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1

Relationship between beef consumer tenderness perception and Warner-Bratzler shear force

The aim of this study was to determine consumer ability to discern different levels of beef tenderness established by Warner–Bratzler shear (WBs). A panel of 220 people evaluated 60 samples of longissimus thoracis using a 5-point intensity scale (1: very tough; 5: very tender). Samples differed for commercial category, breed of animals and ageing length of meat. Shear force was measured by Instron equipped with a Warner–Bratzler device on 1.27 cm diameter cores. Correlation coefficient...

Destefanis, Gianluigi; Brugiapaglia, Alberto; Barge, Maria Teresa

2008-01-01

2

The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of 335 lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) caudal and cranial ends was measured to examine and simulate the effect of replicate number (r: 1-8) on the precision of mean WBSF estimates and to compare LL caudal and cranial end WBSF means. All LL were sourced from two experimental flocks as part of the Information Nucleus slaughter programme (CRC for Sheep Industry Innovation) and analysed using a Lloyd Texture analyser with a Warner-Bratzler blade attachment. WBSF data were natural logarithm (ln) transformed before statistical analysis. Mean ln(WBSF) precision improved as r increased; however the practical implications support an r equal to 6, as precision improves only marginally with additional replicates. Increasing LL sample replication results in better ln(WBSF) precision compared with increasing r, provided that sample replicates are removed from the same LL end. Cranial end mean WBSF was 11.2±1.3% higher than the caudal end. PMID:25828163

Holman, B W B; Alvarenga, T I R C; van de Ven, R J; Hopkins, D L

2015-07-01

3

Sampling, cooking, and coring effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force values in beef.

A series of experiments was conducted to determine the effects of various factors on Warner-Bratzler shear force measurement of cooked beef. As the extent of thawing of frozen steaks before cooking for shear force evaluation increases (-2 vs 12 degrees C), shear force decreases (P .05) shear force (5.21, 5.15, or 5.26 kg, respectively) or any sensory trait. Mean shear force of longissimus steaks cooked to either a constant temperature of 70 degrees C (6.97 kg) or for a constant time of 30 min (6.38 kg) was not different (P = .06), but shear force repeatability was higher for steaks cooked to constant temperature (.79 vs .53). Mean shear force (6.20 vs 6.33 kg) and shear force repeatability (.74 vs .68) of longissimus steaks cooked by either electric broiler or convection oven broiler, respectively, were not different (P > .05). Meat cores obtained perpendicular to the steak surface, from one location within the muscle, had lower (P < .05) mean shear force (3.41 vs 4.17 kg) and much less repeatable shear force (.12 vs .66) than cores obtained parallel to muscle fiber orientation. Use of more than five cores per animal did not significantly increase repeatability of mean shear force. Numerous factors must be carefully controlled to ensure measurement of shear force is as accurate and repeatable as possible. PMID:8818800

Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

1996-07-01

4

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of core sampling on Warner-Bratzler shear force evaluations of beef and pork loins (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles) and to determine the relationship between them. Steaks of 2.54cm from beef and pork loins were cooked and five round cross-section cores and five square cross-section cores of each steak were taken for shear force evaluation. Core sampling influenced both beef and pork shear force values with higher (Pforce protocol as an alternative and potential method to standardize sampling for shear force measurements. PMID:25569815

Silva, Douglas R G; Torres Filho, Robledo A; Cazedey, Henrique P; Fontes, Paulo R; Ramos, Alcinéia L S; Ramos, Eduardo M

2015-05-01

5

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of treating chicken breast forequarters with sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) after various postchill storage times on meat quality. Sixty-four commercially reared broilers (two replicates of 32 birds each) were slaughtered and chilled, and then the forequarters (split breasts with spine and ribs) were harvested and aged for 0, 120, 180, or 240 min postchill. After each aging period, one forequarter from each of 16 birds was marinated with a NaCl solution and the opposite forequarter was marinated with the same NaCl solution containing STPP. The quarters were then cooked and the following traits measured: marinade absorption, cooking loss, objective color values, and Warner-Bratzler shear values. As aging time prior to marination increased, cooking loss and redness of the cooked meat decreased, but marinade absorption and the color values were unaffected. The STPP treatment increased marinade absorption, decreased cooking losses, and decreased cooked meat redness (P meat. When the STPP treatment was applied immediately after carcass chilling, the STPP-treated meat exhibited shear values more than 60% greater than those of the controls (9.14 and 5.69 kg, respectively). Results indicate that time postchill at which further processed products are treated with STPP can have a significant effect on quality, especially cooked product texture. PMID:9355155

Young, L L; Lyon, C E

1997-11-01

6

The tenderness and palatability of retail and food service beef steaks from across the United States (12 cities for retail, 5 cities for food service) were evaluated using Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) and consumer sensory panels. Subprimal postfabrication storage or aging times at retail establishments averaged 20.5 d with a range of 1 to 358 d, whereas postfabrication times at the food service level revealed an average time of 28.1 d with a range of 9 to 67 d. Approximately 64% of retail steaks were labeled with a packer/processor or store brand. For retail, top blade had among the lowest (P 0.05) in WBS values between moist-heat and dry-heat cookery methods for the top round and bottom round steaks or between enhanced (contained salt or phosphate solution) or nonenhanced steaks. Food service top loin and rib eye steaks had the lowest (P < 0.05) WBS values compared with top sirloin steaks. Retail top blade steaks and food service top loin steaks received among the greatest (P < 0.05) consumer sensory panel ratings compared with the other steaks evaluated. Prime food service rib eye steaks received the greatest ratings (P < 0.05) for overall like, like tenderness, tenderness level, like juiciness, and juiciness level, whereas ungraded rib eye steaks received the lowest ratings (P < 0.05) for like tenderness and tenderness level. The WBS values for food service steaks were greater (P < 0.05) for the Select and ungraded groups compared with the Prime, Top Choice, and Low Choice groups. The WBS values and sensory ratings were comparable to the last survey, signifying that no recent or substantive changes in tenderness have occurred. PMID:23230117

Guelker, M R; Haneklaus, A N; Brooks, J C; Carr, C C; Delmore, R J; Griffin, D B; Hale, D S; Harris, K B; Mafi, G G; Johnson, D D; Lorenzen, C L; Maddock, R J; Martin, J N; Miller, R K; Raines, C R; VanOverbeke, D L; Vedral, L L; Wasser, B E; Savell, J W

2013-02-01

7

Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness. PMID:16160060

Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A

2005-10-01

8

Advantages of air chilling (AC) methods over immersion chilling (IC) methods in quality retention and improvement of deboned chicken breast meat depend on experimental conditions, such as deboning time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dry-AC method on shear force and water-holding capacity (WHC) of broiler breast meat deboned 4h postmortem compared to hot-boned (no chill) or immersion-chilled meat. Ready-to-cook broiler carcasses were hot-boned, chilled by ice wate...

Zhuang, H.; Savage, E. M.; Smith, D. P.; Berrang, M. E.

2008-01-01

9

Our objectives were to determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the release rate of trenbolone acetate and estradiol-17? on the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL) and the WBSF of gluteus medius (GM) and psoas major (PM) in response to various aging periods. British × Continental steers (n = 168) were assigned to treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial. The main effects of treatment were implant (no implant, Revalor-S, Revalor-XS, Intervet/Schering Plough Animal Health, De Soto, KS) and ZH (0 or 8.3 mg/kg of DM for 20 d). Slaughter group was included as a random effect to account for the variation in days on feed (153 or 174 d). Loins (n = 96) were fabricated to obtain strip loin, top sirloin butt, and tenderloin subprimals. Five 2.54-cm steaks were cut from each subprimal and assigned to 1 of 5 aging periods (7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d postmortem). Feeding ZH increased (P ? 0.01) LL WBSF and SSF values at each aging period compared with controls. Implanting increased (P 0.05). Only Revalor-S increased (P ? 0.05) WBSF values at 28 and 35 d compared with no implant or Revalor-XS. The percentage of LL steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period, and by d 28, more than 99% of LL steaks registered WBSF values below 4.6 kg. Feeding ZH increased (P 0.05) on GM WBSF values. The percentage of GM steaks with a WBSF value below 4.6 kg did not differ (P > 0.05) between ZH supplementation or implant strategy at any aging period. Neither ZH nor implant strategy affected PM WBSF values (P > 0.05). All PM WBSF values were below 4.6 kg on d 7. The results of this study indicated that feeding ZH increased WBSF and SSF of LL steaks, regardless of the aging period; however, the percentage of steaks with WBSF below 4.6 kg did not differ because of ZH or implant. Implanting increased LL WBSF values, but not SSF values. These results showed that although differences existed between implanting, as well as ZH supplementation of British × Continental steers, 99% of LL steaks were classified as tender based on WBSF values by extending aging to 28 d postmortem. It should be noted that 21.2% of 7-d, 13.8% of 14-d, and 17.3% of 21-d ZH steaks had WBSF values greater than 4.6 kg, but 0% of nonsupplemented steaks were greater than 4.6 kg at these aging periods. However, because ZH and implants can increase retail yield of valuable subprimals, such as the tenderloin, considerable value could be captured through ZH supplementation with anabolic implants because shear force was not affected in PM steaks. PMID:21680791

Garmyn, A J; Knobel, S M; Spivey, K S; Hightower, L F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Parr, S L; Rathmann, R J; Starkey, J D; Yates, D A; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F

2011-11-01

10

Measurements of texture properties related to tenderness at different locations within deboned broiler breast fillets have been used to validate techniques for texture analysis and establish correlations between different texture evaluation methods. However, it has been demonstrated that meat text...

11

This study is a meta-analysis of the effects of the beta-agonists zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on feedlot performance, carcase characteristics of cattle and Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of muscles. It was conducted to evaluate the effect of the use of these agents on beef production and meat quality and to provide data that would be useful in considerations on the effect of these agents on meat quality in Meat Standards Australia evaluations. We cond...

Lean, Ian J.; Thompson, John M.; Dunshea, Frank R.

2014-01-01

12

In-home consumer and shear force evaluation of steaks from the M. serratus ventralis thoracis.

The M. serratus ventralis thoracis was obtained from US Select arm chucks (n=87) to investigate if this underutilized muscle can be used as a steak alternative. Muscles were assigned randomly into three treatment groups: (1) control; (2) blade tenderization; and (3) injection, containing salt, phosphate, and papain. Steaks were cut from each muscle for in-home consumer evaluation (n=136) and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force determination. The WBS values for injected steaks (13.1N) were lower (Ptenderized (18.4N) and control (19.9N) steaks. Tenderness ratings for the injected steaks were higher (Ptenderized and injected steaks resulted in increased palatability ratings, whereas increased doneness for control steaks generally resulted in lowered palatability ratings. Consumer ratings and WBS values for the M. serratus ventralis thoracis indicate that merchandising steaks from this muscle may be a viable option in the marketplace, especially if blade tenderization or injection processes are used for further enhancement. PMID:20374872

Bagley, J L; Nicholson, K L; Pfeiffer, K D; Savell, J W

2010-05-01

13

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

C. Gomes

2013-04-01

14

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca). As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, co [...] r, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05) entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas. Abstract in english Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca) were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appea [...] rance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05) among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca) asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

C., Gomes; L.B., Karam; R.E.F., Macedo.

2013-04-01

15

It is with great sadness that we learned that our friend and former colleague, David Warner, passed away on Christmas Eve. The funeral was held the following Monday. David was a "linac man". His career centred around linacs, but with a multitude of different subjects. He began at CERN by building the 3 MeV linac in the extension of the South Hall. He did pioneering work on this machine, which paved the way towards the design of the Alvarez cavities for the CERN Linac 2, for which he was responsible. After this challenge was successfully finished, David was the first member of the small but growing team, that was in charge of building the LEP Injector Linacs (LIL). After having been recognised as a proton linac expert, he quickly converted to electron linacs where he soon became the respected key expert for the design, parameters and ultimate performance of LIL. His predilection for precise and detailed documentation, and his vision that the know-how acquired with LIL should be preserved a...

2004-01-01

16

“Decipher its noises for us”: Understanding Sycorax’s Island in Marina Warner’s Indigo

The Marina Warner’s novel Indigo, or Mapping the Waters (1992) explores the effects of colonialism on the islanders of Liamuiga and the Everard family through a complex retelling of Shakespeare’s The Tempest that spans over three hundred years. Much like the appropriative novels of Gloria Naylor, in which past and present blend and meld, Indigo also suggests that time is not linear in its development. The subtitle, or Mapping the Waters, positions a sense of place at the crux of Warner’...

Presley, Erin M.

2012-01-01

17

...qualities; (2) ecological restoration of wetlands including Drakesbad...include: (a) Ecological restoration of Warner Valley fen through...filling ditches with appropriate soil and native material; (b...Alternative 3 includes: (a) Restoration of Warner Valley fen...

2010-10-04

18

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se describen e ilustran características morfológicas de Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner, 1970). Esta especie se ha utilizado para el control biológico del lirio acuático (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, 1883). En el huevo, el aspecto cambiante del corion es dado por el des [...] arrollo embrionario. En la larva se realizó una descripción de la quetotaxia de la cápsula cefálica y se identificaron tres ínstares larvales con la medición de su anchura; también se revisó la microescultura del cuerpo de la larva, sobresaliendo unas microespinas, cuyo arreglo es diferente en tórax y abdomen, también se observaron dos tipos de espiráculos; el más característico es el espiráculo abdominal por su posición dorsal, que además de ser esclerosado, posee órganos sensoriales en su ápice. La morfología externa de los adultos de N. eichorniae es muy parecida en ambos sexos; su principal diferencia se encuentra en el rostrum. Además se proporciona una descripción de las alas, proventrículo y genitalia, estructuras importantes en la taxonomía. Las características morfológicas de N. eichhorniae encontradas en éste trabajo pueden ser útiles para diferenciar a esta especie de Neochetina bruchi (Hustache, 1926), la cual ha sido liberada en muchos países. Es el primer trabajo de morfología N. eichhorniae en México. Abstract in english In this study morphological characteristics of Neochetina eichhorniae (Warner, 1970) are described and illustrated. This species has been used for the Biological Control of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach, 1883). In the egg, the changing appearance of the chorion is given b [...] y the embryonic development. Description of larval head capsule chaetotaxy was done. Three larval instars were identified by measuring the head capsule width; microsculpture of the body larva was studied, microspines were evident with different arrangements in thorax and abdomen, two types of spiracles were found; the more distinctive was the dorsal spiracle in the abdomen, which is sclerotized, with sensory organs at its apex. The external morphology of N. eichorniae adult is very similar in both sexes, the main difference among them is the rostrum. Description of the wings, proventriculus and genitalia, important structures in the taxonomy, is provided. The morphological characteristics of N. eichhorniae found in this study can be use to separate from N. bruchi (Hustache) which has been released in many countries. This is the first morphological study of N. eichhorniae in Mexico.

Oscar, Martínez-Morales; Edith G., Estrada-Venegas; Armando, Equihua-Martínez; Jorge, Valdez-Carrasco.

19

SARCOMERE LENGTH INFLUENCES IN VITRO CALPAIN-INDUCED PROTEOLYSIS OF BEEF MYOFIBRILS

The objective of this study was to determine the influence of sarcomere length on the extent of postmortem proteolysis and beef tenderness. First a model was developed to evaluate the effect of sarcomere length on tenderness, utilizing Warner-Bratzler shear force. Bovine semitendinosus and psoas maj...

20

The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of storage time (ST) and packaging method (PM) on tenderness and changes in intramuscular connective tissue (IMCT) strength of chevon. Spanish does (8 mo of age, average BW 25 kg) were harvested (n = 12), chilled at 4 degrees C for 24 h, and then fabricated into 2.5-cm-thick leg, shoulder/arm, and loin/rib cuts. The cuts from six carcasses were vacuum-packed and aged at 2 degrees C for 0, 4, 8, or 12 d. To assess the influence of a packaging method that favors oxidation on postmortem tenderization, the cuts from the remaining six carcasses were placed on styrofoam trays, overwrapped with polyvinyl-chloride film, and stored at 2 degrees C for similar periods. At each ST, longissimus (LM), semimembranosus (SM), and triceps brachii (TB) muscles were assessed for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) values. The WBS of uncooked meat, myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI), and collagen solubility were assessed on LM. The IMCT samples were prepared to assess changes in mechanical strengths and for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Intact honeycomb structures of endomysium, with no muscle fiber elements, were observable under SEM. The PM or ST did not influence the mechanical strength of IMCT preparations, as measured by a texture analyzer. Collagen solubility of LM muscles also did not change during aging. For both PM, cooked meat WBS values were higher (P < 0.01) in SM and TB than in LM. In the SM samples, the average WBS values were higher (P < 0.01) at d 0 than at other ST. Although MFI of LM increased with increasing aging time (P < 0.05), changes in WBS over ST were minimal in TB and LM samples. The WBS of uncooked LM decreased sharply up to 8 d postmortem in both PM (P < 0.05). However, there was no PM x ST interaction to indicate any adverse influence of packaging on tenderization of chevon. The results suggest that aging chevon cuts for more than 4 d may not result in significant additional improvement in tenderness. PMID:12350015

Kannan, G; Chawan, C B; Kouakou, B; Gelaye, S

2002-09-01

21

Walter Warner (ca.1557-1643) and his notes on Animal Organisms

As opposed to most of his contemporaries, Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) assumed that all phenomena could be explained in terms of matter in motion. All the more intriguing is his suggestion that what he wrote came out of his own head. Yet, already during his lifetime he was accused of having taken his natural philosophy from the mathematician and natural philosopher Walter Warner (ca. 1557-1643). Warner’s posthumous notes were said to suggest that he worked on the development of ...

Prins, Johannes Lambertus Maria

1992-01-01

22

Ecological investigation of a hazardous waste site, Warner Robins, Georgia

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Landfill No. 4 and the sludge lagoon at Robins Air Force Base, Warner Robins, Georgia, were added to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Priorities List in 1987 because of highpotential for contaminant migration. Warner Robins is located approximately 90 miles southeast of Atlanta. In 1990 CH2M HILL conducted a Remedial Investigation at the base that recommended that further ecological assessment investigations be conducted (CH2M HILL 1990). The subject paper is the result of this recommendation. The ecological study was carried out by the Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)Division of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., working jointly with its subcontractor CDM (CDM 1992a). The primary area of investigation (Zone 1) included the sludge lagoon, Landfill No. 4, the wetland area east of the landfill and west of Hannah Road (including two sewage treatment ponds), and the area between Hannah Road and Horse Creek (Fig. 1). The bottomland forest wetlands of Zone 1 extend from the landfill east to Horse Creek. Surface water and groundwater flow across Zone 1 is generally in an easterly direction toward Horse Creek. Horse Creek is a south-flowing tributary of the Ocmulgee River Floodplain. The objective of the study was to perform a quantitative analysis of ecological risk associated with the ecosystems present in Zone 1. This investigation was unique because the assessment was to be based upon many measurement endpoints resulting in both location-specific data and data that would assess the condition of the overall ecosystem. The study was segregated into five distinct field investigations: hydrology, surface water and sediment, aquatic biology, wetlands ecology, and wildlife biology.

Wade, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Billig, P. [Camp Dresser and McKee, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

1993-05-01

23

...request for confidential treatment, and you have to follow...request for confidential treatment that accompanies the...delayed-release tablet containing risedronate sodium that is used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Warner Chilcott...

2013-10-31

24

On behalf of American Aging Association and his many biogerontological colleagues, the author thanks Huber R. Warner for his 21 years of exemplary service at the National Institute on Aging (NIA). In so honoring Dr. Warner, we also honor his many associates at that “user friendly” branch of the National Institutes of Health. Some highlights of Dr. Warner's scientific training, academic career and special contributions while serving in a leadership position at the NIA are reviewed. We wish...

Martin, George M.

2005-01-01

25

Correlation and Categories of Meat Tenderness Based on Equipment and Panelist Test

The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and cooking loss with sensory local trained panelists rating on beef tenderness, also to determine WBSF range at each tenderness categories (extremely tender, tender, rather tender, rather tough, tough, and extremely tough). Meat from knuckles of Australian Beef Cross (ABX) steer were broiled until internal temperature 70, 80 and 90oC to get some WBSF values. Cooking loss was counted as per...

Suryati, T.; Ii, Arief; Bn, Polii

2008-01-01

26

Histomorphology and Physical Characteristics of Buffalo Meat at Different Sex and Age

The aim of this experiment was to evaluate histology and physical variables of buffalo meat at different sex and ages. Thirty head of buffaloes were used in this experiment. Muscle fiber diameter, fasciculus diameter, thickness of connective tissue, pH, water holding capacity, Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss were measured in this experiment. Analysis of variance of randomized factorial design was used to analyse the data. The differences were analysed by Tukey test. The result sh...

Mahmudah; Nuraini, H.; Winarto, A.; Sumantri, C.

2013-01-01

27

Application of exogenous enzymes to beef muscle of high and low-connective tissue.

Exogenous enzymes tenderize meat through proteolysis. Triceps brachii and Supraspinatus were randomly assigned to the seven enzyme treatments, papain, ficin, bromelain, homogenized fresh ginger, Bacillus subtilis protease, and two Aspergillus oryzae proteases or control to determine the extent of tenderization (Warner-Bratzler shear and sensory evaluation) and mode of action (myofibrillar or collagen degradation). Sensory evaluation showed improvement (Ptenderness and connective tissue component and all except ginger had a lower shear force than the control (Ppapain increased soluble collagen (Ptenderness via myofibrillar and collagenous protein degradation with no difference among high and low-connective tissue muscles. PMID:20416788

Sullivan, G A; Calkins, C R

2010-08-01

28

In order to incorporate the effect of gravity waves (GWs) on the atmospheric circulation most global circulation models (GCMs) employ gravity wave parameterization schemes. To date, GW parameterization schemes in GCMs are used without experimental validation of the set of global parameters assumed for the GW launch spectrum. This paper focuses on the Warner and McIntyre GW parameterization scheme. Ranges of parameters compatible with absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GW-MF) deriv...

Ern, M.; Preusse, P.; Warner, C. D.

2006-01-01

29

Use of near infrared spectroscopy for assessment of beef quality traits

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Chemical and physical traits and fatty acid composition of meat samples from 148 Piemontese beef samples were predicted by near infrared spectroscopy. Coefficients of determination in calibration (R2 ranged between 0.44 and 0.99 for chemical composition and between 0.02 and 0.98 for fatty acid (FA profile, being in general more accurate for the major FA. The calibration results gave inaccurate prediction for cholesterol and collagen content and for most physical traits, such as Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss, drip loss, colour (L, a, b and pH.

L. Gallo

2010-04-01

30

Llama Meat Nutritional Properties

The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the muscle Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean region, slaughtered at an age of 25 months and at a mean final body weight of 74kg. Llama meat showed a low fat (3.51%) and cholesterol content (58.16mg/100g), a good protein content (22.42%) and an ash content of 3.06%. The Warner-Bratzler shear force values determined in llama meat was 6.56 kg/cm2. This study confirmed that llama meat is healthy ...

Lebboroni, G.; Antonini, M.; Renieri, C.; Polidori, P.

2010-01-01

31

The analytical method described, based on antibody-antigen bio-recognition and the measuring system for amperometric detection, was designed for accurate, easy to use and cost effective quantification of calpastatin, a meat tenderness biomarker. The novel assay for calpastatin quantification was integrated in a portable electrochemical device known as the Tendercheck system and was used to analyze meat samples collected from animals of different breeds and ages. The data obtained were correlated (R² = 0.62) with Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) measurements, a routinely used method for meat tenderness determination. PMID:21596553

Zór, Kinga; Castellarnau, Marc; Pascual, David; Pich, Sara; Plasencia, Carmen; Bardsley, Ronald; Nistor, Mihaela

2011-07-15

32

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to incorporate the effect of gravity waves (GWs on the atmospheric circulation most global circulation models (GCMs employ gravity wave parameterization schemes. To date, GW parameterization schemes in GCMs are used without experimental validation of the set of global parameters assumed for the GW launch spectrum. This paper focuses on the Warner and McIntyre GW parameterization scheme. Ranges of parameters compatible with absolute values of gravity wave momentum flux (GW-MF derived from CRISTA-1 and CRISTA-2 satellite measurements are deduced for several of the parameters and the limitations of both model and measurements are discussed. The findings presented in this paper show that the initial guess of spectral parameters provided by Warner and McIntyre (2001 are some kind of compromise with respect to agreement of absolute values and agreement of the horizontal structures found in both measurements and model results. Better agreement can be achieved by using a vertical wavenumber launch spectrum with a wider saturated spectral range and reduced spectral power in the unsaturated part. Still, even global features of the measurements remain unmatched, and it is inevitable to provide a globally varying source distribution in future.

M. Ern

2006-06-01

33

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil (TEO as feed additives on the sensory attributes, cooking loss and the texture of broiler chicken meat. Day-old broilers Ross 308 (n = 400 were randomly divided into four groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics 0.05%, TEO 0.05% and combination of probiotics and TEO, while the fattening period was 42 days. Warner Bratzler shear force, cooking loss and the following sensory attributes (colour, odour, taste, texture, meat decomposing and overall acceptability were tested. The obtained results of the Warner Bratzler shear force show that there was significant different (P < 0.05 between control and TEO group and for the cooking loss there was no significant difference between groups. The descriptive sensory analysis results show that the probiotics group results were somewhat similar to that obtained by control while the TEO group and the combination group results were similar. Regarding the sensory analysis we can state that the combination of the probiotics and TEO have a positive effect on the chicken meat sensory characteristics.

Ebrahim Alfaig

2014-05-01

34

Effect of high pressure and salt on pork meat quality and microstructure.

The interaction of salt (0%, 1.5%, and 3% in the final product) and a high-pressure treatment (500 MPa, 20 °C, 6 min) was investigated using pork biceps femoris muscle. The Warner-Bratzler shear force and the water holding capacity (WHC) were assessed and linked to the microstructure evaluation by environmental scanning electronic microscopy (ESEM). Pressure-treated and cooked samples showed a high Warner-Bratzler shear force with a low WHC compared to control cooked samples. These negative effects could be linked to the general shrinkage of the structure as observed by ESEM. The addition of 1.5% salt was sufficient to improve the technological properties of the high-pressure-treated samples and to counteract the negative effect of high pressure on texture and WHC. This phenomenon could be linked to the breakdown in structure observed by ESEM. This study states that it is possible to produce pressurized pork products of good eating quality by adding limited salt levels. PMID:22860583

Duranton, Frédérique; Simonin, Hélène; Chéret, Romuald; Guillou, Sandrine; de Lamballerie, Marie

2012-08-01

35

As gravitational lensing measurements become increasingly precise, it becomes necessary to include ever higher order effects in the theoretical calculations. Here we show how the difference between the shear and the reduced shear manifest themselves in a number of commonly used measures of shear power. If we are to reap the science rewards of future, high precision measurements of cosmic shear we will need to include this effect in our theoretical predictions.

