate the observed modifications into the weak lensing ? quantity. Confronted against the cosmic shear data, we reject the f(R) \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 1\\rbrace model with more than 99.9 per cent confidence interval (CI) when assuming a ?CDM dark matter only model. In the presence of baryonic feedback processes and massive neutrinos with total mass up to 0.2 eV, the model is disfavoured with at least 94 per cent CI in all different combinations studied. Constraints on the \\lbrace |f_{R_0}| = 10^{-4}, n = 2\\rbrace model are weaker, but nevertheless disfavoured with at least 89 per cent CI. We identify several specific combinations of neutrino mass, baryon feedback and f(R) or Dilaton gravity models that are excluded by the current cosmic shear data. Notably, universes with three massless neutrinos and no baryon feedback are strongly disfavoured in all modified gravity scenarios studied. These results indicate that competitive constraints may be achieved with future cosmic shear data.
Flight penetration of wind shear: Control strategies
Joshi, Amit S.
1988-01-01
Wind shear is a dangerous condition where there is a sharp change in the direction and magnitude of the wind velocity over a short distance or time. This condition is especially dangerous to aircraft during landing and takeoff and can cause a sudden loss of lift and thereby height at a critical time. A numerical simulation showed the effective performance of the Linear Quadratic Regulator and the Nonlinear Inverse Dynamics controllers. The major conclusions are listed and discussed.
A wall-shear stress predictive model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marusic, Ivan; Mathis, Romain; Hutchins, Nicholas, E-mail: imarusic@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)
2011-12-22
Following the approach of Marusic et al. (2010b), here we develop a predictive model for the fluctuating wall-shear stress, where the only required input is large-scale information of the streamwise velocity at a location in the outer, logarithmic region of the flow. The model consists of two components, incorporating a superposition and modulation effect of outer region motions that interact with the flow field in the viscous sublayer. The model is seen to capture Reynolds number trends reliably.
Phase separating binary fluids under oscillatory shear
Xu, Aiguo; Gonnella, G.; Lamura, A.
2002-01-01
We apply lattice Boltzmann methods to study the segregation of binary fluid mixtures under oscillatory shear flow in two dimensions. The algorithm allows to simulate systems whose dynamics is described by the Navier-Stokes and the convection-diffusion equations. The interplay between several time scales produces a rich and complex phenomenology. We investigate the effects of different oscillation frequencies and viscosities on the morphology of the phase separating domains. We find that at hi...
Study of Shear Viscosity of Amorphous Materials
Y. Hiki; Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, H.
1996-01-01
Viscoelastic properties of amorphous solids deformed under uniform shear stress were studied using a kind of sandwich method with utilizing a sensitive optical technique. Time-dependent deformation data were analyzed on the basis of a mechanical model of anelasticity plus viscosity. Experiments were performed to determine the temperature dependence of viscosity for several kinds of inorganic glasses and an amorphous polymer below their glass transition temperatures. Activation energies contro...
Shear rheological characterization of motor oils
Bair, Scott; Winer, Ward O.
1988-01-01
Measurements of high pressure viscosity, traction coefficient, and EHD film thickness were performed on twelve commercial automotive engine oils, a reference oil, two unformulated base oils and two unformated base oil and polymer blends. An effective high shear rate inlet viscosity was calculated from film thickness and pressure viscosity coefficient. The difference between measured and effective viscosity is a function of the polymer type and concentration. Traction measurements did not discriminate mileage formulated oils from those not so designated.
Self-organization in circular shear layers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bergeron, K.; Coutsias, E.A.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.
Experiments on forced circular shear layers performed in both magnetized plasmas and in rotating fluids reveal qualitatively similar self-organization processes leading to the formation of patterns of coherent vortical structures with varying complexity. In this paper results are presented from...... both weakly nonlinear analysis and full numerical simulations that closely reproduce the experimental observations. Varying the Reynolds number leads to bifurcation sequences accompanied by topological changes in the distribution of the coherent structures as well as clear transitions in the total...
High-shear-rate optical rheometer
Mriziq, K. S.; Dai, H. J.; Dadmun, M. D.; Jellison, G. E.; Cochran, H. D.
2004-06-01
We have developed a parallel-plate rheometer in a magnetic-disk drive configuration constructed of optically transparent materials and operating with a very small gap for measurements at very high shear rates. The friction force at the disk-slider interface has been measured as a function of sliding speed while the film thickness was monitored in situ using a capacitance technique. The shear rate is calculated from the film thickness and the sliding speed. A thin film can be applied on the disk, which allows very high-shear-rate measurements at low sliding speeds with negligible viscous heating. Both disk and slider have been made of optically transparent material to allow optical measurements simultaneously with the rheological measurements. In the present mode, the apparatus is set up for simultaneous rheometery and birefringence measurements on a thin film of polymer lubricant. Rheology and birefringence measurements were made on a perfluoropolyether lubricant over a range of strain rate from 103 s-1 to greater than 106 s-1 with 800 nm, 400 nm, and 200 nm film thicknesses.
Horizontal Shear Wave Imaging of Large Optics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quarry, M J
2007-09-05
When complete the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be the world's largest and most energetic laser and will be capable of achieving for the first time fusion ignition in the laboratory. Detecting optics features within the laser beamlines and sizing them at diameters of 0.1 mm to 10 mm allows timely decisions concerning refurbishment and will help with the routine operation of the system. Horizontally polarized shear waves at 10 MHz were shown to accurately detect, locate, and size features created by laser operations from 0.5 mm to 8 mm by placing sensors at the edge of the optic. The shear wave technique utilizes highly directed beams. The outer edge of an optic can be covered with shear wave transducers on four sides. Each transducer sends a pulse into the optic and any damage reflects the pulse back to the transmitter. The transducers are multiplexed, and the collected time waveforms are enveloped and replicated across the width of the element. Multiplying the data sets from four directions produces a map of reflected amplitude to the fourth power, which images the surface of the optic. Surface area can be measured directly from the image, and maximum depth was shown to be correlated to maximum amplitude of the reflected waveform.
Shear modulus of neutron star crust
Baiko, D A
2011-01-01
Shear modulus of solid neutron star crust is calculated by thermodynamic perturbation theory taking into account ion motion. At given density the crust is modelled as a body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative $\\propto T$ contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behavior is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for li...
Density-shear instability in electron MHD
Wood, Toby S; Lyutikov, Maxim
2014-01-01
We discuss a novel instability in inertia-less electron magneto-hydrodynamics (EMHD), which arises from a combination of electron velocity shear and electron density gradients. The unstable modes have a lengthscale longer than the transverse density scale, and a growth-rate of the order of the inverse Hall timescale. We suggest that this density-shear instability may be of importance in magnetic reconnection regions on scales smaller than the ion skin depth, and in neutron star crusts. We demonstrate that the so-called Hall drift instability, previously argued to be relevant in neutron star crusts, is a resistive tearing instability rather than an instability of the Hall term itself. We argue that the density-shear instability is of greater significance in neutron stars than the tearing instability, because it generally has a faster growth-rate and is less sensitive to geometry and boundary conditions. We prove that, for uniform electron density, EMHD is "at least as stable" as regular, incompressible MHD, in...
Turbulent structures in Kolmogorovian shear flows: DNS
Tuckerman, Laurette S.; Chantry, Matthew; Barkley, Dwight
2015-11-01
Patterns of turbulent and laminar flow form a vital step in the transition to turbulent in wall-bounded shear flows. In flows with two unconstrained directions these patterns form oblique bands, whereas in pipe flow the structures are streamwise-localized puffs. To understand these structures we examine Waleffe flow, a sinusoidal shear flow, Usinπ/2 y , driven by a body force and stress-free boundary conditions at y = +/- 1 . Introduced as a model for plane Couette flow we demonstrate the existence of turbulence bands which match those found in plane Couette flow, excluding the boundary layer regions of the latter flow. This agreement is reiterated in the studies of uniform turbulence and linear stability; highlighting the surprising unimportance of this region to transitional turbulence. Building upon this we consider two other canonical flows: plane Pouiseuille flow and pipe flow. Attacking these flows with the approach that succeeded in plane Couette flow we attempt to clarify the role of boundary layers to transitionally turbulent shear flows.
Alfven eigenmodes in shear reversed plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Experiments on JT-60U and JET have shown that plasma configurations with shear reversal are prone to the excitation of unusual Alfven Eigenmodes by energetic particles. These modes emerge outside the TAE frequency gap, where one might expect them to be strongly damped. The modes often appear in bunches and they exhibit a quasi-periodic pattern of predominantly upward frequency sweeping (Alfven Cascades) as the safety factor q changes in time. This work presents a theory that explains the key features of the observed unusual modes including their connection to TAE's as well as the modifications of TAE's themselves near the shear reversal point. The developed theory has been incorporated into a reduced numerical model and verified with full geometry codes. JET experimental data on Alfven spectroscopy have been simulated to infer the mode numbers and the evolution of qmin in the discharge. This analysis confirms the values of q that characterize the internal transport barrier triggering in reversed shear plasmas. (author)
Shear stress, arterial identity and atherosclerosis.
Lehoux, Stephanie; Jones, Elizabeth A
2016-02-29
In the developing embryo, the vasculature first takes the form of a web-like network called the vascular plexus. Arterial and venous differentiation is subsequently guided by the specific expression of genes in the endothelial cells that provide spatial and temporal cues for development. Notch1/4, Notch ligand delta-like 4 (Dll4), and Notch downstream effectors are typically expressed in arterial cells along with EphrinB2, whereas chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor II (COUP-TFII) and EphB4 characterise vein endothelial cells. Haemodynamic forces (blood pressure and blood flow) also contribute importantly to vascular remodelling. Early arteriovenous differentiation and local blood flow may hold the key to future inflammatory diseases. Indeed, despite the fact that atherosclerosis risk factors such as smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and diabetes all induce endothelial cell dysfunction throughout the vasculature, plaques develop only in arteries, and they localise essentially in vessel branch points, curvatures and bifurcations, where blood flow (and consequently shear stress) is low or oscillatory. Arterial segments exposed to high blood flow (and high laminar shear stress) tend to remain plaque-free. These observations have led many to investigate what particular properties of arterial or venous endothelial cells confer susceptibility or protection from plaque formation, and how that might interact with a particular shear stress environment. PMID:26676959
Shear Stress Sensing using Elastomer Micropillar Arrays
Wohl, Christopher J.; Palmieri, Frank L.; Lin, Yi; Jackson, Allen M.; Cissoto, Alexxandra; Sheplak, Mark; Connell, John W.
2013-01-01
The measurement of shear stress developed as a fluid moves around a solid body is difficult to measure. Stresses at the fluid-solid interface are very small and the nature of the fluid flow is easily disturbed by introducing sensor components to the interface. To address these challenges, an array of direct and indirect techniques have been investigated with various advantages and challenges. Hot wire sensors and other indirect sensors all protrude significantly into the fluid flow. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, although facilitating very accurate measurements, are not durable, are prone to contamination, and are difficult to implement into existing model geometries. One promising approach is the use of engineered surfaces that interact with fluid flow in a detectable manner. To this end, standard lithographic techniques have been utilized to generate elastomeric micropillar arrays of various lengths and diameters. Micropillars of controlled length and width were generated in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer using a soft-lithography technique. The 3D mold for micropillar replication was fabricated using laser ablative micromachining and contact lithography. Micropillar dimensions and mechanical properties were characterized and compared to shear sensing requirements. The results of this characterization as well as shear stress detection techniques will be discussed.
A comparison between magnetic shear and flare shear in a well-observed M-class flare
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We give an extensive multi-wavelength analysis of an eruptive M1.0/1N class solar flare, which occurred in the active region NOAA 10044 on 2002 July 26. Our emphasis is on the relationship between magnetic shear and flare shear. Flare shear is defined as the angle formed between the line connecting the centroids of the two ribbons of the flare and the line perpendicular to the magnetic neutral line. The magnetic shear is computed from vector magnetograms observed at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), while the flare shear is computed from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 1700 A images. By a detailed comparison, we find that: 1) The magnetic shear and the flare shear of this event are basically consistent, as judged from the directions of the transverse magnetic field and the line connecting the two ribbons' centroids. 2) During the period of the enhancement of magnetic shear, flare shear had a fast increase followed by a fluctuated decrease. 3) When the magnetic shear stopped its enhancement, the fluctuated decreasing behavior of the flare shear became very smooth. 4) Hard X-ray (HXR) spikes are well correlated with the unshearing peaks on the time profile of the rate of change of the flare shear. We give a discussion of the above phenomena. (invited reviews)
Velocity profiles in shear-banding wormlike micelles
Salmon, J B; Manneville, S; Molino, F; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Colin, Annie; Manneville, Sebastien; Molino, Francois
2003-01-01
Using Dynamic Light Scattering in heterodyne mode, we measure velocity profiles in a much studied system of wormlike micelles (CPCl/NaSal) known to exhibit both shear-banding and stress plateau behavior. Our data provide evidence for the simplest shear-banding scenario, according to which the effective viscosity drop in the system is due to the nucleation and growth of a highly sheared band in the gap, whose thickness linearly increases with the imposed shear rate. We discuss various details of the velocity profiles in all the regions of the flow curve and emphasize on the complex, non-Newtonian nature of the flow in the highly sheared band.
Shear-enhanced yield stress in electrorheological fluids.
Lau, Kai Chi; Shi, Lihong; Tam, Wing Yim; Sheng, Ping
2003-05-01
We report the enhancement of yield stress in electrorheological (ER) fluids by a shear-annealing method, using creep-recovery (CR) cycles under an external electric field. The enhancement depends on the duration and the strength of the applied shear stress, as well as on the number of the CR cycles. The shear-annealing method enables the particles in the ER fluid to form microstructures with an increased yield stress, manifest as better aligned and denser columns. For a sufficiently large number of CR cycles, with an optimal combination of stress duration and shear strength, a stable state can be obtained whereby shear deformation becomes elastic. PMID:12786202
Velocity Profiles in Shear-Banding Wormlike Micelles
Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Colin, Annie; Manneville, Sbastien; Molino, Franois
2003-06-01
Using dynamic light scattering in heterodyne mode, we measure velocity profiles in a much studied system of wormlike micelles (CPCl/NaSal) known to exhibit both shear-banding and stress plateau behavior. Our data provide evidence for the simplest shear-banding scenario, according to which the effective viscosity drop in the system is due to the nucleation and growth of a highly sheared band in the gap, whose thickness linearly increases with the imposed shear rate. We discuss various details of the velocity profiles in all the regions of the flow curve and emphasize the complex, non-Newtonian nature of the flow in the highly sheared band.
Atomic structure of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide.
Reddy, K Madhav; Liu, P; Hirata, A; Fujita, T; Chen, M W
2013-01-01
Amorphous shear bands are the main deformation and failure mode of super-hard boron carbide subjected to shock loading and high pressures at room temperature. Nevertheless, the formation mechanisms of the amorphous shear bands remain a long-standing scientific curiosity mainly because of the lack of experimental structure information of the disordered shear bands, comprising light elements of carbon and boron only. Here we report the atomic structure of the amorphous shear bands in boron carbide characterized by state-of-the-art aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. Distorted icosahedra, displaced from the crystalline matrix, were observed in nano-sized amorphous bands that produce dislocation-like local shear strains. These experimental results provide direct experimental evidence that the formation of amorphous shear bands in boron carbide results from the disassembly of the icosahedra, driven by shear stresses. PMID:24052052
Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias
van Uitert, Edo
2016-01-01
We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomized catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Su...
A bilateral shear layer between two parallel Couette flows
Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D; Andersson, Helge I
2012-01-01
We consider a shear layer of a kind not previously studied to our knowledge. Contrary to the classical free shear layer, the width of the shear zone does not vary in the streamwise direction but rather exhibits a lateral variation. Based on some simplifying assumptions, an analytic solution has been derived for the new shear layer. These assumptions have been justified by a comparison with numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations, which accord with the analytical solution to better than $1\\%$ in the entire domain. An explicit formula is found for the width of the shear zone as a function of wall-normal coordinate. This width is independent of wall velocities in the laminar regime. Preliminary results for a co-current laminar-turbulent shear layer in the same geometry are also presented. Shear-layer instabilities were then developed and resulted in an unsteady mixing zone at the interface between the two co-current streams.
Bilateral shear layer between two parallel Couette flows
Narasimhamurthy, Vagesh D.; Ellingsen, Simen Å.; Andersson, Helge I.
2012-03-01
We consider an unusual shear layer occuring between two parallel Couette flows. Contrary to the classical free shear layer, the width of the shear zone does not vary in the streamwise direction but rather exhibits a lateral variation. Based on some simplifying assumptions, an analytic solution is derived for this shear layer. These assumptions are justified by a comparison with numerical solutions of the full Navier-Stokes equations, which accord with the analytical solution to better than 1% in the entire domain. An explicit formula is found for the width of the shear zone as a function of the wall-normal coordinate. This width is independent of the wall velocities in the laminar regime. Preliminary results for a cocurrent laminar-turbulent shear layer in the same geometry are also presented. Shear-layer instabilities are then developed and result in an unsteady mixing zone at the interface between the two cocurrent streams.
Shear sensing based on a microstrip patch antenna
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A microstrip patch antenna sensor was studied for shear sensing with a targeted application of measuring plantar shear distribution on a diabetic foot. The antenna shear sensor consists of three components, namely an antenna patch, a soft foam substrate and a slotted ground plane. The resonant frequency of the antenna sensor is sensitive to the overlapping length between the slot in the ground plane and the antenna patch. A shear force applied along the direction of the slot deforms the foam substrate and causes a change in the overlapping length, which can be detected from the antenna frequency shift. The antenna shear sensor was designed based on simulated antenna frequency response and validated by experiments. Experimental results indicated that the antenna sensor exhibits high sensitivity to shear deformation and responds to the applied shear loads with excellent linearity and repeatability. (paper)
Shear strength of oil palm shell foamed concrete beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Four reinforced oil palm shell foamed concrete (OPSFC) beams were fabricated, and their shear behaviour was tested. The OPSFC has a target density of approximately 1600 kg/m3 and a 28-day compressive strength of about 20 MPa. Two beams were cast with shear reinforcements while the other two were cast without such reinforcements. For comparison, four reinforced normal weight concrete (NWC) beams were also cast. The beams that contained shear links failed in flexure mode, while those without links failed in shear mode. The experimental results indicated that the shear capacities of OPSFC beams without shear links are higher than those of the NWC beams and exhibit more flexural and shear cracks.