White, M

2005-01-01

36

We measured shear thinning, a viscosity decrease ordinarily associated with complex liquids such as molten plastics or ketchup, near the critical point of xenon. The data span a wide range of dimensionless shear rate: the product of the shear rate and the relaxation time of critical fluctuations was greater than 0.001 and was less than 700. As predicted by theory, shear thinning occurred when this product was greater than 1. The measurements were conducted aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia to avoid the density stratification caused by Earth's gravity.

Bergm Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Yao, Minwu; Zimmerli, Gregory A.

2009-01-01

37

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se comparó la composición química y calidad instrumental de carne de bovino, llama, y caballo finalizados bajo pastoreo. Los bovinos (n=31), llamas (n=21) y caballos (n=27) fueron faenados bajo procedimientos estándares de Chile. Las canales fueron refrigeradas durante 24 horas a 4 ºC. En el músculo [...] Longissimus lumborum (LL) se determinó la composición proximal, contenido de colesterol y colágeno, pH, color (L*, a*, b*, H*, C*), capacidad de retención de agua (WHC), pérdida de cocción, pérdida del descongelado y fuerza de corte Warner-Bratzler (WBSF). La carne de llama presentó mayores niveles de proteína y colágenos totales (p Abstract in english This study compared the chemical composition and instrumental meat quality of bovine, llama and horse from animals finished under grazing systems. The bovines (n=31), llamas (n=21) and horses (n=27) were slaughtered using Chilean standard procedures. Carcasses were stored for 24 h in a cold room (4 [...] ºC). The Longissimus lumborum muscle (LL) was collected for determining the chemical composition, cholesterol, collagen content, pH, colour (L*, a*, b*, H*, C*), water holding capacity (WHC) and Warner-Bratzler shear-force (WBSF). Llama meat had higher levels of protein and total collagen (p

Lindon W, Mamani-Linares; Carmen, Gallo.

2011-12-01

38

One or more disc-shaped angular shear plates each include a region thereon having a thickness that varies with a nonlinear function. For the case of two such shear plates, they are positioned in a facing relationship and rotated relative to each other. Light passing through the variable thickness regions in the angular plates is refracted. By properly timing the relative rotation of the plates and by the use of an appropriate polynomial function for the thickness of the shear plate, light passing therethrough can be focused at variable positions.

Ruda, Mitchell C. (Tucson, AZ); Greynolds, Alan W. (Tucson, AZ); Stuhlinger, Tilman W. (Tucson, AZ)

2009-07-14

39

The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perforations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11) and in two t...

Wesley Oliveira de Sousa; Germano Henrique Rosado-Neto; Marinêz Isaac Marques

2012-01-01

40

Annular electroconvection with shear

We report experiments on convection driven by a radial electrical force in suspended annular smectic A liquid crystal films. In the absence of an externally imposed azimuthal shear, a stationary one-dimensional (1D) pattern consisting of symmetric vortex pairs is formed via a supercritical transition at the onset of convection. Shearing reduces the symmetries of the base state and produces a traveling 1D pattern whose basic periodic unit is a pair of asymmetric vortices. For a sufficiently large shear, the primary bifurcation changes from supercritical to subcritical. We describe measurements of the resulting hysteresis as a function of the shear at radius ratio $\\eta \\sim 0.8$. This simple pattern forming system has an unusual combination of symmetries and control parameters and should be amenable to quantitative theoretical analysis.

Daya, Z A; Morris, S W; De Bruyn, J R; Daya, Zahir A.; Morris, Stephen W.; Bruyn, John R. de

1998-01-01

41

We discuss crack propagation along the interface between two dissimilar materials. The crack edge separates two states of the interface, ``stick'' and ``slip''. In the slip region we assume that the shear stress is proportional to the sliding velocity, i.e. the linear viscous friction law. In this picture the static friction appears as the Griffith threshold for crack propagation. We calculate the crack velocity as a function of the applied shear stress and find that the mai...

Brener, Efim A.; Marchenko, V. I.

2002-01-01

42

Annular electroconvection with shear

We report experiments on convection driven by a radial electrical force in suspended annular smectic A liquid crystal films. In the absence of an externally imposed azimuthal shear, a stationary one-dimensional (1D) pattern consisting of symmetric vortex pairs is formed via a supercritical transition at the onset of convection. Shearing reduces the symmetries of the base state and produces a traveling 1D pattern whose basic periodic unit is a pair of asymmetric vortices. For...

Daya, Zahir A.; Deyirmenjian, V. B.; Morris, Stephen W.; Bruyn, John R.

1997-01-01

43

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the µ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum [...] samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p

María C., Miquel; Edgardo, Villarreal; Carlos, Mezzadra; Lilia, Melucci; Liliana, Soria; Pablo, Corva; Alejandro, Schor.

44

For highly viscous fluids that slip in parallel sliding plate rheometers, we want to use a slightly converging flow to suppress this wall slip. In this work, we first attack the steady shear flow of a highly viscous Newtonian fluid between two gently converging plates with no slip boundaries using the equation of motion in cylindrical coordinates, which yields no analytical solution. Then we treat the same problem using the lubrication approximation in Cartesian coordinates to yield exact, explicit solutions for dimensionless velocity, pressure and shear stress. This work deepens our understanding of a drag flow through a gently converging slit of arbitrary convergence angle. We also employ the corotational Maxwell model to explore the role of viscoelasticity in this converging shear flow. We then compare these analytical solutions to finite element calculations for both Newtonian and corotational Maxwell cases. A worked example for determining the Newtonian viscosity using a converging shear rheometer is also included. With this work, we provide the framework for exploring other constitutive equations or other boundary conditions in future work. Our results can also be used to design the linear bearings used for the parallel sliding plate rheometer (SPR). This work can also be used to evaluate the error in the shear stress that is caused by bearing misalignment and specify the parallelism tolerance for the linear bearings incorporated into a SPR.

Baek, Hyung M.; Mix, Adam W.; Giacomin, A. Jeffrey

2014-05-01

45

We describe experiments in which we consider the jamming of 2D granular materials under shear. We consider experiments involving both pure and simple shear. The particles making up the material are either disks or ellipses, and in both cases, they are fabricated from a photoelastic material. It is then possible to obtain quantitative data for contact forces, and all other relevant grain-scale information. A key observation from these experiments is that initial states with densities below isotropic jamming can be jammed under applied shear in a range of packing fractions between ?min<=?<=?J, where ?J corresponds to the isotropic (zero shear stress) jamming point. We explore the behaviour of the above systems for ?'s in and near this regime. Specifically, we determine particle contacts and the mean contact number per particle, Z, the number of nearest neighbors, the shear and normal stresses, ? and P, and kinematic properties such as particle rotation and displacement. We find that the states of the system lie on a surface in a space consisting of ?, P, and ?. As time permits, we will explore the affine and non-affine motion of particles.

Zhang, Jie; Ren, Jie; Farhadi, Somayeh; Behringer, Robert

2010-03-01

46

Determinations were made of the mean length of fragments produced after shearing long (greater than 100 kb) native Hela DNA in a VirTis homogenizer. (VirTis Co., Inc., Gardiner, N.Y.). The mean length (L) is a function of the speed of rotation of the homogenizer blades (omega), time of shearing (t), water concentration ([H2O]), solvent viscosity (eta), temperature (T), and energy of activation (E*), but not a function of the initial length so long as the starting molecules sustain an average of three or more breaks. The relationship of the parameters is expressed by the equation L = (b/omegat1/2eta1/2[H2O])eE*/2kBT, where kB is the Boltzmann constant and b is a constant of proportionality. The breakage rate constant k was determined to have the relationship k = (omega2L2eta[H2O]2/2b2)e-E*/kBT. These equations are valid throughout large ranges of the parameters, and a simple method is described which chooses a final mean length between at least 0.15 and 36 kb by choosing the appropriate shearing conditions and initial fragment length. The heterogeneity of shearing conditions within the shearing vessel permits use of the equations at all breakage rates tested. Based on the work of others using more homogeneous shearing conditions and initial fragment lengths, more complicated forms of the equations are necessary at low breakage rates but not at high ones. A proposed model of the breakage mechanism suggests that molecules with stress-induced localized denaturations break at a rate different from that for native DNA. PMID:728525

Dancis, B M

1978-11-01

47

Mixing through shear instabilities

In this paper we present the results of numerical simulations of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a stratified shear layer. This shear instability is believed to be responsible for extra mixing in differentially rotating stellar interiors and is the prime candidate to explain the abundance anomalies observed in many rotating stars. All mixing prescriptions currently in use are based on phenomenological and heuristic estimates whose validity is often unclear. Using three-dimensional numerical simulations, we study the mixing efficiency as a function of the Richardson number and compare our results with some semi-analytical formalisms of mixing.

Brüggen, M

2000-01-01

48

Bayesian lensing shear measurement

We derive an estimator of weak gravitational lensing shear from background galaxy images that avoids noise-induced biases through a rigorous Bayesian treatment of the measurement. The derived shear estimator disposes with the assignment of ellipticities to individual galaxies that is typical of previous approaches to galaxy lensing. Shear estimates from the mean of the Bayesian posterior are unbiased in the limit of large number of background galaxies, regardless of the noise level on individual galaxies. The Bayesian formalism requires a prior, describing the (noiseless) distribution of the target galaxy population over some parameter space; this prior can be constructed from low-noise images of a subsample of the target population, attainable from long integrations of a fraction of the survey field. We find two ways to combine this exact treatment of noise with rigorous treatment of the effects of the instrumental point spread function (PSF) and sampling. The Bayesian model-fitting (BMF) method assigns a likelihood of the pixel data to galaxy models (e.g. Sérsic ellipses), and requires the unlensed distribution of galaxies over the model parameters as a prior. The Bayesian Fourier domain (BFD) method compresses the pixel data to a small set of weighted moments calculated after PSF correction in Fourier space. It requires the unlensed distribution of galaxy moments as a prior, plus derivatives of this prior under applied shear. A numerical test using a simplified model of a biased galaxy measurement process demonstrates that the Bayesian formalism recovers applied shears to BFD is the first shear measurement algorithm that is model free and requires no approximations or ad hoc assumptions in correcting for the effects of PSF, noise, or sampling on the galaxy images. These algorithms are good candidates for attaining the part-per-thousand shear inference required for hemisphere-scale weak gravitational lensing surveys. BMF has the drawback that shear biases will occur since galaxies do not fit any finite-parameter model, but has the advantage of being robust to missing data or non-stationary noise. Both BMF and BFD methods are readily extended to use data from multiple exposures and to inference of lensing magnification.

Bernstein, Gary M.; Armstrong, Robert

2014-02-01

49

Using deformed critters to determine angular shear and shear strain

This activity provides a step by step example to help students figure out how to determine the angular shear and shear strain, using fossils with bilateral symmetry. Students first complete the work on an idealized critter, and then on a sheared trilobite using simple graphical techniques and basic trigonometry.

Angela Moore

50

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neglecting the second order corrections in weak lensing measurements can lead to a few percent uncertainties on cosmic shears, and becomes more important for cluster lensing mass reconstructions. Existing methods which claim to measure the reduced shears are not necessarily accurate to the second order when a point spread function (PSF) is present. We show that the method of Zhang (2008) exactly measures the reduced shears at the second order level in the presence of PSF. A simple theorem is provided for further confirming our calculation, and for judging the accuracy of any shear measurement method at the second order based on its properties at the first order. The method of Zhang (2008) is well defined mathematically. It does not require assumptions on the morphologies of galaxies and the PSF. To reach a sub-percent level accuracy, the CCD pixel size is required to be not larger than 1/3 of the Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) of the PSF, regardless of whether the PSF has a power-law or exponential profile at large distances. Using a large ensemble (?>107) of mock galaxies of unrestricted morphologies, we study the shear recovery accuracy under different noise conditions. We find that contaminations to the shear signals from the noise of background photons can be removed in a well defined way because they are not correlated with the source shapes. The residual shear measurement errors due to background noise are consistent with zero at the sub-percent level even when the amplitude of such noise reaches about 1/10 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source. This limit can in principle be extended further with a larger galaxy ensemble in our simulations. On the other hand, the source Poisson noise remains to be a cause of systematic errors. For a sub-percent level accuracy, our method requires the amplitude of the source Poisson noise to be less than 1/80 ? 1/100 of the source flux within the half-light radius of the source, corresponding to collecting roughly 104 source photons

51

Hillary Clinton / Judith Warner

Kõige mõjuvõimsam naine maailmas - algus EA 22. veebruar 1994. May/4,11,18,25 lk. 22;22;22;21; Jun/1,8,15,22,29 lk. 21; Jul/6,13,20,27 21; Aug/3,10,17,24,31 lk. 21; Sep/7,14,21,28 lk. 21; Oct/5,12,19 lk. 21

Warner, Judith

1994-01-01

52

A quasi-linear theory is presented for how randomly forced, barotropic velocity fluctuations cause an exponentially-growing, large-scale (mean) magnetic dynamo in the presence of a uniform shear flow, $\\vec{U} = S x \\vec{e}_y$. It is a "kinematic" theory for the growth of the mean magnetic energy from a small initial seed, neglecting the saturation effects of the Lorentz force. The quasi-linear approximation is most broadly justifiable by its correspondence with computational solutions of nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamics, and it is rigorously derived in the limit of large resistivity, $\\eta \\rightarrow \\infty$. Dynamo action occurs even without mean helicity in the forcing or flow, but random helicity variance is then essential. In a sufficiently large domain and with small wavenumber $k_z$ in the direction perpendicular to the mean shearing plane, a positive exponential growth rate $\\gamma$ can occur for arbitrary values of $\\eta$, the viscosity $\

McWilliams, James C

2011-01-01

53

A quasi-linear theory is presented for how randomly forced, barotropic velocity fluctuations cause an exponentially-growing, large-scale (mean) magnetic dynamo in the presence of a uniform shear flow, $\\vec{U} = S x \\vec{e}_y$. It is a "kinematic" theory for the growth of the mean magnetic energy from a small initial seed, neglecting the saturation effects of the Lorentz force. The quasi-linear approximation is most broadly justifiable by its correspondence with computational solutions of nonlinear magneto-hydrodynamics, and it is rigorously derived in the limit of large resistivity, $\\eta \\rightarrow \\infty$. Dynamo action occurs even without mean helicity in the forcing or flow, but random helicity variance is then essential. In a sufficiently large domain and with small wavenumber $k_z$ in the direction perpendicular to the mean shearing plane, a positive exponential growth rate $\\gamma$ can occur for arbitrary values of $\\eta$, the viscosity $\

McWilliams, James C.

2012-05-01

54

A soft solid is more easily sliced using a combination of normal and shearing deformations rather than diced by squeezing down on it normally with the same knife. To explain why this is so, we experimentally probe the slicing and dicing of a soft agar gel with a wire, and complement this with theory and numerical simulations of cutting of a highly deformable solid. We find that purely normal deformations lead to global deformations of the soft solid, so that the blade has to penetrate deeply into the sample, well beyond the linear regime, to reach the relatively large critical stress to nucleate fracture. In contrast, a slicing motion leads to fracture nucleation with minimal deformation of the bulk and thus a much lower barrier. This transition between global and local deformations in soft solids as a function of the angle of shear explains the mechanics of the paper cut and design of guillotine blades. PMID:23368324

Reyssat, E; Tallinen, T; Le Merrer, M; Mahadevan, L

2012-12-14

55

A quasi-linear theory is presented for how randomly forced, barotropic velocity fluctuations cause an exponentially-growing, large-scale (mean) magnetic dynamo in the presence of a uniform shear flow, $\\vec{U} = S x \\vec{e}_y$. It is a "kinematic" theory for the growth of the mean magnetic energy from a small initial seed, neglecting the saturation effects of the Lorentz force. The quasi-linear approximation is most broadly justifiable by its correspondence with computationa...

Mcwilliams, James C.

2011-01-01

56

Cosmic shear offers a remarkbly clean way to measure the equation of state of the Universe and its evolution. Resolution over a wide field is paramount, and Antarctica offers unique possibilities in this respect. There is an order of magnitude gain in speed over temperate sites, or a factor three in surface density. This means that PILOT outperforms much larger telescopes elsewhere, and can compete with the proposed DUNE space mission. Keywords: Antarctic astronomy, Surveys, Adaptive optics, Weak lensing

Saunders, W

2008-01-01

57

We present a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau model of nonlinear elasticity in solid materials. We assume that the elastic energy density is a periodic function of the shear and tetragonal strains owing to the underlying lattice structure. With this new ingredient, solving the equations yields formation of dislocation dipoles or slips. In plastic flow high-density dislocations emerge at large strains to accumulate and grow into shear bands where the strains are localized. In addition to the elastic displacement, we also introduce the local free volume {\\it m}. For very small $m$ the defect structures are metastable and long-lived where the dislocations are pinned by the Peierls potential barrier. However, if the shear modulus decreases with increasing {\\it m}, accumulation of {\\it m} around dislocation cores eventually breaks the Peierls potential leading to slow relaxations in the stress and the free energy (aging). As another application of our scheme, we also study dislocation formation in two-phase alloys (...

Onuki, A; Minam, A; Onuki, Akira; Furukawa, Akira; Minam, Akihiko

2004-01-01

58

In this study, important eating quality attributes that influence consumer liking for grilled lamb loin have been identified using preference mapping techniques. The eating quality attributes identified as driving the consumer liking of lamb loin steaks were “tenderness”, “sweet flavour”, “meaty aftertaste”, “roast lamb flavour” and “roast lamb aftertaste”. In contrast, the texture attribute “rubbery” and the flavour attributes “bitter flavour” and "bitter aftertaste" had a negative influence on consumer perceptions. Associations were observed between eating quality and a number of instrumental and chemical measurements. Warner Bratzler Shear Force showed an association with “rubbery” texture and a negative association with “tenderness” and consumer liking scores. The compounds, glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, inosine, inosine monophosphate and adenosine monophosphate were associated with the attributes, “sweet flavour”,“meaty aftertaste”, “roast lamb flavour”, “roast lamb aftertaste” and with consumer scores for liking of lamb which is probably caused by the role some of these compounds play as precursors of flavour and as taste compounds. PMID:25460112

Oltra, O R; Farmer, L J; Gordon, A W; Moss, B W; Birnie, J; Devlin, D J; Tolland, E L C; Tollerton, I J; Beattie, A M; Kennedy, J T; Farrell, D

2015-02-01

59

Influence of dietary fat on pork eating quality.

This study compared the influence of dietary fat sources on meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory attributes in pork. The experiment was conducted with 43 entire male pigs (Pietrain×(Landrace×Large White)) which were fed a basal diet without added fat (control diet) or supplemented with different sources of fat: animal fat (1%, AF1; 3%, AF3), soyabean oil (1%, SBO1) and calcium soaps of palm oil (1%, CaSPO1). Dietary fat supplementation did not significantly affect ultimate pH, colour, Warner-Bratzler shear force values, sensory attributes or SFA. Pigs fed SBO1 had the lowest proportion of MUFA and the highest of PUFA. In conclusion, these dietary fat sources could be recommended for inclusion in diets, at these levels, with no detrimental effect on eating quality. Despite finding no significant differences, the PCA afforded a comprehensive view of the predominating attributes of pork from animals fed the different fats. PMID:22771111

Alonso, Verónica; Najes, Luis M; Provincial, Laura; Guillén, Elena; Gil, Mario; Roncalés, Pedro; Beltrán, José A

2012-12-01

60

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The experiment was performed with thirty-two Altamurana and Trimeticcio lambs slaughtered at 42 and at 70 days of age. Meat organoleptic characteristics were determined on samples of M. Longissimus lumborum and Longissimus thoracis. Colour parameters were not affected by genotype, while L* value and index of yellow decreased (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively as age of slaughtering increased. Meat from Altamurana lambs showed lower juiciness (P<0.01 and fatness (P<0.05 than Trimeticcio lambs. No genotype and age of slaughtering effects were found for Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF values. Meat from younger lambs was more tender and chewable (P<0.01 but less juicy (P<0.001 and fatty (P<0.05 than meat from lambs slaughterd at 70 days.

A. Girolami

2010-04-01

61

Meat tenderness is an important quality parameter determining consumer acceptance and price. Meat tenderness is difficult to ensure in the global meat chain because the production systems are not always aiming at this purpose (ex.: cattle derived from milk production) and by the existence within the carcass of "tough" primals. Different methods can be used by the meat industry to improve meat tenderness each with its advantages and drawbacks. The application of hydrodynamic pressure or shockwaves has showed outstanding improvements by reducing the Warner Bratzler Shear Force by 25% or more. However, the technology has not penetrated into the market as first systems were based on the use of explosives and further developments seemed to lack the robustness to fulfill industrial requirements. The present paper describes the main challenges to construct a prototype for the continuous treatment of meat by shockwaves based on electrical discharges under water. Finally, improvements on the tenderness of meat by using the novel prototype are presented. PMID:23660173

Bolumar, Tomas; Enneking, Mathias; Toepfl, Stefan; Heinz, Volker

2013-12-01

62

Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe, to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °C temp., and 60 % R.H. before and after cooking. For statistical evaluation of results, paired T test was used, statistically significant differences were taken at pdoi:10.5219/273

Vladimír Vietoris

2013-03-01

63

Llama Meat Nutritional Properties

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition of the muscle Longissimus thoracis taken from 20 llama males, reared in the Andean region, slaughtered at an age of 25 months and at a mean final body weight of 74kg. Llama meat showed a low fat (3.51% and cholesterol content (58.16mg/100g, a good protein content (22.42% and an ash content of 3.06%. The Warner-Bratzler shear force values determined in llama meat was 6.56 kg/cm2. This study confirmed that llama meat is healthy and nutritious, and represents a good source of proteins for Andean population.

G. Lebboroni

2010-04-01

64

Influence of ultimate pH on bovine meat tenderness during ageing.

The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of ultimate pH and ageing at 2±2°C on the tenderness of beef. The m.longissimus thoracis et lumborum from 23 young bulls excised at 28 h post mortem were grouped into: Normal (pH 5.5 to 5.8) moderate DFD (mod DFD) (5.8toughness as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and sensory evaluation, was significantly (pindex (MFI) higher values (ptoughness decreased (ptoughness was associated with an increase of MFI in all pH groups. Collagen solubility in all three groups was not affected by ageing. No significant (p>0.05) differences in soluble collagen and myofibrillar protein solubility (MPS) at pH 5.5 were found between the pH groups at any time. The tenderness evaluated by both methods was significantly (p0.05) related with tenderness. PMID:22062710

Silva, J A; Patarata, L; Martins, C

1999-08-01

65

The Hypertrophic Marchigiana: physical and biochemical parameters for meat quality evaluation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the meat quality of double muscled Marchigiana young bulls characterized by different genotypes for the hypertrophy: normal and mutated (heterozygous. Calpain and calpastatin activities were determined to verify the state of aging meat on a sample of Longissimus thoracis muscle (XIII thoracic rib taken at slaughtering (0h and after 24 hours (24h. After 14 days of aging, another sample of muscle was taken to evaluate physical and chemical parameters of meat quality. The results showed a better meat quality of mutated animals respect normal animals. Another interesting result was the correlation between the biochemical parameters and some physical parameters, such as WBS (Warner Bratzler Shear Force, CL (Cooking loss. These results showed the relationship between the proteolytic activity of calpain system and meat tenderness.

F. M. Sarti

2010-04-01

66

Effect of Breed of Sire on Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Katahdin Lambs

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crossbred lambs (n = 40 of 137 ± 3 days of age from Katahdin ewes with either Charollais (KCh, Dorper (KD, Suffolk (KS and Texel (KT sires were used in this study. The effect of sire breeds on carcass traits, chemical composition of muscle, meat quality and consumer acceptability was determined. Regarding carcass traits, KCh animals had the highest fat thickness. KT lambs had the smallest M. Longissimusdorsi (MLD area compared tothat of KCh, KD and KS (17.0, 15.9, 15.5 and 13.9 cm2; respectively. Breed of sire had no effect (P>0.05 on the chemical composition, pH or Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF of lamb; however, it did affect meat color. KS lambs had lower L*, a*, b* and Ch* values compared to the other crossbreeds (P<0.05. Consumer acceptability of lamb was similar (P>0.05 across genotypes.

José A. Partida

2012-09-01

67

The aim of this work was to determine the effects of combined pressure and temperature treatments on beef quality attributes after processing and during chilled storage. Beef M. pectoralis profundus samples were pressurised at 400 and 600 MPa at 35, 45 and 55°C and compared with non-treated (NT) and oven cooked samples. High pressure processing (HPP) at higher temperatures (55°C) resulted in lower Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) and cook loss values than processing at 35°C. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values of pressurised samples were lower than cooked samples after processing and throughout refrigerated storage. An increase (pcooked samples presented the highest n6/n3 ratio among all of the treatments examined. The reported results show that HPP alters meat quality to a lesser extent than conventional cooking, thereby minimising the processing impact. PMID:21115227

McArdle, Ruth A; Marcos, Begonya; Kerry, Joseph P; Mullen, Anne M

2011-03-01

68

Five muscles from USDA Select beef carcasses were cooked on an electric belt grill at three temperatures (93, 117, and 163°C), in a forced-air convection oven, and on an electric broiler to determine effects of cooking treatment and muscle on Warner-Bratzler shear force values, cooking traits (cooking loss, cooking time, and endpoint temperature), and repeatability of duplicate measurements. All cooking treatments allowed shear force differences to be detected (Pcooking treatments; however, shear values for biceps femoris, deep pectoralis, and gluteus medius differed (Pcooking treatments. Belt grill cooking resulted in the highest shear force repeatability (R=0.70 to 0.89) for the longissimus lumborum. All cooking methods provided acceptable repeatability (R?0.60) of shear values for the biceps femoris and semitendinosus. The electric broiler was the only cooking treatment that resulted in acceptable repeatability of shear force measurements for all five muscles. It is not recommended to use the gluteus medius to test treatment effects on shear force values. Belt grill or electric broiler cooking are recommended for shear force evaluations. PMID:22062251

Lawrence, T E; King, D A; Obuz, E; Yancey, E J; Dikeman, M E

2001-07-01

69

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of short wave-length drift instabilities in toroidally confined plasma is conventionally analysed using the ballooning transformation. This reduces the two-dimensional stability problem to the solution of two consecutive one-dimensional equations. The first, the lowest order in n (n is the toroidal mode number), equation produces a local eigenvalue that is a function of radius, x, due to profile variation and also has a periodic dependence on a parameter k, representing a radial wave-number. Usually one finds that profile variation defines a radial position where the growth rate is a maximum. In next order one finds that this position determines the mode's radial location and that the parameter k is such as to maximise the growth rate. However, if the effects of sheared plasma rotation, d?/dq, dominate other profile variation, one finds the growth rate is smaller and, instead, involves an average over a period of k. This is a reversion to an essentially cylindrical situation, where toroidal coupling effects between adjacent resonant surfaces are eliminated. In this paper we consider a generic drift wave model that generates a local eigenvalue having quadratic radial variation of frequency, ?, and growth rate, y, and periodic variation with k. We derive an analytic dispersion relation; although requiring numerical solution, this shows there is a continuous evolution between these two limits as d?/dq increases, the transition being quite sharp for high transition being quite sharp for high n. The transition can be associated with a critical rotation shear, d?crit / dq ? O(1/n). The detailed character of the results depends on which of the radial variations, ?(x) or y(x), dominates. However one can conclude in general that the most unstable modes do correspond to an average over k of the conventional ballooning mode and are hence more stable, thus reducing transport. The stability of MHD ballooning modes in the presence of rotation shear is also discussed. (author)

70

Effect of probiotics and thyme essential oil on the texture of cooked chicken breast meat

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Texture is probably the single most critical quality factor associated with the consumers’ ultimate satisfaction with a poultry meat product and can be affected by several factors including the type of feed used for chickens fattening. The use of probiotics for meat and carcass quality improvement has been questioned, while the possibility of deposition of essential oils in various muscle tissues can alter the sensory attributes of the chicken’s meat. Material and methods. Probiotics and thyme essential oil in the percentage of 0.05% were used as feed supplements for Ross 308 broiler chickens, as the broilers were reared in four separated groups based on the feed supplement as follows: control, probiotics, thyme essential oil and combination of probiotics and thyme essential oil group, while the fattening period was 42 days. TA.XT Plus-Texture analyser apparatus was used for determination of the texture profile and Warner Bratzler shear force for the cooked breast meat. Results. Warner Bratzler shear test results showed that the tested feed additives were not affecting the texture of the chicken breast meat, while probiotic appears to have moderately effect on the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness attributes of the cooked breast meat compared with the other groups, this effect of probiotics considered as negligible, as the results showed that all the tested groups meat were very tender according to the tenderness scale. Conclusions. According to the obtained results it can be concluded the combination of probiotics and thyme group resulted in the lowest score for the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and chewiness attributes, while probiotics group scored the highest compared with the control.

Ebrahim Alfaig

2013-12-01

71

Effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing on the marination and meat quality of turkey breasts.

The effects of hydrodynamic pressure processing (HDP) on marination and meat quality characteristics of turkey breasts were investigated. Breast muscles from 45 turkey hens were removed from the carcasses within 30 min postmortem. From each bird, the breast from one side was treated with HDP and the other side served as a nontreated control. Breasts were then marinated in either 15 or 30% brine (water, salt, and phosphate) based on muscle weight with vacuum tumbling for 30 min or nonmarinated. The control and HDP-treated breasts from each bird received the same marination treatment. Brine uptake, processing yield, and cooking loss were measured as processing characteristics and texture, color, and expressible moisture were measured to document changes in meat quality. Hydrodynamic pressure processing increased (P < 0.001) brine uptake after 10 and 30 min of marination and increased (P < 0.001) processing yield compared with controls. The HDP-induced improvements in these processing characteristics were augmented at 30% brine levels compared with 15% brine. Cooking loss was lower (P < 0.001) in marinated breasts compared with nonmarinated samples. Hydrodynamic pressure processing decreased (P < 0.0001) Warner-Bratzler shear force and significantly influenced texture profile parameters, resulting in reduced hardness but increased cohesiveness and springiness compared with controls at both marination levels. Hydrodynamic pressure processing did not influence color (L*, a*, and b*) or expressible moisture values compared with controls at either marination level. Marinated samples (15 and 30% brine levels) had lower (P < 0.001) Warner-Bratzler shear force values and lower (P < 0.05) hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness values compared with nonmarinated samples. Data from this study suggest that HDP enhances brine absorption, increases processing yield, and improves texture characteristics in marinated turkey breasts. PMID:20634532

Bowker, B C; Callahan, J A; Solomon, M B

2010-08-01

72

Shear viscosity of nuclear matter

In this talk I report my recent study on the shear viscosity of neutron-rich nuclear matter from a relaxation time approach. An isospin- and momentum-dependent interaction is used in the study. Effects of density, temperature, and isospin asymmetry of nuclear matter on its shear viscosity have been discussed. Similar to the symmetry energy, the symmetry shear viscosity is defined and its density and temperature dependence are studied.

Xu, Jun

2013-01-01

73

Shear and Magnification: Cosmic Complementarity

The potential of cosmic shear to probe cosmology is well recognized and future optical wide field surveys are currently being designed to optimize the return of cosmic shear science. High precision cosmic shear analysis requires high precision photometric redshift. With accurate photometric redshifts, it becomes possible to measure the cosmic magnification on galaxies by galaxies and use it as a probe of cosmology. This type of weak lensing measurement will not use galaxy sh...

Waerbeke, L.

2009-01-01

74

ADIABATIC SHEAR IN POROUS MEDIA

An advanced model of shear deformation occuring in high strain rate deformation of ductile porous solids is proposed under simple planar shear loading superposed by hydrostatic pressure. To describe porous - rigid thermoplastic material the Gurson theory of dilatant plasticity is applied and appearance of an adiabatic shear is interpreted in terms of mathematical instabilities in the underlying differential equations. The substantial influence of porosity on strain hardening and thermal softe...

Kotoul, M.; Bi?lek, Z.

1988-01-01

75

Dislocation kinetics behind shear shocks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

High velocity oblique impact experiments result in both compression and shear shock waves. Behind the shear shock wave the particle velocity is transverse to the shock front. At large transverse particle velocities, dislocation kinetics can contribute a portion of the velocity. Based on a kinematic and thermodynamic model of dislocation kinetics, an analysis is made of the transverse strain and velocity behind a shear shock. Kinematics of dislocations in transverse motion behind the shock is formulated. A solution is given for an ideal case where the dislocation density function propagates as a pulse behind the shear shock. 9 refs

76

Shear Induced Crystallization in Polymers

We have constructed an instrument to study the effect of shearing on the subsequent crystallization process. Controlled wall shear stresses (up to 100 MPa) and shearing times (between 10 ms and 4 s), are imposed on a polymer melt held in a rectangular slit at different crystallization temperatures. The crystallization process is monitored for kinetics via turbidity and birefringence methods, and for morphology via light and X-ray scattering techniques. We present results for a variety of polymer systems such as polypropylenes, and poly(lactic acids), and for various molecular weight distributions. In accord with previous understanding, we observe that crystallization kinetics are enhanced dramatically upon shearing. However, the effect of shearing time on crystallization time appears to contradict the fourth power scaling observed by Janeschitz-Kriegl and coworkers. Further, our data indicates that shearing does not always result in anisotropic morphologies of the semicrystalline lamellar superstructure: the morphology is anisotropic only when the wall shear stresses and shearing times exceed certain critical values. Finally, as per expectations, anisotropic morphologies are accompanied by faster crystallization kinetics. These results are discussed in light of a molecular perspective on melt rheology and crystallization.

Verma, Ravi K.; Guruswamy, Kumaraswamy; Kornfield, Julia A.

1998-03-01

77

Bayesian Lensing Shear Measurement

We derive an estimator of weak gravitational lensing shear from background galaxy images that avoids noise-induced biases through a rigorous Bayesian treatment of the measurement. The Bayesian formalism requires a prior describing the (noiseless) distribution of the target galaxy population over some parameter space; this prior can be constructed from low-noise images of a subsample of the target population, attainable from long integrations of a fraction of the survey field. We find two ways to combine this exact treatment of noise with rigorous treatment of the effects of the instrumental point-spread function and sampling. The Bayesian model fitting (BMF) method assigns a likelihood of the pixel data to galaxy models (e.g. Sersic ellipses), and requires the unlensed distribution of galaxies over the model parameters as a prior. The Bayesian Fourier domain (BFD) method compresses galaxies to a small set of weighted moments calculated after PSF correction in Fourier space. It requires the unlensed distributi...

Bernstein, Gary M

2013-01-01

78

Macroscopic Discontinuous Shear Thickening versus Local Shear Jamming in Cornstarch

We study the emergence of discontinuous shear thickening (DST) in cornstarch by combining macroscopic rheometry with local magnetic resonance imaging measurements. We bring evidence that macroscopic DST is observed only when the flow separates into a low-density flowing and a high-density jammed region. In the shear-thickened steady state, the local rheology in the flowing region is not DST but, strikingly, is often shear thinning. Our data thus show that the stress jump measured during DST, in cornstarch, does not capture a secondary, high-viscosity branch of the local steady rheology but results from the existence of a shear jamming limit at volume fractions quite significantly below random close packing.

Fall, A.; Bertrand, F.; Hautemayou, D.; Mezière, C.; Moucheront, P.; Lemaître, A.; Ovarlez, G.

2015-03-01

79

Shear Banding of Complex Fluids

Even in simple geometries many complex fluids display non-trivial flow fields, with regions where shear is concentrated. The possibility for such shear banding has been known since several decades, but the recent years have seen an upsurge of studies offering an ever more precise understanding of the phenomenon. The development of new techniques to probe the flow on multiple scales and with increasing spatial and temporal resolution has opened the possibility for a synthesis of the many phenomena that could only have been thought of separately before. In this review, we bring together recent research on shear banding in polymeric and on soft glassy materials, and highlight their similarities and disparities.

Divoux, Thibaut; Manneville, Sébastien; Lerouge, Sandra

2015-01-01

80

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se compararon las características tecnológicas de doce músculos de llamas que fueron criadas al pastoreo. Las llamas (n=10) fueron faenadas bajo procedimientos estándares de Bolivia. Las canales fueron refrigeradas durante 24 horas a 4 ºC. Los músculos fueron removidos de cada canal después del desp [...] oste. Cinco bifes de 2.54 cm de espesor fueron cortados de cada músculo. En cada músculo se determinó el pH24, color (L*, a*, b*), capacidad de retención de agua y fuerza de corte Warner-Bratzler (WBSF). No se observaron diferencias estadísticas en el pH entre los músculos. Los valores de L* (luminosidad) y b* (tenor de amarrillo) de los músculos L. thoracis, L. lumborum y Semimembranosus fueron mayores que en Triceps brachii y Psoas major (p Abstract in english This study compared the technological quality of twelve muscles of llama that were raised in a grazing system. The llamas (n=10) were slaughtered using Bolivian standard procedures. Carcasses were stored for 24 h in a cold room (4 ºC). Muscles were removed from the left side of each carcass in the s [...] laughter house. Five steaks (2.54 cm thick) were cut from each muscle. In each muscle was determined pH, colour (L*, a*, b*), water holding capacity (WHC) and Warner-Bratzler shear-force (WBSF). No statistical difference was found in pH between muscles. Values of L* (lightness) and b* (tenor of yellow) in L. thoracis, L. lumborum and Semimembranosus were higher than those in Triceps brachii and Psoas major (p

Lindon W., Mamani-Linares; Faustina, Cayo; Carmen, Gallo.

2013-04-01

81

Localized states in sheared electroconvection

Electroconvection in a thin, sheared fluid film displays a rich sequence of bifurcations between different flow states as the driving voltage is increased. We present a numerical study of an annular film in which a radial potential difference acts on induced surface charges to drive convection. The film is also sheared by independently rotating the inner edge of the annulus. This simulation models laboratory experiments on electroconvection in sheared smectic liquid crystal films. The applied shear competes with the electrical forces, resulting in oscillatory and strongly subcritical bifurcations between localized vortex states close to onset. At higher forcing, the flow becomes chaotic via a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario. The simulation allows flow visualization not available in the physical experiments, and sheds light on previously observed transitions in the current-voltage characteristics of electroconvecting smectic films.

Tsai, Peichun; Daya, Zahir A

2008-01-01

82

Localized states in sheared electroconvection

Electroconvection in a thin, sheared fluid film displays a rich sequence of bifurcations between different flow states as the driving voltage is increased. We present a numerical study of an annular film in which a radial potential difference acts on induced surface charges to drive convection. The film is also sheared by independently rotating the inner edge of the annulus. This simulation models laboratory experiments on electroconvection in sheared smectic liquid crystal films. The applied shear competes with the electrical forces, resulting in oscillatory and strongly subcritical bifurcations between localized vortex states close to onset. At higher forcing, the flow becomes chaotic via a Ruelle-Takens-Newhouse scenario. The simulation allows flow visualization not available in the physical experiments, and sheds light on previously observed transitions in the current-voltage characteristics of electroconvecting smectic films.

Tsai, Peichun; Morris, Stephen W.; Daya, Zahir A.

2008-10-01

83

Subcritical dynamos in shear flows

Identifying generic physical mechanisms responsible for the generation of magnetic fields and turbulence in differentially rotating flows is fundamental to understand the dynamics of astrophysical objects such as accretion disks and stars. In this paper, we discuss the concept of subcritical dynamo action and its hydrodynamic analogue exemplified by the process of nonlinear transition to turbulence in non-rotating wall-bounded shear flows. To illustrate this idea, we describe some recent results on nonlinear hydrodynamic transition to turbulence and nonlinear dynamo action in rotating shear flows pertaining to the problem of turbulent angular momentum transport in accretion disks. We argue that this concept is very generic and should be applicable to many astrophysical problems involving a shear flow and non-axisymmetric instabilities of shear-induced axisymmetric toroidal velocity or magnetic fields, such as Kelvin-Helmholtz, magnetorotational, Tayler or global magnetoshear instabilities. In the light of sev...

Rincon, F; Proctor, M R E; Cossu, C

2008-01-01

84

Here we present a number of improvements to weak lensing 3D power spectrum analysis, 3D cosmic shear, that uses the shape and redshift information of every galaxy to constrain cosmological parameters. We show how photometric redshift probability distributions for individual galaxies can be directly included in this statistic with no averaging. We also include the Limber approximation, considerably simplifying full 3D cosmic shear analysis, and we investigate its range of applicability. Finall...

Kitching, Td; Heavens, Af; Miller, L.

2010-01-01

85

Shear behaviour of reinforced phyllite concrete beams

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Phyllite concrete beams often exhibited shear with anchorage bond failure. ? Different shear design provisions for reinforced phyllite beams are compared. ? Predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams must be modified by a reduction factor. -- Abstract: The shear behaviour of concrete beams made from phyllite aggregates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading is reported. First diagonal shear crack load of beams with and without shear reinforcement was between 42–58% and 42–92% of the failure loads respectively. The phyllite concrete beams without shear links had lower post-diagonal cracking shear resistance compared to corresponding phyllite beams with shear links. As a result of hysteretic energy dissipation, limited cyclic loading affected the stiffness, strength and deformation of the phyllite beams with shear reinforcement. Generally, beams with and without shear reinforcement showed anchorage bond failure in addition to the shear failure due to high stress concentration near the supports. The ACI, BS and EC codes are conservative for the prediction of phyllite concrete beams without shear reinforcement but they all overestimate the shear strength of phyllite concrete beams with shear reinforcement. It is recommended that the predicted shear capacity of phyllite beams reinforced with steel stirrups be modified by a reduction factor of 0.7 in order to specify a high enough safety factor on their ultimate strength. It is also recommended that susceptibility of phyllite concrete beams to undergo anchorage bond failure is averted in design by the provision of greater anchorage lengths than usually permitted.

86

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perforations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11 and in two types of treatment, natural non-aerated water and previously boiled water, with four repetitions for each treatment. The tests showed a maximum mortality after 24 hours of immersion in the previously boiled water treatment. The survival of the adults was negative and significantly correlated with the types of treatment employed and within the different time intervals. The values of oxygen dissolved in water (mg/l differed significantly within the types of treatment employed. They were positively correlated with the survival of the adults in the two types of treatment, although more markedly in the treatment with previously boiled water. The mortality of adults after 24 hours of submersion in the treatment with previously boiled water may be associated with the physical-chemical conditions of the non-tested water in this study, such as low surface tension and concentration of solutes. These results suggest plastron functionality in the adults of this species.A teoria plastrão foi testada em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, por meio da análise da estrutura que reveste o tegumento destes insetos e em experimentos laboratoriais de submersão. Os processos tegumentares foram reconhecidos em três tipos: escamas aglutinadas e com perfurações largas; escamas plumosas de tamanhos e formas variadas; e pêlos. Os experimentos realizados com 264 indivíduos adultos os quais permaneciam submersos por diferentes intervalos de tempo (n = 11 e em dois tratamentos, água natural não aerada e água previamente fervida, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento, revelaram uma mortalidade máxima após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento água previamente fervida. A sobrevivência dos adultos foi negativa e significativamente correlacionada com os tratamentos empregados e entre os diferentes intervalos de tempo. Os valores de oxigênio dissolvido (mg/l na água diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos aplicados, sendo positivamente correlacionado com a sobrevivência dos adultos nos dois tratamentos, embora mais acentuadamente no tratamento com água previamente fervida. A mortalidade dos adultos após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento com água previamente fervida pode estar associada às condições físico-químicas da água não testadas neste estudo, como, por exemplo, baixa tensão superficial e concentração de solutos. Estes resultados sugerem uma funcionalidade do plastrão nos adultos desta espécie.

Wesley Oliveira de Sousa

2012-09-01

87

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A teoria plastrão foi testada em adultos de Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, por meio da análise da estrutura que reveste o tegumento destes insetos e em experimentos laboratoriais de submersão. Os processos tegumentares foram reconhecidos em três tipos: escamas aglutinadas e com perfurações lar [...] gas; escamas plumosas de tamanhos e formas variadas; e pêlos. Os experimentos realizados com 264 indivíduos adultos os quais permaneciam submersos por diferentes intervalos de tempo (n = 11) e em dois tratamentos, água natural não aerada e água previamente fervida, com quatro repetições para cada tratamento, revelaram uma mortalidade máxima após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento água previamente fervida. A sobrevivência dos adultos foi negativa e significativamente correlacionada com os tratamentos empregados e entre os diferentes intervalos de tempo. Os valores de oxigênio dissolvido (mg/l) na água diferiram significativamente entre os tratamentos aplicados, sendo positivamente correlacionado com a sobrevivência dos adultos nos dois tratamentos, embora mais acentuadamente no tratamento com água previamente fervida. A mortalidade dos adultos após 24 horas de mergulho no tratamento com água previamente fervida pode estar associada às condições físico-químicas da água não testadas neste estudo, como, por exemplo, baixa tensão superficial e concentração de solutos. Estes resultados sugerem uma funcionalidade do plastrão nos adultos desta espécie. Abstract in english The plastron theory was tested in adults of Neochetina eichhorniae Warner, 1970, through the analysis of the structure that coats these insects' integument and also through submersion laboratorial experiments. The tegument processes were recognized in three types: agglutinated scales with large perf [...] orations, plumose scales of varied sizes and shapes, and hairs. The experiments were carried out on 264 adult individuals which were kept submerged at different time intervals (n = 11) and in two types of treatment, natural non-aerated water and previously boiled water, with four repetitions for each treatment. The tests showed a maximum mortality after 24 hours of immersion in the previously boiled water treatment. The survival of the adults was negative and significantly correlated with the types of treatment employed and within the different time intervals. The values of oxygen dissolved in water (mg/l) differed significantly within the types of treatment employed. They were positively correlated with the survival of the adults in the two types of treatment, although more markedly in the treatment with previously boiled water. The mortality of adults after 24 hours of submersion in the treatment with previously boiled water may be associated with the physical-chemical conditions of the non-tested water in this study, such as low surface tension and concentration of solutes. These results suggest plastron functionality in the adults of this species.

Wesley Oliveira de, Sousa; Germano Henrique, Rosado-Neto; Marinêz Isaac, Marques.

2012-09-01

88

Shear-affected depletion interaction.

We investigate the influence of flow fields on the strength of the depletion interaction caused by disc-shaped depletants. At low mass concentration of discs, it is possible to continuously decrease the depth of the depletion potential by increasing the applied shear rate until the depletion force is not perceivable experimentally. Above a threshold in the platelet mass concentration, the depletion potential can no longer be affected by flow in the accessible range of shear rates. While the observed decrease of depletion strength at low depletant concentration may be ascribed to flow alignment of the discs, it is not clear why the influence of flow is vanishing at high concentrations. In order to observe these effects, a modification of the established total internal reflexion microscopy (TIRM) technique is be implemented. We show the suitability of these modifications to measure particle-wall interaction potentials under non-equilibrium conditions for systems where particles are exposed to a shear. PMID:22810263

July, C; Kleshchanok, D; Lang, P R

2012-07-01

89

Shear relaxations of confined liquids

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ultrathin (<40 [angstrom]) films of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s[sup [minus]1] were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celcius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes ([approximately]80 nm[sup 3]) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long-time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7 nm[sup 3]) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10[sup 4] Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

Carson, G.A. Jr.

1992-01-01

90

Shear Relaxations of Confined Liquids.

Ultrathin (OMCTS), hexadecane, and dodecane were subjected to linear and non-linear oscillatory shear between flat plates. Shearing frequencies of 0.1 to 800 s^{-1} were applied at pressures from zero to 0.8 MPa using a surface rheometer only recently developed. In most cases the plates were atomically smooth mica surfaces; the role of surface interactions was examined by replacing these with alkyl chain monolayers. OMCTS and hexadecane were examined at a temperature about 5 Celsius degrees above their melting points and tended to solidify. Newtonian plateaus having enormous viscosities were observed at low shear rates. The onset of shear thinning implied relaxation times of about 0.1 s in the linear structure of the confined liquids. Large activation volumes (~80 nm ^3) suggested that shear involved large-scale collective motion. Dodecane was studied at a much higher temperature relative to its melting point and showed no signs of impending solidification though it exhibited well-defined regions of Newtonian response and power law shear thinning. When treated with molecular sieves before use, dodecane had relaxation times which were short (0.02 s) compared to hexadecane, but still exhibited large-scale collective motion. When treated with silica gel, an unexplained long -time relaxation (10 s) was seen in the Newtonian viscosity of dodecane. The relaxation time of the linear structure, 0.005 s was very small, and the storage modulus was unresolvable. The small activation volume (7nm^3) indicated a much lower level of collective motion. The activation volume remained small when dodecane was confined between tightly bound, low energy, alkyl monolayers. At low strains the storage and loss moduli became very large (>10^4 Pa), probably due to interactions with flaws in the monolayers. Dramatic signs of wall slip were observed at large strains even at low pressures.

Carson, George Amos, Jr.

91

The shape dynamics of fluid vesicles is governed by the coupling of the flow within the two-dimensional membrane to the hydrodynamics of the surrounding bulk fluid. We present a numerical scheme which is capable of solving this flow problem for arbitrarily shaped vesicles using the Oseen tensor formalism. For the particular problem of simple shear flow, stationary shapes are found for a large range of parameters. The dependence of the orientation of the vesicle and the membrane velocity on shear rate and vesicle volume can be understood from a simplified model.

Kraus, M; Seifert, U; Lipowsky, R; Kraus, Martin; Wintz, Wolfgang; Seifert, Udo; Lipowsky, Reinhard

1996-01-01

92

Shear loading of costal cartilage

A series of tests were performed on a single post-mortem human subject at various length scales. First, tabletop tests were performed. Next, the ribs and intercostal muscles were tested with the view to characterize the load transfer between the ribs. Finally, the costal cartilage was tested under shear loading, as it plays an important in the transfer of the load between the ribs and the sternum. This paper reports the results of dynamic shear loading tests performed on three samples of costal cartilage harvested from a single post-mortem human subject, as well as the quantification of the effective Young's modulus estimated from the amount of cartilage calcification.

Subit, Damien

2014-01-01

93

Experimental observation of shear thickening oscillation

We report experimental observation of the shear thickening oscillation, i.e. the spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluid. The shear thickening oscillation is caused by the interplay between the fluid dynamics and the shear thickening, and has been predicted theoretically by the present authors using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for the dilatant fluid, but never been reported experimentally. Using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width, we observed strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz, which is consistent with our theoretical prediction.

Nagahiro, Shin-ichiro; Mitarai, Namiko

2012-01-01

94

Shear thickening oscillation in a dilatant fluid

We report experimental observations of the shear thickening oscillation; spontaneous macroscopic oscillation in the shear flow of severe shear thickening fluids. Using a phenomenological fluid dynamics model for dilatant fluids, we have been predicted theoretically that a dilatant fluid under constant shear stress oscillates due to the shear thickening property coupled with the fluid dynamics. However, such a macroscopic oscillation has never been reported in the literature. In this presentation, we report that strong vibrations of the frequency around 20 Hz is observed using a density-matched starch-water mixture, in the cylindrical shear flow of a few centimeters flow width. The oscillation behavior is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

Nagahiro, Shin-Ichiro; Nakanishi, Hiizu; Mitarai, Namiko

2013-03-01

95

Shear-Induced Exothermic Chemical Reactions

The structure of controlled high-strain-rate shear bands generated in Ti-Si reactive powders has been investigated by means of the radial symmetric collapse of a thick-walled cylinder. Shear localization developed at global strains of 0.2-0.4 and a strain rate of 104 s-1. Within the shear bands, local shear strains were up to 100 and local shear strain rates were 107 s-1. Chemical reactions were initiated at these shear bands and propagated throughout the entire specimen under critical global...

Chen, H.; Nesterenko, V.; Lasalvia, J.; Meyers, M.

1997-01-01

96

The Influence of Shearing Velocity on Shear Behavior of Artificial Joints

In this paper, the effects of shear velocity on the shearing behavior of artificial joints have been studied at different normal stress levels. Here, artificial joints with planar and rough surfaces were prepared with the plaster (simulating soft rock joints) and concrete (medium-hard rock joints) materials. The rough joints had triangular shaped asperities with 10° and 20° inclination angles. Direct shear tests were performed on these joints under various shear velocities in the range of 0.3-30 mm/min. The planar plaster-plaster and planer concrete-concrete joints were sheared at three levels of normal stress under constant normal load boundary condition. Also, the rough plaster-plaster and concrete-concrete joints were sheared at one level of normal stress under constant normal stiffness boundary condition. The results of the shear tests show that the shearing parameters of joints, such as shear strength, shear stiffness and friction angle, are related to the shear velocity. Shear strength of planar and rough plaster-plaster joints were decreased when the shear velocity was increased. Shear strength of concrete joints, except for rough joints with 10° inclination, increased with increasing shear velocity. Regardless of the normal stress level, shear stiffness of both planar plaster-plaster and concrete-concrete joints were decreased when the shear velocity was increased.