Drift waves in a quadrupole with sheared field configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We develop the linear theory of drift waves in a sheared quadrupole magnetic field configuration, with a view to applying the theory to the UMIST quadrupole GOLUX; shear can be introduced into this system by imposing a uniform longitudinal field. An eigenvalue equation is obtained, and appropriate sets of boundary conditions are proposed. The basic instability is due to the 'dissipative trapped electron' mechanism in both the simple and sheared quadrupole configurations, but the mode structure changes with shear; at sufficiently large values the mode adopts the Pearlstein-Berk (1969) form and may then be stabilized by shear damping. A novel prediction of the theory is that the 'private flux' region of the quadrupole, which without shear is completely stable, is destabilized at very small values of longitudinal field. We propose that the sheared quadrupole will form an excellent laboratory system for testing theories of drift waves developed for tokamak configurations. (Author)
Electrical conductivity anisotropy in partially molten peridotite under shear deformation
Zhang, Baohua; Yoshino, Takashi; Yamazaki, Daisuke; Manthilake, Geeth; Katsura, Tomoo
2014-11-01
The electrical conductivity of partially molten peridotite was measured during deformation in simple shear at 1 GPa in a DIA type apparatus with a uniaxial deformation facility. To detect development of electrical anisotropy during deformation of partially molten system, the electrical conductivity was measured simultaneously in two directions of three principal axes: parallel and normal to the shear direction on the shear plane, and perpendicular to the shear plane. Impedance spectroscopy measurement was performed at temperatures of 1523 K for Fe-bearing and 1723 K for Fe-free samples, respectively, in a frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz. The electrical conductivity of partially molten peridotite parallel to shear direction increased to more than one order of magnitude higher than those normal to shear direction on the shear plane. This conductivity difference is consistent with the magnitude of the conductivity anisotropy observed in the oceanic asthenosphere near the Eastern Pacific Rise. On the other hand, conductivity perpendicular to the shear plane decreased gradually after the initiation of shear and finally achieved a value close to that of olivine. The magnitude and development style of conductivity anisotropy was almost the same for both Fe-bearing and Fe-free melt-bearing systems, and also independent of shear strain. However, such conductivity anisotropy was not developed in melt-free samples during shear deformation, suggesting that the conductivity anisotropy requires a presence of partial melting under shear stress. Microstructural observations of deformed partially molten peridotite samples demonstrated that conductivity anisotropy was attributed to the elongation of melt pockets parallel to the shear direction. Horizontal electrical conductivity anisotropy revealed by magnetotelluric surveys in the oceanic asthenosphere can be well explained by the realignment of partial melt induced by shear stress.
Displacements at shear crack in beams with shear reinforcement under static and fatigue loadings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, H. (The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)); Ueda, T. (Hokkaido Universtiy, Sapporo (Japan)); Farghaly, S.
1991-08-20
The fatigue tests of rectangular reinforced concrete beams with vertical or inclined plain and/or deformed stirrups different in bond characteristics, reinforcement ratio and diameter were conducted under static and repeated loadings. Opening and shearing displacements along shear cracks as well as stirrup strains and concrete deformations along stirrups were measured. The effects of the bond characteristics, reinforcement ratio and diameter of the stirrup on stirrup slip and crack displacement in the direction of the stirrup were revealed. The method for predicting the opening displacement of shear cracks under static and repeated loadings was proposed in consideration of the angle, bond characteristics and diameter of the stirrup as well as a concrete strength and the amount and number of repeated loadings. The predicted crack displacements agreed with the experimental results and previously reported data. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.
Property of Alfven eigenmode in JT-60U reversed shear and weak shear discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper reports activity of Alfven eigenmode (AE) in the JT-60U reversed shear (RS) and weak shear (WS) plasmas. The AEs with a rapid frequency sweeping and then saturation of frequency as qmin decreases has been observed in low-βh RS discharges with Negative-ion-based NBI (NNBI) or ICRH. We introduce the new type of AE which we call reversed-shear-induced Alfven Eigenmode (RSAE) near qmin. This puzzling frequency change can be explained by considering the properties of RSAE and their transition to toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs). We verify the existence of RSAEs and their transition to TAEs from magnetic fluctuations and measured q-profile in JT-60U plasmas. The AE amplitude is maximum during this transition, e.g., ∼2.4 min min transition range of n = 1 AE to avoid substantial fast ion loss by large amplitude AEs in RS plasmas. (author)
Shear viscosity of dense-phase slurries at varying shear-rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A method is presented for predicting the viscosity of highly concentrated suspensions at varying shear-rates and for specified particle size distributions. Data for several different suspensions are shown to confirm the crucial significance of the maximum packing concentration phi/sub m/ and the intrinsic viscosity [eta]. It is demonstrated that d/sub m/ can be calculated analytically for well-dispersed systems with spherical particles of nonuniform size distribution, and can be corrected for the other suspensions using a very strong correlation that was obtained between the calculated and measured phi/sub m/ values. Also shown is that both phi/sub m/ and [eta] represent the particle surface conditions of each suspension to be evaluated at high shear-rates, and that the viscosity variations with the shear-rate can be uniquely represented by a single particle interaction parameter, eta
Evolution of thermal ion transport barriers in reversed shear/optimised shear plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effects of the magnetic and ExB rotation shears on the thermal ion transport in advanced tokamak scenarios are analyzed through the predictive modelling of the evolution of internal transport barriers. Such a modelling is performed with an experimentally validated L-mode thermal diffusivity completed with a semi-empirical shear correction which is based on simple theoretical arguments from turbulence studies. A multi-machine test of the model on relevant discharges from the ITER Data Base (TFTR, DIII-D and JET) is presented. (author)
Transient growth in a shearing stratified atmosphere
Brandenburg, A; Brandenburg, Axel; Dintrans, Boris
2001-01-01
The stability of fully compressible isothermal shear flows is studied in response to recent claims that such flows could be locally unstable to a linear instability. The behavior of the solution is characterized by the time-dependent Rayleigh quotient, which lies between the smallest and the largest eigenvalue. The imaginary part of the Rayleigh quotient (corresponding to a growth rate) is, for different initial conditions, always found to approach zero provided the flow is Rayleigh stable (angular momentum increasing outwards). The real part (corresponding to frequency) is usually growing linearly in time, which reflects the progressive increase in wavenumber for horizontally propagating sound waves.
Multifractal spectra in homogeneous shear flow
Deane, A. E.; Keefe, L. R.
1988-01-01
Employing numerical simulations of 3-D homogeneous shear flow, the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation, scalar dissipation and vorticity fields were calculated. The results for (128) cubed simulations of this flow, and those obtained in recent experiments that analyzed 1- and 2-D intersections of atmospheric and laboratory flows, are in some agreement. A two-scale Cantor set model of the energy cascade process which describes the experimental results from 1-D intersections quite well, describes the 3-D results only marginally.
Primordial shear and the question of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The role of primordial shear in two inflationary scenarios, Planck-time (Linde) inflation and the GUT inflation is discussed. In the Linde picture, including a simple ''particle creation'' term produces universes in which the temperature rapidly attains a stable asymptotic value just below the Planck temperature, whatever the Higgs field coupling constant. Such universes are truly isotropic by the time the GUT era is reached. (There is no supercooling because of particle creation.) In the GUT picture, inflation can occur notwithstanding the presence of anisotropy. However, in these models, initial anisotropy reduces the GUT era coherence length and it becomes more difficult to form the present universe from a single bubble. (orig.)
Propagation of waves in shear flows
Fabrikant, A L
1998-01-01
The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside
Flow and segregation in sheared granular slurries
Barentin, C.; Azanza, E.; Pouligny, B.
2004-04-01
We study the behaviour of a granular slurry, i.e., a very concentrated suspension of heavy (denser than the fluid) and polydisperse particles sheared between two parallel-plane circular disks. For small gaps, the slurry behaves as a 2d system with a characteristic radial size segregation of particles. For large gaps, the slurry responds as a 3d system, with considerable vertical segregation and a concomitant 2-phase (fluid, solid) flow structure. The thickness ? of the fluid phase is the 2d-3d gap crossover. Surprisingly, ? is found to be nearly unaffected by very large changes in the particle size distribution.
Nonequilibrium steady states in sheared binary fluids
Stansell, P.; Stratford, K.; Desplat, J. -C.; Adhikari, R.; Cates, M. E.
2005-01-01
We simulate by lattice Boltzmann the steady shearing of a binary fluid mixture undergoing phase separation with full hydrodynamics in two dimensions. Contrary to some theoretical scenarios, a dynamical steady state is attained with finite domain lengths $L_{x,y}$ in the directions ($x,y)$ of velocity and velocity gradient. Apparent scaling exponents are estimated as $L_{x}\\sim\\dot{\\gamma}^{-2/3}$ and $L_{y}\\sim\\dot{\\gamma}^{-3/4}$. We discuss the relative roles of diffusivity and hydrodynamic...
Smooth affine shear tight frames: digitization and applications
Zhuang, Xiaosheng
2015-08-01
In this paper, we mainly discuss one of the recent developed directional multiscale representation systems: smooth affine shear tight frames. A directional wavelet tight frame is generated by isotropic dilations and translations of directional wavelet generators, while an affine shear tight frame is generated by anisotropic dilations, shears, and translations of shearlet generators. These two tight frames are actually connected in the sense that the affine shear tight frame can be obtained from a directional wavelet tight frame through subsampling. Consequently, an affine shear tight frame indeed has an underlying filter bank from the MRA structure of its associated directional wavelet tight frame. We call such filter banks affine shear filter banks, which can be designed completely in the frequency domain. We discuss the digitization of affine shear filter banks and their implementations: the forward and backward digital affine shear transforms. Redundancy rate and computational complexity of digital affine shear transforms are also investigated in this paper. Numerical experiments and comparisons in image/video processing show the advantages of digital affine shear transforms over many other state-of-art directional multiscale representation systems.
Pure and shear-enhanced compaction bands in Aztec Sandstone
Eichhubl, Peter; Hooker, John N.; Laubach, Stephen E.
2010-12-01
We report on the occurrence of deformation bands in Jurassic eolian Aztec Sandstone at Valley of Fire, Nevada, that accommodated roughly equal amounts of shear and band-perpendicular compaction by grain rearrangement and porosity collapse. These bands, referred to as shear-enhanced compaction bands, differ in orientation, structural arrangement, and microtexture from pure compaction bands that form perpendicular to the shortening direction. Shear-enhanced compaction bands are planar over tens of meters, and commonly composed of multiple parallel thinner strands. Pure compaction bands are less commonly planar, typically wavy or chevron in geometry, and composed of single strands. Shear-enhanced compaction bands are inferred to form at 38-53 relative to the maximum compressive principal stress, and thus differ from compactive shear bands that form at distinctly lower angles. While shear offsets along shear-enhanced compaction bands are only about 1/10th of the band thickness, by contrast, shear offsets may be large for compactive shear bands with formation of slip surfaces. Based on inferred timing and burial conditions, we interpret that the formation of shear-enhanced and pure compaction bands requires large initial porosity close to the loose packing porosity, good sorting, and high effective maximum compressive principal stress of about 20 MPa.
Lin, Neil Y. C.
2013-12-01
Using high-speed confocal microscopy, we measure the particle positions in a colloidal suspension under large-amplitude oscillatory shear. Using the particle positions, we quantify the in situ anisotropy of the pair-correlation function, a measure of the Brownian stress. From these data we find two distinct types of responses as the system crosses over from equilibrium to far-from-equilibrium states. The first is a nonlinear amplitude saturation that arises from shear-induced advection, while the second is a linear frequency saturation due to competition between suspension relaxation and shear rate. In spite of their different underlying mechanisms, we show that all the data can be scaled onto a master curve that spans the equilibrium and far-from-equilibrium regimes, linking small-amplitude oscillatory to continuous shear. This observation illustrates a colloidal analog of the Cox-Merz rule and its microscopic underpinning. Brownian dynamics simulations show that interparticle interactions are sufficient for generating both experimentally observed saturations. © 2013 American Physical Society.
An expert system for wind shear avoidance
Stengel, Robert F.; Stratton, D. Alexander
1990-01-01
The principal objectives are to develop methods for assessing the likelihood of wind shear encounter (based on real-time information in the cockpit), for deciding what flight path to pursue (e.g., takeoff abort, landing go-around, or normal climbout or glide slope), and for using the aircraft's full potential for combating wind shear. This study requires the definition of both deterministic and statistical techniques for fusing internal and external information, for making go/no-go decisions, and for generating commands to the aircraft's autopilot and flight directors for both automatic and manually controlled flight. The expert system for pilot aiding is based on the results of the FAA Windshear Training Aids Program, a two-volume manual that presents an overview, pilot guide, training program, and substantiating data that provides guidelines for this initial development. The Windshear Safety Advisor expert system currently contains over 140 rules and is coded in the LISP programming language for implementation on a Symbolics 3670 LISP Machine.
Reynolds stress and shear flow generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The so-called Reynolds stress may give a measure of the self-consistent flow generation in turbulent fluids and plasmas by the small-scale turbulent fluctuations. A measurement of the Reynolds stress can thus help to predict flows, e.g. shear flows in plasmas. This may assist the understanding of improved confinement scenarios such as H-mode confinement regimes. However, the determination of the Reynolds stress requires measurements of the plasma potential, a task that is difficult in general and nearly impossible in hot plasmas in large devices. In this work we investigate an alternative method, based on density measurements, to estimate the Reynolds stress, and demonstrate the validity range of this quantity, which we term the pseudo-Reynolds stress. The advantage of such a quantity is that accurate measurements of density fluctuations are much easier to obtain experimentally. Prior to the treatment of the pseudo-Reynolds stress, we present analytical and numerical results which demonstrate that the Reynolds stress in a plasma, indeed, generates a poloidal shear flow. The numerical simulations are performed both in a drift wave turbulence regime and a resistive interchange turbulence regime. Finally, the implications of misaligned probe arrays on the determination of Reynolds stresses are investigated, and alignment is found to be important but not severe. (author)
Coupling effects in multiphase free shear flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The primary goal of this research program is to examine the effects of two-way multiphase coupling on the development of organized vortex structures in free shear flows and the resultant multiphase dispersion. Previous research studies have determined that one-way coupled particle dispersion in free shear flows is strongly dependent on the vortex structures present in these flows and their interactions as well as the ratio of the particle aerodynamic response time to the time scale of the dominant vortex structures. Current research efforts are directed towards exploring the effects that two-way momentum, mass and energy coupling have on the multiphase dispersion processes previously uncovered. These efforts involve analytical, numerical and experimental investigations. Recent analytical and numerical results indicate that momentum coupling effects can significantly alter the global stability and potentially the large scale features of the multiphase flow field. These multiphase coupling effects may have significant importance with regard to predicting the performance of many energy conversion systems
Sheares? Method of Vaginoplasty - Our Experience
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somajita Chakrabarty
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH syndrome is one of the most common causes of primary amenorrhoea and is associated with vaginal atresia and absent uterus despite the presence of normal ovaries and external genitalia. Various techniques have been used, with many disadvantages, to create a neovagina. Aims and Objectives: Our aim is to create a neovagina with a simple and safe method. Materials and Methods: We have operated 18 cases of MRKH syndrome with the Sheares? method of vaginoplasty, in which the space between the two labia is dilated with a Hegar?s dilator along the vestigial Mullerian ducts. Thus, two tunnels are created and the central septum is excised to form a single vagina. A mould covered with amnion is placed in the neovagina. All cases are followed up for six months. They have all had a good length of vagina with regular manual dilatation. Conclusions: The Sheares? method of vaginoplasty is an easy and safe method to create a neovagina with least complications, like injury to urinary bladder, rectum or bleeding.
Hyperscaling violation and the shear diffusion constant
Kolekar, Kedar S; Narayan, K
2016-01-01
We consider holographic theories in bulk $(d+1)$-dimensions with Lifshitz and hyperscaling violating exponents $z,\\theta$ at finite temperature. By studying shear gravitational modes in the near-horizon region given certain self-consistent approximations, we obtain the corresponding shear diffusion constant on an appropriately defined stretched horizon, adapting the analysis of Kovtun, Son and Starinets. For generic exponents with $d-z-\\theta>-1$, we find that the diffusion constant has power law scaling with the temperature, motivating us to guess a universal relation for the viscosity bound. When the exponents satisfy $d-z-\\theta=-1$, we find logarithmic behaviour. This relation is equivalent to $z=2+d_{eff}$ where $d_{eff}=d_i-\\theta$ is the effective boundary spatial dimension (and $d_i=d-1$ the actual spatial dimension). It is satisfied by the exponents in hyperscaling violating theories arising from null reductions of highly boosted black branes, and we comment on the corresponding analysis in that cont...
DSMC Simulations of Transiently Decaying Shear Flow
Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.; Rader, D. J.