Atapour, Hadi; Moosavi, Mahdi

2014-09-01

97

We demonstrate the existence of shear-free cosmological models with rotation and expansion which support the inflationary scenarios. The corresponding metrics belong to the family of spatially homogeneous models with the geometry of the closed universe (Bianchi type IX). We show that the global vorticity does not prevent the inflation and even can accelerate it.

Obukhov, Yuri N.; Chrobok, Thoralf; Scherfner, Mike

2002-01-01

98

Shear banding in simulated telechelic polymers

The response of simulated telechelic polymers to shear is investigated. End groups of short polymeric chains form temporary junctions that are continuously broken and formed over time. As in experiments, two shear bands coexist for some shear rates. This allows us to study the microscopic differences between these shear bands. We find that the lifetime of a junction is lower in the high shear rate band. In addition, the average aggregate size is lower in this band since more dangling chains exist. Microstructural differences between the sheared and unsheared system are reported as well. Some of the chains, that bridge between two aggregates before shear is applied, form loops that connect with both ends to the same aggregate instead. In addition and more importantly, an increase of chains connecting the same two aggregates is observed. Such restructuring lowers the network connectivity and hence the stress needed to shear the system.

Billen, Joris; Wilson, Mark; Baljon, Arlette R. C.

2015-01-01

99

Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams

- This study focuses on the use of different types of shear reinforcement in the reinforced concrete beams. Four different types of shear reinforcement are investigated; traditional stirrups, welded swimmer bars, bolted swimmer bars, and u-link bolted swimmer bars. Beam shear strength as well as beam deflection are the main two factors considered in this study. Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams is one of the most undesirable modes of failure due to its rapid progression. This sudden ...

Al-nasra, Moayyad M.

2013-01-01

100

Identification of Shear Band using Elastic Shear Wave Propagation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Localization in soil under high stress level is usually investigated using some indirect measures, e.g., X-ray diffraction method. In the present study, the propagation velocity of shear wave was used to detect localization in sandy soil. Firstly, the general expression to exhibit the stress and density dependencies characteristics under consolidation and triaxial testing conditions of the tested soil was proposed. Adopted the proposed correlation as a reference together with the observed geometry, the shear wave velocity of the localized zone may be assumed. It was found that the density in the localized zone could be much looser than those ever reported in the literature. The void ratio of the localized zone is even larger than the maximum void ratio.

T. Nachiengtai

2008-01-01

101

Collisional shear Alfven waves in sheared magnetic fields

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structure of the shear Alfven waves is investigated in a collisional plasma with shear. The fourth-order equation obtained by combining Ampere's law and the quasi-neutrality condition is solved by the method of matched asymptotic expansions for k/sub perpendicular/ rho/sub s/>><<1 to obtain the dispersion relation. A hierarchy of damped, localized modes are found which can have either even or odd parity. The solutions basically have the structure of kinetic Alfven modes trapped between the two Alfven cutoffs on either side of the rational surface. The mode damping arises from Ohmic dissipation by electrons near the rational surface. The relation between these modes, microtearing modes, and the Alfven continuum is discussed

102

Identification of Shear Band using Elastic Shear Wave Propagation

Localization in soil under high stress level is usually investigated using some indirect measures, e.g., X-ray diffraction method. In the present study, the propagation velocity of shear wave was used to detect localization in sandy soil. Firstly, the general expression to exhibit the stress and density dependencies characteristics under consolidation and triaxial testing conditions of the tested soil was proposed. Adopted the proposed correlation as a reference together with the observed geo...

Nachiengtai, T.; Oye, W. C.; Teachavorasinskun, S.; Ngiamvibool, W. S.

2008-01-01

103

Shear viscosity and shear thinning in two-dimensional Yukawa liquids

A two-dimensional Yukawa liquid is studied using two different nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation methods. Shear viscosity values in the limit of small shear rates are reported for a wide range of Coulomb coupling parameter and screening length. At high shear rates it is demonstrated that this liquid exhibits shear thinning, i.e., the viscosity $\\eta$ diminishes with increasing shear rate. It is expected that two-dimensional dusty plasmas will exhibit this effect.

Donk'o, Z; Hartmann, P; Kutasi, K

2006-01-01

104

Ideal stability limits of reverse shear equilibria

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dependence on various plasma parameters of the ideal stability limit of reverse shear current profiles in TFTR and other tokamaks has been thoroughly explored. Profiles with reverse shear allow core access to the second ballooning stability region. In addition, for sufficient shear reversal, modes with n = 2 and greater are also stabilized. The n = 1 stability threshold is only slightly affected by reverse shear and becomes the limiting instability. The mode is predominately an infernal mode with a significant external contribution. Particular emphasis will be on analysis of recent experimental results of enhanced reverse shear (ERS) profiles in TFTR and a study of those profile characteristics which optimize TFTR performance

105

Shearing and compression of elliptical particles

We have performed 2D biaxial shearing and compression experiments for elliptical photoelastic particles in order to understand the effect of particle shape on microscopic and macroscopic properties of a granular system. The shearing experiment was conducted via a series of small forward and reverse steps using pure shear. We study the evolution of particle orientations and the average number of contacts following each step of shear or compression. Using photoelastic particles enables us to visualize the stress state of the system at the particle scale level. The ongoing analysis addresses the statistical properties of jammed state, including jamming that is reached through compression or through shear.

Farhadi, Somayeh; Behringer, Robert

2009-11-01

106

Shear instability in skin tissue

We propose two toy-models to describe, predict, and interpret the wrinkles appearing on the surface of skin when it is sheared. With the first model, we account for the lines of greatest tension present in human skin by subjecting a layer of soft tissue to a pre-stretch, and for the epidermis by endowing one of the layer's faces with a surface tension. For the second model, we consider an anisotropic model for the skin, to reflect the presence of stiff collagen fibres in a softer elastic matrix. In both cases, we find an explicit bifurcation criterion, linking geometrical and material parameters to a critical shear deformation accompanied by small static wrinkles, with decaying amplitudes normal to the free surface of skin.

Ciarletta, Pasquale; Gower, Artur L

2013-01-01

107

Phase Dynamic of Shear Melting

The melting of an ultrathin lubricating film clamped between two atomically smooth solid surfaces that are in relative motion is analyzed. The influence of additive stresses fluctuations, strain and temperature on the process of lubricant melting is investigated taking into account the shear modulus deformation defect. The influence of the system parameters on the phase diagram, where the temperature noise intensity and the temperature of friction surfaces define the areas of dry, liquid and ...

Manko N.N.; Lyashenko I.

2014-01-01

108

Does magnetic shear stabilise drift waves

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the uniform plane slab, shear in the magnetic field produces an inherent damping of drift waves. This damping arises because, in the presence of shear, a mode centred on a given magnetic surface radiates energy outwards from that surface. However, in a realistic system, where the field strength and shear are not uniform, waves associated with different surfaces are coupled together. This changes the propagation of drift waves and radiation is inhibited or reflected. If the shear or the magnetic field are sufficiently non-uniform, the drift wave reverts to a non-propagating mode in which there is no intrinsic shear damping. The mode is then governed by the density profile as if shear were absent. Consequently, in a real system drift waves may be unstable even though the conventional criteria for shear stabilisation appear well satisfied. (orig.)

109

Shear Stabilization in the Levitron

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The levitron is a toroidal hard-core tube of 30-cm minor diameter, with a ring core left unsupported for 20 msec. A 5-kG toroidal field, and a comparable poloidal field based on a ring-core current, are pulsed on with 60-to 16,000-?sec rise times. The magnetic shear is always large, insuring infinite-conductivity hydromagnetic stability. Finite-resistivity and non-hydromagnetic instabilities are expected, however; and their study is the object of the experiment. Levitron experiments in the high-current regime (for example, ?50-kA induced current, lasting 1 to 2 msec, at ?3 x 1013 -cm-3 plasma density and electron temperatures in the 100-eV range) show a small-scale ''magnetic flutter'' (?5 G, ?100 kc/sec) of flutelike structure. The stability analysis for the hard-core geometry, however, proves categorically that the observed mode cannot be of the finite-resistivity ''tearing'' type. To what extent shear stabilization is valid even in the absence of directed current, is theoretically still disputed. In this context we are studying electron-cyclotron heating at 10 Gc/sec. Hot-electron plasmas with the usual dilute high-energy (10 to 1000 keV) and dense (?1012 cm-3) low-energy components have been contained for 1 to 10 msec times after ?-wave cut off. When the initially generated high-energy component is left by itself, it proves highly unstable to cross-field transport, with or without shear, due partly to the mirror localization associated with the hard-core field in toroidal geometry. In the absence of shear (pure poloidal field), the flute instability limits the electron temperature of the dense-plasma component to ? 5 eV. With an additional toroidal field ?150 G, electron temperatures of 50 eV are attained, but they are still limited by a (presumably resistive) flute instability that is insensitive to a further 10-fold increase in shear. (author)

110

Using chiral perturbation theory we investigate the QCD shear viscosity ($\\eta $) to entropy density ($s$) ratio below the deconfinement temperature ($\\sim 170$ MeV) with zero baryon number density. It is found that $\\eta /s$ of QCD is monotonically decreasing in temperature ($T$) and reaches 0.6 with estimated $\\sim 50%$ uncertainty at T=120 MeV. A naive extrapolation of the leading order result shows that $\\eta /s$ reaches the $1/4\\pi $ minimum bound proposed by Kovtun, So...

Nakano, Eiji

2006-01-01

111

Shear Viscosity of Quark Matter

We consider the shear viscosity of a system of quarks and its ratio to the entropy density above the critical temperature for deconfinement. Both quantities are derived and computed for different modeling of the quark self-energy, also allowing for a temperature dependence of the effective mass and width. The behaviour of the viscosity and the entropy density is argued in terms of the strength of the coupling and of the main characteristics of the quark self-energy. A comparison with existing results is also discussed.

Alberico, W M; Hansen, H; Molinari, A; Nardi, M

2007-01-01

112

Mixing in shear thinning fluids

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In the present study, a CFD characterization of the flow generated by curved-blade impellers in a cylindrical unbaffled vessel was carried out. The tank diameter was 300 mm, with a flat bottom. The liquid height was equal to the vessel diameter. The fluids simulated have a shear thinning behavior. A [...] nalyses concern the effect of the impeller speed, the fluid rheology and the number of impeller blades on the induced flow patterns and the power consumption. The predictions were compared with literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

H., Ameur; M., Bouzit.

2012-06-01

113

Mixing in shear thinning fluids

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, a CFD characterization of the flow generated by curved-blade impellers in a cylindrical unbaffled vessel was carried out. The tank diameter was 300 mm, with a flat bottom. The liquid height was equal to the vessel diameter. The fluids simulated have a shear thinning behavior. Analyses concern the effect of the impeller speed, the fluid rheology and the number of impeller blades on the induced flow patterns and the power consumption. The predictions were compared with literature data and a satisfactory agreement was found.

H. Ameur

2012-06-01

114

Shear effects on passive scalar spectra

The effects of a large-scale shear on the energy spectrum of a passively advected scalar field are investigated. The shear is superimposed on a turbulent isotropic flow, yielding an Obukhov-Corrsin $k^{-5/3}$ scalar spectrum at small scales. Shear effects appear at large scales, where a different, anisotropic behavior is observed. The scalar spectrum is shown to behave as $k^{-4/3}$ for a shear fixed in intensity and direction. For other types of shear characteristics, the slope is generally intermediate between the -5/3 Obukhov-Corrsin's and the -1 Batchelor's values. The physical mechanisms at the origin of this behaviour are illustrated in terms of the motion of Lagrangian particles. They provide an explanation to the scalar spectra shallow and dependent on the experimental conditions observed in shear flows at moderate Reynolds numbers.

Celani, A; Vergassola, M; Villermaux, E; Vincenzi, D

2004-01-01

115

Anisotropic thermal conductivity in sheared polypropylene

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We discuss the anisotropy of the thermal conductivity tensor in polymer flow in this paper. Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) specimens were deformed by injection moulding at high shear rates and by steady shear at low shear rates, and were then quenched. The thermal conductivities parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction were measured using modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) in accordance with the ASTM E1952-01. The measured results showed that the thermal conductivity of the sheared polymer was anisotropic with an increase in the shear direction. The thermal conductivity can be regarded as varying either with the strain or the stress, as suggested by Van den Brule (1989). In addition to the Van den Brule mechanism, crystallization during flow also changes the thermal conductivity and this effect may often be dominant. Suggestions for procedures in processing computations, based on both effects, are given. (orig.)

Dai, Shao Cong; Tanner, Roger I. [The University of Sydney, Rheology Research Group, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

2006-01-01

116

Local Gravitational Instability of Magnetized Shear Flows

The effect of magnetic shear and shear flow on local gravitationally induced instabilities is investigated. A simple model is constructed allowing for an arbitrary entropy gradient and a shear plasma flow in the Boussinesq approximation. A transformation to shearing magnetic coordinates achieves a model with plasma flow along the magnetic field lines where the coordinate lines are coincident with the field lines. The solution for the normal modes of the system depends on two parameters: the Alfven Mach number of the plasma flow and the entropy gradient. The behavior of the unstable normal modes of this system is summarized by a stability diagram. Important characteristics of this stability diagram are the following: magnetic shear is stabilizing and the entropy gradient must exceed a threshold value for unstable mode growth to occur; flow acts to suppress mode growth in a substantially unstable regime as expected, yet near marginal stability it can lessen the stabilizing effect of magnetic shear and enhance t...

Howes, G G; McWilliams, J C; Howes, Gregory G.; Cowley, Steven C.; Williams, James C. Mc

2001-01-01

117

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Marination of beef muscles with brine solutions containing proteolytic enzymes from fruit extracts has been shown to tenderize meat. However, the effect of marination with actinidin on tenderness of pork muscles has not been investigated. Tenderness and eating quality of porcine M. biceps femoris was investigated by Warner-Bratzler (WB) shear test and sensory evaluation after injection of brine containing up to 11 g L-1 actinidin-containing kiwi fruit powder and 2, 5 or 9 days of storage. RESULTS: actinidin decreased WB shear force, increased tenderness and did not affect flavour and juiciness. Injection of 2.8g L-1 actinidin powder and storage for 2 days resulted in WB shear force values similar to control samples stored for 5 or 9 days. In samples injected with 10 g L-1 actinidin powder, degradation of desmin and percentage of heat-soluble collagen (P <0.05) increased compared to control samples. Myofibrillar particle size tended to decrease (P <0.1) with increasing actinidin concentration. No major changes were observed by proteome analysis. Atomic force microscopy showed actinidin-induced damage of endomysium surrounding isolated single muscle fibres. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that actinidin tenderizes pork M. biceps femoris by affecting both the myofibrils and connective tissue.

Christensen, M.; Torngren, M. A.

2009-01-01

118

Crystallization in a sheared colloidal suspension

We study numerically the crystallization process in a supersaturated suspension of repulsive colloidal particles driven by simple shear flow. The effect of the shear flow on crystallization is two-fold: while it suppresses the initial nucleation, once a large enough critical nucleus has formed its growth is enhanced by the shear flow. Combining both effects implies an optimal strain rate at which the overall crystallization rate has a maximum. To gain insight into the underl...

Lander, Boris; Seifert, Udo; Speck, Thomas

2013-01-01

119

Simple shear flow in inelastic Maxwell models

The Boltzmann equation for inelastic Maxwell models is considered to determine the velocity moments through fourth degree in the simple shear flow state. First, the rheological properties (which are related to the second-degree velocity moments) are {\\em exactly} evaluated in terms of the coefficient of restitution $\\alpha$ and the (reduced) shear rate $a^*$. For a given value of $\\alpha$, the above transport properties decrease with increasing shear rate. Moreover, as expec...

Santos, Andres; Garzo, Vicente

2007-01-01

120

Redox Going with Vascular Shear Stress

Shear stress plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular biology and diseases, such as atherosclerosis, via modulation of signal transduction and redox balance. Atherosclerosis preferentially occurs in a site-specific manner linked to disturbed flow. In this Forum on Vascular Shear Stress, emerging role of redox-dependent molecular mechanisms by which shear stress regulates pro- and antiatherogenic responses in endothelial cells both in vitro and in vivo are reviewed in depth by exper...

Noguchi, Noriko; Jo, Hanjoong

2011-01-01

121

Fluid shear stress threshold regulates angiogenic sprouting

A great deal of research has investigated the biochemical factors that regulate angiogenic sprouting, but less is known about the role of fluid shear stress. Some studies have suggested distinct regulation by luminal flow within the vessel vs. transmural flow through its walls. In this paper, we demonstrate the existence of a shear stress threshold that when surpassed, induces angiogenic sprouting regardless of whether the shear is applied by primarily luminal or transmural flow. In addition ...

Galie, Peter A.; Nguyen, Duc-huy T.; Choi, Colin K.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Janmey, Paul A.; Chen, Christopher S.

2014-01-01

122

Shear viscosity of strongly coupled Yukawa liquids.

We present molecular-dynamics calculations of the shear viscosity of three-dimensional strongly coupled Yukawa liquids which are frequently used as a model system of complex plasmas. The results obtained using two independent nonequilibrium simulation methods are critically compared with each other and with earlier published data for a wide range of plasma coupling (Gamma) and screening (kappa) parameters. The non-Newtonian behavior of the liquid, manifested as a decrease of the shear viscosity with increasing shear rate (shear thinning), and the validity of the Stokes-Einstein relation at high coupling strength are also demonstrated. PMID:18850947

Donkó, Z; Hartmann, P

2008-08-01

123

How Confined Lubricants Diffuse During Shear

The translational diffusion of a fluorescent dye embedded at a dilute concentration in a confined fluid was compared at rest and during shear. The fluid, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (OMCTS), was confined between step-free muscovite mica to thickness 3 4 layers. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy showed that the time scales of intensity-intensity autocorrelation functions were essentially the same during shear and at rest, except they were faster during shear by a factor of 2 to 5. This dynamical probe of how liquids order in molecularly thin films fails to support the hypothesis that shear produced a melting transition.

Mukhopadhyay, Ashis; Bae, Sung Chul; Zhao, Jiang; Granick, Steve

2004-12-01

124

Regulation of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis by shear stress.

An essential cofactor for the endothelial NO synthase is tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B). In the present study, we show that in human endothelial cells, laminar shear stress dramatically increases H4B levels and enzymatic activity of GTP cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the first step of H4B biosynthesis. In contrast, protein levels of GTPCH-1 were not affected by shear. Shear did not change protein expression or activity of the downstream enzymes 6-pyruvoyl-tetrahydropterin synthase and sepiapterin reductase and decreased protein levels of the salvage enzyme dihydrofolate reductase. Oscillatory shear only modestly affected H4B levels and GPTCH-1 activity. We also demonstrate that laminar, but not oscillatory shear stress, stimulates phosphorylation of GTPCH-1 on serine 81 and that this is mediated by the alpha prime (alpha') subunit of casein kinase 2. The increase in H4B caused by shear is essential in allowing proper function of endothelial NO synthase because GPTCH-1 blockade with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine during shear inhibited dimer formation of endothelial NO synthase, increased endothelial cell superoxide production, and prevented the increase in NO production caused by shear. Thus, shear stress not only increases endothelial NO synthase levels but also stimulates production of H4B by markedly enhancing GTPCH-1 activity via casein kinase 2-dependent phosphorylation on serine 81. These findings illustrate a new function of casein kinase 2 in the endothelium and provide insight into regulation of GTPCH-1 activity. PMID:17704208

Widder, Julian D; Chen, Wei; Li, Li; Dikalov, Sergey; Thöny, Beat; Hatakeyama, Kazuyuki; Harrison, David G

2007-10-12

125

Dynamic shear deformation in high purity Fe

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The forced shear test specimen, first developed by Meyer et al. [Meyer L. et al., Critical Adiabatic Shear Strength of Low Alloyed Steel Under Compressive Loading, Metallurgical Applications of Shock Wave and High Strain Rate Phenomena (Marcel Decker, 1986), 657; Hartmann K. et al., Metallurgical Effects on Impact Loaded Materials, Shock Waves and High Strain rate Phenomena in Metals (Plenum, 1981), 325-337.], has been utilized in a number of studies. While the geometry of this specimen does not allow for the microstructure to exactly define the location of shear band formation and the overall mechanical response of a specimen is highly sensitive to the geometry utilized, the forced shear specimen is useful for characterizing the influence of parameters such as strain rate, temperature, strain, and load on the microstructural evolution within a shear band. Additionally, many studies have utilized this geometry to advance the understanding of shear band development. In this study, by varying the geometry, specifically the ratio of the inner hole to the outer hat diameter, the dynamic shear localization response of high purity Fe was examined. Post mortem characterization was performed to quantify the width of the localizations and examine the microstructural and textural evolution of shear deformation in a bcc metal. Increased instability in mechanical response is strongly linked with development of enhanced intergranular misorientations, high angle boundaries, and classical shear textures characterized through orientation distribution functions.

Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bingert, John F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lopez, Mike F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01

126

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foram estudados os efeitos de diferentes tempos de maturação post-mortem sobre os valores de ruptura tecidual (cisalhamento) e avaliação sensorial de filés de peito de frango. O processo de maturação foi realizado pela manutenção das carcaças em caixas fechadas de plástico e armazena [...] das a 3±1 oC. Grupos de 5 carcaças foram classificados de acordo com o período de armazenagem na câmara fria como 0 (controle), 2, 4, 8, 12 e 24 horas. Os valores de pH das carcaças durante o período do rigor post-mortem decresceram de 6,4 para 5,9, enquanto que, durante o subseqüente período de maturação, os valores voltaram a crescer, atingindo um pH de 6,2 após 12 horas, provavelmente como resultado da proteólise. Os valores de cisalhamento de Warner-Bratzler decresceram inversamente ao tempo de maturação, de acordo com uma reação cinética de primeira ordem, apresentando um declínio mais acentuado nos valores de cisalhamento nas primeiras duas horas de maturação, após o qual o desempenho tendo sido similar para todos os grupos, atingindo valores inferiores a 1kgf em 4 horas ou mais, com a maturação completa sendo atingida em 8 horas. As amostras com períodos maiores de maturação (8, 12 e 24 horas) foram preferidas na análise sensorial, sem diferenças significativas entre elas. Abstract in english In this work, analysis of chicken breast fillets was performed for shear values and sensory evaluation after different times of aging. Aging process was carried out by holding carcasses in covered plastic boxes, in a cold room, at 3 +/- 1ºC; groups of 5 carcasses were stored and classified according [...] to the period of storage in cold room as 0 (control), 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours. The variation in pH of chicken carcasses during rigor decreased from 6.4 to 5.9. However, during the process of aging, the pH values increased up to 6.2 in the first 12h, probably as the result of proteolysis. The Warner-Bratzler shear values decreased as aging time increases, resulting in a first order kinetic. The carcasses presented a more accentuated decline in shear values in the first two hours of aging. After this period, the curve had a similar performance, achieving values of less than 1 kgf in 4 hours or more, with complete aging being accomplished at 8 hours. The samples with higher period of aging (8, 12 and 24 hours) were preferred in sensorial analysis, without significant differences among them.

Helena Caminha, Santos; Adriano, Brandelli; Marco Antônio Záchia, Ayub.

2004-06-01

127

Shear Behavior Of Reinforced High-Strength Concrete Beams Without Shear Reinforcement

Eighteen rectangular singly reinforced high-strength concrete beams without web reinforcement were tested in combined shear and flexure. The main variables were the longitudinal steel reinforcement ratio and the shear-span to effective depth ratio. The uniaxial compressive strength of concrete was about 93 MPa (13,500 psi). The experimental shear capacities were compared with the shear capacities predicted by different empirical equations presented in literatures. Two empirical equations have...

Wafa, Faisal F.

1994-01-01

128

A comparative study of the NGI Direct Simple Shear Test (DSST) and the Mikasa Direct Shear Test (DST) is reported. Samples from Norwegian Drammen clay and Japanese Ariake clay were subjected to both types of test. An evaluation of these test results and a theoretical consideration on the different shearing mechanisms has shown that although the DST give generally higher stiffness and strength than the DSST, these differences can mainly be accounted for by the different shearing mechanisms and...

Hanzawa, Hideo; Nutt, Nigel; Lunne, Tom; Tang, Y. X.; Long, Michael

2007-01-01

129

The properties of both untangled and entangled linear polymer melts under shear flow are studied by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The results reveal that the dependence of shear viscosity ? on shear rate dot{? }, expressed by ? ˜ dot{? }^{-n}, exhibits three distinct regimes. The first is the well-known Newtonian regime, namely, ? independent of shear rate at small shear rates dot{? }? 0^{-1}), the shear dependence of viscosity exhibits a crossover at a critical shear rate dot{? }c dividing this regime into two different regimes, shear thinning regime I (ST-I) and II (ST-II), respectively. In the ST-I regime (? ^{-1}_0dot{? }c) a universal power law ? ˜ dot{? }^{-0.37} is found for considered chain lengths. Furthermore, the longer the polymer chain is, the smaller the shear viscosity for a given shear rate in the ST-II regime. The simulation also shows that a characteristic chain length, below which dot{? }c will be equal to ? 0^{-1}, lies in the interval 30 ftb follows f_{tb} ˜ dot{? }^{0.75}. These results imply that the effects of entanglement on the shear dependences of these properties may be negligible in the ST-II regime. These findings may shed some light on the nature of shear thinning in flexible linear polymer melts.

Xu, Xiaolei; Chen, Jizhong; An, Lijia

2014-05-01

130

Turbulence suppression by E x B shear in JET optimized shear pulses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors calculate microinstability growth rates in JET optimized shear plasmas with a comprehensive gyrofluid model, including sheared E x B flows, trapped electrons, and all dominant ion species in realistic magnetic geometry. They find good correlation between E x B shear suppression of microinstabilities and both the formation and collapse of the internal transport barrier

131

Steel shear walls, behavior, modeling and design

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only 'strip model', forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC mificant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of overturning moments and any normal forces that might act on the steel shear wall

132

Direct measurement of piezoelectric shear coefficient

Piezoelectric materials exhibit electromechanical coupling which has led to their widespread application for sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. These materials possess anisotropic behavior with the shear coefficient, and have the largest electromechanical coupling coefficient. However, the shear mode is difficult to measure with existing techniques and thus has not been fully capitalized upon in recent devices. Better understanding of the full shear response with respect to the driving electric field would significantly help the design of optimized piezoelectric shear devices. Here, a simple and low cost direct measurement method based on digital image correlation is developed to characterize the shear response of piezoelectric materials and its nonlinear behavior as a function of external field. The piezoelectric shear coefficient (d15) of a commercial shear plate actuator is investigated in both bipolar and unipolar electric fields. Two different nonlinearities and hysteresis behaviors of the actuators were observed, and the relation between the driving field amplitude and the corresponding d15 coefficient is determined. Moreover, the measured transverse displacement of the plate actuator in simple shear condition is validated through a laser interferometry technique.

Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

2013-06-01

133

Shear induced transitions in vortex matter

We analyze the transport properties of a type II superconductor in the Corbino disk geometry by molecular dynamics simulations of the vortex lattice. The shear stress induced by the applied current yields a transition from rigid rotation to plastic flow above a threshold value $I_0$. This threshold current is shown to be proportional to the shear modulus $c_{66}$ of the vortex lattice.

Miguel, M C; Zapperi, Stefano

2003-01-01

134

Plastic deformation: Shearing mountains atom by atom

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? Rocks, wood, ceramics, semiconductors, and metals all deform in the same way, namely by heterogeneous shear banding via hierarchical orthogonal shear modes. ? While the governing principles of deformation are the same for rocks, wood, ceramics, semiconductors, and metals, these materialsdiffer in their microscopic deformation mechanisms and in the width of the shear band, which covers twelve orders of magnitude from angstroms to hundreds of meters. ? Microscopic deformation mechanisms couple to macroscopic deformation mechanisms, i.e. shear banding, through the collective properties of defect groups on the mesoscale. -- Abstract: Conventional wisdom established atomistic defects, dislocations, as agents of plastic deformation. On macroscopic scale, rock, wood, steel, tough ceramics, fiber reinforced composites, and silicon all deform in the same way and produce the same pattern; shear bands. The argumentation presented here, starts on the largest length scale of the problem at hand and leads through a number of hierarchical levels down to the atomistic mechanism. Shear bands develop discontinuously by the motion of a process zone. Locally, i.e. in the process zone, deformation proceeds perpendicularly to the macroscopic shear, in combination with a rotation. The microscopic shear itself may occur again in a discontinuous manner and again orthogonally to the intermediate level and so on at ever smaller scale. Material properties come into play at the highest hierarchical level, i.e. at the smallest length scale where they control the well-known micromechanisms.

Müllner, Peter, E-mail: petermullner@boisestate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, Boise, ID 83725 (United States)

2013-11-15

135

Shear stress in atherosclerotic plaque determination.

Atherosclerosis initiates at predictable focal sites near arterial branches and curves, where blood flow is disturbed and shear stress is complex. Endothelial shear stress is the tangential stress derived from the friction of the flowing blood on the endothelial surface of the arterial wall. It is a key factor in modulating endothelial cell gene expression and vascular development and remodeling. Increasing evidences suggest that shear stress patterns have a strong relationship with atherosclerotic features. Moreover, variations in the local artery geometry during atherogenesis further modify flow shear stress characteristics, which contribute to the rupture site at the plaque upstream. In this study, we summarize the mechanistic evidences that associate shear stress patterns with determined atherosclerotic plaque features. An enhanced understanding of the relationship and pathophysiological function of shear stress patterns in atherosclerotic plaque features is essential, which may provide early prediction of clinical risk and guide individualized treatment strategies. In the current review, we analyzed the function of shear stress on the determination of atherosclerotic lesion and provided an update on the mechanotransduction of shear stress, gene expression regulation, and atherosclerotic plaque development and rupture. PMID:25165867

Li, Xiaohong; Yang, Qin; Wang, Zuo; Wei, Dangheng

2014-12-01

136

Study of shear-stiffened elastomers

Shear thickening fluids, which are usually concentrated colloidal suspensions composed of non-aggregating solid particles suspended in fluids, exhibit a marked increase in viscosity beyond a critical shear rate. This increased viscosity is seen as being both 'field-activated', due to the dependence on shearing rate, as well as reversible. Shear thickening fluids have found good applications as protection materials, such as in liquid body armor, vibration absorber or dampers. This research aims to expand the protection material family by developing a novel solid status shear thickening material, called shear-stiffened elastomers. These new shear-stiffened elastomers were fabricated with the mixture of silicone rubber and silicone oil. A total of four SSE samples were fabricated in this study. Their mechanical and rheological properties under both steady-state and dynamic loading conditions were tested with a parallel-plate. The effects of silicone oil composition and angular frequency were summarized. When raising the angular frequency in dynamic shear test, the storage modulus of conventional silicone rubber shows a small increasing trend with the frequency. However, if silicone oil is selected to be mixed with silicone rubber, the storage modulus increases dramatically when the frequency and strain are both beyond the critical values.

Tian, Tongfei; Li, Weihua; Ding, Jie; Alici, Gursel; Du, Haiping

2013-06-01

137

This article briefly describes the in-situ shear vane test, including images and typical results. This procedure tests the undrained shear strength of soil. Procedures of the test are not outlined, but a general overview is given. The site contains photos, charts, diagrams and instructional test to help guide the user.

138

Large-Mode-Number MHD Instability Driven by Sheared Flows in Reversed-Shear Tokamak Plasmas

A fast growing Kelvin-Helmholtz-like ideal MHD instability with high dominant mode numbers $m,n\\sim 10$ is observed using numerical simulations where a narrow sub-Alfv\\'{e}nic shear flow layer is present in the region of low magnetic shear in a reversed-shear tokamak configuration. The linear growth rates increase with the shearing rate, and the width of the spectrum of unstable modes is controlled by the shear layer width. In the presence of non-ideal effects the instability drives magnetic reconnection and forms turbulent structures in the nonlinear regime. Possible applications of these results in laboratory and space plasmas are discussed.

Bierwage, A; Yu, Q; Bierwage, Andreas; G\\"{u}nter, Sibylle; Yu, Qingquan

2006-01-01

139

Steel Shear Walls, Behavior, Modeling and Design

In recent years steel shear walls have become one of the more efficient lateral load resisting systems in tall buildings. The basic steel shear wall system consists of a steel plate welded to boundary steel columns and boundary steel beams. In some cases the boundary columns have been concrete-filled steel tubes. Seismic behavior of steel shear wall systems during actual earthquakes and based on laboratory cyclic tests indicates that the systems are quite ductile and can be designed in an economical way to have sufficient stiffness, strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity to resist seismic effects of strong earthquakes. This paper, after summarizing the past research, presents the results of two tests of an innovative steel shear wall system where the boundary elements are concrete-filled tubes. Then, a review of currently available analytical models of steel shear walls is provided with a discussion of capabilities and limitations of each model. We have observed that the tension only "strip model", forming the basis of the current AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls, is not capable of predicting the behavior of steel shear walls with length-to-thickness ratio less than about 600 which is the range most common in buildings. The main reasons for such shortcomings of the AISC seismic design provisions for steel shear walls is that it ignores the compression field in the shear walls, which can be significant in typical shear walls. The AISC method also is not capable of incorporating stresses in the shear wall due to overturning moments. A more rational seismic design procedure for design of shear walls proposed in 2000 by the author is summarized in the paper. The design method, based on procedures used for design of steel plate girders, takes into account both tension and compression stress fields and is applicable to all values of length-to-thickness ratios of steel shear walls. The method is also capable of including the effect of overturning moments and any normal forces that might act on the steel shear wall.

Astaneh-Asl, Abolhassan

2008-07-01

140

Trapped Electron Precession Shear Induced Fluctuation Decorrelation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider the effects of trapped electron precession shear on the microturbulence. In a similar way the strong E x B shear reduces the radial correlation length of ambient fluctuations, the radial variation of the trapped electron precession frequency can reduce the radial correlation length of fluctuations associated with trapped electrons. In reversed shear plasmas, with the explicit dependence of the trapped electron precession shearing rate on B(subscript)theta, the sharp radial gradient of T(subscript)e due to local electron heating inside qmin can make the precession shearing mechanism more effective, and reduce the electron thermal transport constructing a positive feedback loop for the T(subscript)e barrier formation

141

Determining Shear Stress Distribution in a Laminate

A "simplified shear solution" method approximates the through-thickness shear stress distribution within a composite laminate based on an extension of laminated beam theory. The method does not consider the solution of a particular boundary value problem; rather, it requires only knowledge of the global shear loading, geometry, and material properties of the laminate or panel. It is thus analogous to lamination theory in that ply-level stresses can be efficiently determined from global load resultants at a given location in a structure and used to evaluate the margin of safety on a ply-by-ply basis. The simplified shear solution stress distribution is zero at free surfaces, continuous at ply boundaries, and integrates to the applied shear load. The method has been incorporated within the HyperSizer commercial structural sizing software to improve its predictive capability for designing composite structures. The HyperSizer structural sizing software is used extensively by NASA to design composite structures. In the case of through-thickness shear loading on panels, HyperSizer previously included a basic, industry-standard, method for approximating the resulting shear stress distribution in sandwich panels. However, no such method was employed for solid laminate panels. The purpose of the innovation is to provide an approximation of the through-thickness shear stresses in a solid laminate given the through-thickness shear loads (Qx and Qy) on the panel. The method was needed for implementation within the HyperSizer structural sizing software so that the approximated ply-level shear stresses could be utilized in a failure theory to assess the adequacy of a panel design. The simplified shear solution method was developed based on extending and generalizing bi-material beam theory to plate-like structures. It is assumed that the through-thickness shear stresses arise due to local bending of the laminate induced by the through-thickness shear load, and by imposing equilibrium both vertically and horizontally, the through-thickness shear stress distribution can be calculated. The resulting shear stresses integrate to the applied shear load, are continuous at the ply interfaces, and are zero at the laminate-free surfaces. If both Qx and Qy shear loads are present, it is assumed that they act independently and that their effects can be superposed. The calculated shear stresses can be rotated within each ply to the principal material coordinates for use in a ply-level failure criterion. The novelty of the simplified shear solution method is its simplicity and the fact that it does not require solution of a particular boundary value problem. The advantages of the innovation are that an approximation of the though-thickness shear stress distribution can be quickly determined for any solid laminate or solid laminate region within a stiffened panel.

Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Aboudi, Jacob; Yarrington, Phillip W.

2010-01-01

142

Experimental study on the adiabatic shear bands

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Four martensitic steels (Z50CDV5 steel, 28CND8 steel, 35NCDV16 steel and 4340 steel) with different hardness between 190 and 600 Hsub(B) (Brinell hardness), have been studied by means of dynamic compressive tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar. Microscopic observations show that the fracture are associated to the development of adiabatic shear bands (except 4340 steel with 190 Hsub(B) hardness). By means of tests for which the deformation is stopped at predetermined levels, the measurement of shear and hardness inside the band and the matrix indicates the chronology of this phenomenon: first the localization of shear, followed by the formation of adiabatic shear band and ultimatly crack initiation and propagation. These results correlated with few simulations by finite elements have permitted to suggest two mecanisms of deformation leading to the formation of adiabatic shear bands in this specific test

143

Visualization of shear banding in colloidal glasses

Shear banding, i.e. the localization of shear flow, occurs in a manifold of systems ranging from hard materials such as metallic glasses to soft materials such as clays, shaving cream or mayonnaise. We investigate this phenomenon in a dense colloidal system using confocal microscopy that enables to track individual particles in 3D space and time. The particle motions reveal a transition from homogeneous flow to shear localization above a critical shear rate. We elucidate this transition using spatial correlations in the displacement of the particles. The diffusive motion of the particles is correlated over large length, and shows intermittent, scale-free behavior, reminiscent of crystal plasticity. Further, we associate an order parameter with the mobility of particles and demonstrate that shear banding is phase coexistence of regions differing in mobilities.

Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Schofield, Andrew; Nienhuis, Bernard; Schall, Peter

2010-03-01

144

Numerical analysis of cross shear plate rolling

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The rolling process is widely applied for industrial production of metal plates. In conventional plate rolling the two work rolls are rotating at the same peripheral speed. By introducing a specific difference in the speed of the two work rolls, cross shear rolling is introduced forming a central shear zone between the forward and backward slip zones in the deformation zone thus lowering the rolling load. A numerical analysis of the cross shear rolling process is carried out based on the slab method adopting Wanheim and Bay's general friction model. The pressure distribution along the contact are in the roll gap, the position and the size of the shear zone and the rolling load are calculated. Experimental results are presented verifying the calculations. The numerical analysis facilitates a better understanding of the mechanics in cross shear plate rolling.

Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels

1997-01-01

145

Structure of turbulence at high shear rate

The structure of homogeneous turbulence subject to high shear rate has been investigated by using three-dimensional, time-dependent numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. This study indicates that high shear rate alone is sufficient for generation of the streaky structures, and that the presence of a solid boundary is not necessary. Evolution of the statistical correlations is examined to determine the effect of high shear rate on the development of anisotropy in turbulence. It is shown that the streamwise fluctuating motions are enhanced so profoundly that a highly anisotropic turbulence state with a 'one-component' velocity field and 'two-component' vorticity field develops asymptotically as total shear increases. Because of high-shear rate, rapid distortion theory predicts remarkably well the anisotropic behavior of the structural quantities.

Lee, Moon Joo; Kim, John; Moin, Parviz

1990-01-01

146

The Dynamics of Granular Shear Flow: Experiments

We have measured quantitatively the velocity and fluctuation profiles, and the internally generated shear forces, for a granular shear flow in a Couette geometry. The tangential velocity V(y) declines approximately exponentially with distance y from the moving wall. The velocity fluctuations ? V(y) decline also, but more slowly with y. We find that ? V(y) varies as a power law of the local velocity gradient. The shear force is approximately independent of shear rate. A levitating air flow is used to reduce the effective pressure within the material. The shear force decreases approximately linearly with increasing air flow and vanishes at the onset of "bubbling". We find excellent agreement between these experimental results and a locally Newtonian continuum model of granular flow.(W. Losert, L. Bocquet, T.C. Lubensky, and J.P. Gollub, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85), (2000), in press; L. Bocquet, W. Losert, T.C. Lubensky, and J.P. Gollub, to be submitted.

Gollub, J. P.; Losert, W.; Bocquet, L.; Schalk, D.

2000-11-01

147

Glass transitions and shear thickening suspension rheology

We introduce a class of simple models for shear thickening and/ or `jamming' in colloidal suspensions. These are based on schematic mode coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition, having a memory term that depends on a density variable, and on both the shear stress and the shear rate. (Tensorial aspects of the rheology, such as normal stresses, are ignored for simplicity.) We calculate steady-state flow curves and correlation functions. Depending on model parameters, we find a range of rheological behaviours, including `S-shaped' flow curves, indicating discontinuous shear thickening, and stress-induced transitions from a fluid to a nonergodic (jammed) state, showing zero flow rate in an interval of applied stress. The shear thickening and jamming scenarios that we explore appear broadly consistent with experiments on dense colloids close to the glass transition, despite the fact that we ignore hydrodynamic interactions. In particular, the jamming transition we propose is conceptually quite different from...

Holmes, C B; Fuchs, M; Sollich, P

2004-01-01

148

Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

1984-01-01

149

Establishment of the Deep-sea Soft Sediments Shearing Strength-Shearing Displacement Model

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The shearing strength-shearing displacement model of deep-sea soft sediments is very important to predict the traction and slip ratio of nodule collector, and optimize the running mechanism of nodule collector. According to the physical mechanics characters of the deep-sea soft sediments, the 400 sodium molybdate swell soils are selected as the preparation materials of the deep-sea soft sediments, and the demixion preparation method is adopted to simulate the deep-sea soft sediments in the lab, and the shearing test of the rectangle board of 20×50 cm under different grounding pressures is completed in the soil slot. The test result shows that the simulated deep-sea soft sediments have the representative shearing strength-shearing displacement character of brittle soils. Three shearing strength-shearing displacement models of brittle soils are analyzed in the article, and the shearing strength-shearing displacement model being the same with the deep-sea soft sediments based on maximum shearing strength, residual shearing strength, and elastic modules is established, which can offer theoretical support for the structure optimization of running track and the enhancement of the running performance.

Hongyun Wu

2009-12-01

150

Shear Senses and Viscous Dissipation of Layered Ductile Simple Shear Zones

Velocity profiles and shear heat profiles for inclined, layered Newtonian simple shear zones are considered. Reverse fault-like simple shear of the boundaries and upward net pressure gradient act together in such shear zones. As the velocity of the boundary increases, the point of highest velocity shifts from the lower layer of less viscosity into the upper layer. The shear heat profile shows a temperature peak inside the lower layer. For a more viscous upper layer, the point of highest velocity is located inside the upper layer and shifts towards the upper boundary of the shear zone. The shear heat profile shows a maximum temperature within the upper layer. Depending on the flow parameters of the two layers, the slip rate of the boundary, and the dip and thickness of the shear zone, a shear sense in reverse to the relative movement of the shear zone boundaries may develop. These models can decipher thermo-kinematics of layered shear zones in plate-scale hot orogens.

Mulchrone, Kieran F.; Mukherjee, Soumyajit

2015-02-01

151

Reversible shear thickening at low shear rates of electrorheological fluids under electric fields.

By shearing electrorheological (ER) fluids between two concentric cylinders, we show a reversible shear thickening of ER fluids above a low critical shear rate (100 V/mm), which can be characterized by a critical apparent viscosity. Shear thickening and electrostatic particle interaction-induced interparticle friction forces are considered to play an important role in the origin of lateral shear resistance of ER fluids, while the applied electric field controls the extent of shear thickening. The electric-field-controlled reversible shear thickening has implications for high-performance electrorheological-magnetorheological fluid design, clutch fluids with high friction forces triggered by applying a local electric field, other field-responsive materials, and intelligent systems. PMID:21405692

Tian, Yu; Zhang, Minliang; Jiang, Jile; Pesika, Noshir; Zeng, Hongbo; Israelachvili, Jacob; Meng, Yonggang; Wen, Shizhu

2011-01-01

152

Superposition rheology of shear-banding wormlike micelles

Wormlike micelle solutions are submitted to small-amplitude oscillatory shear superimposed to steady shear in the shear banding regime. By imposing a shear oscillation, the interface between high- and low-shear regions oscillates in time. A two-fluid semi-phenomenological model is proposed for superposition rheology in the shear banding regime, which allows us to extract a characteristic velocity for the interface dynamics from experiments involving only a standard rheometer...

Ballesta, P.; Lettinga, M. P.; Manneville, S.

2009-01-01

153

Shear rheology of molten crumb chocolate.

The shear rheology of fresh molten chocolate produced from crumb was studied over 5 decades of shear rate using controlled stress devices. The Carreau model was found to be a more accurate description than the traditional Casson model, especially at shear rates between 0.1 and 1 s(-1). At shear rates around 0.1 s(-1) (shear stress approximately 7 Pa) the material exhibited a transition to a solid regime, similar to the behavior reported by Coussot (2005) for other granular suspensions. The nature of the suspension was explored by investigating the effect of solids concentration (0.20 cocoa butter, and (2) a suspension of sugar of a similar size distribution (volume mean 15 mum) in cocoa butter and emulsifier. The chocolate and synthetic chocolate showed very similar rheological profiles under both steady shear and oscillatory shear. The chocolate and the sugar suspension showed similar Krieger-Dougherty dependency on volume fraction, and a noticeable transition to a stiff state at solids volume fractions above approximately 0.5. Similar behavior has been reported by Citerne and others (2001) for a smooth peanut butter, which had a similar particle size distribution and solids loading to chocolate. The results indicate that the melt rheology of the chocolate is dominated by hydrodynamic interactions, although at high solids volume fractions the emulsifier may contribute to the departure of the apparent viscosity from the predicted trend. PMID:19323742

Taylor, J E; Van Damme, I; Johns, M L; Routh, A F; Wilson, D I

2009-03-01

154

IMAGE ANALYSIS FOR MODELLING SHEAR BEHAVIOUR

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Through laboratory research performed over the past ten years, many of the critical links between fracture characteristics and hydromechanical and mechanical behaviour have been made for individual fractures. One of the remaining challenges at the laboratory scale is to directly link fracture morphology of shear behaviour with changes in stress and shear direction. A series of laboratory experiments were performed on cement mortar replicas of a granite sample with a natural fracture perpendicular to the axis of the core. Results show that there is a strong relationship between the fracture's geometry and its mechanical behaviour under shear stress and the resulting damage. Image analysis, geostatistical, stereological and directional data techniques are applied in combination to experimental data. The results highlight the role of geometric characteristics of the fracture surfaces (surface roughness, size, shape, locations and orientations of asperities to be damaged in shear behaviour. A notable improvement in shear understanding is that shear behaviour is controlled by the apparent dip in the shear direction of elementary facets forming the fracture.

Philippe Lopez

2011-05-01

155

Convectively driven shear and decreased heat flux

We report on direct numerical simulations of two-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection, focusing on its ability to drive large-scale horizontal flow that is vertically sheared. For the Prandtl numbers ($Pr$) between 1 and 10 simulated here, this large-scale shear can be induced by raising the Rayleigh number ($Ra$) sufficiently, and we explore the resulting convection for $Ra$ up to $10^{10}$. When present in our simulations, the sheared mean flow accounts for a large fraction of the total kinetic energy, and this fraction tends towards unity as $Ra\\to\\infty$. The shear helps disperse convective structures, and it reduces vertical heat flux; in parameter regimes where one state with large-scale shear and one without are both stable, the Nusselt number of the state with shear is smaller and grows more slowly with $Ra$. When the large-scale shear is present with $Pr\\lesssim2$, the convection undergoes strong global oscillations on long timescales, and heat transport occurs in bursts. N...

Goluskin, David; Flierl, Glenn R; Spiegel, Edward A

2014-01-01

156

Microstructural study of adiabatic shear band

This article presents a study of the microstructural development of the adiabatic shear band in an HY-100 steel. The steel was deformed at a high strain rate by ballistic impact, and subsequent metallographic observations along with electron microscopy were performed. A number of white- etched shear bands were found near the perforated region, and three typical microstructural features of the adiabatic shear band were observed: elongated grain structure at the boundary between the shear band and matrix, fine equiaxed grain structure with high dislocation densities in the middle of the shear band, and relatively coarse-grained structure located between the above two structures. These microstructures might be formed in an extremely short time by the combined effects of the large temperature rise and the highly localized deformation. Since very complex phenomena might occur within the shear band, possible mechanisms, such as dynamic recovery and strain-induced dynamic phase transformation, are suggested to explain the micro- structural development of the adiabatic shear band.

Lee, Sunghak; Cho, Kyung-Mox; Lee, Chang Sun; Choo, Wung Yong

1993-10-01

157

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Onze provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura de seis diferentes marcas de figo em calda, comercializadas no mercado brasileiro, utilizando o método de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ) adaptado. As amostras foram testadas utilizando-se blocos incompletos [...] balanceados e os resultados estatisticamente analisados por Análise de Variância (ANOVA) e Análise de Componente Principal (ACP). Figos em calda provenientes de indústrias distintas mostraram uma grande diferença quanto ao perfil sensorial. Dos quinze descriptores desenvolvidos pela equipe sensorial, suculência e aroma doce foram os mais importantes para discriminar as amostras entre si. As medidas de cor obtidas através do colorímetro de Hunter mostraram boa relação com as medidas sensoriais, entretanto, as medidas de textura realizadas pelo aparelho Warner-Bratzler não refletiram as variações de textura encontradas nas amostras pela equipe sensorial. A metodologia desenvolvida no presente estudo demonstrou ser bastante eficiente na caracterização e discriminação de amostras, em função de seus perfis sensoriais. Assim, a presente metodologia pode ser muito útil a laboratórios de Controle de Qualidade e Desenvolvimento de Novos Produtos nas indústrias de alimentos. Abstract in english Eleven selected and trained panelists evaluated the appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of six different brands of Brazilian canned figs by adapted Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. A descriptive ballot and reference material illustrating sensory characteristics of the figs were developed. Sample [...] s were tested using a incomplete block design and the results analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The samples sensory profiles showed large differences. From the fifteen descriptors developed by the panel, juiciness and sweet aroma were the most important for discriminating among samples. Instrumental measurements of color, obtained with a Hunter colorimeter, showed good relation with sensory measurements; but the shear force, obtained with a Warner-Bratzler shear instrument, did not related well with sensory measurements of texture. The methodology developed in this study was very efficient for characterizing and discriminating among the samples as a function of their sensory profiles; furthermore, it can be very useful to the Quality Control and Product Development laboratories of food industries.

Tereza C.A., ALMEIDA; Marília I.S., FOLEGATTI; Maria Teresa A., FREIRE; Márcia S., MADEIRA; Fernando T., SILVA; Maria Aparecida A.P. da, SILVA.

1999-05-01

158

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Onze provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura de seis diferentes marcas de figo em calda, comercializadas no mercado brasileiro, utilizando o método de Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ adaptado. As amostras foram testadas utilizando-se blocos incompletos balanceados e os resultados estatisticamente analisados por Análise de Variância (ANOVA e Análise de Componente Principal (ACP. Figos em calda provenientes de indústrias distintas mostraram uma grande diferença quanto ao perfil sensorial. Dos quinze descriptores desenvolvidos pela equipe sensorial, suculência e aroma doce foram os mais importantes para discriminar as amostras entre si. As medidas de cor obtidas através do colorímetro de Hunter mostraram boa relação com as medidas sensoriais, entretanto, as medidas de textura realizadas pelo aparelho Warner-Bratzler não refletiram as variações de textura encontradas nas amostras pela equipe sensorial. A metodologia desenvolvida no presente estudo demonstrou ser bastante eficiente na caracterização e discriminação de amostras, em função de seus perfis sensoriais. Assim, a presente metodologia pode ser muito útil a laboratórios de Controle de Qualidade e Desenvolvimento de Novos Produtos nas indústrias de alimentos.Eleven selected and trained panelists evaluated the appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of six different brands of Brazilian canned figs by adapted Quantitative Descriptive Analysis. A descriptive ballot and reference material illustrating sensory characteristics of the figs were developed. Samples were tested using a incomplete block design and the results analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The samples sensory profiles showed large differences. From the fifteen descriptors developed by the panel, juiciness and sweet aroma were the most important for discriminating among samples. Instrumental measurements of color, obtained with a Hunter colorimeter, showed good relation with sensory measurements; but the shear force, obtained with a Warner-Bratzler shear instrument, did not related well with sensory measurements of texture. The methodology developed in this study was very efficient for characterizing and discriminating among the samples as a function of their sensory profiles; furthermore, it can be very useful to the Quality Control and Product Development laboratories of food industries.

Tereza C.A. ALMEIDA

1999-05-01

159

Two-fluid tokamak equilibria with reversed magnetic shear and sheared flow

The aim of the present work is to investigate tokamak equilibria with reversed magnetic shear and sheared flow, which may play a role in the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs), within the framework of two-fluid model. The study is based on exact self-consistent solutions in cylindrical geometry by means of which the impact of the magnetic shear, s, and the "toroidal" (axial) and "poloidal" (azimuthal) ion velocity components on the radial electric field, its shear and the shear of the ExB velocity is examined. For a wide parametric regime of experimental concern it turns out that the contributions of the toroidal and poloidal velocity and pressure gradient terms to the electric field, its shear and ExB velocity shear are of the same order of magnitude. The impact of s on ExB velocity shear through the pressure gradient term is stronger than that through the velocity terms. The results indicate that, alike MHD, the magnetic shear and the sheared toroidal and poloidal velocities act synergetically ...