2006-11-01
The accuracy of the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is investigated for simulating the transient decay of a shear flow between two parallel specular walls. In the continuum limit, the exact solution is determined numerically from the Navier-Stokes equations, and an approximate closed-form solution is determined for linear isothermal flow (i.e., small shear stress). DSMC simulations are performed using hard-sphere argon from free-molecular to continuum conditions. Initially, the tangential velocity component varies spatially according to one half-cycle of a cosine wave. The velocity amplitude is low enough to ensure that the flow remains linear and isothermal. Simulations are performed with various cell sizes and time steps while using an extremely large number of molecules (10 million). For each continuum case, the effective viscosity is determined by matching the closed-form solution for the velocity profile to the simulation results. The Chapman-Enskog value of the viscosity is obtained to within 0.3% in the resolved limit, and the departures at finite spatial and temporal resolution are in reasonable agreement with Green-Kubo theory. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
Cosmic Shear - with ACS Pure Parallel Observations
Ratnatunga, Kavan
2002-07-01
The ACS, with greater sensitivity and sky coverage, will extend our ability to measure the weak gravitational lensing of galaxy images caused by the large scale distribution of dark matter. We propose to use the ACS in pure parallel {non- proprietary} mode, following the guidelines of the ACS Default Pure Parallel Program. Using the HST Medium Deep Survey WFPC2 database we have measured cosmic shear at arc-min angular scales. The MDS image parameters, in particular the galaxy orientations and axis ratios, are such that any residual corrections due to errors in the PSF or jitter are much smaller than the measured signal. This situation is in stark contrast with ground-based observations. We have also developed a statistical analysis procedure to derive unbiased estimates of cosmic shear from a large number of fields, each of which has a very small number of galaxies. We have therefore set the stage for measurements with the ACS at fainter apparent magnitudes and smaller, 10 arc-second scales corresponding to larger cosmological distances. We will adapt existing MDS WFPC2 maximum likelihood galaxy image analysis algorithms to work with the ACS. The analysis would also yield an online database similar to that in archive.stsci.edu/mds/
Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders
Crane, Charles Kennan
Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially align in the direction of casting, which significantly affects compressive behavior of the UHPC.
Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using GFRP Wraps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. A. Saafan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of the experimental work described in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of GFRP composites in strengthening simply supported reinforced concrete beams designed with insufficient shear capacity. Using the hand lay-up technique, successive layers of a woven fiberglass fabric were bonded along the shear span to increase the shear capacity and to avoid catastrophic premature failure modes. The strengthened beams were fabricated with no web reinforcement to explore the efficiency of the proposed strengthening technique using the results of control beams with closed stirrups as a web reinforcement. The test results of 18 beams are reported, addressing the influence of different shear strengthening schemes and variable longitudinal reinforcement ratios on the structural behavior. The results indicated that significant increases in the shear strength and improvements in the overall structural behavior of beams with insufficient shear capacity could be achieved by proper application of GFRP wraps.
Shear rheology of lipid monolayers and insights on membrane fluidity
Espinosa, Gabriel; Lpez-Montero, Ivn; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique
2011-01-01
The concept of membrane fluidity usually refers to a high molecular mobility inside the lipid bilayer which enables lateral diffusion of embedded proteins. Fluids have the ability to flow under an applied shear stress whereas solids resist shear deformations. Biological membranes require both properties for their function: high lateral fluidity and structural rigidity. Consequently, an adequate account must include, in addition to viscosity, the possibility for a nonzero shear modulus. This knowledge is still lacking as measurements of membrane shear properties have remained incomplete so far. In the present contribution we report a surface shear rheology study of different lipid monolayers that model distinct biologically relevant situations. The results evidence a large variety of mechanical behavior under lateral shear flow. PMID:21444777
Assessment of susceptibility of rape stems to shearing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vielikanov L.
2000-12-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the authors used a dynamic shearing and densitometric method for the asses- sment of susceptibility of stems of winter rape, vars Mar, Bolko, Leo, Ceres and Libravo to shearing. They determi- ned dynamic shearing energy per a unit of the stem cross section area, in the natural state as well as after the removed of parenchyma, density and DOD parameter, indicating the amount of X-ray energy absorbed by the stems. It was found that susceptibility of rape stems to shearing depends on their structure. A strict correlation was shown to exist between the dynamic shearing energy and the amount of X-ray radiation energy absorbed by the stem. Moreover, in study showed that the application of the X-ray method greatly enhanced the possibility to determine of the suscep- tibility of rape stems to shearing.
Investigation into ferrofluid magnetoviscous effects under an oscillating shear flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinho, M., E-mail: marcos.pinho.etu@univ-lemans.fr [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France); Brouard, B.; Genevaux, J.M. [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France); Dauchez, N. [LISMMA - Institut Superieur de Mecanique de Paris (SUPMECA), 93407 Saint Ouen (France); Volkova, O. [Centre de micro et nanorheometrie, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice-cedex2 (France); Meziere, H.; Collas, P. [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France)
2011-10-15
The use of ferrofluid seals in mechanical systems can lead to viscous damping that affects their dynamic behavior. This paper describes an investigation into local viscous properties in the case of an axial harmonic force. The influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency are studied. Even for ferrofluid particles in a highly saturated magnetic field, it is shown that viscosity increases with magnetic intensity, decreases with the frequency of harmonic excitation and is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. Viscosity is lower for oscillatory flows than for steady flows. - Highlights: > Extension of the magnetoviscous effect of ferrofluids to the oscillatory shear flow. > Influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency is studied. > Ferrofluid viscosity is lower for oscillatory than for steady flow shearing. > Ferrofluid viscosity is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. > Negative-viscosity effect occurs even for a null magnetic field.
Hysteresis and Lubrication in Shear Thickening of Cornstarch Suspensions
Chu, Clarence E; Sieber, Hannah L; Miller, James G; Okamoto, Ruth J; Katz, Jonathan I
2014-01-01
Aqueous and brine suspensions of corn starch show striking discontinuous shear thickening. We have found that a suspension shear-thickened throughout may remain in the jammed thickened state as the strain rate is reduced, but an unjamming front may propagate from any unjammed regions. Transient shear thickening is observed at strain rates below the thickening threshold, and above it the stress fluctuates. The jammed shear-thickened state may persist to low strain rates, with stresses resembling sliding friction and effective viscosity inversely proportional to the strain rate. At the thickening threshold fluid pressure depins the suspension's contact lines on solid boundaries so that it slides, shears, dilates and jams. In oil suspensions lubrication and complete wetting of confining surfaces eliminate contact line forces and prevent jamming and shear thickening, as does addition of immiscible liquid surfactant to brine suspensions. Starch suspensions in glycerin-water solutions, viscous but incompletely wett...
Negative pressure in shear thickening band of a dilatant fluid
Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro
2015-01-01
We perform experiments and numerical simulations to investigate spatial distribution of pressure in a sheared dilatant fluid of the Taylor-Couette flow under a constant external shear stress. In a certain range of shear stress, the flow undergoes the shear thickening oscillation around 20 Hz. The pressure measurement during the oscillation at the wall of the outer cylinder indicates that a localized negative pressure region rotates around the axis with the flow. The maximum negative pressure is close to the Laplace pressure of the grain radius and nearly independent of the applied shear stress. Simulations of a phenomenological model reveal that the thickened region is dominated by a negative pressure band, which extends along the tensile direction in the flow. Such shear thickening with negative pressure contradicts a naive picture of jamming mechanism, where thickening is expected in the compressing direction with the positive pressure.
Simulation study on the trembling shear behavior of eletrorheological fluid
Yang, F.; Gong, X. L.; Xuan, S. H.; Jiang, W. Q.; Jiang, C. X.; Zhang, Z.
2011-07-01
The trembling shear behavior of electrorheological (ER) fluids has been investigated by using a computer simulation method, and a shear-slide boundary model is proposed to understand this phenomenon. A thiourea-doped Ba-Ti-O ER fluid which shows a trembling shear behavior was first prepared and then systematically studied by both theoretical and experimental methods. The shear curves of ER fluids in the dynamic state were simulated with shear rates from 0.1 to 1000 s-1 under different electric fields. The simulation results of the flow curves match the experimental results very well. The trembling shear curves are divided into four regions and each region can be explained by the proposed model.
Transport Bifurcation Induced by Sheared Toroidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas
Highcock, E G; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A; Roach, C M; Cowley, S C
2011-01-01
First-principles numerical simulations are used to describe a transport bifurcation in a differentially rotating tokamak plasma. Such a bifurcation is more probable in a region of zero magnetic shear, where the component of the sheared toroidal flow that is perpendicular to the magnetic field has the strongest suppressing effect on the turbulence, than one of finite magnetic shear. Where the magnetic shear is zero, there are no growing linear eigenmodes at any finite value of flow shear. However, subcritical turbulence can be sustained, owing to the transient growth of modes driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and the parallel velocity gradient (PVG). Nonetheless, in a parameter space containing a wide range of temperature gradients and velocity shears, there is a sizeable window where all turbulence is suppressed. Combined with the relatively low transport of momentum by collisional (neoclassical) mechanisms, this produces the conditions for a bifurcation from low to high temperature and velocity gr...
Understanding critical levels of sheared flow on microinstabilities
Newton, Sarah L; Loureiro, Nuno F
2010-01-01
The competition between the drive and stabilization of plasma microinstabilities by sheared flow is investigated, focusing on the ion temperature gradient mode. Using a twisting mode representation in sheared slab geometry, the characteristic equations have been formulated for a dissipative fluid model, developed rigorously from the gyrokinetic equation. They clearly show that perpendicular flow shear convects perturbations along the field at a speed we denote by $Mc_s$ (where $c_s$ is the sound speed), whilst parallel flow shear enters as an instability driving term analogous to the usual temperature and density gradient effects. For sufficiently strong perpendicular flow shear, $M >1$, the propagation of the system characteristics is unidirectional and no unstable eigenmodes may form. Perturbations are swept along the field, to be ultimately dissipated as they are sheared ever more strongly. Numerical studies of the equations also reveal the existence of stable regions when $M < 1$, where the driving ter...
Pereira, Fabíola Manhas Verbi; Bertelli Pflanzer, Sérgio; Gomig, Thaísa; Lugnani Gomes, Carolina; de Felício, Pedro Eduardo; Colnago, Luiz Alberto
2013-04-15
The noteworthy of this study is to predict seven quality parameters for beef samples using time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR) relaxometry data and multivariate models. Samples from 61 Bonsmara heifers were separated into five groups based on genetic (breeding composition) and feed system (grain and grass feed). Seven sample parameters were analyzed by reference methods; among them, three sensorial parameters, flavor, juiciness and tenderness and four physicochemical parameters, cooking loss, fat and moisture content and instrumental tenderness using Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The raw beef samples of the same animals were analyzed by TD-NMR relaxometry using Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) and Continuous Wave-Free Precession (CWFP) sequences. Regression models computed by partial least squares (PLS) chemometric technique using CPMG and CWFP data and the results of the classical analysis were constructed. The results allowed for the prediction of aforementioned seven properties. The predictive ability of the method was evaluated using the root mean square error (RMSE) for the calibration (RMSEC) and validation (RMSEP) data sets. The reference and predicted values showed no significant differences at a 95% confidence level. PMID:23601874
Strydom, P E; Smith, M F
2010-04-01
Several studies have shown that feeding of an energy-dense diet over short periods to cull cows could be profitable in terms of increased saleable yield and improved carcass conditions. Although the application of growth promoters, such as anabolic implants and beta agonists, in finishing of cull cows have been recorded, there is no conclusive evidence as to the timing and duration of beta agonists in cull cow production. In this study, 288 cull cows with four or more permanent incisors and varying weights and body conditions were divided into four treatment groups so that variation in age, weight and body condition were equally distributed among groups. One group received concentrate feed without any beta agonist (C), whereas the other three groups also received concentrate feed with zilpaterol hydrochloride (6 p.p.m.) for 20 (Z20), 30 (Z30) or 40 (Z40) days, respectively, followed by a 2-day withdrawal. Animals were adapted for 10 days on a grain-based diet and fed an additional 40 days before slaughter. Growth rate and efficiency (live and carcass), trimmed meat yield and meat tenderness (Warner Bratzler shear force and sensory) of the aged (10 days) m. longissimus thoracis (LT) and m. semitendinosus (ST) were recorded. In general, Z cows had higher carcass gains and efficiency of gain than C cows (P meat yields than C carcasses (P meat yield than 20 and 40 days supplementation. PMID:22444052
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah N. Al-Owaimer
2014-07-01
Full Text Available The current study was performed to investigate the influence of probiotics or antibiotic on breast quality characteristics of broiler chickens that were subjected to Salmonella challenge. Two hundred, one-day-old Cobb 500 chicks were allocated in five experimental treatments for 42 d. Ten cages of birds received one of the following treatments: T1=positive control (+CONT, unsupplemented, unchallenged; T2=negative control (-CONT, unsupplemented, challenged; T3=supplemented with antibiotic neoxyval (NEOX, challenged; T4=supplemented with probiotic Toyocerin (TOYO, challenged; and T5=supplemented with probiotic CloSTATTM (CLOS, challenged. Birds in treatments T2 to T5 were challenged with 3×109 CFU/mL of Salmonella enterica subsp. typhimurium on day 16. Nine birds per treatment were sampled at the end of the trial for breast characteristics. Overall, pH and temperature values of the breast muscle were similar among all groups tested. Cooking loss results indicated that breasts from T3 birds had the highest degree of shrinkage upon cooking while those of the probiotic group had similar control values (P<0.0001. Probiotic supplementation reduced the extent of destruction of myofibrils caused by homogenisation (P<0.0001. Warner-Bratzler shear test and texture profile analysis showed that neither treatments nor Salmonella challenge had any negative impact on texture or sensory attributes of chicken breast. In conclusion, results show that breast characteristics were better when probiotics were supplemented in the diets.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ALINA NARCISA POSTOLACHE
2014-11-01
Full Text Available This research is subscribed of an extensive project that has as main objective the production of crossbred specialized beef hybrids from reformed Romanian Black Spotted cattle's with bulls from breeds specialized for meat production (Blue Blanch Belgique, Aberdeen-Angus and Limousin. Averaged biochemical indicators analyzed showed a normal state of animal's health. The obtained half-breeds products (bulls were raised under semi-intensively conditions and slaughtered at 12 months of age. Live weight, back-fat thickness and carcass traits were significantly influenced by breed, all fat parameters being lower at this age than at standard minimum age of slaughter for meat production (18 months. Drip loss and chemical composition were similar for the breeds. The meat was lighter and pH24 values of longissimus muscle were between 5.57 and 5.64. Sensory panel tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear force values indicated tougher meat at RBSxAA than at RBSxL1 or RBSxBBB. Differences in meat quality were probably due to the combined effects of brute chemical composition and pH dynamic during ripening. It is concluded that slaughtering steers at younger ages may require supplementary feeding, being recommended a slaughter age between 18 and 25 months old.
Picard, Brigitte; Gagaoua, Mohammed; Micol, Didier; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Hocquette, Jean-François; Terlouw, Claudia E M
2014-10-01
Previous proteomic analyses established a list of proteins biomarkers of beef tenderness. The present study quantified the relative abundance of 21 of these proteins by dot-blot technique in the Longissimus thoracis and Semitendinosus muscles of 71 young bulls from three breeds: Aberdeen Angus (AA), Limousin (LI), and Blond d'Aquitaine (BA). For both muscles overall tenderness was estimated by sensory analysis; shear force was measured with a Warner-Bratzler instrument, and an index combining sensory and mechanical measurements was calculated. Multiple regressions based on relative abundances of these proteins were used to propose equations of prediction of the three evaluations of tenderness. Hsp70-1B appeared to be a good biomarker of low tenderness in the three breeds and in the two muscles. Proteins such as lactate dehydrogenase-B, myosin heavy chain IIx, and small heat shock proteins (Hsp27, Hsp20, and αB-crystallin) were related to tenderness but inversely according to the muscle and breed. The results demonstrate that prediction of tenderness must take into account muscle characteristics and animal type. PMID:25175407
Physicochemical Characteristics of Beef Jerky Cured with Salted-fermented Anchovy and Shrimp.
Kim, Gap-Don; Go, Gwang-Woong; Lim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Eun-Young; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Joo, Seon-Tea; Yang, Han-Sul
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to evaluate the availability of salted and fermented fish (SFF) including salted and fermented anchovy (SFA) and shrimp (SFS) as a marinade of beef jerky. In curing solutions, half (SFA 1 and SFS 1) or whole (SFA 2 and SFS 2) salt-water was replaced with SFF juices. Higher water activity (aw) was found in the beef jerky cured with SFFs than the control (C) (p< 0.05). The SFFs had the effect of causing a decrease in hardness and an increase in cohesiveness (p<0.05). Among the treatment samples, springiness was the highest in SFA2 and SFS2 (p<0.05) and the lowest values of Warner-Bratzler shear force were found in SFA1 and SFA2 (p<0.05). The SFFs also had the effect of increasing the flavor of the sensory properties; however, color measurements from both the instrumental surface color (L*, a*, b*, chroma, and hue angle) and color of sensory evaluation were decreased by addition of SFFs (p<0.05). Therefore, we conclude the SFFs can improve the texture and sensory properties of the beef jerky. In particular, the SFS is a good ingredient for the curing solution. However, studies are still needed on improving the aw, pH, and surface color of the beef jerky to apply the SFFs for making beef jerky. PMID:26760751
Hansen, Stine; Frylinck, Lorinda; Strydom, Phillip E
2012-01-01
In this study, 10 young steers received no beta agonist (C), 50 animals all received zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z), with 1 group receiving Z while the other 4 groups received Z and vitamin D(3) at the following levels (IU/animal /day) and durations before slaughter: 7 million for 3 days (3D7M) or 6 days (6D7M), 7 million for 6 days with 7 days no supplementation (6D7M7N) and 1 million for 9 days (9D1M). LD samples were vacuum-aged 14 days post mortem, and repacked in high-oxygen modified atmosphere (70% O(2)/30% CO(2)) for a further 7 days. Parameters included Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril fragment length, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, free thiol levels, muscle fat, and instrumental colour parameters. When allowing for a conversion period of vitamin D(3) to its active metabolites, supplementing the zilpaterol treated steers with a high dosage of vitamin D(3) (6D7M7N) resulted in improved colour stability, higher stability towards protein oxidation and lower stability towards lipid oxidation. PMID:21723673
Strydom, P E; Hope-Jones, M; Frylinck, L; Webb, E C
2011-12-01
In this study, 20 young steers received no beta-agonist (C), 100 animals all received zilpaterol hydrochloride (Z), with 1 group only receiving Z while the other 4 groups received zilpaterol and vitamin D3 at the following levels (IU/animal/day) and durations before slaughter: 7 million for 3 days (3D7M); 7 million for 6 days (6D7M); 7 million for 6 days with 7 days no supplementation (6D7M7N) and 1 million for 9 days (9D1M). Left carcass sides were electrically stimulated (ES) and the right side not stimulated (NES). Samples were aged for 3 or 14 days post mortem. Parameters included Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril filament length, sarcomere length and calpastatin and calpain enzyme activity. Both ES and prolonged aging reduced WBSF (P<0.001). 6D7M, 6D7M7N and Z remained significantly tougher than C (P<0.001), while 3D7M and 9D1M improved WBSF under NES conditions. ES is more effective to alleviate beta-agonist induced toughness than high vitamin D3 supplements. PMID:21658849
De Marchi, M; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G
2013-02-01
Visible and near infrared reflectance (Vis-NIR, 350 to 1800 nm), and near infrared transmittance (NIT, 850 to 1050 nm) spectroscopy were used to predict beef quality traits of intact and ground meat samples. Calibration equations were developed from reference data (n = 312) of pH, color traits (L*, a*, and b*), ageing loss (%), cooking loss (%), and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, N) using partial least squares regressions. Predictive ability of the models was assessed by coefficient of determination of cross-validation (R(2)(CV)) and root mean square error of cross-validation. Quality traits were better predicted on intact than on ground samples, and the best results were obtained using Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Predictions were good (R(2)(CV) = 0.62 to 0.73) for pH, L*, and a*, hardly sufficient (R(2)(CV) = 0.34 to 0.60) for b*, cooking loss, and WBSF, and unsatisfactory for ageing loss (R(2)(CV) = 0.15). Vis-NIR spectroscopy might be used to predict some physical beef quality traits on intact meat samples. PMID:23098602
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The effect of five mixtures of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodiumpyrophosphate on the texture and sensory properties of irradiated beef M. biceps femoris and M. semitendinosus muscles sterilised at 45 kGy were evaluated using pH after injection, drip loss measurement, Instron texture measurement and descriptive sensory analysis. The effect of cattle race was also investigated. Three breeds of cattle namely Afrikaner (Bos indicus), Hereford (Bos taurus) and Simmentaler (Bos taurus) were used. Steers were fed and raised in a controlled environment until 18 months of age, followed by slaughtering using the same procedure for each carcass. It was found that cattle breed had a significant influence on irradiated meat tenderness and juiciness. Afrikaner breed meat was the most tender and the most juicy. The Energy to break point measured using a Warner Bratzler Shear cell correlated with the ease of fragmentation (using fingers) as well as Initial Juiciness and Sustained Juiciness. Using polyphosphate levels of 13.2 mmol/kg produced undesirable flavours in the meat. The same tenderness was obtained using levels of 8.2 mmol/kg in the meat without undesirable taste. No differences were found between sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate treatments. Warmed Over Flavour was a significant factor influencing the quality of the products. (author)
Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki
2016-01-01
The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123
Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)
Lauren L. Hulsman, Hanna; Dorian J., Garrick; Clare A., Gill; Andy D., Herring; James O., Sanders; David G., Riley.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to 1) compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2) evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to em [...] bryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387). After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB ( ? = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively) and BayesC (? = 0 and ?), where ? is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV) from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using ?) had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP ( ?gg = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively), but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, ?y,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively). Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers.
Novel approach to aging beef: Vacuum-packaged foodservice steaks versus vacuum-packaged subprimals.
Eastwood, L Clay; Arnold, Ashley N; Miller, Rhonda K; Gehring, Kerri B; Savell, Jeffrey W
2016-06-01
This study evaluated quality attributes of beef aged as subprimals versus as steaks. Paired subprimals (n=5 pairs of five subprimal types) were selected and assigned to a treatment: (1) aging as vacuum-packaged steaks (portioned 7d postmortem), or (2) aging as vacuum-packaged subprimals (portioned into steaks after each aging period: ribeye, 28d; strip loin, 28d; top sirloin butt, 35d; tenderloin, 21d; and short loin, 28d). To simulate typical U.S. handling and distribution, all steaks were held an additional 14d before color, shelf life, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and consumer sensory analyses were conducted. Aging subprimals tended to result in a lower WBSF for the strip loin and significantly lower WBSF for top sirloin butts. Although consumer panelists preferred the strip loin aged as steaks, they had no preference for aging method for the other muscles. Overall, findings from this study show the potential for portioning subprimals into steaks before aging. PMID:26910511
Needham, T; Hoffman, L C
2015-12-01
Physical and chemical attributes of the Longissimus thoracis (LT) of 96 PIC(©) entire (E) and immunocastrated (C) pigs were evaluated. The study followed a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design where three diets of low, medium and high proteins (7.50, 9.79 and 12.07 g digestible lysine/kg) were fed either with (10mg/kg) or without ractopamine (RAC) for the last 28 days of growth. Vaccination of C occurred at 16 and 20 weeks and slaughtering at 24 weeks of age. The LTs were analysed for moisture, protein, fat and ash contents as well as CIE L*, a*, b* colour, drip loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Various sex and protein interactions were observed for LT protein content, L* values and WBSF. Cooking loss was decreased in C and by the medium protein diet. Feeding RAC increased WBSF values, whilst decreasing a* and b* values. However, the differences observed are minor and might be considered negligible when evaluated by a consumer. PMID:26201695
Liu, Yuqing; Mao, Yanwei; Liang, Rongrong; Zhang, Yimin; Wang, Renhuan; Zhu, Lixian; Han, Guangxing; Luo, Xin
2016-05-01
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of suspension method under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling on quality traits and ultra-structure of Chinese Yellow Cattle M. Longissimus lumborum (LL). After slaughter, the right sides of carcasses were hung by the Achilles tendon (SA), while the left sides were hung from the pelvic bone (SP). Both sides went through the 12-18°C pre-rigor muscle temperature controlled chilling. LL muscles were aged for 1, 7 or 14days and then evaluated for quality traits and ultra-structure. SP had no significant effect on myofibril fragmentation index, but significantly decreased the purge loss during aging and the Warner-Bratzler shear force values after aging for 1day. Electron microscopy and sarcomere length examination of LL showed that SP resulted in extended I-bands and sarcomere length. To conclude, applying SP under 12-18°C pre-rigor temperature controlled chilling is a potential method for the Chinese beef industry to improve tenderness especially after 1day of aging. PMID:26826666
Muhlisin; Song, Chang Soo; Rhee, Yong Joon; Song, Young Han; Lee, Sung Ki
2016-05-01
The carcass traits and meat quality of Hanwoo (Korean native cattle) whose diets were supplemented with direct-fed microbial (DFM) and pine cone extract (PCE) were evaluated. Twenty head of Hanwoo steers were divided equally into four groups and for a period of 6 months were given different diets: One group was fed a basal diet as control (CON), the other three groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with DFM-1%, DFM+PCE-1% and DFM+PEC-3%, respectively. DFM+PCE3% diet resulted the lowest carcass quality grade. The loins of DFM-1% contained higher moisture and lower fat than did the loins from the CON group. The crude protein content of DFM+PCE-3% group was significantly higher than that of the other groups. The water holding capacity and Warner-Bratzler shear force of the DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were lower than those of the CON and DFM-1% groups. The DFM-1% and 3% groups contained lower saturated fatty acid, higher unsaturated fatty acid, mono-unsaturated fatty acid, and poly-unsaturated fatty acid than did CON and DFM+PCE 1% group. Moreover, the n6:n3 ratios of DFM-1% and DFM+PCE-1% and 3% groups were slightly lower than that of the CON group. Thus we concluded that DFM and PCE supplementation resulted healthier Hanwoo beef with lower fat content and n6:n3 ratio. PMID:26954123
Selani, Miriam M; Shirado, Giovanna A N; Margiotta, Gregrio B; Saldaa, Erick; Spada, Fernanda P; Piedade, Sonia M S; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G
2016-02-01
Pineapple byproduct and canola oil were evaluated as fat replacers on physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-fat burgers. Five treatments were performed: conventional (CN, 20% fat) and four low-fat formulations (10% fat): control (CT), pineapple byproduct (PA), canola oil (CO), pineapple byproduct and canola oil (PC). Higher water and fat retention and lower cooking loss and diameter reduction were found in burgers with byproduct addition. In raw burgers, byproduct incorporation reduced L*, a*, and C* values, but these alterations were masked after cooking, leading to products similar to CN. Low-fat treatments were harder, chewier, and more cohesive than full-fat burgers. However, in Warner Bratzler shear measurements, PA and PC were as tender as CN. In QDA, no difference was found between CN and PC. Pineapple byproducts along with canola oil are promising fat replacers in beef burgers. In order to increase the feasibility of use of pineapple byproduct in the meat industry, alternative processes of byproduct preparation should be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26562792
Bass, P D; Scanga, J A; Chapman, P L; Smith, G C; Tatum, J D; Belk, K E
2008-07-01
Effects of the dark-cutting condition were examined on commercially slaughtered beef carcass sides that were classified into groups exhibiting 1/3, 1/2, and full degrees of the dark-cutting (DEGDC) condition, as evaluated by a USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service grader (n = 20 per group). Twenty-nine muscles of each carcass side were evaluated to determine the ultimate pH and color (L*, a*, and b*). Fourteen beef muscles (biceps femoris, deep pectoral, chuck complexus, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, latissimus dorsi, psoas major, longissimus thoracis, longissimus lumborum, semimembranosus, semitendinosus, triceps brachii long head, tensor fasciae latae, and vastus lateralis) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler Shear force (WBSF) and a trained sensory panel. The muscle x DEGDC interaction was significant for ultimate pH, L*, a*, and b* values (P sensory panel scores (P > 0.05), but differences were detected among muscles (P sensory scores or WBSF between DEGDC classes suggested equal sensory expectations for muscles from dark-cutting carcasses. PMID:18344305
Meat quality of lambs produced in the Mesopotamia region of Argentina finished on different diets.
Perlo, F; Bonato, P; Teira, G; Tisocco, O; Vicentin, J; Pueyo, J; Mansilla, A
2008-07-01
The meat quality of Corriedale lambs (40kg live weight) produced in the Mesopotamia region (Argentina) was assessed. These lambs had different finishing diets: only native grass pasture, ground alfalfa and alfalfa-linseed pellet (70/30). Carcass yield, longissimus dorsi area, backfat thickness, marbling, pH, meat and subcutaneous fat color, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fat, protein and moisture content were determined. Lambs finished on alfalfa-linseed pellet had the highest carcasses yield and backfat thickness and their meat had a lighter color (higher L(∗) value), higher marbling and tenderness than meat from lambs reared on native grass pasture. Grass-based finishing can lead to the production of leaner meat, with a more reddish color (higher a(∗) value). The ground alfalfa finishing diet seems to be intermediate between native grass pasture and alfalfa-linseed pellet with respect to carcass yield, backfat and meat color. In addition, the animals fed on ground alfalfa showed the highest muscle area. PMID:22062919
The dynamics of internal transport barrier formation in reverse shear and weak shear discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The experimental regime with reversed central magnetic shear and a coincident enhanced confinement region has opened an operating window which provides the confinement benefits of VH-mode discharges without the difficulties of coupling to the edge physics. A theoretical challenge is to model the dynamics of the transition to the enhanced confinement regime. This requires incorporating the linear effects of the reversed shear profiles in a nonlinear model to capture the bifurcation dynamics. A simple first principles model incorporating the nonlinear coupling between the turbulent fluctuations and the sheared radial electric field is used to investigate the dynamics of the transition to an enhanced confinement mode in the reversed shear/weak shear discharges. From this simple version of the model it is found that by incorporating both growth rate profiles and particle/power deposition profiles a rich variety of transition dynamics exist. The power threshold for the transition is found to depend on the local growth rate and the local gradient in the deposition profile. The size of the enhanced confinement region is predicted to depend on the growth rate profile and the total deposition inside the reversal region. The transition itself can take the form of a propagating front like transition. After the transition the transport in the enhanced regime is neoclassical with the performance limits determined by MHD stability which is not included in the model presented. The simple model can predict the evolution of the transition, scaling of the threshold levels and the optimal deposition profiles. In order to allow an increasingly reasonable investigation of power thresholds and hysteresis effects a more complete transport model is needed. This transport model is coupled to the simple dynamical model allowing the transition dynamics to be self-consistently evolved
Shear-Sensitive Monomer/Polymer Liquid Crystal System
Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; Parmar, D. S.
1993-01-01
Report describes preliminary investigation of new monomer/polymer liquid crystal system, thin film of shear-sensitive cholesteric monomer liquid crystal (TI 511) on Xydar (STR800) (or equivalent) liquid crystal polymer substrate. Monomer/polymer liquid crystal films applied to surfaces provide quantitative indications of shear stresses caused by winds blowing along surfaces. Effects of shear stresses reversible in new coating system. System provides quantitative data on flows in wind tunnels.
Shear Viscosity of a Superfluid Dipolar Gas at Low Temperatures
M. Khademi Dehkordi
2014-01-01
We compute the shear viscosity of superfluid Bose and Fermi gases on the base of Boltzmann equation and relaxation times. We show that, in the low temperature limit, the shear viscosities of Bose and Fermi gases are proportional to T-1evp0/T and T-4, respectively. For the superfluid Bose gas at low temperature limit, only splitting processes contribute to the shear viscosity.
Experimental investigation on shear fracture at high strain rates
Roth Christian C.; Mohr Dirk
2015-01-01
Adiabatic shear banding is a well-understood failure mechanism of metals at high strain rates. In addition, recent research on the ductile fracture of metals has demonstrated that shear localization at the microscale is also an important precursor of fracture initiation at low strain rates. This talk presents a new shear fracture specimen which is used to conduct fracture experiments on advanced high strength steel sheets at strain rates of up to 1/s in a hydraulic testing machine and for str...
Shear-Induced Collapse in a Lyotropic Lamellar Phase
Porcar, L.; Warr, G. G.; Hamilton, W. A.; Butler, P. D.
2005-08-01
An entropically stabilized cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol, and heavy brine lyotropic lamellar phase subjected to shear flow has been observed here by small angle neutron scattering to undergo collapse of smectic order above a threshold shear rate. The results are compared with theories predicting that such a lamellar phase sheared above a critical rate should lose its stability by a loss of resistance to compression due to the suppression of membrane fluctuations.
Shear-Induced Collapse in a Lyotropic Lamellar Phase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An entropically stabilized cetylpyridinium chloride, hexanol, and heavy brine lyotropic lamellar phase subjected to shear flow has been observed here by small angle neutron scattering to undergo collapse of smectic order above a threshold shear rate. The results are compared with theories predicting that such a lamellar phase sheared above a critical rate should lose its stability by a loss of resistance to compression due to the suppression of membrane fluctuations
Shear rheology of lipid monolayers and insights on membrane fluidity
Espinosa, Gabriel; Lpez-Montero, Ivn; Monroy, Francisco; Langevin, Dominique
2011-01-01
The concept of membrane fluidity usually refers to a high molecular mobility inside the lipid bilayer which enables lateral diffusion of embedded proteins. Fluids have the ability to flow under an applied shear stress whereas solids resist shear deformations. Biological membranes require both properties for their function: high lateral fluidity and structural rigidity. Consequently, an adequate account must include, in addition to viscosity, the possibility for a nonzero shear modulus. This k...
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs
Vibrational stability of graphene under combined shear and axial strains
Cocco, Giulio; Fiorentini, Vincenzo
2013-01-01
We study the vibrational properties of graphene under combined shear and uniaxial tensile strain using density-functional perturbation theory. Shear strain always causes rippling instabilities with strain-dependent direction and wavelength; armchair strain contrasts this instability, enabling graphene stability in a large range of combined strains. A complementary description based on membrane elasticity theory nicely clarifies the competition of shear-induced instability and uniaxial tension...
Shear transfer in bolted side-plated reinforced concrete beams
Su, KL; Lo, SH; Li, L.
2013-01-01
Reinforced concrete (RC) beams strengthened with bolted steel plates on their vertical faces are known as bolted side-plated (BSP) beams. The behaviour and performance of BSP beams are controlled by the arrangement of the steel plates and the interfacial slips caused by the shear deformation of anchor bolts due to shear force transfer. In this study, a nonlinear finite element model validated by available experimental results has been used to investigate the shear stress transfer in BSP beams...
Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using GFRP Wraps
M. A. A. Saafan
2006-01-01
The objective of the experimental work described in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of GFRP composites in strengthening simply supported reinforced concrete beams designed with insufficient shear capacity. Using the hand lay-up technique, successive layers of a woven fiberglass fabric were bonded along the shear span to increase the shear capacity and to avoid catastrophic premature failure modes. The strengthened beams were fabricated with no web reinforcement to explore the eff...
On kinetic resistive wall mode theory with sheared rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
To study toroidal rotation shear effect on Resistive Wall Mode (RWM) stability, kinetic RWM formulation is extended to include general equilibrium rotation. By starting from the guiding-center Lagrangian with sheared rotation, an energy functional of kinetic resonance is generalized. Based on the generalized energy functional, a new dispersion relation is derived in the large aspect ratio limit. Numerical analysis of the new dispersion relation indicates that the rotation shear can reduce the growth rates of the RWMs. (author)
Entrainment region phenomena for a large plane shear layer
Ali, S. K.; Klewicki, C. L.; Disimile, P. J.; Lawson, I.; Foss, J. F.
1985-01-01
The subatmospheric test section of the present free shear layer facility allows the entrainment air to be introduced with a negligible disturbance level. The very low frequency oscillations, which are prominently observed in the entrainment stream and which are present throughout the shear layer, are attributed to an inherent instability in the transition from a boundary layer to a free shear layer state. The basic features of the disturbance field are documented herein.
Dissipative instabilities of magnetic neutral layers with velocity shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The general problem of instability of magnetic neutral sheets in the presence of velocity shear is considered. Both resistivity and viscosity are included in the treatment. It is shown that velocity shear and/or viscosity introduce different orderings with respect to resistive tearing modes and that the classical tearing modes represent a singular case. Possible orderings for growth rates are discussed and a specific example containing the effect of velocity shear is treated in detail. (author)
Generalization of Shear Stress Distribution in Rectangular Compound Channels
ABAZA, Khaled A.
2003-01-01
Experimental testing of 5 different types of boundary shear stress distribution in a symmetrical rectangular compound section channel was conducted. Shear stress distributions in the main channel and floodplains of 6 different rectangular compound cross-sections are presented. Numerical values of regression coefficients for the resulting 36 single-variable models representing 5 types of shear stress for each of the 6 cross-sections have been derived. All obtained statistics indicate...