Poulipoulis, G; Tasso, H

2005-01-01

160

Shear Reinforcements in the Reinforced Concrete Beams

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available - This study focuses on the use of different types of shear reinforcement in the reinforced concrete beams. Four different types of shear reinforcement are investigated; traditional stirrups, welded swimmer bars, bolted swimmer bars, and u-link bolted swimmer bars. Beam shear strength as well as beam deflection are the main two factors considered in this study. Shear failure in reinforced concrete beams is one of the most undesirable modes of failure due to its rapid progression. This sudden type of failure made it necessary to explore more effective ways to design these beams for shear. The reinforced concrete beams show different behavior at the failure stage in shear compare to the bending, which is considered to be unsafe mode of failure. The diagonal cracks that develop due to excess shear forces are considerably wider than the flexural cracks. The cost and safety of shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete beams led to the study of other alternatives. Swimmer bar system is a new type of shear reinforcement. It is a small inclined bars, with its both ends bent horizontally for a short distance and welded or bolted to both top and bottom flexural steel reinforcement. Regardless of the number of swimmer bars used in each inclined plane, the swimmer bars form plane-crack interceptor system instead of bar-crack interceptor system when stirrups are used. Several reinforced concrete beams were carefully prepared and tested in the lab. The results of these tests will be presented and discussed. The deflection of each beam is also measured at incrementally increased applied load.

Moayyad M. Al-Nasra

2013-10-01

161

Interfacial Slip in Sheared Polymer Blends

We have developed a dynamic self-consistent field theory, without any adjustable parameters, for unentangled polymer blends under shear. Our model accounts for the interaction between polymers, and enables one to compute the evolution of the local rheology, microstructure and the conformations of the polymer chains under shear self-consistently. We use this model to study the interfacial dynamics in sheared polymer blends and make a quantitative comparison between this model and Molecular Dynamics simulations. We find good agreement between the two methods.

Lo, T S; Shnidman, Y; Li, W; Gersappe, D; Lo, Tak Shing; Mihajlovic, Maja; Shnidman, Yitzhak; Li, Wentao; Gersappe, Dilip

2004-01-01

162

The shear viscosity of holographic superfluids

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density for various holographic superfluids. For the s-wave case, the ratio has the universal value 1/(4?) as in various holographic models. For the p-wave case, there are two shear viscosity coefficients because of the anisotropic boundary spacetime, and one coefficient has the universal value. For the (p+ip)-wave case, the existing technique is not applicable since there is no tensor mode of metric perturbations which decouples from Yang-Mills perturbations. Our results indicate that the shear viscosity does not show a singular behavior at the critical point for holographic superfluids. (author)

163

Shear viscosity of liquid mixtures: Mass dependence

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Expressions for zeroth, second, and fourth sum rules of transverse stress autocorrelation function of two component fluid have been derived. These sum rules and Mori's memory function formalism have been used to study shear viscosity of Ar-Kr and isotopic mixtures. It has been found that theoretical result is in good agreement with the computer simulation result for the Ar-Kr mixture. The mass dependence of shear viscosity for different mole fraction shows that deviation from ideal linear model comes even from mass difference in two species of fluid mixture. At higher mass ratio shear viscosity of mixture is not explained by any of the emperical model. (author)

164

Development of short stroke shearing technology for FBR fuel pin

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The short stroke shearing tests with simulated fuel pin bundle were carried out in engineering scale. The shearing device was designed to handle the simulated Monju (FBR prototype reactor) type fuel pin bundle. Monju type and Commercial reactor type simulated fuel pins were used for the test. The sheared pin length and the opening ratio of sheared section were measured under several shearing conditions such as the pressure to hold pin bundle, the shearing speed and the filling-ratio of pins in the pin magazine. Both types of fuel pin were able to be sheared accurately at the length of about 10mm, and the opening ratio of sheared section was not significantly reduced. As the results, fundamental data of the short stroke shearing characteristics were obtained and that shearing method was confirmed to be promising with the reliable shearing device. (author)

165

Analysis of the genetic effects of CAPN1 gene polymorphisms on chicken meat tenderness.

The micromolar calcium-activated neutral protease gene (CAPN1) is a physiological candidate gene for meat tenderness. Four previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers located within the CAPN1 gene were evaluated for their associations with variation in the meat tenderness of a Chinese indigenous chicken breed, a higher meat quality breed (i.e., Qingyuan partridge chicken), and the commercial Recessive White chicken breed. Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements were used to determine tenderness phenotypes for all animals; intramuscular fat (IMF) content and rate of water loss in the breast muscles were also measured. Genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Polymorphisms were identified for all markers, except CAPN1 2546. The frequency of allele T was zero, and allele C was fixed for CAPN1 2546 in the studied populations. The SNP CAPN1 3535 in the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, where animals inheriting the AA genotype had smaller shear force values, lower water loss rates, and higher IMF contents. Moreover, H1 (AAA) was the most advantageous haplotype for meat tenderness. The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified that, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programs to improve meat quality. PMID:25730078

Shu, J T; Zhang, M; Shan, Y J; Xu, W J; Chen, K W; Li, H F

2015-01-01

166

Tenderization of beef with bacterial collagenase.

The feasibility of using a purified collagenase produced by Clostridium histolyticum as a meat tenderizer was studied. Experiments were conducted with enzymes in model systems to compare collagenase with the currently used plant proteinases, papain, bromelain and ficin. Collagenase was shown to have a greater activity in hydrolyzing insoluble collagen than salt-soluble-protein (SSP) and highest activity between 40° and 60°C, with little to no activity above 60°C. Collagenase was added to raw steaks and steaks were placed in bags and cooked in a water bath to 6.5°C. Tenderness was evaluated by analyzing components of Warner-Bratzler shear-deformation curves. The results suggested that addition of NaCl or a combination of CaCl(2), NaCl and collagenase would cause equivalent tenderization. The lack of a significant tenderization due to collagenase could be related to a lack of sensitivity in the shear evaluation or an effect on the enzyme activity due to the meat environment. PMID:22055648

Allen Foegeding, E; Larick, D K

1986-01-01

167

The effect of post mortem temperature treatment on suckling lamb carcass and meat quality was study. Conventional (2 °C for 24 h), ultra-rapid (-20 °C for 3.5 h, 2 °C until 24 h) and slow chillings (12 °C for 7 h, 2 °C until 24 h) were compared. Total viable counts (TVC), weight losses, and pH and temperature falls were recorded on carcasses. Meat colour, water holding capacity (WHC), Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length and sensory analysis were evaluated in M. longissimus. Ultra-rapid treatment reduced TVC and weight losses. The pH decline was faster in slow chilled carcasses than in faster chilled carcasses. No significant differences were found for colour and WHC. Slow treatment carcasses showed significantly lower shear force and higher sarcomere length. In the sensory analysis, tasters also rated the early post mortem slow-treated meat as more tender, less fibrous and chewy. Therefore, delay chilling in suckling lamb carcasses made it possible to obtain meat with better organoleptic characteristics, without affecting weight loss or hygienic quality. PMID:22726698

Fernández, A M; Vieira, C

2012-12-01

168

The objective of the study was to determine sensory and objective characteristics of broiler breast and thigh meat from commercial broilers fed rendered spent hen meal (RSHM) from hatch to 42 d of age. Breast and thigh muscles from 90, 6-wk-old straight-run broilers (i.e., mixed male and female broilers) fed starter and grower diets consisting of either 0, 8, or 12% RSHM were evaluated for sensory characteristics, instrumental texture, and compositional profiles. The RSHM treatments had no adverse effects (P > 0.05) on juiciness, chicken flavor intensity, tenderness, or compositional profiles for the breast or thigh meats. Off-flavor scores for all treatments were above the threshold value, indicating that the RSHM imparted no off-flavors to the breast and thigh meats. Warner-Bratzler shear measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for breast meat from broilers in all treatments. No shear measurements were conducted for the thigh meat. It was concluded that RSHM can be incorporated into the diets of broilers at levels of up to 12% without causing objectionable sensory characteristics in the cooked broiler meat. PMID:9733136

Williams, S K; Damron, B L

1998-09-01

169

Effect of prolonged heat treatment from 48 °C to 63 °C on toughness, cooking loss and color of pork.

The effect of low temperature long time (LTLT) heat treatment at 48 °C, 53 °C, 58 °C, and 63 °C for T(c) (time to reach a core temperature equal to the water bath), T(c)+5h holding time, and T(c)+17h holding time was studied in Longissimus dorsi and Semitendinosus muscles from slaughter pigs and sows. Meat toughness (Warner-Bratzler Shear Force), cooking loss and color (Minolta L*a*b*-values) was measured and in the cooking loss the amount of heat-soluble collagen and activity of cathepsin B+L was determined. Decreasing shear force and increasing cooking loss during LTLT treatment was observed between 53 °C and 58 °C. Furthermore, increasing temperature from 53 °C to 58 °C and increasing time from T(c) to T(c)+17h increased the solubility of collagen. Residual activity of cathepsin B+L in LTLT treated pork was mainly affected by temperature, showing the highest activity at 58 °C and 63 °C. PMID:21256682

Christensen, Line; Ertbjerg, Per; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Christensen, Mette

2011-06-01

170

Intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles of the beef chuck.

The i.m. tenderness variation was examined within four beef chuck muscles, the infraspinatus (IF), supraspinatus (SS), triceps brachii (TB), and serratus ventralis (SV). The IF, SS, TB, and SV muscles were cut into 2.5 cm thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. An identification tag was placed on each steak, consisting of a muscle identification number, steak number, and orientation of the steak. Steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored at -22 degrees C until subsequent analysis. Steaks were thawed at 1 degrees C and cooked on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. One core was removed from each 2.5-cm x 2.5-cm section parallel to the muscle fiber and sheared once to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The SS had an overall WBSF mean of 5.43 kg (SD = 2.20 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.43) among steak locations. The IF had an overall WBSF mean of 3.16 kg (SD = 1.01 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.51) among steak locations. The SV had a mean WBSF value of 4.37 kg (SD = 1.27 kg) with tenderness variation (P marketing consistently tender regions. PMID:16282622

Searls, G A; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M

2005-12-01

171

Enrobed or coated pork patties containing a (50:50) mixture of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) at a level of 100 ppm in the batter mix and meat emulsion were cooked and stored chilled (4±1 °C) and frozen (-18±1 °C) for evaluation of quality. Test samples were compared to control patties (neither enrobed nor antioxidant treated). After 35 days of refrigerated storage no significant difference (P>0.05) was found in pH, 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values between uncoated and treated samples. Similarly, enrobed patties showed no significant (P<0.05) decrease in TBA values compared to control patties, but had lower relative moisture loss at the 45th day of frozen storage. However, control patties had significantly (P<0.05) higher overall shear values than coated patties under the same storage conditions. Coated samples had higher microbial loads but below the acceptable limit. Total plate counts (TPC) in enrobed and control patties were around 3.48 and 3.05 log(10) cfu/g, respectively, whereas in frozen stored samples these numbers were 2.77 and 2.69 log(10) cfu/g at the end of storage. Sensory scores viz appearance and color, flavor, juiciness, texture, and overall acceptability were higher in treated samples than controls during the entire storage period. PMID:22060884

Biswas, A K; Keshri, R C; Bisht, G S

2004-03-01

172

Wind shear and turbulence simulation

The aviation community is increasing its reliance on flight simulators. This is true both in pilot training and in research and development. In moving research concepts through the development pipeline, there is a sequence of events which take place: analysis, ground based simulation, inflight simulation, and flight testing. Increasing fidelity as progress toward the flight testing arena is accompanied by increasing cost. The question that seems to be posed in relation to the meteorological aspects of flight simulation is, How much fidelity is enough and can it be quantified. As a part of the Langley Simulation Technology Program, there are three principal areas of focus, one being improved simulation of weather hazards. A close liaison with the JAWS project was established because of the Langley Simulation Technology interests regarding reliable simulation of severe convective weather phenomena and their impact on aviation systems. Simulation offers the only feasible approach for examining the utility of new technology and new procedures for coping with severe convective weather phenomena such as wind shear. These simulation concepts are discussed in detail.

Bowles, Roland L.

1987-01-01

173

Shear strength measurements of ductile polymer films with controlled normal to shear plane angles

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Graphical abstract: The unique test fixture that is capable of controlling the normal to shear plane angle in a confined testing space was able to measure the shear strength of polymer films exclusively in cohesive failure. Two specimens were loaded in series such that as one fractured the other was in a state just prior to fracture and could be used for the investigation of shear bands. Highlights: {yields} We design a novel method to measure the cohesive shear strength of polymer films. {yields} The measured shear strength can be regarded as an intrinsic property. {yields} The test fixture is capable of controlling the normal to shear plane angle in a confined space. {yields} Two specimens are loaded in series such that as one fractures the other will be ready for fracture. - Abstract: Shear strength of the adhesives and polymer films was usually measured by lap shear test method. However, their fracture often associates with the combination of interfacial, interfacial-cohesive and cohesive failures. To confine the shear failure exclusively in cohesion so that the reported shear strength can be regarded as an intrinsic property of the polymer films, in this study we designed a unique test fixture that is capable of controlling the normal to shear plane angle in a confined testing space. Two poly(methyl acrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) film specimens were loaded in series in the test fixture such that as one fractured the other was in a state just prior to fracture and could be used for the investigation of shear bands by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As the normal to shear plane angle was increased from 30 to 60{sup o}, the shear bands were more concentrated on the center region owing to the higher normal compressive stress. For the fractured specimen, the fracture surface investigated by SEM showed the striations which can be related to the shear bands. As the normal to shear plane angle was increased from 30 to 45{sup o}, the concentrated shear bands caused less striations perpendicular to the fracture direction. Interestingly, it also leaded to the appearance of the striations parallel to the fracture direction. As the angle was further increased to 60{sup o}, small islands formed by the cross-over of parallel and perpendicular striations appeared in the fracture surface. A possible mechanism for the formation of this unique fracture surface was proposed.

Lin, Keng-Jen [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsueh, Chun-Hway [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, King-Fu, E-mail: kflin@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Polymer Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

2011-07-15

174

Shear thickening, frictionless and frictional rheologies

Particles suspended in a Newtonian fluid raise the viscosity and also generally give rise to a shear-rate dependent rheology. In particular, pronounced shear thickening is observed at large solid volume fractions. In a recent article (R. Seto, R. Mari, J. F. Morris, and M. M. Denn., Phys. Rev. Lett., 111:218301, 2013) we have considered the minimum set of components to reproduce the experimentally observed shear thickening behavior, including Discontinuous Shear Thickening (DST). We have found frictional contact forces to be essential, and were able to reproduce the experimental behavior by a simulation including this physical ingredient. In the present article, we thoroughly investigate the effect of friction and express it in the framework of the jamming transition. The viscosity divergence at the jamming transition has been a well known phenomenon in suspension rheology, as reflected in many empirical laws for the viscosity. Friction can affect this divergence, and in particular the jamming packing fractio...

Mari, Romain; Morris, Jeffrey F; Denn, Morton M

2014-01-01

175

Assessment of Shear Strength for Existing Bridges with Low Amounts of Shear Reinforcement

Design of concrete girder bridges has significantly evolved during the last decades. This has been particularly relevant with respect to shear design, motivated by changes in actions and design models. As a consequence, assessing the shear strength of existing bridges leads in many cases to unsatisfactory safety levels. Furthermore, many existing bridges do not comply with current code regulations with respect to minimum amounts of shear reinforcement. This situation can lead to expensive ret...

Rupf, Michael; Ferna?ndez Ruiz, Miguel; Muttoni, Aurelio

2013-01-01

176

Supertransient magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in Keplerian shear flows

A subcritical transition to turbulence in magnetized Keplerian shear flows is investigated using a statistical approach. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the shearing box equations with zero net magnetic flux are employed to determine the transition from decaying to sustained turbulence as a function of the magnetic Reynolds number Rm. The results reveal no clear transition to sustained turbulence as the average lifetime of the transients grows as an exponential function of Rm, in accordance with a type-II supertransient law.

Rempel, Erico L; Proctor, Michael R E

2010-01-01

177

Shear viscosity of degenerate electron matter

We calculate the partial electron shear viscosity $\\eta_{ee}$ limited by electron-electron collisions in a strongly degenerate electron gas taking into account the Landau damping of transverse plasmons. The Landau damping strongly suppresses $\\eta_{ee}$ in the domain of ultrarelativistic degenerate electrons and modifies its %asymptotic temperature behavior. The efficiency of the electron shear viscosity in the cores of white dwarfs and envelopes of neutron stars is analyzed.

Shternin, P. S.

2008-01-01

178

Avalanches in anisotropic sheared granular media

We study the influence of particle shape anisotropy on the occurrence of avalanches in sheared granular media. We use molecular dynamic simulations to calculate the relative movement of two tectonic plates. % with transform boundaries. Our model considers irregular polygonal particles constituting the material within the shear zone. We find that the magnitude of the avalanches is approximately independent on particle shape and in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter law...

Pen?a, Andre?s A.; Mcnamara, Sean; Lind, Pedro G.; Herrmann, Hans J.

2008-01-01

179

Resistive interchange instability in reversed shear tokamaks

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Resistive interchange modes become unstable due to the magnetic shear reversal in tokamaks. In the present paper, the parameter dependences, such as q (safety factor) profile and the magnetic surface shape are clarified for improving the stability, using the local stability criterion. It is shown that a significant reduction of the beta limit is obtained for the JT-60U reversed shear configuration with internal transport barrier, since the local pressure gradient increases. (author)

180

Athermal analogue of sheared colloidal suspensions

The rheology of Brownian suspensions of hard spheres is investigated numerically beyond the low shear rate Newtonian regime. We test the athermal analogue of these suspensions, built by means of an effective logarithmic repulsive potential originating from vibrational entropic forces. We show that both systems present the same rheology without adjustable parameters. Moreover, all rheological responses display similar Herschel-Bulkley relations once the shear stress and the s...

Trulsson, M.; Bouzid, M.; Kurchan, J.; Clement, E.; Claudin, P.; Andreotti, B.

2014-01-01

181

Transport suppression by reversed magnetic shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The behavior of trapped particles in a tokamak is sensitive to the magnetic shear. The reason is that the distance between the reflection points of the trapped particles, and consequently the longitudinal energy, depends on the safety factor q. If the shear is reversed, the energy of most trapped particles increases when they drift outward, so that the plasma is in a minimum energy configuration. This suppresses instabilities and turbulent transport, in agreement with recent simulations and experiments. (author)

182

Transport suppression by reversed magnetic shear

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The behavior of trapped particles in a tokamak is sensitive to the magnetic shear. The reason is that the distance between the reflection points of the trapped particles, and consequently the longitudinal energy, depends on the safety factor q. If the shear is reversed, the energy of most trapped particles increases when they drift outward, so that the plasma is in a minimum energy configuration. This suppresses instabilities and turbulent transport, in agreement with recent simulations and experiments. (author).

Yankov, V.V.; Nycander, J. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)

1997-08-01

183

Hydrodynamical fluctuations in smooth shear flows

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background of hydrodynamical fluctuations in a intrinsically/stochastically forced, laminar, uniform shear flow is studied. The employment of so-called nonmodal mathematical analysis makes it possible to represent the background of fluctuations in a new light and to get more insight into the physics of its formation. The basic physical processes responsible for the formation of vortex and acoustic wave fluctuation backgrounds are analyzed. Interplay of the processes at low and moderate shear rates is described. Three-dimensional vortex fluctuations around a given macroscopic state are numerically calculated. The correlation functions of the fluctuations of physical quantities are analyzed. It is shown that there exists subspace Dk in the wave-number space (k-space) that is limited externally by spherical surface with radius k? ? A/? (where A is the velocity shear parameter, ? - the kinematic viscosity) in the nonequilibrium open system under study. The spatial Fourier harmonics of vortex as well as acoustic wave fluctuations are strongly subjected by flow shear (by the open character of the system) at wave-numbers satisfying the condition k ?. Specifically it is shown that in Dk: The fluctuations are non-Markovian; the spatial spectral density of energy of the vortex fluctuations by far exceeds the white-noise; the term of a new type associated to the hydrodynamical fluctuation of velocity appears in the correlation function of pressure; the fluctuation background of the acoustic waves is completely different at low and moderate shear rates (at low shear rates it is reduced in Dk in comparison to the uniform (non-shear) flow; at moderate shear rates it it comparable to the background of the vortex fluctuations). The fluctuation background of both the vortex and the acoustic wave modes is anisotropic. The possible significance of the fluctuation background of vortices for the subcritical transition to turbulence and Brownian motion of small macroscopic particles is also discussed. (author)

184

Shear strength and fatigue properties of human cortical bone determined from pure shear tests.

Shear properties of bone have been inferred from torsion tests. However, torsion often causes spiral fracture planes that correspond to tensile rather than shear failure. We measured the shear properties of human cortical bone in both longitudinal and transverse directions using pure shear tests. Shearing applied transverse to the bone long axis caused fracture along a 45 degrees plane that coincided with maximum tension. This fracture pattern is similar to spiral fractures caused by torsion. Shear strength along the bone axis was 51.6 MPa or about 35% less than that determined using torsion tests. Fatigue tests of human cortical bone in pure shear were conducted. The results agreed well with previous measurements of cortical bone fatigue life in tension and compression, when normalized to strength. Using tibial shear strain magnitudes measured previously for human volunteers, we estimated the fatigue life of cortical bone for different activities, and speculate that shear fatigue failure is a probable cause of tibial stress fractures resulting from impact loading. PMID:11800235

Turner, C H; Wang, T; Burr, D B

2001-12-01

185

The brittle-viscous-plastic evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone

Shear bands are microscale shear zones that obliquely crosscut an existing anisotropy such as a foliation. The resulting S-C fabrics are characterized by angles lower than 45° and the C plane parallel to shear zone boundaries. The S-C fabrics typically occur in granitoids deformed at greenschist facies conditions in the vicinity of major shear zones. Despite their long recognition, mechanical reasons for localization of deformation into shear bands and their evolution is still poorly understood. In this work we focus on microscale characterization of the shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone, where the S-C fabrics were first recognized by Berthé et al. (1979). The initiation of shear bands in the right-lateral South Armorican Shear Zone is associated with the occurrence of microcracks crosscutting the recrystallized quartz aggregates that define the S fabric. In more advanced stages of shear band evolution, newly formed dominant K-feldspar, together with plagioclase, muscovite and chlorite occur in the microcracks, and the shear bands start to widen. K-feldspar replaces quartz by progressively bulging into the grain boundaries of recrystallized quartz grains, leading to disintegration of quartz aggregates and formation of fine-grained multiphase matrix mixture. The late stages of shear band development are marked by interconnection of fine-grained white mica into a band that crosscuts the original shear band matrix. In its extremity, the shear band widening may lead to the formation of ultramylonites. With the increasing proportion of shear band matrix from ~1% to ~12%, the angular relationship between S and C fabrics increases from ~30° to ~40°. The matrix phases within shear bands show differences in chemical composition related to distinct evolutionary stages of shear band formation. The chemical evolution is well documented in K-feldspar, where the albite component is highest in porphyroclasts within S fabric, lower in the newly formed grains within microcracks and nearly absent in matrix grains in the well developed C bands. The chemical variation between primary and secondary new-formed micas was clearly identified by the Mg-Ti-Na content. The microstructural analysis documents a progressive decrease in quartz grain size and increasing interconnectivity of K-feldspar and white mica towards more mature shear bands. The contact-frequency analysis demonstrates that the phase distribution in shear bands tends to evolve from quartz aggregate distribution via randomization to K-feldspar aggregate distribution. The boundary preferred orientation is absent in quartz-quartz contacts either inside of outside the C bands, while it changes from random to parallel to the C band for the K-feldspar and and K-feldspar-quartz boundaries. The lack of crystallographic preferred orientation of the individual phases in the mixed matrix of the C planes suggests a dominant diffusion-assisted grain boundary sliding deformation mechanism. In the later stages of shear band development, the deformation is accommodated by crystal plasticity of white mica in micaceous bands. The crystallographic and microstructural data thus indicate two important switches in deformation mechanisms, from (i) brittle to Newtonian viscous behavior in the initial stages of shear band evolution and from (ii) Newtonian viscous to power law in the later evolutionary stages. The evolution of shear bands in the South Armorican Shear Zone thus document the interplay between deformation mechanisms and chemical reactions in deformed granitoids.

Bukovská, Zita; Je?ábek, Petr; Morales, Luiz F. G.; Lexa, Ondrej; Milke, Ralf

2014-05-01

186

Analysis of shear banding in twelve materials

The problem of the initiation and growth of shear bands in 12 different materials, namely, OFHC copper, Cartridge brass, Nickel 200, Armco IF (interstitial free) iron, Carpenter electric iron, 1006 steel, 2024-T351 aluminum, 7039 aluminum, low alloy steel, S-7 tool steel, Tungsten alloy, and Depleted Uranium (DU -0.75 Ti) is studied with the objectives of finding out when a shear band initiates, and upon what parameters does the band width depend. The nonlinear coupled partial differential equations governing the overall simple shearing deformations of a thermally softening viscoplastic block are analyzed. It is assumed that the thermomechanical response of these materials can be adequately represented by the Johnson-Cook law, and the only inhomogeneity present in the block is the variation in its thickness. The effect of the defect size on the initiation and subsequent growth of the band is also studied. It is found that, for each one of these 12 materials, the deformation has become nonhomogeneous by the time the maximum shear stress occurs. Also the band width, computed when the shear stress has dropped to 85 percent of its peak value, does not correlate well with the thermal conductivity of the material. The band begins to grow rapidly when the shear stress has dropped to 90 percent of its maximum value.

Batra, R. C.; Kim, C. H.

187

Shear induced structures in crystallizing cocoa butter

Cocoa butter is the main structural component of chocolate and many cosmetics. It crystallizes in several polymorphs, called phases I to VI. We used Synchrotron X-ray diffraction to study the effect of shear on its crystallization. A previously unreported phase (phase X) was found and a crystallization path through phase IV under shear was observed. Samples were crystallized under shear from the melt in temperature controlled Couette cells, at final crystallization temperatures of 17.5^oC, 20^oC and 22.5^oC in Beamline X10A of NSLS. The formation of phase X was observed at low shear rates (90 s-1) and low crystallization temperature (17.5^oC), but was absent at high shear (720 s-1) and high temperature (20^oC). The d-spacing and melting point suggest that this new phase is a mixture rich on two of the three major components of cocoa butter. We also found that, contrary to previous reports, the transition from phase II to phase V can happen through the intermediate phase IV, at high shear rates and temperature.

Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Guthrie, Sarah E.; Sirota, Eric B.; Marangoni, Alejandro G.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

188

Accurate shear measurement with faint sources

For cosmic shear to become an accurate cosmological probe, systematic errors in the shear measurement method must be unambiguously identified and corrected for. Previous work of this series has demonstrated that cosmic shears can be measured accurately in Fourier space in the presence of background noise and finite pixel size, without assumptions on the morphologies of galaxy and PSF. The remaining major source of error is source Poisson noise, due to the finiteness of source photon number. This problem is particularly important for faint galaxies in space-based weak lensing measurements, and for ground-based images of short exposure times. In this work, we propose a simple and rigorous way of removing the shear bias from the source Poisson noise. Our noise treatment can be generalized for images made of multiple exposures through MultiDrizzle. This is demonstrated with the SDSS and COSMOS/ACS data. With a large ensemble of mock galaxy images of unrestricted morphologies, we show that our shear measurement method can achieve sub-percent level accuracy even for images of signal-to-noise ratio less than 5 in general, making it the most promising technique for cosmic shear measurement in the ongoing and upcoming large scale galaxy surveys.

Zhang, Jun; Luo, Wentao; Foucaud, Sebastien

2015-01-01

189

Resolution of axial shear strain elastography

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The technique of mapping the local axial component of the shear strain due to quasi-static axial compression is defined as axial shear strain elastography. In this paper, the spatial resolution of axial shear strain elastography is investigated through simulations, using an elastically stiff cylindrical lesion embedded in a homogeneously softer background. Resolution was defined as the smallest size of the inclusion for which the strain value at the inclusion/background interface was greater than the average of the axial shear strain values at the interface and inside the inclusion. The resolution was measured from the axial shear strain profile oriented at 450 to the axis of beam propagation, due to the absence of axial shear strain along the normal directions. The effects of the ultrasound system parameters such as bandwidth, beamwidth and transducer element pitch along with signal processing parameters such as correlation window length (W) and axial shift (?W) on the estimated resolution were investigated. The results show that the resolution (at 450 orientation) is determined by the bandwidth and the beamwidth. However, the upper bound on the resolution is limited by the larger of the beamwidth and the window length, which is scaled inversely to the bandwidth. The results also show that the resolution is proportional to the pitch and not significantly affected by the axial window shift

190

Strain rate test on RC shear walls

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of these tests are to understand the dynamic effect of strain rate on the restoring force characteristics of reinforced concrete shear walls which are the major aseismatic members of reactor buildings. This report consists of the reports of dynamic material test, dynamic shear wall test and the finite element analysis of dynamic shear wall behavior. Twelve shear wall specimens were fabricated for these tests. Loading methods were monotonic horizontal loading and cyclic horizontal loading. The experimental setup is shown. Moreover, the dynamic compressive and tensile tests on mortar cylinders and the dynamic tensile test on reinforcements were performed, using strain rate as the parameter. The results are reported. As to the finite element analysis of shear wall behavior, the outline of the analysis model and the analysis of the statically loaded specimen and the dynamically loaded specimen are described. As for mortar, the compressive strength and tensile strength increased with strain rate. As for shear wall specimens, the cracking stress and ultimate strength increased with horizontal displacement rate. (K.I.)

191

Precursors to the shear failure of rock discontinuities

Active geophysical monitoring of potential failure along mechanical discontinuities in rock requires identification of precursory signatures to failure in geophysical signals. Active ultrasonic monitoring of shear failure along frictional discontinuities was performed to determine the signatures of potential failure. An instrumented direct shear apparatus was used to apply a constant shearing rate to a discontinuity that was held under a constant normal stress. Transmitted and reflected compressional and shear waves were recorded during the shearing process. Ultrasonic precursors were identified as distinct maxima in the amplitude of transmitted shear waves as well as minima in the amplitude of reflected shear waves that occurred well before the peak shear strength of a frictional discontinuity. The precursors are linked to changes in the local shear specific stiffness along the discontinuity, while the discontinuity's macroscopic shear strength continues to increase prior to failure.

Hedayat, Ahmadreza; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Bobet, Antonio

2014-08-01

192

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The U.S. federal government is considering actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, so the cost of these technologies could significantly influence the overall cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits. This paper examines the potential benefit of reduced technology cost by analyzing the case of the Lieberman-Warner Climate Security Act of 2007 (S.2191). This act had a goal of reducing national carbon emissions in 2050 to levels 72 percent below 2006 emission levels. In April 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration (EIA) published an analysis of the effects of S.2191 on the U.S. energy sector. This report presents a similar analysis: both analyses examined the impacts of S.2191, and both used versions of the National Energy Modeling System. The analysis reported here used modified technology assumptions to reflect U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program goals. The results show that achieving EERE program goals could reduce the cost of meeting greenhouse gas limits, reduce the cost of renewable electricity generation and biofuels, and reduce energy intensity.

Showalter, S.; Wood, F.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2010-06-01

193

Shear deformations of slender reinforced concrete walls under seismic loading

Experimental results gained from quasi-static cyclic tests on 34 slender structural reinforced concrete walls available in the literature are used to examine the shear deformations for displacement demands in the inelastic range. Based on these results the distribution of shear strains within the walls and the variation of shear deformations with top displacements is discussed. It is shown that for shear walls whose shear transfer mechanism is not deteriorating significantly the ratio of shea...

Beyer, Katrin; Dazio, Alessandro; Priestley, Nigel

2011-01-01

194

Shear Localization and Comminution of Granular and Fragmented Silicon Carbide

Granular and pre-fractured bulk silicon carbide were subjected to high strain, high-strain-rate deformation by radial symmetric collapse of a thick-wall cylinder. Profuse shear-band formation was observed, indicating the deformation had inhomogeneous characteristics. The granular silicon carbide had lower shear-band displacement, spacing between shear bands and thickness of shear bands than the pre-factured silicon carbide. Bimodal particle size distribution was seen inside the shear bands fo...

Shih, C.; Nesterenko, V.; Meyers, M.

1997-01-01

195

NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AN AGRICULTURAL SOIL SHEAR STRESS TEST

In this work a numerical simulation of agricultural soil shear stress tests was performed through soil shear strength data detected by a soil shearometer. We used a soil shearometer available on the market to measure soil shear stress and constructed special equipment that enabled automated detection of soil shear stress. It was connected to an acquisition data system that displayed and recorded soil shear stress during the full field tests. A soil shearometer unit was used to the in situ mea...

Salvatore Faugno; Andrea Formato

2007-01-01

196

Shear-Thickening Response of Fumed Silica Suspensions under Steady and Oscillatory Shear

Suspensions of fumed silica in polypropylene glycol exhibit shear-thickening under steady shear and "strain-thickening" under oscillatory shear. Strain-thickening refers to a sharp increase in the complex viscosity eta* observed at critical combinations of strain-amplitude and frequency. Two regimes of strain-thickening behavior have been found: The first occurs at high critical strains and low frequencies, whereas the second occurs at high critical frequencies and a constant lower strain. Strain-thickening in the first regime can be explicitly correlated with steady shear-thickening, using a modified version of the Cox-Merz rule. Accordingly, strain-thickening data for the complex viscosity eta* as a function of the maximum dynamic shear-rate gamma0omega can be superposed against shear-thickening data for the steady viscosity as a function of the steady shear rate. Such a correlation between the two kinds of thickening phenomena has not been reported previously. The combination of shear- and strain-thickening behavior can be qualitatively explained using a clustering mechanism, which attributes the various phenomena to the formation of temporary, flow-induced clusters. The two regimes of strain-thickening are a result of differences in the relative ease of cluster formation. PMID:9056301

Raghavan; Khan

1997-01-01

197

E × B shear suppression of turbulence in diverted H-mode plasmas: role of edge magnetic shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that strong edge magnetic shear, which is generic to divertor plasmas, makes the E × B shearing of turbulence eddys in toroidal geometry more effective. From calculations of the E × B shearing rates for KSTAR edge parameters, we conclude that the enhanced magnetic shear at the diverted KSTAR plasma edge facilitates E × B shear suppression of turbulence and ensuing H-mode transition. (paper)

198

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The non-potentiality of solar magnetic fields is traditionally measured in terms of a magnetic shear angle, i.e., the angle between the observed and potential field azimuths. Here, we introduce another measure of the shear that has not been previously studied in solar active regions, i.e., the one that is associated with the inclination angle of the magnetic field. This form of the shear, which we call 'dip shear', can be calculated by taking the difference between the observed and the potential field inclination. In this Letter, we study the evolution of the dip shear as well as the conventional twist shear in a ?-sunspot using high-resolution vector magnetograms from the Hinode space mission. We monitor these shears in a penumbral region located close to a flaring site during 2006 December 12 and 13. It is found that (1) the penumbral area close to the flaring site shows a high value of the twist shear and dip shear as compared with other parts of the penumbra, (2) after the flare, the value of the dip shear drops in this region while the twist shear tends to increase, (3) the dip shear and twist shear are correlated such that pixels with a large twist shear also tend to exhibit a large dip shear, and (4) the correlation between the twist shear and dip shear is tighter after the flare. The present study suggests that monitoring the twist shear alone during the flare is not sufficient, but we need to monitor it together with the dip shear.the dip shear.

199

Shear modulation experiments with ECCD on TCV

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalous electron transport is determined by turbulence, which in turn is affected by magnetic shear. A novel application of Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD), aiming at localized shear modulation, has been applied on TCV tokamak for experiments on shear-dependent electron transport. Pairs of EC beams, absorbed at the same radius but oriented for co and counter injection, are modulated out of phase in order to force a local modulation of current density at constant input power. Off-axis deposition (?dep=0.24) is performed for sawteeth control. A significant impact on local shear is achieved with IECCD?0.1IOH even if the modulation period is much shorter than current diffusion time. Although source (heat and particle) terms are constant, both electron density and temperature are modulated during alternated ECCD. Thomson Scattering is the diagnostic for local Te and ne measurement, in order to overcome suprathermal problems on ECE from high field side. Once equilibrium effects are taken into account for appropriate mapping of TS measurements onto flux coordinates, Te and electron pressure modulation, peaked on-axis, is confirmed at all radii internal to EC deposition. Best confinement (?ne,0Te,0=+12%) is for co-injection, when shear drops from ?0.5 to less than 0.2. (author)

200

Shear melting of confined solid monolayer films

Strain-induced melting of solid phases in a prototypal slit pore [a monatomic fluid constrained between two plane-parallel walls made up like atoms fixed in the configuration of the (100) plane of the face-centered cubic lattice] is investigated by Monte Carlo calculations in the ``isostress-isostrain'' ensemble where the thermodynamic state of the pore phase is uniquely determined by a fixed number of molecules, constant load or normal stress and constant temperature. If the walls are properly aligned laterally, a commensurate solid phase can form epitaxially. Moving the walls out of alignment (shear strain) creates a distorted solid, which reacts (shear stress) by tending to realign the walls. If the shear strain is increased beyond a critical value, the solid begins to melt. However, melting is a continuous transition which does not immediately lead to a normal liquid, but rather a disordered phase that sustains a non-negligible shear stress. Shear melting is contrasted to ordinary melting at constant normal stress, which appears to be a first-order transition.

Schoen, Martin; Diestler, D. J.; Cushman, John H.

1993-03-01

201

Shear melting of confined solid monolayer films

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Strain-induced melting of solid phases in a prototypal slit pore [a monatomic fluid constrained between two plane-parallel walls made up like atoms fixed in the configuration of the (100) plane of the face-centered cubic lattice] is investigated by Monte Carlo calculations in the ''isostress-isostrain'' ensemble where the thermodynamic state of the pore phase is uniquely determined by a fixed number of molecules, constant load or normal stress and constant temperature. If the walls are properly aligned laterally, a commensurate solid phase can form epitaxially. Moving the walls out of alignment (shear strain) creates a distorted solid, which reacts (shear stress) by tending to realign the walls. If the shear strain is increased beyond a critical value, the solid begins to melt. However, melting is a continuous transition which does not immediately lead to a normal liquid, but rather a disordered phase that sustains a non-negligible shear stress. Shear melting is contrasted to ordinary melting at constant normal stress, which appears to be a first-order transition

202

Pressure-shear experiments on granular materials.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pressure-shear experiments were performed on granular tungsten carbide and sand using a newly-refurbished slotted barrel gun. The sample is a thin layer of the granular material sandwiched between driver and anvil plates that remain elastic. Because of the obliquity, impact generates both a longitudinal wave, which compresses the sample, and a shear wave that probes the strength of the sample. Laser velocity interferometry is employed to measure the velocity history of the free surface of the anvil. Since the driver and anvil remain elastic, analysis of the results is, in principal, straightforward. Experiments were performed at pressures up to nearly 2 GPa using titanium plates and at higher pressure using zirconium plates. Those done with the titanium plates produced values of shear stress of 0.1-0.2 GPa, with the value increasing with pressure. On the other hand, those experiments conducted with zirconia anvils display results that may be related to slipping at an interface and shear stresses mostly at 0.1 GPa or less. Recovered samples display much greater particle fracture than is observed in planar loading, suggesting that shearing is a very effective mechanism for comminution of the grains.

Reinhart, William Dodd (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Thornhill, Tom Finley, III (, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Vogler, Tracy John; Alexander, C. Scott (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

2011-10-01

203

Review article: Cosmology with cosmic shear observations

Cosmic shear is the distortion of images of distant galaxies due to weak gravitational lensing by the large-scale structure in the Universe. Such images are coherently deformed by the tidal field of matter inhomogeneities along the line of sight. By measuring galaxy shape correlations, we can study the properties and evolution of structure on large scales as well as the geometry of the Universe. Thus, cosmic shear has become a powerful probe into the nature of dark matter and the origin of the current accelerated expansion of the Universe. Over the last years, cosmic shear has evolved into a reliable and robust cosmological probe, providing measurements of the expansion history of the Universe and the growth of its structure. We review here the principles of weak gravitational lensing and show how cosmic shear is interpreted in a cosmological context. Then we give an overview of weak-lensing measurements, and present the main observational cosmic-shear results since it was discovered 15 years ago, as well as ...

Kilbinger, Martin

2014-01-01

204

Shear modulation experiments with ECCD on TCV

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Anomalous electron transport is determined by turbulence, which in turn is affected by magnetic shear. A novel application of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), aiming at localized shear modulation, has been applied on the TCV tokamak for experiments on shear-dependent electron transport. Pairs of EC beams, absorbed at the same radius, with one oriented for co- and the other for counter-injection, are modulated out of phase in order to force a local modulation of current-density at constant input power. Off-axis deposition (?dep = 0.24) is performed to avoid the central region, where the low heat flux would make transport analysis difficult. In addition some sawteeth control is achieved in this way. A significant impact on local shear is achieved with IECCD ? 0.1IOH, even when the modulation period is much shorter than the current diffusion time across the whole plasma radius. The main result is that although source (heat and particle) terms are constant, both electron density and temperature are modulated during alternated ECCD. Once equilibrium effects are taken into account for appropriate mapping of Thomson scattering measurements onto flux coordinates, modulation of Te and electron pressure, peaked on-axis, is confirmed at all radii internal to EC deposition. The best confinement occurs for co-injection, in which case a local decrease (?55%) in the magnetic shear causes a decrease in the electron thermal diffdecrease in the electron thermal diffusivity of a similar amount (?65%)

205

High-shear-rate capillary viscometer for inkjet inks

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A capillary viscometer developed to measure the apparent shear viscosity of inkjet inks at high apparent shear rates encountered during inkjet printing is described. By using the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch equation, true shear viscosity versus true shear rate is obtained. The device is comprised of a constant-flow generator, a static pressure monitoring device, a high precision submillimeter capillary die, and a high stiffness flow path. The system, which is calibrated using standard Newtonian low-viscosity silicone oil, can be easily operated and maintained. Results for measurement of the shear-rate-dependent viscosity of carbon-black pigmented water-based inkjet inks at shear rates up to 2x10{sup 5} s{sup -1} are discussed. The Cross model was found to closely fit the experimental data. Inkjet ink samples with similar low-shear-rate viscosities exhibited significantly different shear viscosities at high shear rates depending on particle loading.

Wang Xi [FUJIFILM Dimatix, Inc., Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Carr, Wallace W.; Bucknall, David G. [School of Polymer, Textile, and Fiber Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Morris, Jeffrey F. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Benjamin Levich Institute for Physico-Chemical Hydrodynamics, City College of New York, New York, New York 10031 (United States)

2010-06-15

206

Exponential Shear Flow of Linear, Entangled Polymeric Liquids

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A previously proposed reptation model is used to interpret exponential shear flow data taken on an entangled polystyrenesolution. Both shear and normal stress measurements are made during exponential shear using mechanical means. The model iscapable of explaining all trends seen in the data, and suggests a novel analysis of the data. This analysis demonstrates thatexponential shearing flow is no more capable of stretching polymer chains than is inception of steady shear at comparableinstantaneous shear rates. In fact, all exponential shear flow stresses measured are bounded quantitatively by stressmeasurements taken during inception of steady shear. Information taken from the model about chain stretching suggests thatnormal stress measurements are strong indications of stretching, whereas shear stress measurements are indicative of bothchain stretching and segment orientation.

Neergaard, Jesper; Park, Kyungho

2000-01-01

207

Dynamic modes of red blood cells in oscillatory shear flow

The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) in oscillatory shear flow was studied using differential equations of three variables: a shape parameter, the inclination angle ? , and phase angle ? of the membrane rotation. In steady shear flow, three types of dynamics occur depending on the shear rate and viscosity ratio. (i) tank-treading (TT): ? rotates while the shape and ? oscillate. (ii) tumbling (TB): ? rotates while the shape and ? oscillate. (iii) intermediate motion: both ? and ? rotate synchronously or intermittently. In oscillatory shear flow, RBCs show various dynamics based on these three motions. For a low shear frequency with zero mean shear rate, a limit-cycle oscillation occurs, based on the TT or TB rotation at a high or low shear amplitude, respectively. This TT-based oscillation well explains recent experiments. In the middle shear amplitude, RBCs show an intermittent or synchronized oscillation. As shear frequency increases, the vesicle oscillation becomes delayed with respect to the shear oscillation. At a high frequency, multiple limit-cycle oscillations coexist. The thermal fluctuations can induce transitions between two orbits at very low shear amplitudes. For a high mean shear rate with small shear oscillation, the shape and ? oscillate in the TT motion but only one attractor exists even at high shear frequencies. The measurement of these oscillatory modes is a promising tool for quantifying the viscoelasticity of RBCs, synthetic capsules, and lipid vesicles.

Noguchi, Hiroshi

2010-06-01

208

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish La suavidad de la carne bovina es un rasgo importante para la satisfacción del consumidor y es la principal característica asociada a su palatabilidad, por lo que es importante evaluar su variabilidad en diferentes razas bovinas. Un experimento fue diseñado para evaluar la Fuerza de Corte de Warner- [...] Bratzler (FCWB) de carne del ojo de la costilla de bovinos Brangus rojos y su aceptabilidad. La suavidad de la carne fue evaluada mediante la FCWB; además, se realizó una evaluación de preferencia de consumo para estimar cuantitativamente la suavidad, jugosidad, sabor, término y aceptación general de los cortes evaluados. La media de la FCWB fue 5.03 kg ± 0.93 kg, lo que teóricamente representa una carne dura. En la distribución de las muestras se registraron 21 % y 11 % de cortes, respectivamente, de carne moderadamente suave y suave. La condición de los animales (toros o novillos) no fue significativa para la FCWB (p > 0.5). Todas las características evaluadas en la evaluación hedónica tuvieron alrededor de 6 puntos de un total de 8 (8 era mejor). La suavidad, jugosidad y sabor mostraron una correlación alta y significativa (p Abstract in english Beef tenderness is an important trait in consumer satisfaction and has been considered as the main trait for palatability, for which reason it is important to evaluate its variability in different cattle breeds. An experiment was designed to evaluate the Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF) of Red Bra [...] ngus cattle rib eye steaks and consumer acceptance. The tenderness of beef rib eye steaks was evaluated by the WBSF. A consumer preference evaluation test was carried out to quantitatively estimate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, doneness and general acceptance of the evaluated steaks. Mean WBSF was 5.03 kg ± 0.93 kg, theoretically indicating a tough beef. The distribution of the samples showed 21 % and 11 % of moderately tender and tender beef cuts, respectively. Cattle condition (bulls and steers) was not significant for the WBSF (p > 0.5). All the traits evaluated in the hedonic evaluation had approximately 6 points of a total of 8 (8 was best). Tenderness, juiciness and flavor presented a high and significant correlation (p

Gaspar Manuel, Parra-Bracamonte; Ana María, Sifuentes-Rincón; Williams, Arellano-Vera; Juan Gabriel, Magaña-Monforte; José Alberto, Ramírez-De León; Gonzalo, Velázquez.

2014-04-01

209

Shear stress in lattice Boltzmann simulations.

A thorough study of shear stress within the lattice Boltzmann method is provided. Via standard multiscale Chapman-Enskog expansion we investigate the dependence of the error in shear stress on grid resolution showing that the shear stress obtained by the lattice Boltzmann method is second-order accurate. This convergence, however, is usually spoiled by the boundary conditions. It is also investigated which value of the relaxation parameter minimizes the error. Furthermore, for simulations using velocity boundary conditions, an artificial mass increase is often observed. This is a consequence of the compressibility of the lattice Boltzmann fluid. We investigate this issue and derive an analytic expression for the time dependence of the fluid density in terms of the Reynolds number, Mach number, and a geometric factor for the case of a Poiseuille flow through a rectangular channel in three dimensions. Comparison of the analytic expression with results of lattice Boltzmann simulations shows excellent agreement. PMID:19518377

Krüger, Timm; Varnik, Fathollah; Raabe, Dierk

2009-04-01

210

Vorticity production through rotation, shear and baroclinicity

In the absence of rotation and shear, and under the assumption of constant temperature or specific entropy, purely potential forcing by localized expansion waves is known to produce irrotational flows that have no vorticity. Here we study the production of vorticity under idealized conditions when there is rotation, shear, or baroclinicity, to address the problem of vorticity generation in the interstellar medium in a systematic fashion. We use three-dimensional periodic box numerical simulations to investigate the various effects in isolation. We find that for slow rotation, vorticity production in an isothermal gas is small in the sense that the ratio of the root-mean-square values of vorticity and velocity is small compared with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. For Coriolis numbers above a certain level, vorticity production saturates at a value where the aforementioned ratio becomes comparable with the wavenumber of the energy carrying motions. Shear also raises the vorticity production, but...

Del Sordo, Fabio

2010-01-01

211

Magnetic shear. III - Hale region 17255

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hale active region 17255, which in many respects was the most vigorous active region observed during the first operational period of SMM, appears to lie between two large areas of flow (observed in C IV) converging toward the major axis of the region. In the 6-day period from November 6-12, 1980, the major axis of the region rotates by about 25 deg. Several segments of the magnetic neutral line show C IV flow velocities of opposite sign on either side of the neutral line. Those segments whose orientation is favorable for measuring velocity components parallel to the neutral line show evidence that such flow is present, which is interpreted as evidence for magnetic shear. This, together with other evidence, suggests that magnetic shear is widespread in this region, as in the two previous regions studied. It is concluded that magnetic shear is often associated with flaring activity but is not a sufficient condition for flaring to occur. 8 references

212

Transversely Compressed- and Restrained Shear Joints

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Anchorage of FRP strengthening systems where the deformation perpendicular to the FRP material is restrained or a compressive force is applied on the strengthening, seems to provide ductility, increased utilization of the FRP and failure modes which can be controlled through the anchorage method. This paper presents theoretical model which can predict the response of transversely compressed and restrained single- and double lap shear joints. The interface material model is based on a cohesive law in the shear-slip plane with a descending branch and a uniform frictional stress added due to the friction in the crack, emanating from the transverse pressure or restraint. The theoretical model is compared with experimental results from transversely compressed single- and double shear joints. Also theoretical predictions of a mechanical integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage load capacity are carried out and compared with tests. It is seen that the theory correlates well with the experimental results.

Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Hansen, Christian Skodborg

2013-01-01

213

Shear banding in soft glassy materials

Many soft materials, including microgels, dense colloidal emulsions, star polymers, dense packings of multilamellar vesicles, and textured morphologies of liquid crystals, share the basic ‘glassy’ features of structural disorder and metastability. These in turn give rise to several notable features in the low frequency shear rheology (deformation and flow properties) of these materials: in particular, the existence of a yield stress below which the material behaves like a solid, and above which it flows like a liquid. In the last decade, intense experimental activity has also revealed that these materials often display a phenomenon known as shear banding, in which the flow profile across the shear cell exhibits macroscopic bands of different viscosity. Two distinct classes of yield stress fluid have been identified: those in which the shear bands apparently persist permanently (for as long as the flow remains applied), and those in which banding arises only transiently during a process in which a steady flowing state is established out of an initial rest state (for example, in a shear startup or step stress experiment). Despite being technically transient, such bands may in practice persist for a very long time and so be mistaken for the true steady state response of the material in experimental practice. After surveying the motivating experimental data, we describe recent progress in addressing it theoretically, using the soft glassy rheology model and a simple fluidity model. We also briefly place these theoretical approaches in the context of others in the literature, including elasto-plastic models, shear transformation zone theories, and molecular dynamics simulations. We discuss finally some challenges that remain open to theory and experiment alike.

Fielding, S. M.

2014-10-01

214

Shear Viscosity in a Gluon Gas

The relation of the shear viscosity coefficient to the recently introduced transport rate is derived within relativistic kinetic theory. We calculate the shear viscosity over entropy ratio \\eta/s for a gluon gas, which involves elastic gg-> gg perturbative QCD (PQCD) scatterings as well as inelastic ggggg PQCD bremsstrahlung. For \\alpha_s=0.3 we find \\eta/s=0.13 and for \\alpha_s=0.6, \\eta/s=0.076. The small \\eta/s values, which suggest strongly coupled systems, are due to th...

Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

2007-01-01

215

Universal Anisotropy in Force Networks under Shear

Scaling properties of patterns formed by large contact forces are studied as a function of the applied shear stress, in two-dimensional static packings generated from the force network ensemble. An anisotropic finite-size-scaling analysis shows that the applied shear does not affect the universal scaling properties of these patterns, but simply induces different length scales in the principal directions of the macroscopic stress tensor. The ratio of these length scales quantifies the anisotropy of the force networks, and is found not to depend on the details of the underlying contact network, in contrast with other properties such as the yield stress.