Colors Of Liquid Crystals Used To Measure Surface Shear Stresses
Reda, D. C.; Muratore, J. J., Jr.
1996-01-01
Developmental method of mapping shear stresses on aerodynamic surfaces involves observation, at multiple viewing angles, of colors of liquid-crystal surface coats illuminated by white light. Report describing method referenced in "Liquid Crystals Indicate Directions Of Surface Shear Stresses" (ARC-13379). Resulting maps of surface shear stresses contain valuable data on magnitudes and directions of skin friction forces associated with surface flows; data used to refine mathematical models of aerodynamics for research and design purposes.
Calculation of benchmarks with a shear beam model
Ferreira, D
2015-01-01
Fiber models for beam and shell elements allow for relatively rapid finite element analysis of concrete structures and structural elements. This project aims at the development of the formulation of such elements and a pilot implementation. Standard nonlinear fiber beam formulations do not account for shear effects and cannot capture all failure modes (like shear failure) and hence cannot be used in the assessment of structures with shear problems, as it may result in large overestimations of...
Dynamic Modes of Red Blood Cells in Oscillatory Shear Flow
Noguchi, Hiroshi
2009-01-01
The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) in oscillatory shear flow was studied using differential equations of three variables: a shape parameter, the inclination angle $\\theta$, and phase angle $\\phi$ of the membrane rotation. In steady shear flow, three types of dynamics occur depending on the shear rate and viscosity ratio. i) tank-treading (TT): $\\phi$ rotates while the shape and $\\theta$ oscillate. ii) tumbling (TB): $\\theta$ rotates while the shape and $\\phi$ oscillate. iii) intermediate ...
Nonhelical mean-field dynamos in a sheared turbulence
Rogachevskii, I.; Kleeorin, N.
2008-01-01
Mechanisms of nonhelical large-scale dynamos (shear-current dynamo and effect of homogeneous kinetic helicity fluctuations with zero mean) in a homogeneous turbulence with large-scale shear are discussed. We have found that the shear-current dynamo can act even in random flows with small Reynolds numbers. However, in this case mean-field dynamo requires small magnetic Prandtl numbers (i.e., ${\\rm Pm} < {\\rm Pm}^{\\rm cr}
Shear viscosity and spectral function of the quark matter
Iwasaki, Masaharu; Ohnishi, Hiromasa; Fukutome, Takahiko
2006-01-01
We discuss the shear viscosity of the quark matter by using the Kubo-Mori formula. It is found that the shear viscosity is expressed in terms of the quark spectral function. If the spectral function is approximated by a modified Bright-Wigner type, the viscosity decreases as the width of the spectral function increases. We also discuss dependence of the shear viscosity on the temperature and the density.
Lee, Ji-Seok; Song, Ki-Won
2015-11-01
The objective of the present study is to systematically elucidate the time-dependent rheological behavior of concentrated xanthan gum systems in complicated step-shear flow fields. Using a strain-controlled rheometer (ARES), step-shear flow behaviors of a concentrated xanthan gum model solution have been experimentally investigated in interrupted shear flow fields with a various combination of different shear rates, shearing times and rest times, and step-incremental and step-reductional shear flow fields with various shearing times. The main findings obtained from this study are summarized as follows. (i) In interrupted shear flow fields, the shear stress is sharply increased until reaching the maximum stress at an initial stage of shearing times, and then a stress decay towards a steady state is observed as the shearing time is increased in both start-up shear flow fields. The shear stress is suddenly decreased immediately after the imposed shear rate is stopped, and then slowly decayed during the period of a rest time. (ii) As an increase in rest time, the difference in the maximum stress values between the two start-up shear flow fields is decreased whereas the shearing time exerts a slight influence on this behavior. (iii) In step-incremental shear flow fields, after passing through the maximum stress, structural destruction causes a stress decay behavior towards a steady state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the maximum stress value is shortened as an increase in step-increased shear rate. (iv) In step-reductional shear flow fields, after passing through the minimum stress, structural recovery induces a stress growth behavior towards an equilibrium state as an increase in shearing time in each step shear flow region. The time needed to reach the minimum stress value is lengthened as a decrease in step-decreased shear rate.
Wave-front recovery from two orthogonal sheared interferograms
Servin, M.; Malacara, Daniel; Marroquin, J. L.
1996-08-01
We present a new technique for using the information of two orthogonal lateral-shear interferograms to estimate an aspheric wave front. The wave-front estimation from sheared inteferometric data may be considered an ill-posed problem in the sense of Hadamard. We apply Thikonov regularization theory to estimate the wave front that has produced the lateral sheared interferograms as the minimizer of a positive definite-quadratic cost functional. The introduction of the regularization term permits one to find a well-defined and stable solution to the inverse shearing problem over the wave-front aperture as well as to reduce wave-front noise as desired.
Shear and friction between carbon nanotubes in bundles and yarns.
Paci, Jeffrey T; Furmanchuk, Al'ona; Espinosa, Horacio D; Schatz, George C
2014-11-12
We perform a detailed density functional theory assessment of the factors that determine shear interactions between carbon nanotubes (CNTs) within bundles and in related CNT and graphene structures including yarns, providing an explanation for the shear force measured in recent experiments (Filleter, T. etal. Nano Lett. 2012, 12, 73). The potential energy barriers separating AB stacked structures are found to be irrelevant to the shear analysis for bundles and yarns due to turbostratic stacking, and as a result, the tube-tube shear strength for pristine CNTs is estimated to be manufacture of strong yarns composed of CNTs. PMID:25279773
Nonlinear Brownian dynamics of interfacial fluctuations in a shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we investigate the effect of an external flow on the fluctuations of a liquid–liquid interface for a wide range of shear rates. Although the statistics is Gaussian at low shear, we observe a transition to a nonlinear phenomenology above a critical shear rate. In particular, we show that statistical properties at high forcing share striking similarities with Burgers turbulence. An energy criterion allows us to predict the onset of non-Gaussian statistics. It also provides a simple explanation for the development of shock singularities through the exchange of kinetic energy from regions with positive to negative gradients in the shear direction. (paper)
Simple average expression for shear-stress relaxation modulus
Wittmer, J. P.; Xu, H.; Baschnagel, J.
2016-01-01
Focusing on isotropic elastic networks we propose a simple-average expression G (t ) =?A-h (t ) for the computational determination of the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) of a classical elastic solid or fluid. Here, ?A=G (0 ) characterizes the shear transformation of the system at t =0 and h (t ) the (rescaled) mean-square displacement of the instantaneous shear stress ? ?(t ) as a function of time t . We discuss sampling time and ensemble effects and emphasize possible pitfalls of alternative expressions using the shear-stress autocorrelation function. We argue finally that our key relation may be readily adapted for more general linear response functions.
49 CFR 230.28 - Higher shearing strength of rivets.
2010-10-01
... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... quality as to justify a higher allowable shearing strength. Inspection and Repair...
Diagonal Cracking and Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Jin-Ping
1997-01-01
found by the usual plastic theory, a physical explanation is given for this phenomenon and a way to estimate the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams, based on the theory of plasticity, is described. The theoretical calculations are shown to be in fairly good agreement with test results from a......The shear failure of non-shear-reinforced concrete beams with normal shear span ratios is observed to be governed in general by the formation of a critical diagonal crack. Under the hypothesis that the cracking of concrete introduces potential yield lines which may be more dangerous than the ones...
Rheological Transition of Sheared Frictionless Disks with Rotational Motion
Olsson, Peter; Teitel, Steve
We consider the massive Durian bubble model for sheared bidisperse disks, but modified so as to include the rotational motion of particles due to dissipative collisional torques. In such a model, particles possess a viscous tangential dissipation, though no elastic tangential friction. As the packing fraction is increased, we find a discontinuous transition from Bagnoldian to Newtonian rheology, at a packing fraction that lies below the jamming transition. At this transition we find a region of coexisting shear bands of Bagnoldian and Newtonian rheology, and suggestions of discontinuous shear thickening upon increasing the shear strain rate. This work has been supported by NSF Grant No. DMR-1205800.
Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 μm monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs
Compression Enhanced Shear Yield Stress of Electrorheological Fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shear tests of an electrorheological fluid with pre-applied electric field and compression along the field direction are carried out. The results show that pre-compressions can increase the shear yield stress up to ten times. Under the same external electric field strength, a higher compressive strain corresponds to a larger shear yield stress enhancement but with slight current density decrease, which shows that the particle interaction potentials are not increased by compressions but the compression-induced chain aggregation dominates the shear yield stress improvement. This pre-compression technique might be useful for developing high performance flexible ER or magnetorheological couplings
Shear banding in commercial pure titanium deformed by dynamic compression
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A cylindrical hexagonal-close-packed Ti sample was pre-deformed by dynamic compression to produce coarse-grained and ultrafine-grained structures in different parts of the sample followed by further dynamic compression to failure, making it possible to explore the effect of stored strain and grain boundary energy on shear banding in the material. A long shear band that formed during the final compression process passed through a complete diagonal of the sample. Electron backscattered diffraction was used to systematically investigate the shear-banding-induced structural evolution. Results show that the original stored energy in the matrix plays a significant role in the competition between deformation-induced grain refinement and grain growth, which determines the final average grain size in a shear band. Shear banding leads to grain reorientation such that one close-packed 〈112¯0〉 direction and one 〈101¯0〉 direction in most grains are parallel to the local shear direction and the normal direction to the local shear plane, respectively. The grain orientation in the shear band favours prismatic 〈a〉 slip, while the texture in the matrix, which is a stable compression texture, benefits the basal 〈a〉 slip. The results advance our understanding of the shear banding behaviour in heterogeneous deformation conditions and also the overall mechanical behaviour of materials under dynamic compression
Re-entrant phenomena in a lamellar phase under shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The influence of shear on an defective lamellar phase of the ternary mixture sodium dodecyl sulphate/decanol/D2O was studied using small-angle neutron scattering at D11. Shear-flow leads to an alignment of lamellae along the flow direction but we found, in addition, a re-orientation of the layer normal at increasing shear-rates from perpendicular to the velocity gradient direction to parallel to it. This behaviour could be interesting for industrial engineering of layered systems because shear deformation is involved in the processing of such materials. (authors)
Turbulent bands in a planar shear flow without walls
Chantry, Matthew; Barkley, Dwight
2015-01-01
Turbulent bands are a ubiquitous feature of transition in wall-bounded shear flows. We show that these are also a robust feature of Waleffe flow -- a shear flow driven by a sinusoidal body force between stress-free boundaries -- thus demonstrating that rigid walls are not a prerequisite for band formation. Exploiting the Fourier dependence of Waleffe forcing, we construct a model flow that uses only four wavenumbers in the shear direction and yet captures uniform turbulence, turbulent bands, and spot expansion. The model is simultaneously a reduction of the full Navier-Stokes equations and an extension of minimal models of the self-sustaining process of shear turbulence.
Shear tests for characterization of bituminous mixtures stiffness
Pereira, Paulo A. A.; Pais, Jorge C.; Azevedo, M. C. M.
1997-01-01
This paper presents the results of a study where the shear stiffness and the shear phase angle of bituminous mixtures, with two different air-void contents and three different bitumen contents were measured using shear strain controlled tests. The shear tests were carried out at three temperatures, 4, 20 and 40 C, and 10, 5, 2, 1, 0.5, 0.2 and 0.1 Hz frequencies were used, in agreement with SHRP M-003 specification. The specified strain level of 0.0001 mm/mm was used beside two more strain l...
Interface shear and pressure characteristics of wheelchair seat cushions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan S. Akins
2011-03-01
Full Text Available Pressure ulcer incidence rates have remained constant despite advances in support surface technology. Interface shear stress is recognized as a risk factor for pressure ulcer development and is the focus of many shear reduction technologies incorporated into wheelchair cushions; however, shear reduction has not been quantified in the literature. We evaluated 21 commercial wheelchair seat cushions using a new methodology developed to quantify interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. Interface shear stress increased significantly with applied horizontal indenter displacement, while no significant difference was found for interface pressure. Material of construction resulted in significant differences in interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. This study shows that the existing International Organization for Standardization (ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure provides similar information to the new horizontal stiffness measure. The lack of a relationship between interface shear stress and the overall horizontal stiffness measure, however, suggests that a pressure and shear force sensor should be used with the ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure to fully quantify a cushion's ability to reduce interface shear stress at the patient's bony prominences.
Aerospace Threaded Fastener Strength in Combined Shear and Tension Loading
Steeve, B. E.; Wingate, R. J.
2012-01-01
A test program was initiated by Marshall Space Flight Center and sponsored by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center to characterize the failure behavior of a typical high-strength aerospace threaded fastener under a range of shear to tension loading ratios for both a nut and an insert configuration where the shear plane passes through the body and threads, respectively. The testing was performed with a customized test fixture designed to test a bolt with a single shear plane at a discrete range of loading angles. The results provide data to compare against existing combined loading failure criteria and to quantify the bolt strength when the shear plane passes through the threads.
Shear dynamo, turbulence, and the magnetorotational instability
Squire, Jonathan
The formation, evolution, and detailed structure of accretion disks remain poorly understood, with wide implications across a variety of astrophysical disciplines. While the most pressing question --- what causes the high angular momentum fluxes that are necessary to explain observations? --- is nicely answered by the idea that the disk is turbulent, a more complete grasp of the fundamental processes is necessary to capture the wide variety of behaviors observed in the night sky. This thesis studies the turbulence in ionized accretion disks from a theoretical standpoint, in particular focusing on the generation of magnetic fields in these processes, known as dynamo. Such fields are expected to be enormously important, both by enabling the magnetorotational instability (which evolves into virulent turbulence), and through large-scale structure formation, which may transport angular momentum in different ways and be fundamental for the formation of jets. The central result of this thesis is the suggestion of a new large-scale dynamo mechanism in shear flows --- the "magnetic shear-current effect" --- which relies on a positive feedback from small-scale magnetic fields. As well as being a very promising candidate for driving field generation in the central regions of accretion disks, this effect is interesting because small-scale magnetic fields have historically been considered to have a negative effect on the large-scale dynamo, damping growth and leading to dire predictions for final saturation amplitudes. Given that small-scale fields are ubiquitous in plasma turbulence above moderate Reynolds numbers, the finding that they could instead have a positive effect in some situations is interesting from a theoretical and practical standpoint. The effect is studied using direct numerical simulation, analytic techniques, and novel statistical simulation methods. In addition to the dynamo, much attention is given to the linear physics of disks and its relevance to turbulence. This is studied using nonmodal stability theory, which both provides a highly intuitive connection between global domains and the commonly studied shearing box, and suggests that transient linear growth can often be more important than spectral instability. These realizations motivate the use of the quasi-linear models that are applied extensively throughout the turbulence and dynamo studies later in the thesis.
Tensile & shear strength of porous dust agglomerates
Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm
2013-01-01
Context.Within the sequential accretion scenario of planet formation, planets are build up through a sequence sticking collisions. The outcome of collisions between porous dust aggregates is very important for the growth from very small dust particles to planetesimals. In this work we determine the necessary material properties of dust aggregates as a function the porosity. Aims: Continuum models such as SPH that are capable of simulating collisions of macroscopic dust aggregates require a set of material parameters. Some of them such as the tensile and shear strength are ?difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. The aim of this work is to determine these parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Methods: We simulate the behavior of porous dust aggregates using a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains that includes adhesion forces, rolling, twisting, and sliding. Using different methods of preparing the samples we study the strength behavior of our samples...
Shear Alfven Eigenmodes in compact stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The shear Alfven continuum has been calculated for stellarators of arbitrary shape and aspect ratio using a symmetric matrix form of the continuum equation. Stellarators introduce strong poloidal/toroidal couplings in |B| and the gρρ metric coefficient that can induce new continuum gap structures not present in axisymmetric tokamaks. Low field period (Nfp = 2 - 3), low aspect ratio devices result in strongly coupled toroidal mode families (n = n0, n0 ± Nfp, n0 ± 2Nfp, etc.) that lead to HAE (Helical Alfven Eigenmode) and MAE ( Mirror Alfven Eigenmode) couplings at lower frequencies than are the case for larger aspect ratio, higher field period stellarator devices. Low field period configurations also have a higher density of coupled continua for a given frequency range; this characteristic could lead to higher levels of continuum damping. Copyright (2002) Australian National University- Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering
Seismic shear waves as Foucault pendulum
Snieder, Roel; Sens-Schönfelder, Christoph; Ruigrok, Elmer; Shiomi, Katsuhiko
2016-03-01
Earth's rotation causes splitting of normal modes. Wave fronts and rays are, however, not affected by Earth's rotation, as we show theoretically and with observations made with USArray. We derive that the Coriolis force causes a small transverse component for P waves and a small longitudinal component for S waves. More importantly, Earth's rotation leads to a slow rotation of the transverse polarization of S waves; during the propagation of S waves the particle motion behaves just like a Foucault pendulum. The polarization plane of shear waves counteracts Earth's rotation and rotates clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere. The rotation rate is independent of the wave frequency and is purely geometric, like the Berry phase. Using the polarization of ScS and ScS2 waves, we show that the Foucault-like rotation of the S wave polarization can be observed. This can affect the determination of source mechanisms and the interpretation of observed SKS splitting.
Friction welding; Magnesium; Finite element; Shear test.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonardo Contri Campanelli
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Friction spot welding (FSpW is one of the most recently developed solid state joining technologies. In this work, based on former publications, a computer aided draft and engineering resource is used to model a FSpW joint on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets and subsequently submit the assembly to a typical shear test loading, using a linear elastic model, in order to conceive mechanical tests results. Finite element analysis shows that the plastic flow is concentrated on the welded zone periphery where yield strength is reached. It is supposed that “through the weld” and “circumferential pull-out” variants should be the main failure behaviors, although mechanical testing may provide other types of fracture due to metallurgical features.
Primordial shear and the question of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss the role of primordial shear in two inflationary scenarios, Planck-time (Linde) inflation and the GUT inflation. In the Linde picture, including a simple ''particle creation'' term produces universes in which the temperature rapidly attains a stable asymptotic value just below the Planck temperature, whatever the Higgs field coupling constant. We thus have an extremely isotropic, geometrically flat, high temperature and density ''steady state'' universe, awaiting a spontaneous phase transition to a ''normal'' state of matter that permits the standard FRW evolution. In the GUT picture, inflation can occur notwithstanding the presence of anisotropy. However, in these models, initial anisotropy reduces the GUT era coherence length and it becomes more difficult to form the present universe from a single bubble. (orig.)
A New Annular Shear Piezoelectric Accelerometer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Bin; Kriegbaum, B.
2000-01-01
This paper describes the construction and performance of a recently introduced Annular Shear piezoelectric accelerometer, Type 4511. The design has insulated and double-shielded case. The accelerometer housing is made of stainless steel, AISI 316L. Piezoceramic PZ23 is used. The seismic mass is m...... interface for sensors including mixed-mode communication protocols and transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS)....... prototype. Reasonable agreement between the experimental results of the physical prototype and the simulation results is achieved. The design becomes more efficient. In addition, Type 4511 has a built in DeltaTronâ charge amplifier with ID and complies with IEEE-P1451.4 standard, which is a smart transducer...
Near-surface shear layer dynamics
Brandenburg, A
2007-01-01
The outer surface layers of the sun show a clear deceleration at low latitudes. This is generally thought to be the result of a strong dominance of vertical turbulent motions associated with strong downdrafts. This strong negative radial shear should not only contribute to amplifying the toroidal field locally and to expelling magnetic helicity, but it may also be responsible for producing a strong prograde pattern speed in the supergranulation layer. Using simulations of rotating stratified convection in cartesian boxes located at low latitudes around the equator it is shown that in the surface layers patterns move in the prograde direction on top of a retrograde mean background flow. These patterns may also be associated with magnetic tracers and even sunspot proper motions that are known to be prograde relative to the much slower surface plasma.
The SDSS Coadd: Cosmic Shear Measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Huan; /Fermilab; Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP; Seo, Hee-Jong; /UC, Berkeley; Soares-Santos, Marcelle; /Fermilab; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Hao, Jiangang; /Fermilab; Johnston, David; /Fermilab; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; /Fermilab; Reis, Ribamar R.R.; /Fermilab /Rio de Janeiro Federal U.; Simet, Melanie; /Chicago U., EFI /Chicago U., KICP
2011-11-01
Stripe 82 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey was observed multiple times, allowing deeper images to be constructed by coadding the data. Here we analyze the ellipticities of background galaxies in this 275 square degree region, searching for evidence of distortions due to cosmic shear. The E-mode is detected in both real and Fourier space with > 5-{sigma} significance on degree scales, while the B-mode is consistent with zero as expected. The amplitude of the signal constrains the combination of the matter density {Omega}{sub m} and fluctuation amplitude {sigma}{sub 8} to be {Omega}{sub m}{sup 0.7} {sigma}{sub 8} = 0.276{sub -0.050}{sup +0.036}.
Cockpit display of hazardous wind shear information
Wanke, Craig; Hansman, R. John, Jr.
1990-01-01
Information on cockpit display of wind shear information is given in viewgraph form. Based on the current status of windshear sensors and candidate data dissemination systems, the near-term capabilities for windshear avoidance will most likely include: (1) Ground-based detection: TDWR (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar), LLWAS (Low-Level Windshear Alert System), Automated PIREPS; (2) Ground-Air datalinks: Air traffic control voice channels, Mode-S digital datalink, ACARS alphanumeric datalink. The possible datapaths for integration of these systems are illustrated in a diagram. In the future, airborne windshear detection systems such as lidars, passive IR detectors, or airborne Doppler radars may also become available. Possible future datalinks include satellite downlink and specialized en route weather channels.
Unsteady distributed wall shear stress measurements in fluid flows
Gnanamanickam, Ebenezer P.
Wall-bounded flows are amongst the most common flows encountered in fluid mechanics. Wall shear stress on the walls of these flow fields is an important engineering quantity as it is responsible for skin friction drag, which is a significant portion of the drag on bodies ranging from airplanes to flow in biological systems. Measuring, understanding and eventually controlling the wall shear stress has implicit financial significance. In general there is limited literature reporting unsteady, distributed wall shear stress measurements, especially in air, due to the lack of sensors to carry out such measurements. This work is a small step in the direction of filling this gap in the literature. A wall shear stress sensor, referred to as the micro-pillar wall shear stress sensor is presented from concept to actual measurements in a wall jet flow field. The micro-pillar shear stress sensor is based on the principle that a micro-pillar on the wall of a wall-bounded flow deflects an amount proportional to the drag force experienced by it. This drag force in turn is proportional to the wall shear stress. Hence, tracking the tip deflection of an array of micro-pillars provides a means to measure the unsteady, distributed wall shear stress. The sensor from design to manufacture along with static and dynamic characterization is presented. It's ability to measure unsteady, distributed wall shear stress is studied using demonstrative experiments. Finally, wall shear stress measurements are carried out on the wall of a three-dimensional turbulent wall jet. The wall jet is subsequently excited and the effect of excitation on the wall shear stress in the near jet exit flow field is studied.
Shear degradation in fiber reinforced laminates due to matrix damage
Salavatian, Mohammedmahdi
The objective of this study was to develop and implement a shear modulus degradation model to improve the failure analysis of the fiber reinforced composite structures. Matrix damage, involving transverse and shear cracks, is a common failure mode for composite structures, yet little is known concerning their interaction. To understand the material behavior after matrix failure, the nonlinear response of the composite laminate was studied using pressure vessels made from a [+/-o] bias orientation, which tend to exhibit a matrix dominated failure. The result of this work showed laminate matrix hardening in shear and softening in the transverse direction. A modified Iosipescu coupon was proposed to study the evolution of shear and transverse damage and their mutual effects. The proposed method showed good agreement with tubular results and has advantages of simplified specimen fabrication using standard test fixtures. The proposed method was extended by introducing a novel experimental technique to study the shear degradation model under biaxial loading. Experimental results of the transverse modulus reduction were in good agreement with material degradation models, while the predicted shear modulus reduction was higher than experiment. The discrepancy between available models and observations was due to the presence of a traction between the crack surfaces. Accordingly, a closed form solution was proposed for the shear stress-strain field of a cracked laminate by replacing the cracks with cohesive zones. The constitutive equations of the crack laminate were derived including the effects of internal tractions and transverse stress on the shear modulus. The proposed analytical model was shown to be the most comprehensive model for shear modulus degradation reduction of the fiber reinforced laminates. A numerical implementation of the shear degradation model was done using continuum damage mechanics. Through this work it was shown the common assumption of a linear relation between matrix damage variables do not sufficiently describe shear response. Therefore, a modified damage model for matrix failure was developed and implemented in ABAQUS using a UMAT subroutine.
Double tearing instability with shear flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The linear evolution of the double tearing mode with parallel to the magnetic field equilibrium shear flow and viscosity is investigated numerically. Numerically obtained growth rates are found to agree with the solutions of the double tearing dispersion relation in the parameter range of validity. Solutions of the incompressible, time-dependent, linearized, viscoresistive magnetohydrodynamic equations for the double tearing mode with parallel flow are found for wide relevant parameter ranges. Large (weakly coupled) and small (strongly coupled) rational surface separation ys are investigated. The magnetic Reynolds number S is varied up to 108, and ambient flow velocities up to 0.57 of the Alfven speed VA far from the tearing layer are considered. The normalized wave number α is 0.05 (long wavelength) and 0.5 (short wavelength). Spatial variations of the perturbed magnetic field ψ and flow W indicate the ''nonconstant-ψ'' effects for small ys. Shear flow decouples the rational surfaces, reduces the growth rate, and transforms the instability to the standard tearing mode. Overstable modes are found from the solutions of the dispersion relation and in the numerical computations, and their frequencies are not affected by the value of viscosity. The temporal oscillations of the solutions increase with the flow at the resonant surfaces at a rate slower than that of the Doppler shift. For viscous Reynolds number Sv comparable to or larger than the magnetic Reynolds number a stabilizing effect was found, and in the presence of large flow the real growth rate γR scaling approaches the standard tearing mode scaling γR∼Sv1/6
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The main vessel of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a relatively thin-walled cylindrical shell with a reactor core, coolant and shallow-dished head at one end. In this paper, imperfection effects of cylinders on buckling in shear and in bending were clarified with regard to degradation of buckling strength and energy absorption capacity under seismic loads. The imperfections considered here were (1) boundary condition (end closure), (2) geometric imperfections in the manufacturing process and (3) geometrical imperfections in operating conditions (ratcheting deformations). Static and pseudo-dynamic buckling tests for nearly perfect cylinders and cylinders with intentional imperfections made by press-working technique were carried out under transverse shearing loads. These imperfection effects were clarified from test results and FEM and nonlinear SDOF response analyses
Standard Test Method for Shear Strength and Shear Modulus of Aerospace Glazing Interlayer Materials
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 This test method covers the determination of the shear strength and shear modulus of interlayer materials that are restrained by relatively high modulus plies in laminated transparencies. This test method can be used with single or multiple plies of the same interlayer materials. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values in parentheses are for information only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Strengthening of flat slabs against punching shear using post-installed shear reinforcement
Fernández Ruiz, Miguel; Muttoni, Aurelio; Kunz
2010-01-01
A significant number of existing flat slabs currently require strengthening against punching shear for safety reasons (the increase of applied loads and deficiencies during design or construction) or to comply with more stringent code requirements. Available strengthening methods are, however, not completely satisfactory, or they cannot be applied in many cases (depending on the possibilities to enlarge column sizes or to intervene on the upper face of slabs). In this paper, an innovative sys...
Fuhrmann, Alexander; Engler, Adam J.
2015-01-01
Several methods have been developed to quantify population level changes in cell attachment strength given its large heterogeneity. One such method is the rotating disc chamber or “spinning disc” in which a range of shear forces are applied to attached cells to quantify detachment force, i.e. attachment strength, which can be heterogeneous within cell populations. However, computing the exact force vectors that act upon cells is complicated by complex flow fields and variable cell morphologie...
Shear strength behavior of geotextile/geomembrane interfaces
Belén M. Bacas; Jorge Cañizal; Heinz Konietzky
2015-01-01
This paper aims to study the shear interaction mechanism of one of the critical geosynthetic interfaces, the geotextile/geomembrane, typically used for lined containment facilities such as landfills. A large direct shear machine is used to carry out 90 geosynthetic interface tests. The test results show a strain softening behavior with a very small dilatancy (
Constant rate shearing on two dimensional cohesive disks
Olivi-Tran, N; Fraysse, N
2005-01-01
We performed two-dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations of cohesive disks under shear. The cohesion between the disks is added by the action of springs between very next neighbouring disks, modelling capillary forces. The geometry of the cell allows disk-disk shearing and not disk-cell wall shearing as it is commonly found in literature. Does a stick-slip phenomenon happen though the upper cover moves at a constant velocity, i.e. with an infinite shearing force? We measured the forces acted by the disks on the upper cover for different shearing rates, as well as the disk velocities as a function of the distance to the bottom of the cell. It appears that the forces measured versus time present a periodic behavior,very close to a stick slip phenomenon, for shearing rates larger than a given threshold. The disks' collective displacements in the shearing cell (back and ahead) is the counterpart of the constant velocity of the upper cover leading to a periodic behavior of the shear stress.
Constant rate shearing on two-dimensional cohesive discs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We performed two-dimensional molecular dynamics simulations of cohesive discs under shear. The cohesion between the discs is added by the action of springs between very next neighbouring discs, modelling capillary forces. The geometry of the cell allows disc-disc shearing and not disc-cell wall shearing as is commonly found in the literature. Does a stick-slip phenomenon happen though the upper cover moves at a constant velocity, i.e. with an infinite shearing force? We measured the forces with which the discs acted on the upper cover for different shearing rates, as well as the disc velocities as a function of the distance to the bottom of the cell. It appears that the forces measured versus time present a periodic behaviour, very close to a stick-slip phenomenon, for shearing rates larger than a given threshold. The discs' collective displacements in the shearing cell (back and ahead) are the counterpart of the constant velocity of the upper cover, leading to a periodic behaviour of the shear stress
SHEAR STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE T-BEAMS WITHOUT STIRRUPS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
RENDY THAMRIN
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the test results of experimental study on shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without stirrups. The test variables in this study were type of beam cross section and ratio of longitudinal reinforcement. Six simple supported beams, consisting of three beams with rectangular cross section and three beams with T section, subjected to two point load were tested until failure. During the test, the values of the diagonal crack load and the maximum load were observed as well as the deformation of the beams. Existing empirical equations for shear strength of concrete presented in the literature and design codes were used and then compared to that value obtained from the test. Comparison between test results and theoretical shear capacity show that all of equations conservatively estimate the occurrence of shear failure with the values of the test results 10 to 90% higher than the theoretical values. It was confirmed from the test that the shear capacity of T-beams were higher than for rectangular beams, with the values ranging from 5 to 25%, depending on the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement. Also, it was observed that ratio of longitudinal reinforcement influences the shear capacity of the beam as well as the angle of diagonal shear crack. In addition, based on the test results, a simple model for predicting the contribution of flange to shear capacity in T-beam was presented.
Shear crack formation and propagation in reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor
2011-01-01
capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear. The experimental program consists of ECC with short randomly distributed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber beams with different stirrup arrangements and conventional reinforced concrete (R/C) counterparts for comparison. The shear crack formation mechanism of ECC is...
Shear Capacity of Steel and Polymer Fibre Reinforced Concrete Beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kragh-Poulsen, Jens C.; Hoang, Cao Linh; Goltermann, Per
2011-01-01
This paper deals with the application of a plasticity model for shear strength estimation of fibre reinforced concrete beams without stirrups. When using plastic theory to shear problems in structural concrete, the so-called effective strengths are introduced, usually determined by calibrating the...
Micromechanics of sea ice gouge in shear zones
Sammonds, Peter; Scourfield, Sally; Lishman, Ben
2015-04-01
The deformation of sea ice is a key control on the Arctic Ocean dynamics. Shear displacement on all scales is an important deformation process in the sea cover. Shear deformation is a dominant mechanism from the scale of basin-scale shear lineaments, through floe-floe interaction and block sliding in ice ridges through to the micro-scale mechanics. Shear deformation will not only depend on the speed of movement of ice surfaces but also the degree that the surfaces have bonded during thermal consolidation and compaction. Recent observations made during fieldwork in the Barents Sea show that shear produces a gouge similar to a fault gouge in a shear zone in the crust. A range of sizes of gouge are exhibited. The consolidation of these fragments has a profound influence on the shear strength and the rate of the processes involved. We review experimental results in sea ice mechanics from mid-scale experiments, conducted in the Hamburg model ship ice tank, simulating sea ice floe motion and interaction and compare these with laboratory experiments on ice friction done in direct shear, and upscale to field measurement of sea ice friction and gouge deformation made during experiments off Svalbard. We find that consolidation, fragmentation and bridging play important roles in the overall dynamics and fit the model of Sammis and Ben-Zion, developed for understanding the micro-mechanics of rock fault gouge, to the sea ice problem.
Comparative Laboratory and Numerical Simulations of Shearing Granular Fault Gouge
Morgan, J. K.; Marone, C.
2004-05-01
Laboratory studies of granular shear zones have provided significant insight into fault zone processes and the mechanics of earthquakes, including important contributions to our understanding of earthquake nucleation, the seismic-aseismic stability transition, dynamic rupture, and fault interactions. Numerical simulations using particle dynamics methods can offer unique views into deforming fault zones, particularly regarding the micromechanisms of deformation in shearing materials. Recently, significant advances in our understanding of granular shear have been gained by integrating these two approaches to better model the frictional behavior of tectonic faults. We describe a series of comparative laboratory and numerical experiments of granular shear carried out under identical initial and boundary conditions, using idealized granular materials, i.e., glass beads and rods. Phenomenologically, the two sets of experiments are very similar, demonstrating shear strength fluctuations that can be related to variations in particle size distribution, shear zone thickness, and imposed normal stress. Observed discrepancies in absolute shear strength and stress-strain behavior, then, allow us to calibrate and update the numerical interparticle contact laws to gain improved fits to the laboratory results. The numerical simulations serve to clarify the active deformation processes, demonstrating the role of shear localization, and partitioning between deformation mechanisms, including grain boundary sliding, rolling, and changes in particle size distribution. This integrated study offers great promise to improve our understanding of fault mechanics and earthquake physics. We describe results of the combined study and development of the next generation of particle-based numerical models, including realistic, physico-chemically based contact laws.
Conductivity measurements in a shear-banding wormlike micellar system
Photinos, Panos J.; Lpez-Gonzlez, M. R.; Hoven, Corey V.; Callaghan, Paul T.
2010-07-01
Shear banding in the cetylpyridinium chloride/sodium salicylate micellar system is investigated using electrical conductivity measurements parallel to the velocity and parallel to the vorticity in a cylindrical Couette cell. The measurements show that the conductivity parallel to the velocity (vorticity) increases (decreases) monotonically with applied shear rate. The shear-induced anisotropy is over one order of magnitude lower than the anisotropy of the Nc nematic phase. The steady-state conductivity measurements indicate that the anisotropy of the shear induced low-viscosity (high shear rate) phase is not significantly larger than the anisotropy of the high viscosity (low shear rate) phase. We estimate that the micelles in the shear induced low viscosity band are relatively short, with a characteristic length to diameter ratio of 5-15. The relaxation behavior following the onset of shear is markedly different above and below the first critical value ??1 , in agreement with results obtained by other methods. The transient measurements show that the overall anisotropy of the sample decreases as the steady state is approached, i.e., the micellar length/the degree of order decrease.
Domino boudinage under layer-parallel simple shear
Dabrowski, Marcin; Grasemann, Bernhard
2014-11-01
The boudin segments of a torn competent layer experience synthetic rotation in layer-parallel simple shear. As long as the individual segments in a boudin train are constrained by their neighbors, even a highly viscous boudin deforms internally to create the necessary space for rotation. The rotation rate is then much smaller compared to the case of an isolated segment. Hence, a small tilt of boudin segments is not indicative of low strain. The rotation rate at this stage largely depends on the aspect ratio of the boudin segments and the scaled gap width. Once the tilted boudins are no longer constrained by their neighbors, the rotation rate greatly accelerates. In the case of a low viscosity ratio between the boudins and the host, the boudin segments develop complex shapes, which may give an impression of shear-band boudins forming under the opposite shear sense. We furthermore investigate the behavior of boudin trains of finite length. The terminal segments are displaced out of the shear plane, deforming into isoclinal folds, and separate into groups of boudin segments that rotate into the shear direction and eventually lead to an overall chaotic appearance of the structure. Natural examples of domino boudinage from a high shear -strain detachment zone in the Western Cyclades (Greece) show many similarities with the modeled structures suggesting that, under simple shear deformation, the rotation and separation of boudin segments is an indicator for high shear strain.
Rotation shear induced fluctuation decorrelation in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The enhanced decorrelation of fluctuations by the combined effects of the E x B flow (VE) shear, the parallel flow (Vparallel) shear, and the magnetic shear is studied in toroidal geometry. A two-point nonlinear analysis previously utilized in a cylindrical model shows that the reduction of the radial correlation length below its ambient turbulence value (?r0) is characterized by the ratio between the shearing rate ?s and the ambient turbulence scattering rate ??T. The derived shearing rate is given by ?s2 = (?r0)2[1/??2{?/?r(qVE/r)}2 + 1/??2{?/?r(V parallel/qR)}2], where ?? and ?? are the correlation angles of the ambient turbulence along the toroidal and parallel directions. This result deviates significantly from the cylindrical result for high magnetic shear or for ballooning-like fluctuations. For suppression of flute-like fluctuations, only the radial shear of qVE/r contributes, and the radial shear of V parallel/qR is irrelevant regardless of the plasma rotation direction
Midbroken Reinforced Concrete Shear Frames Due to Earthquakes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kyloglu, H. U.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Sren R. K.
A non-linear hysteretic model for the response and local damage analyses of reinforced concrete shear frames subject to earthquake excitation is proposed, and, the model is applied to analyse midbroken reinforced concrete (RC) structures due to earthquake loads. Each storey of the shear frame is...
Effect of linear shear flow on interchange modes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tatsuno, T.; Volponi, F.; Yoshida, Z. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan)
2000-06-01
Effect of the linear shear flow on linear interchange modes in incompressible neutral fluid, and linear two-dimensional electromagnetic interchange instabilities in incompressible plasmas are investigated. Although the transient growth may occur in a short period, background shear flow overcomes the interchange instability and makes it damped away in a long term due to phase mixing. (author)
Cold versus hot shear banding in bulk metallic glass
Cheng, Y. Q.; Han, Z.; Li, Y.; Ma, E.
2009-10-01
We present an analysis of the shear-banding dynamics in a bulk metallic glass (BMG), including the temperature rise in the band, the sliding speed of the band, and the time elapsed as well as the step size of the shear offset growth in a stop-and-go cycle. This model analysis quantitatively demonstrates that the major shear band can remain cold and slide in a stick-slip manner. We predict that the shear step (distance covered by a stop-and-go cycle) scales with the sample size and machine stiffness. We also illustrate the conditions when such serrated shear is unsustainable and a hot shear band directly develops in a runaway instability (catastrophe). These findings provide physical insight into the shear-instability processes and offer useful information for improving the plasticity of BMGs. The calculation results are used to explain several intriguing recent experimental observations, including the stick slip of the dominant shear-band and the sample-size effects on the plastic-flow behavior of BMGs.
Effect of linear shear flow on interchange modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Effect of the linear shear flow on linear interchange modes in incompressible neutral fluid, and linear two-dimensional electromagnetic interchange instabilities in incompressible plasmas are investigated. Although the transient growth may occur in a short period, background shear flow overcomes the interchange instability and makes it damped away in a long term due to phase mixing. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This article discusses shear horizontal (SH) guided-waves that can be excited with shear type piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS). The paper starts with a review of state of the art SH waves modelling and their importance in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). The basic piezoelectric sensing and actuation equations for the case of shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS) with electro-mechanical coupling coefficient d35 are reviewed. Multiphysics finite element modelling (MP-FEM) was performed on a free SH-PWAS to show its resonance modeshapes. The actuation mechanism of the SH-PWAS is predicted by MP-FEM, and modeshapes of excited structure are presented. The structural resonances are compared with experimental measurements and showed good agreement. Analytical prediction of SH waves was performed. SH wave propagation experimental study was conducted between different combinations of SH-PWAS and regular in-plane PWAS transducers. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions for aluminium plates and showed good agreement. 2D wave propagation effects were studied by MP-FEM. An analytical model was developed for SH wave power and energy. The normal mode expansion (NME) method was used to account for superpositioning multimodal SH waves. Modal participation factors were presented to show the contribution of every mode. Power and energy transfer between SH-PWAS and the structure was analyzed. Finally, we present simulations of our developed wave power and energy analytical models. (paper)
Kamal, A.; Giurgiutiu, V.
2014-08-01
This article discusses shear horizontal (SH) guided-waves that can be excited with shear type piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS). The paper starts with a review of state of the art SH waves modelling and their importance in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). The basic piezoelectric sensing and actuation equations for the case of shear horizontal piezoelectric wafer active sensor (SH-PWAS) with electro-mechanical coupling coefficient {{d}_{35}} are reviewed. Multiphysics finite element modelling (MP-FEM) was performed on a free SH-PWAS to show its resonance modeshapes. The actuation mechanism of the SH-PWAS is predicted by MP-FEM, and modeshapes of excited structure are presented. The structural resonances are compared with experimental measurements and showed good agreement. Analytical prediction of SH waves was performed. SH wave propagation experimental study was conducted between different combinations of SH-PWAS and regular in-plane PWAS transducers. Experimental results were compared with analytical predictions for aluminium plates and showed good agreement. 2D wave propagation effects were studied by MP-FEM. An analytical model was developed for SH wave power and energy. The normal mode expansion (NME) method was used to account for superpositioning multimodal SH waves. Modal participation factors were presented to show the contribution of every mode. Power and energy transfer between SH-PWAS and the structure was analyzed. Finally, we present simulations of our developed wave power and energy analytical models.
Shear Stress Measurements of Non-Spherical Particles in High Shear Rate Flows
Koos, Erin; Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.
2007-11-01
The behavior of liquid-solid flows varies greatly depending on fluid viscosity, particle and liquid inertia, and collisions and near-collisions between particles. An initial investigation by Bagnold found two different flow regimes [1]. In an examination of that work, Hunt et al. found that Bagnold's experiments were marred by secondary flows in the fluid [2]. The current experiment addresses this rheology further. Shear stress measurements used a coaxial rheometer with a height to gap ratio (h/b) of 11.7 and gap to outer radius ratio (b/ro) of 0.166 that was specially designed to minimize effects of secondary flows. Experiments were performed for a range of Reynolds numbers, solid fractions and ratio of particle to fluid densities. With neutrally buoyant particles, the dimensional shear stress exhibits a linear dependence on Reynolds Number: the slope is monotonic but a non-linear function of the solid fraction. Though non-neutrally buoyant particles exhibit a similar linear dependence at higher Reynolds numbers, at lower values the shear stress exhibits a non-linear behavior in which the stress increases with decreasing Reynolds number due to particle settling. [1] R.A. Bagnold, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. Ser. A, 225, p.49 (1954). [2] M.L. Hunt etc., J. Fluid Mech., 452, p.1 (2002).
Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)
Effect of shear on failure waves in soda lime glass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
By means of in-material stress gauges, failure waves in shock-compressed soda lime glass have been shown to be distinguished by a marked reduction in shear stress. To explore further the relation between failure waves and shearing resistance, a series of pressure-shear impact experiments have been performed involving the impact of a glass plate by a steel flyer plate and vice versa. The latter configuration is designed to allow direct measurements of the shearing resistance of the failed material. In both configurations, the normal and transverse motion of the free surface of the target is monitored using laser interferometry. The transverse velocity-time profiles show a pronounced loss in shearing resistance of the glass at impact velocities above the threshold for failure waves to occur
Shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel de Lima Araújo
2014-02-01
Full Text Available This study analyzed the mechanical behavior of shear strength of steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams. Six beams subjected to shear loading were tested until failure. Additionally, prisms were tested to evaluate fiber contribution to the concrete shear strength. Steel fibers were straight, hook-ended,35 mmlong and aspect ratio equal to 65. Volumetric fractions used were 1.0 and 2.0%. The results demonstrated a great contribution from steel fibers to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams and to reduce crack width, which can reduce the amount of stirrups in reinforced concrete structures. Beam capacity was also evaluated by empirical equations, and it was found that these equations provided a high variability, while some of them have not properly predicted the ultimate shear strength of the steel fiber-reinforced concrete beams.
The Mercier Criterion in Reversed Shear Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A recent numerical study has found that, contrary to conventional theoretical and experimental expectations, reversed shear plasmas are unstable primarily because the term proportional to the shear in the Mercier criterion is destabilizing. In the present study, the role of the magnetic shear, both local and global, is examined for various tokamak configurations with monotonic and non-monotonic safety factor profiles. The enhancement of the local shear due to the outward shift of the magnetic axis suggests that the latter are less susceptible to interchanges. Furthermore, by regrouping the terms in the criterion, the V'' term when differentiated instead with respect to the toroidal flux, is shown to absorb the dominant shear term. No Mercier instability is found for similar profiles as in the previous study
Shear induced phase transitions induced in edible fats
Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Welch, Sarah E.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Sirota, Eric B.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.
2003-03-01
The food industry crystallizes fats under different conditions of temperature and shear to obtain products with desired crystalline phases. Milk fat, palm oil, cocoa butter and chocolate were crystallized from the melt in a temperature controlled Couette cell. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies were conducted to examine the role of shear on the phase transitions seen in edible fats. The shear forces on the crystals induced acceleration of the alpha to beta-prime phase transition with increasing shear rate in milk fat and palm oil. The increase was slow at low shear rates and became very strong above 360 s-1. In cocoa butter the acceleration between beta-prime-III and beta-V phase transition increased until a maximum of at 360 s-1, and then decreased, showing competition between enhanced heat transfer and viscous heat generation.
Impact of Vertical Wind Shear on Tropical Cyclone Rainfall
Cecil, Dan; Marchok, Tim
2014-01-01
While tropical cyclone rainfall has a large axisymmetric component, previous observational and theoretical studies have shown that environmental vertical wind shear leads to an asymmetric component of the vertical motion and precipitation fields. Composites consistently depict a precipitation enhancement downshear and also cyclonically downwind from the downshear direction. For consistence with much of the literature and with Northern Hemisphere observations, this is subsequently referred to as "Downshear-Left". Stronger shear magnitudes are associated with greater amplitude precipitation asymmetries. Recent work has reinforced the prior findings, and explored details of the response of the precipitation and kinematic fields to environmental vertical wind shear. Much of this research has focused on tropical cyclones away from land, to limit the influence of other processes that might distort the signal related to vertical wind shear. Recent evidence does suggest vertical wind shear can also play a major role in precipitation asymmetries during and after landfall.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251
Study of microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The microinstabilities driven by a parallel velocity shear, and a temperature gradient of ions are studied in toroidal plasmas with negative magnetic shear. Both the fluid and the gyrokinetic formulations are investigated. It is found that for a broad range of parameters, the linear growth rates of the modes are lower and the threshold temperature gradient ηicr is higher for plasmas with negative magnetic shear compared to plasmas with positive magnetic shear of equal magnitude. The reduction in the growth rate (with negative shear), although not insignificant, does not seem to be enough to account for the dramatic improvement in the confinement observed experimentally. Other possible physical mechanisms for the improved confinement are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
The Skin Acts to Maintain Muscle Shear Modulus.
Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Taniguchi, Keigo; Katayose, Masaki; Kanehisa, Hiroaki
2016-03-01
It is not clear how the tissues covering the skeletal muscles affect the muscles' mechanical properties. The main purpose of this study was to examine changes in muscle shear modulus as a representative mechanical property of muscle with and without the covering tissues of skin and epimysium (fascia). Shear modulus of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle was determined using ultrasound shear-wave elastography in the Thiel's embalmed cadavers under three different conditions: original (intact cadavers), removal of the skin on the MG and subsequent removal of the epimysium. Muscle shear modulus significantly decreased by 50% after removal of the skin, whereas no additional changes in shear modulus were observed after subsequent removal of the epimysium. This study suggests that the skin is a main contributor for maintaining the muscle mechanical properties among tissues covering the skeletal muscle. PMID:26738629
The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarvis, M. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). et al.
2015-07-20
We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We also detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. Furthermore, we discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.
Suppression of a kinematic dynamo by large shear
Sood, Aditi; Kim, Eun-jin
2016-01-01
We numerically solve the magnetic induction equation in a spherical shell geometry, with a kinematically prescribed axisymmetric flow that consists of a superposition of a small-scale helical flow and a large-scale shear flow. The small-scale flow is chosen to be a local analog of the classical Roberts cells, consisting of strongly helical vortex rolls. The large-scale flow is a shearing motion in either the radial or the latitudinal directions. In the absence of large-scale shear, the small-scale flow is an efficient dynamo, in agreement with previous results. Adding increasingly large shear flows strongly suppresses the dynamo efficiency, indicating that shear is not always a favourable ingredient in dynamo action.
The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogues
Jarvis, M.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Kacprzak, T.; Bridle, S. L.; Amara, A.; Armstrong, R.; Becker, M. R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bonnett, C.; Chang, C.; Das, R.; Dietrich, J. P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eifler, T. F.; Gangkofner, C.; Gruen, D.; Hirsch, M.; Huff, E. M.; Jain, B.; Kent, S.; Kirk, D.; MacCrann, N.; Melchior, P.; Plazas, A. A.; Refregier, A.; Rowe, B.; Rykoff, E. S.; Samuroff, S.; Sánchez, C.; Suchyta, E.; Troxel, M. A.; Vikram, V.; Abbott, T.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D'Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Neto, A. Fausti; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Miquel, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Neilsen, E.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wechsler, R. H.
2016-05-01
We present weak lensing shear catalogues for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogues of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogues for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.
The DES Science Verification Weak Lensing Shear Catalogs
Jarvis, M; Zuntz, J; Kacprzak, T; Bridle, S L; Amara, A; Armstrong, R; Becker, M R; Bernstein, G M; Bonnett, C; Chang, C; Das, R; Dietrich, J P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Eifler, T F; Gangkofner, C; Gruen, D; Hirsch, M; Huff, E M; Jain, B; Kent, S; MacCrann, N; Melchior, P; Plazas, A A; Refregier, A; Rowe, B; Rykoff, E S; Samuroff, S; Sánchez, C; Suchyta, E; Troxel, M A; Vikram, V; Abbott, T; Abdalla, F B; Allam, S; Annis, J; Benoit-Lévy, A; Bertin, E; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Burke, D L; Capozzi, D; Rosell, A Carnero; Kind, M Carrasco; Carretero, J; Castander, F J; Crocce, M; Cunha, C E; D'Andrea, C B; da Costa, L N; DePoy, D L; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Doel, P; Neto, A Fausti; Flaugher, B; Fosalba, P; Frieman, J; Gaztanaga, E; Gerdes, D W; Gruendl, R A; Gutierrez, G; Honscheid, K; James, D J; Kuehn, K; Kuropatkin, N; Lahav, O; Li, T S; Lima, M; March, M; Martini, P; Miquel, R; Mohr, J J; Neilsen, E; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Reil, K; Romer, A K; Roodman, A; Sako, M; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schubnell, M; Sevilla-Noarbe, I; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Sobreira, F; Swanson, M E C; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Thomas, D; Walker, A R; Wechsler, R H
2015-01-01
We present weak lensing shear catalogs for 139 square degrees of data taken during the Science Verification (SV) time for the new Dark Energy Camera (DECam) being used for the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We describe our object selection, point spread function estimation and shear measurement procedures using two independent shear pipelines, IM3SHAPE and NGMIX, which produce catalogs of 2.12 million and 3.44 million galaxies respectively. We detail a set of null tests for the shear measurements and find that they pass the requirements for systematic errors at the level necessary for weak lensing science applications using the SV data. We also discuss some of the planned algorithmic improvements that will be necessary to produce sufficiently accurate shear catalogs for the full 5-year DES, which is expected to cover 5000 square degrees.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ammar N. HANOON
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Self-compacting concrete (SCC is a new generation of high-performance concrete, known for its excellent deformability and high resistance to segregation and bleeding. Nonetheless, SCC may be incapable of resisting shear because the shear resistance mechanisms of this concrete are uncertain, especially the aggregate interlock mechanism. This uncertainty is attributed to the fact that SCC contains a smaller amount of coarse aggregates than normal concrete (NC does. This study focuses on the shear strength of self-compacting reinforced concrete (RC beams with and without shear reinforcement. A total of 16 RC beam specimens was manufactured and tested in terms of shear span-to-depth ratio and flexural and shear reinforcement ratio. The test results were compared with those of the shear design equations developed by ACI, BS, CAN and NZ codes. Results show that an increase in web reinforcement enhanced cracking strength and ultimate load. Shear-tension failure was the control failure in all tested beams.
Helfenstein-Didier, C.; Andrade, R. J.; Brum, J.; Hug, F.; Tanter, M.; Nordez, A.; Gennisson, J.-L.
2016-03-01
The shear wave velocity dispersion was analyzed in the Achilles tendon (AT) during passive dorsiflexion using a phase velocity method in order to obtain the tendon shear modulus (C 55). Based on this analysis, the aims of the present study were (i) to assess the reproducibility of the shear modulus for different ankle angles, (ii) to assess the effect of the probe locations, and (iii) to compare results with elasticity values obtained with the supersonic shear imaging (SSI) technique. The AT shear modulus (C 55) consistently increased with the ankle dorsiflexion (N = 10, p SSI was always lower than C55 and the difference increased with the ankle dorsiflexion. However, shear modulus values provided by both methods were highly correlated (R = 0.84), indicating that the conventional shear wave elastography technique (SSI technique) can be used to compare tendon mechanical properties across populations. Future studies should determine the clinical relevance of the shear wave dispersion analysis, for instance in the case of tendinopathy or tendon tear.
Shear friction capacity of recycled concretes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eiras, J.
2010-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the behavior of recycled concrete in response to the phenomenon of shear transfer. To perform it, a conventional control concrete and a concrete with 50% recycled coarse aggregate were designed. An additional goal was to shed light on how this behavior is modified with a pozzolanic addition, silica fume. Therefore, two types of concrete were designed, a conventional and a recycled concrete, both made with 8% of silica fume.
In conclusion, a reduction of shear friction capacity was observed in recycled concretes, considerably higher in the case of the specimen without reinforcement. The addition of silica fume improved the behavior of recycled concretes.
The results obtained were compared with the formulations of the different authors. In all cases, these were found to be conservative. However, the safety margins offered by recycled concretes are lower than those obtained with conventional concretes.
En esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento de los hormigones reciclados frente al fenómeno de transmisión de cortante. Para ello se diseñó un hormigón convencional de control y un hormigón con el 50% del árido grueso reciclado. Adicionalmente, para determinar cómo este comportamiento se ve modificado con la incorporación de una adición puzolánica (humo de sílice, se procedió al diseño de un hormigón convencional y su correspondiente reciclado con un 8% de humo de sílice.
Los resultados indicaron una disminución de la capacidad frente a este fenómeno en los hormigones reciclados, más acusada en ausencia de armadura pasante. La adición de humo de sílice mejora el comportamiento de este material.
Los resultados experimentales obtenidos se compararon con formulaciones teóricas de diversos autores, concluyéndose que éstas son, en todos los casos, conservadoras, aunque reducen el margen de seguridad en los hormigones reciclados.
Thielmann, M.; Rozel, A.; Kaus, B. J.; Ricard, Y. R.
2012-12-01
Lithospheric-scale shear zones are commonly defined as regions inhomogeneous and localized deformation. Strain softening has been demonstrated to be necessary for localization in those shear zones, but there is still debate about the physical cause of this softening. Here, we investigate the interplay between two mechanisms that have been suggested to have a significant impact on lithospheric localization: shear heating and grain size reduction. Shear heating has been suggested to play an important role in i) creating deep focus as well as intermediate-depth earthquakes (Ogawa (1987), Kelemen and Hirth (2007)) and ii) creating lithospheric-scale shear zones, thus creating a weak decoupling interface that enables subsequent subduction initiation (Kaus and Podlatchikov (2006), Crameri and Kaus (2010)). As natural shear zones typically have a significantly reduced grain size, it has been put forward that grain size reduction provides the necessary strain softening to localize deformation. As grain size reduces, the dominant deformation mechanism switches from dislocation to diffusion creep, thus requiring less stress to deform the rock. Usually, the equilibrium grain size is thought to follow a piezometric relationship, thus indicating the stress under which a shear zone deformed. Recent work (Austin and Evans (2007), Rozel et al. (2011)) suggests that the equilibrium grain size is not dependent on stress, but rather on the deformational work. In our study, we employ the grain size evolution law of Rozel et al. and use 1D viscoelastic numerical models of simple shear deformation to investigate the influence of both weakening mechanisms and their interaction for a variety of boundary conditions. We find that grain size reduction in pure olivine does not localize very efficiently, as grain size very rapidly reaches a steady state. Even when a fraction of the deformational work is used by grain size reduction processes, shear heating is found to localize very efficiently (Kaus & Podlatchikov (2005), Braeck et al. (2009)) and the significant temperature increase induced by shear heating severely affects the grain size in the shear zone. Generally, we find that the elevated temperature inside the shear zone results in a larger grain size compared to the surrounding rock matrix. This finding is not compatible with field observations, where shear zones are usually characterized by small grain sizes. This indicates that further mechanisms are needed to either keep the grain size small (e.g. pinning by secondary phases (Herwegh et. al (2011), Bercovici and Ricard (2012) ) or to limit the temperature increase inside the shear zone.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper presents a new constitutive model of cracked RC plates subjected to combined axial and shear stress. First, we carried out reversed cyclic shear load test where reinforcement ratio of RC plates and axial stress values were set as parameters. Pre-cracks were generated by tensile stress, and reversed cyclic shear loads were applied under the specified axial stress. Then, based on the test results, we obtained the constitutive model for smeared crack model, where shear stiffness of the plate varied depending on shear strain and axial strain. By adopting proposed model into nonlinear FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis program, analysis results were improved and the efficiency of the model was validated. (author)
Meza, Daphne; Abejar, Louie; Rubenstein, David A; Yin, Wei
2016-03-01
Endothelial cell (EC) morphology and functions can be highly impacted by the mechanical stresses that the cells experience in vivo. In most areas in the vasculature, ECs are continuously exposed to unsteady blood flow-induced shear stress and vasodilation-contraction-induced tensile stress/strain simultaneously. Investigations on how ECs respond to combined shear stress and tensile strain will help us to better understand how an altered mechanical environment affects EC mechanotransduction, dysfunction, and associated cardiovascular disease development. In the present study, a programmable shearing and stretching device that can apply dynamic fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain simultaneously to cultured ECs was developed. Flow and stress/strain conditions in the device were simulated using a fluid structure interaction (FSI) model. To characterize the performance of this device and the effect of combined shear stress-tensile strain on EC morphology, human coronary artery ECs (HCAECs) were exposed to concurrent shear stress and cyclic tensile strain in the device. Changes in EC morphology were evaluated through cell elongation, cell alignment, and cell junctional actin accumulation. Results obtained from the numerical simulation indicated that in the "in-plane" area of the device, both fluid shear stress and biaxial tensile strain were uniform. Results obtained from the in vitro experiments demonstrated that shear stress, alone or combined with cyclic tensile strain, induced significant cell elongation. While biaxial tensile strain alone did not induce any appreciable change in EC elongation. Fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain had different effects on EC actin filament alignment and accumulation. By combining various fluid shear stress and cyclic tensile strain conditions, this device can provide a physiologically relevant mechanical environment to study EC responses to physiological and pathological mechanical stimulation. PMID:26810848
Shear alignment of lamellar mesophase systems
Jaju, S. J.; Kumaran, V.
2015-11-01
Mixtures of oil, water and surfactants form different microphases. Some of these phases, e.g. lamellar, hexagonal phases, lead to complex rheological behaviour at macroscale due to inherent anisotropy and irregularities in the microstructures. We present a comprehensive simulation study to examine the structure-rheology relationship in lamellar phase flow. At mesoscale, Reynolds number (Re), Schmidt number (Sc), Ericksen number (Er), extent of segregation between hydrophilic and hydrophobic components (r), ratio of viscosity of the two components (Δμ /μ0), and system size to layer width ratio (L / λ) complete the lamellar phase description. We have used lattice Boltzmann simulations to study a two dimensional lamellar phase system of moderate size. The domains and grain boundaries seen at low Sc are replaced by isolated edge dislocations at high Sc. The alignment mechanism does not change with changes in layer bending moduli (Er), viscosity contrast or r. Increasing segregation, increases disorder; this however does not lead to higher resistance to flow. At high Er, the shear tries homogenise the concentration field and disrupt layer formation. We see significantly higher peak viscosity at low Er at high viscosity contrast and due to defect pinning. The authors would like to thank the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India for financial support, and Supercomputer Education and Research Centre at Indian Institute of Science for the computational resources.
Symmetry related dynamics in parallel shear flows
Kreilos, Tobias
2013-01-01
Parallel shear flows come with continuous symmetries of translation in the downstream and spanwise direction. Flow states that differ in their spanwise or downstream location but are otherwise identical are dynamically equivalent. In the case of travelling waves, this trivial degree of freedom can be removed by going to a frame of reference that moves with the state, thereby turning the travelling wave in the laboratory frame to a fixed point in the co-moving frame of reference. Further exploration of the symmetry suggests a general method by which the translational displacements can be removed also for more complicated and dynamically active states. We will describe the method and discuss its relation to general symmetry reductions and to the Taylor frozen flow hypothesis. We will demonstrate the method for the case of the asymptotic suction boundary layer. When applied to the oscillatory edge state with its long period, the method allows to find local phase speeds which remove the fast oscillations so that ...
Shear-flow transition: the basin boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The basin of attraction of a stable equilibrium point is investigated for a dynamical system (W97) that has been used to model transition to turbulence in shear flows. The basin boundary contains a linearly unstable equilibrium point Xlb which, in the self-sustaining scenario, plays a role in mediating the transition in that transition orbits cluster around its unstable manifold. However we find—for W97 with canonical parameter values—that this role is played not by Xlb but rather by a periodic orbit also lying on the basin boundary. Moreover, it appears via numerical computations that all orbits beginning near Xlb relaminarize. We offer numerical evidence that the parameter values of W97 are post-critical in the following sense: for some, subcritical parameter values, the basin boundary coincides with the stable manifold of Xlb and only a subset of nearby orbits relaminarize, whereas for supercritical values the basin boundary is the union of two stable manifolds, one belonging to the periodic orbit and dominating the basin boundary, and the other belonging to Xlb and detectable only as edge separating relaminarizing orbits of different characters. The periodic orbit appears at the critical parameter value via a homoclinic connection. This further leads to a proposal for the structure of the 'edge of chaos' somewhat different from that which has previously been proposed
Lapping: Polishing and shear mode grinding
Brown, Norman J.
1990-02-01
It is the thesis of this paper that shear mode grinding (SMG), (ductile grinding, nanogrinding, fractureless grinding) is just a particular form of polishing. It may be unique in that it can involve a hard wheel of very precise dimensions compared to the soft laps usually used in polishing. Such a wheel would permit the fabrication of a precision surface on a brittle material such as glass at a precisely located and oriented position on a part. The technological and economic consequences of such a process seem important but the technical obstacles to implementing the technique are for the moment formidable. It is in production in Japan. This paper provides a bit of understanding of that process obtained by making an end run around the obstacles to view the process from the vantage point of lapping. The paper will lay out some of the concepts and terminology necessary to understand the papers that have supplied the real labor to get us to this point. It will refer to parts of this work briefly in passing so the readers who need the details know where to look, and for what, in the bibliography appended.
Shear rheology of a cell monolayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandez, Pablo [Experimentalphysik I, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Heymann, Lutz [Technische Mechanik und Stroemungsmechanik, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Ott, Albrecht [Experimentalphysik I, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Aksel, Nuri [Technische Mechanik und Stroemungsmechanik, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Pullarkat, Pramod A [Experimentalphysik I, Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bayreuth, D-95440 Bayreuth (Germany)
2007-11-15
We report a systematic investigation of the mechanical properties of fibroblast cells using a novel cell monolayer rheology (CMR) technique. The new technique provides quantitative rheological parameters averaged over {approx}10{sup 6} cells making the experiments highly reproducible. Using this method, we are able to explore a broad range of cell responses not accessible using other present day techniques. We perform harmonic oscillation experiments and step shear or step stress experiments to reveal different viscoelastic regimes. The evolution of the live cells under externally imposed cyclic loading and unloading is also studied. Remarkably, the initially nonlinear response becomes linear at long timescales as well as at large amplitudes. Within the explored rates, nonlinear behaviour is only revealed by the effect of a nonzero average stress on the response to small, fast deformations. When the cell cytoskeletal crosslinks are made permanent using a fixing agent, the large amplitude linear response disappears and the cells exhibit a stress stiffening response instead. This result shows that the dynamic nature of the cross-links and/or filaments is responsible for the linear stress-strain response seen under large deformations. We rule out the involvement of myosin motors in this using the inhibitor drug blebbistatin. These experiments provide a broad framework for understanding the mechanical responses of the cortical actin cytoskeleton of fibroblasts to different imposed mechanical stimuli.
TURBULENT DYNAMOS WITH SHEAR AND FRACTIONAL HELICITY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dynamo action owing to helically forced turbulence and large-scale shear is studied using direct numerical simulations. The resulting magnetic field displays propagating wave-like behavior. This behavior can be modeled in terms of an αΩ dynamo. In most cases super-equipartition fields are generated. By varying the fraction of helicity of the turbulence the regeneration of poloidal fields via the helicity effect (corresponding to the α-effect) is regulated. The saturation level of the magnetic field in the numerical models is consistent with a linear dependence on the ratio of the fractional helicities of the small and large-scale fields, as predicted by a simple nonlinear mean-field model. As the magnetic Reynolds number (ReM) based on the wavenumber of the energy-carrying eddies is increased from 1 to 180, the cycle frequency of the large-scale field is found to decrease by a factor of about 6 in cases where the turbulence is fully helical. This is interpreted in terms of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity, which is found to be only weakly dependent on the ReM.
Experimental Study on Peak Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Joints
Yang, Jie; Rong, Guan; Hou, Di; Peng, Jun; Zhou, Chuangbing
2016-03-01
The three-dimensional (3D) morphology of a rock joint has a great impact on its shear behavior. To study the relationship between the 3D morphological characteristics and the peak shear strength, several tilt tests were conducted on four groups of tensile fractures and direct shear tests were carried out under different constant normal loads (CNL). The normal load ranges from 0.325 to 8.0 MPa. In this study, fresh tensile fractures which were splitted from granite and sandstone samples were used. The morphology of each tensile fracture was measured before direct shear tests. A new peak shear strength criterion for rock joints is proposed using two 3D morphological parameters which are termed as the maximum apparent dip angle θ_{max}^{*} and the roughness parameter C. The calculated peak strengths using the proposed criterion match well with the observed values. In addition, a comparison of the proposed model with the Grasselli's model (2003) and Xia's model (2014) shows that the proposed model is easier in the form and gives a rational improvement. At last, direct shear test data of tensile fractures which are collected from Grasselli (2003) are used to verify the proposed model. It is seen that the proposed model has a reliable estimate of the peak shear strength of tensile fractures and presumably for rock joints.
Quasi phase transition model of shear bands in metallic glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quasi phase transition model of shear bands in metallic glasses (MGs) is presented from the thermodynamic viewpoint. Energy changes during shear banding in a sample-machine system are analyzed following fundamental energy theorems. Three characteristic parameters, i.e. the critical initiation energy ΔGc, the shear band stability index k0, and the critical shear band length lc, are derived to elucidate the initiation and propagation of shear bands. The criteria for good plasticity in MGs with predominant thermodynamic arrest of shear bands are proposed as low ΔGc, large k0, and small lc. The model, combined with experimental results, is used to analyze some controversial phenomena of deformation behavior in MGs, such as the size effect, the effect of testing machine stiffness and the relationship between elastic modulus and plasticity. This study has important implications for a fundamental understanding of shear banding as well as deformation mechanisms in MGs and provides a theoretical basis for improving the ductility of MGs.
Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities with Sheared Magnetic Fields
Ruderman, M. S.; Terradas, J.; Ballester, J. L.
2014-04-01
Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities may play a relevant role in many astrophysical problems. In this work the effect of magnetic shear on the growth rate of the MRT instability is investigated. The eigenmodes of an interface and a slab model under the presence of gravity are analytically calculated assuming that the orientation of the magnetic field changes in the equilibrium, i.e., there is magnetic shear. We solve the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations in the incompressible regime. We find that the growth rate is bounded under the presence of magnetic shear. We have derived simple analytical expressions for the maximum growth rate, corresponding to the most unstable mode of the system. These expressions provide the explicit dependence of the growth rate on the various equilibrium parameters. For small angles the growth time is linearly proportional to the shear angle, and in this regime the single interface problem and the slab problem tend to the same result. On the contrary, in the limit of large angles and for the interface problem the growth time is essentially independent of the shear angle. In this regime we have also been able to calculate an approximate expression for the growth time for the slab configuration. Magnetic shear can have a strong effect on the growth rates of the instability. As an application of the results found in this paper we have indirectly determined the shear angle in solar prominence threads using their lifetimes and the estimation of the Alfvén speed of the structure.
Estimated strength of shear keys in concrete dams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Curtis, D.D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Lum, K.K.Y. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)
2008-07-01
BC Hydro requested that Hatch Energy review the seismic stability of Ruskin Dam which was constructed in 1930 at Hayward Lake in British Columbia. The concrete gravity dam is founded nearly entirely on rock in a narrow valley. The vertical joints between blocks are keyed and grouted. The strength of the shear keys was assessed when a non-linear finite element model found that significant forces were being transferred laterally to the abutments during an earthquake. The lateral transfer of loads to the abutment relies on the strength of the shear keys. The dynamic finite element analysis was used to determine the stability of the dam. A review of the shear strength measurements reported in literature showed that the measurements compared well to those obtained by BC Hydro from cores taken from Ruskin Dam. The cohesive strength obtained using the Griffith failure criteria was also in good agreement with both sets of measurements. A simple ultimate shear strength equation was developed using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria to determine combined cohesive and frictional strength of shear keys. Safety factors of 2.0 for static loads and 1.5 for seismic loads were proposed to reduce the ultimate strength to allowable values. It was concluded that given the relatively high shear strength established for the shear keys, the abutment rock or dam/abutment contact will control the amount of load which can arch to the abutments. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.
Velocity shear generated Alfven waves in electron-positron plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Linear MHD modes in cold, nonrelativistic electron-positron plasma shear flow are considered. The general set of differential equations, describing the evolution of perturbations in the framework of the nonmodal approach is derived. It is found, that under certain circumstances, the compressional and shear Alfven perturbations may exhibit large transient growth fuelled by the mean kinetic energy of the shear flow. The velocity shear also induces mode coupling allowing the exchange of energy as well as the possibility of a strong mutual transformation of these modes into each other. The compressional Alfven mode may extract the energy of the mean flow and transfer it to the shear Alfven mode via this coupling. The relevance of these new physical effects to provide a better understanding of the laboratory e+ e- plasma is emphasized. It is speculated that the shear-induced effects in the electron-positron plasmas could also help solve some astrophysical puzzles (e.g., the generation of pulsar radio emission). Since most astrophysical plasma are relativistic, it is shown that the major results of the study remain valid for weakly sheared relativistic plasmas. (author). 21 refs, 4 figs