Ostojic, S; Nienhuis, B; Ostojic, Srdjan; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.; Nienhuis, Bernard

2006-01-01

216

Harmonic Shears of Slit and Polygonal Mappings

In this paper, we study harmonic mappings by using the shear construction, introduced by Clunie and Sheil-Small in 1984. We consider two classes of conformal mappings, each of which maps the unit disk D univalently onto a domain which is convex in the horizontal direction, and shear these mappings with suitable dilatations \\omega. Mappings of the first class map the unit disk D onto four-slit domains and mappings of the second class take D onto regular n-gons. In addition, we discuss the minimal surfaces associated with such harmonic mappings. Furthermore, illustrations of mappings and associated minimal surfaces are given by using Mathematica.

Ponnusamy, Saminathan; Rasila, Antti

2012-01-01

217

Harmonic Shears of Slit and Polygonal Mappings

In this paper, we study harmonic mappings by using the shear construction, introduced by Clunie and Sheil-Small in 1984. We consider two classes of conformal mappings, each of which maps the unit disk D univalently onto a domain which is convex in the horizontal direction, and shear these mappings with suitable dilatations \\omega. Mappings of the first class map the unit disk D onto four-slit domains and mappings of the second class take D onto regular n-gons. In addition, w...

Ponnusamy, Saminathan; Quach, Tri; Rasila, Antti

2012-01-01

218

Velocity Profiles in Slowly Sheared Bubble Rafts

Measurements of average velocity profiles in a bubble raft subjected to slow, steady-shear demonstrate the coexistence between a flowing state and a jammed state similar to that observed for three-dimensional foams and emulsions [Coussot {\\it et al,}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 88}, 218301 (2002)]. For sufficiently slow shear, the flow is generated by nonlinear topological rearrangements. We report on the connection between this short-time motion of the bubbles and the long-time averages. We find that a smooth, average velocity is reached after averaging over only a relatively few number of rearrangement events.

Lauridsen, J; Dennin, M; Lauridsen, John; Chanan, Greg; Dennin, Michael

2004-01-01

219

Couette Shear for Elliptical Particles Near Jamming

We have performed 2D Couette shear experiments on systems of photoelastic particles. The particles are identical ellipses with aspect ratio 2. We use the photoelastic property of the disks to obtain the forces acting on a particle. We use two cameras to simultaneously image the particle motion and the photoelastic force response. Using ellipses enables us to understand the effect of particle shape asymmetry on the large-scale behavior on the rheological behavior of granular systems near jamming. Of particular interest are the nematic ordering of the ellipses, the formation of shear bands and the nature of force transmission.

Farhadi, Somayeh

2011-03-01

220

Asymmetric velocity correlations in shearing media.

A model of soft frictionless disks in two dimensions at zero temperature is simulated with a shearing dynamics to study various kinds of asymmetries in sheared systems. We examine both single particle properties, the spatial velocity correlation function, and a correlation function designed to separate clockwise and counterclockwise rotational fields from one another. Among the rich and interesting behaviors we find that the velocity correlation along the two different diagonals corresponding to compression and dilation, respectively, are almost identical and, furthermore, that a feature in one of the correlation functions is directly related to irreversible plastic events. PMID:21230065

Olsson, Peter

2010-09-01

221

Halo abundances and shear in void models

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study the non-linear gravitational collapse of dark matter into halos through numerical N-body simulations of Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi void models. We extend the halo mass function formalism to these models in a consistent way. This extension not only compares well with the simulated data at all times and radii, but it also gives interesting clues about the impact of the background shear on the growth of perturbations. Our results give hints about the possibility of constraining the background shear via cluster number counts, which could then give rise to strong constraints on general inhomogeneous models, of any scale.

Alonso, David; García-Bellido, Juan

2012-01-01

222

Continuum stress characteristics inside shear bands

A defining aspect of the large strain, fully developed plastic flow regime, or "critical state", for granular materials undergoing localized failure is the continual growth of new force chains amidst collapse by buckling of old force chains in the persistent shear band. This paper explores the constitutive response inside shear bands, in particular, the birth-death evolution of force chains for a Cosserat medium, whereby closure relationships for stresses and couple stresses satisfy the isostatic condition, albeit in a spatiotemporal average sense only. The continuum stress-equilibrium relations comprise a hyperbolic system of partial differential equations giving rise to characteristic lines referred to in the literature as stress chains.

Tordesillas, Antoinette; Peters, John F.; Shi, Jingyu

2013-06-01

223

Seismic behaviour of concrete shear walls

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concrete shear walls have an important contribution to building stiffness. So, it is necessary to know their behaviour under seismic loads. The ultimate behaviour of shear walls under dynamic loadings has been studied. The study includes: - A description of the non linear global model based on cyclic static tests. - Non linear time history calculations for various forcing functions. The comparison of linear and non linear results have shown important margins related to the ductility when the bandwidth of the forcing function is narrow and centred on the wall natural frequency

224

Zonal flow formation in the presence of ambient mean shear

The effect of mean shear flows on zonal flow formation is considered in the contexts of plasma drift wave turbulence and quasi-geostrophic turbulence models. The generation of zonal flows by modulational instability in the presence of large-scale mean shear flows is studied using the method of characteristics as applied to the wave kinetic equation. It is shown that mean shear flows reduce the modulational instability growth rate by shortening the coherency time of the wave spectrum with the zonal shear. The scalings of zonal flow growth rate and turbulent vorticity flux with mean shear are determined in the strong shear limit.

Hsu, Pei-Chun; Diamond, P. H.

2015-02-01

225

Shear buckling analysis of a hat-stiffened panel

A buckling analysis was performed on a hat-stiffened panel subjected to shear loading. Both local buckling and global buckling were analyzed. The global shear buckling load was found to be several times higher than the local shear buckling load. The classical shear buckling theory for a flat plate was found to be useful in predicting the local shear buckling load of the hat-stiffened panel, and the predicted local shear buckling loads thus obtained compare favorably with the results of finite element analysis.

Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

1994-01-01

226

Integration of the TDWR and LLWAS wind shear detection system

Operational demonstrations of a prototype TDWR/LLWAS (Terminal Doppler Weather Radar/Low Level Wind shear Alarm System) integrated wind shear detection system were conducted. The integration of wind shear detection systems is needed to provide end-users with a single, consensus source of information. A properly implemented integrated system provides wind shear warnings of a higher quality than stand-alone LLWAS or TDWR systems. The algorithmic concept used to generate the TDWR/LLWAS integrated products and several case studies are discussed, indicating the viability and potential of integrated wind shear detection systems. Implications for integrating ground and airborne wind shear detection systems are briefly examined.

Cornman, Larry

1991-01-01

227

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Studies have also shown that physico-chemical forces of repulsion and attraction exist in swelling or active clay-water systems. However, common direct shear testing practices typically ignore pore fluid effects. This study investigated the effect of pore fluid chemistry on direct shear testing. Samples were tested from 2 overburden dumps and a tailings facility located in the Mildred Lake Settling Basin in Alberta. Back analyses of case records were conducted using a limit equilibrium methodology. The chemistry and mineralogy of the area was tested. Pore fluid chemistry was simulated and 2 direct shear tests were conducted on samples consolidated with a slurry. The analyses considered mobilized strength at deformation levels. The 3 case histories were used to demonstrate that proper fill height considerations and depths below the Pleistocene, field shear strength of clay Clearwater soil units is in alignment with strengths of approximately 8 degrees. The study demonstrated that tests conducted with distilled water in laboratory conditions can often produce unrealistically low test results. Direct shear laboratory tests should focus on matching pore water chemistry by using shear box reversals to create residual shear planes. Pore water chemistry must match the zone and location of potential slip planes. It was concluded that future designs must use appropriate pore water pressure ratios that correspond to the height of the fill. 21 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs.

McRoberts, E.C. [AMEC Earth and Environmental Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Cameron, R.; Mimura, W. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

2008-07-01

228

Computer simulation of three dimensional shearing of granular materials: Formation of shear bands

We used computer simulations to study spontaneous strain localization in granular materials, as a result of symmetry breaking non-homogeneous deformations. Axisymmetric triaxial shear tests were simulated by means of standard three-dimensional Distinct Element Method (DEM) with spherical grains. Carefully prepared dense specimens were compressed between two platens and, in order to mimic the experimental conditions, stress controlled, (initially) axisymmetric boundary conditions were constructed. Strain localization gave rise to visible shear bands, previously found experimentally under similar conditions by several groups, and different morphologies could be reproduced. We examined the stress-strain relation during the process and found good agreement with experiments. Formation mechanism of shear bands is discussed.

Fazekas, S; Kertész, J; Wolf, D E

2006-01-01

229

SUPERSONIC SHEAR INSTABILITIES IN ASTROPHYSICAL BOUNDARY LAYERS

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disk accretion onto weakly magnetized astrophysical objects often proceeds via a boundary layer (BL) that forms near the object's surface, in which the rotation speed of the accreted gas changes rapidly. Here, we study the initial stages of formation for such a BL around a white dwarf or a young star by examining the hydrodynamical shear instabilities that may initiate mixing and momentum transport between the two fluids of different densities moving supersonically with respect to each other. We find that an initially laminar BL is unstable to two different kinds of instabilities. One is an instability of a supersonic vortex sheet (implying a discontinuous initial profile of the angular speed of the gas) in the presence of gravity, which we find to have a growth rate of order (but less than) the orbital frequency. The other is a sonic instability of a finite width, supersonic shear layer, which is similar to the Papaloizou-Pringle instability. It has a growth rate proportional to the shear inside the transition layer, which is of order the orbital frequency times the ratio of stellar radius to the BL thickness. For a BL that is thin compared to the radius of the star, the shear rate is much larger than the orbital frequency. Thus, we conclude that sonic instabilities play a dominant role in the initial stages of nonmagnetic BL formation and give rise to very fast mixing between disk gas and stellar fluid in the supersonic regime.

Belyaev, Mikhail A.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

2012-06-20

230

Shear behavior of bovine scleral tissue.

Ocular tissue properties have been widely studied in tension and compression for humans and a variety of animals. However, direct shear testing of the tissues of the sclera appear to be absent from the literature even though modeling, analyses, and anatomical studies have indicated that shear may play a role in the etiology of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). In this work, the mechanical behavior of bovine scleral tissue in shear has been studied in both out-of-plane and in-plane modes of deformation. Stress-strain and relaxation tests were conducted on tissue specimens at controlled temperature and hydration focusing on trends related to specimen location and orientation. There was generally found to be no significant effect of specimen orientation and angular location in the globe on shear stiffness in both modes. The in-plane response, which is the primary load carrying mode, was found to be substantially stiffer than the out-of-plane mode. Also, within the in-plane studies, tissue further from the optic nerve was stiffer than the near tissue. The viscosity coefficient of the tissue varied insignificantly with distance from the optic nerve, but overall was much higher in-plane than out-of-plane. PMID:24805965

Argento, Alan; Kim, Wonsuk; Rozsa, Frank W; DeBolt, Kori L; Zikanova, Sophia; Richards, Julia R

2014-07-01

231

Modeling adiabatic shear failure from energy considerations

The numerical simulation of dynamic structural failure by localized shear is quite complex in terms of constitutive models and choice of adequate failure criteria, along with a pronounced mesh-sensitivity. As a result, the existing numerical procedures are usually quite sophisticated, so that their application for design purposes is still limited. This study is based on the implementation of a simple energy-based criterion, which was developed on experimental considerations ( Rittel et al., 2006), and uses a minimal number of adjustable parameters. According to this criterion, a material point starts to fail when the total strain energy density reaches a critical value. Thereafter, the strength of the element decreases gradually to zero to mimic the actual structural behavior. The criterion was embedded into commercial finite element software and tested by simulating numerically four typical high-rate experiments. The first is the dynamic torsion test of a tubular specimen. The second concerns the failure mode transition in mode II fracture of an edge crack in plain strain. The last two involve dynamic shear localization under high rate compression of a cylindrical and a shear compression specimen. A very good adequation was found both qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitatively, in terms of failure path selection, and quantitatively, in terms of local strains, temperatures and critical impact velocity. The proposed approach is enticing from an engineering perspective aimed at predicting the onset and propagation of dynamic shear localization in actual structures.

Dolinski, M.; Rittel, D.; Dorogoy, A.

2010-11-01

232

Kinetic ballooning mode with negative shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kinetic analysis on the ballooning mode in tokamaks has indicated the existence of a residual ballooning mode in the negative shear region (si), and is characterized by a broad eigenfunction ?(?) extending to ??50 in the ballooning space. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

233

Red blood cell in simple shear flow

The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

2013-03-01

234

Shear-enhanced oral microbial adhesion.

Shear-enhanced adhesion, although not observed for fimbria-mediated adhesion of oral Actinomyces spp., was noted for Hsa-mediated adhesion of Streptococcus gordonii to sialic acid-containing receptors, an interaction implicated in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. PMID:20023085

Ding, Albert M; Palmer, Robert J; Cisar, John O; Kolenbrander, Paul E

2010-02-01

235

Shear generated turbulence in the natural environment

Shear generated turbulence is an important source of mixing in both the ocean and atmosphere. Often because of sampling difficulties we are limited to deriving statistical relationships between the turbulence activity and the larger scale properties of the fluid flow. The Western Equatorial Pacific proves to be an ideal natural laboratory to study shear generated turbulence. Here turbulent production is dominated by the shear associated with relatively long lived flow structures in the form of high vertical mode inertia-gravity waves and flow instabilities. With enough vertical resolution we can directly measure the characteristics of these flow features. We find a strong relationship between the vertical shear and stratification and the turbulent dissipation and implied vertical diffusion coefficient. In addition there is a strong indication from the our observations that the vertical mixing length scale is inversely proportional to the buoyancy frequency as found in numerical DNS and LES studies. The dataset is also an excellent test for parameterization schemes. We find with suitable modification that one such scheme is able to capture a good deal of the vertical variation of turbulent activity as well as variations between different sampling periods.

Richards, Kelvin

2014-05-01

236

Equilibrium states of homogeneous sheared compressible turbulence

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Equilibrium states of homogeneous compressible turbulence subjected to rapid shear is studied using rapid distortion theory (RDT. The purpose of this study is to determine the numerical solutions of unsteady linearized equations governing double correlations spectra evolution. In this work, RDT code developed by authors solves these equations for compressible homogeneous shear flows. Numerical integration of these equations is carried out using a second-order simple and accurate scheme. The two Mach numbers relevant to homogeneous shear flow are the turbulent Mach number Mt, given by the root mean square turbulent velocity fluctuations divided by the speed of sound, and the gradient Mach number Mg which is the mean shear rate times the transverse integral scale of the turbulence divided by the speed of sound. Validation of this code is performed by comparing RDT results with direct numerical simulation (DNS of [A. Simone, G.N. Coleman, and C. Cambon, Fluid Mech. 330, 307 (1997] and [S. Sarkar, J. Fluid Mech. 282, 163 (1995] for various values of initial gradient Mach number Mg0. It was found that RDT is valid for small values of the non-dimensional times St (St 10 in particular for large values of Mg0. This essential feature justifies the resort to RDT in order to determine equilibrium states in the compressible regime.

M. Riahi

2011-06-01

237

Modeling of Turbulent Free Shear Flows

The modeling of turbulent free shear flows is crucial to the simulation of many aerospace applications, yet often receives less attention than the modeling of wall boundary layers. Thus, while turbulence model development in general has proceeded very slowly in the past twenty years, progress for free shear flows has been even more so. This paper highlights some of the fundamental issues in modeling free shear flows for propulsion applications, presents a review of past modeling efforts, and identifies areas where further research is needed. Among the topics discussed are differences between planar and axisymmetric flows, development versus self-similar regions, the effect of compressibility and the evolution of compressibility corrections, the effect of temperature on jets, and the significance of turbulent Prandtl and Schmidt numbers for reacting shear flows. Large eddy simulation greatly reduces the amount of empiricism in the physical modeling, but is sensitive to a number of numerical issues. This paper includes an overview of the importance of numerical scheme, mesh resolution, boundary treatment, sub-grid modeling, and filtering in conducting a successful simulation.

Yoder, Dennis A.; DeBonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicolas J.

2013-01-01

238

Sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The universality of the observed characteristics of sheared flows points to a general ingredient to explain the damping/driving mechanisms responsible for the development of these flows in the plasma boundary region of fusion devices. Experiments in the TJ-II stellarator showing that the generation of spontaneous sheared flows at the plasma edge requires a minimum plasma density or density gradient, open a unique possibility to characterize the dynamics of sheared flow development in fusion plasmas. The effective viscosity at the plasma edge can be deduced by means of the decay rate of the perpendicular flow measurement once the driving force has been removed. Changes in the plasma rotation and turbulence have been studied when an electric field is externally applied at the plasma edge. The relaxation of flows and radial electric fields has been compared in the edge plasma region of TJ-II stellarator and CASTOR tokamak showing a striking similarity. The findings can help to test neoclassical and anomalous damping mechanisms in fusion plasmas. Finally, the emergence of the plasma edge sheared flow as a function of plasma density can be explained using a simple second-order phase transition model that reproduces many of the features of the TJ-II experimental data while capturing the qualitative features of the transition near the critical point

239

BOUNDARY SHEAR STRESS ALONG VEGETATED STREAMBANKS

This research is intended to improve our understanding of the role of riparian vegetation in stream morphology by evaluating the effects of vegetation on boundary shear stress, providing insight to the type and density of vegetation required for streambank stability. The resu...

240

Route to Turbulence in Sheared Annular Electroconvection

We studied the route to turbulence of a 2D, electrically-driven annular film, using direct numerical simulation. The film can simultaneously be sheared by rotating the inner edge of the annulus. The simulation models a laboratory experiment which consists of a weakly conducting liquid crystal film suspended between concentric electrodes. The film convects when a sufficiently large voltage V is applied. The flow is driven by a surface charge density inversion unstable to the applied potential. The important dimensionless parameters are a Rayleigh-like number Ra, proportional to V^2, a Prandtl-like number Pr and the radius ratio ?, characterizing the annular geometry. The applied shear has Reynolds number Re. The simulation uses a pseudo-spectral method with radial Chebyshev polynomials and azimuthal Fourier modes. The numerical results show a suppression of the onset of convection under the influence of shear that quantitatively agrees with previous theoretical and experimental results. Just above onset under shear, the numerical results reveal a Ruelle-Takens- Newhouse scenario in which there are bifurcations between various periodic and quasi-periodic flows. With increasing Ra, at constant applied Re, we observe subcritical bifurcations, indicated by sudden increases in convective charge transport. These jumps are also seen experimentally, and correspond to bifurcations between different azimuthal mode numbers.

Tsai, Peichun; Morris, Stephen W.; Daya, Zahir A.

2006-11-01

241

Wall Shear Stress Measurements in Microfluidic Systems.

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

- : -, 2014, s. 607. ISBN N. [European Fluid Mechanics Conference EFMC10 /10./. Copenhagen (DK), 15.09.2014-18.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GAP101/12/0585 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : microfluidics * electrodiffusion method * wall shear stress Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering http://www.efmc10.org/

Tihon, Jaroslav; P?nkavová, V?ra; Stanovský, Petr; Vejražka, Ji?í

242

Thermal migration of ice stream shear margins

Ice stream shear margins can be viewed as boundary layers connecting a Poiseuille-like shear flow in ice ridges with a membrane-like, lateral-shear dominated flow in the ice stream itself. The discharge of the ice stream is then highly sensitive to its width: with a Glen's law rheology, ice velocity scales as the fourth power of ice stream width. A crucial question therefore is how the width of the ice stream evolves over time. Existing, depth-integrated models of ice stream dynamics typically predict that the bed underlying an ice ridge should freeze over time, while the ice stream bed remains unfrozen, and the transition between the two should occur in the shear margin. Depth-integrated models however cannot describe the details of that transition, which would allow the rate of margin migration to be computed. We consider this boundary layer problem in detail, focusing on an abrupt transition from free slip to no slip at the point where the bed temperature changes from temperate (i.e., at the melting point) to subtemperate (i.e., below the melting point). This engenders multiple singularities in both, stress field and hence volumetric heating rate, and in heat flux. We show that the strength of these singularities is controlled by the far field, and that one of the singularities in the heat flux must be alleviated in order to allow the ice stream to widen. In the process, we show that at least a small zone of temperate ice must also form above the transition between frozen and unfrozen ice. We show that the alleviation of the heat flux singularity is possible only for specific combinations of the following quantities : i) the strength of shear heating in the margin dicated by lateral shear stress acting on the ice stream margin ii) the background temperature gradient dictated by surface temperatures and advection in the ice ridge and iii) the margin migration rate. More specifically, in the absence of significant advection from the ice ridge, we are able to show (by using the Wiener-Hopf technique) that margin migration rate is determined uniquely by lateral shear stresses and background temperature gradient.

Schoof, C.; Haseloff, M.

2012-12-01

243

Shear viscosity of CFT plasma at finite coupling

We present evidence for the universality of the shear viscosity of conformal gauge theory plasmas beyond infinite coupling. We comment of subtleties of computing the shear viscosity in effective models of gauge/gravity correspondence rather than in string theory.

Buchel, Alex

2008-01-01

244

Shear crack formation and propagation in reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behaviour of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (R/ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behaviour of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC influences the shear capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear. The experimental program consists of ECC with short randomly distributed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber beams with different stirrup arrangements and conventional reinforced concrete (R/C) counterparts for comparison. The shear crack formation mechanism of ECC is investigated in detail and can be characterized by an opening and sliding of the crack. Photogrammetry was utilized to monitor the shear deformations of the specimens. Multiple shear cracking and strain hardening of ECC was observed under shear loading and based upon photogrammetric results fundamental descriptions of shear crack opening, sliding and subsequent failure are presented.

Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

2011-01-01

245

Shear-induced micellar growth in dilute surfactant solutions

The shear-thickening transition observed in aqueous solutions of cetyltrimethylammonium tosylate (CTAT) is investigated using rheology and small-angle neutron scattering under shear. Above a critical shear rate dot gammaC, the increase of the apparent shear viscosity is due to the formation of a shear-induced phase. Using a Porod representation to analyze the aggregate local morphology, we demonstrate that the shear-induced viscous state consists of cylindrical micelles strongly aligned in the flow. We also investigate the shear rate and surfactant concentration dependencies of the structure factor peak revealed at low wave vectors. Above dot gammaC, the systematic shift of the structure factor peak to lower wave vectors is interpreted in terms of the shear-induced micellar growth of the aggregates.

Berret, J.-F.; Gamez-Corrales, R.; Séréro, Y.; Molino, F.; Lindner, P.

2001-06-01

246

Shearing of fibrillar adhesive microstructure: friction and shear-related changes in pull-off force.

To characterize the effect of shearing on function of fibrillar adhesive microstructure, friction and shear-related changes in pull-off force of a biomimetic polyvinylsiloxane mushroom-shaped fibrillar adhesive microstructure were studied. In contrast to a control flat surface, which exhibited pronounced stick-slip motion accompanied with high friction, the fibrillar microstructure demonstrated a stable and smooth sliding with a friction coefficient approximately four times lower. The structured contact also manifested zero pull-off force in a sheared state, while the flat surface exhibited highly scattered and unreliable pull-off force when affected by contact shearing. It appears that the fibrillar microstructure can be used in applications where a total attachment force should be generated in a binary on/off state and, most surprisingly, is suitable to stabilize and minimize elastomer friction. PMID:17327201

Varenberg, M; Gorb, S

2007-08-22

247

High strength semi-active energy absorbers using shear- and mixedmode operation at high shear rates

This body of research expands the design space of semi-active energy absorbers for shock isolation and crash safety by investigating and characterizing magnetorheological fluids (MRFs) at high shear rates ( > 25,000 1/s) under shear and mixed-mode operation. Magnetorheological energy absorbers (MREAs) work well as adaptive isolators due to their ability to quickly and controllably adjust to changes in system mass or impact speed while providing fail-safe operation. However, typical linear stroking MREAs using pressure-driven flows have been shown to exhibit reduced controllability as impact speed (shear rate) increases. The objective of this work is to develop MREAs that improve controllability at high shear rates by using pure shear and mixed shear-squeeze modes of operation, and to present the fundamental theory and models of MR fluids under these conditions. A proof of concept instrument verified that the MR effect persists in shear mode devices at shear rates corresponding to low speed impacts. This instrument, a concentric cylinder Searle cell magnetorheometer, was then used to characterize three commercially available MRFs across a wide range of shear rates, applied magnetic fields, and temperatures. Characterization results are presented both as flow curves according to established practice, and as an alternate nondimensionalized analysis based on Mason number. The Mason number plots show that, with appropriate correction coefficients for operating temperature, the varied flow curve data can be collapsed to a single master curve. This work represents the first shear mode characterization of MRFs at shear rates over 10 times greater than available with commercial rheometers, as well as the first validation of Mason number analysis to high shear rate flows in MRFs. Using the results from the magnetorheometer, a full scale rotary vane MREA was developed as part of the Lightweight Magnetorheological Energy Absorber System (LMEAS) for an SH-60 Seahawk helicopter crew seat. Characterization tests were carried out on the LMEAS using a 40 vol% MRF used in the previous magnetorheometer tests. These were analyzed using both flow curves and apparent viscosity vs. Mason number diagrams. The nondimensionalized Mason number analysis resulted in data for all conditions of temperature, fluid composition, and shear rate, to collapse onto a single characteristic or master curve. Significantly, the temperature corrected Mason number results from both the bench top magnetorheometer and full scale rotary vane MREA collapse to the same master curve. This enhances the ability of designers of MRFs and MREAs to safely and effectively apply characterization data collected in low shear rate, controlled temperature environments to operational environments that may be completely different. Finally, the Searle cell magnetorheometer was modified with an enforced eccentricity to work in both squeeze and shear modes simultaneously to achieve so called squeeze strengthening of the working MRF, thereby increasing the apparent yield stress and the specific energy absorption. By squeezing the active MR fluid, particles undergo compression-assisted aggregation into stronger, more robust columns which resist shear better than single chains. A hybrid model describing the squeeze strengthening behavior is developed, and recommendations are made for using squeeze strengthening to improve practical MREA devices.

Becnel, Andrew C.

248

A phenomenological model of a rigid, work hardening, plastic material, with rate hardening and thermal softening, is analysed to determine susceptibility to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. Emphasis is placed on the influence of finite thermal conductivity.

Wright, T.

1991-01-01

249

Shear-stress relaxation and ensemble transformation of shear-stress autocorrelation functions

We revisit the relation between the shear-stress relaxation modulus G (t ) , computed at finite shear strain 0 stress autocorrelation functions C(t ) | ? and C(t ) | ? computed, respectively, at imposed strain ? and mean stress ? . Focusing on permanent isotropic spring networks it is shown theoretically and computationally that in general G(t ) =C (t ) | ?=C(t ) | ?+Geq for t >0 with Geq being the static equilibrium shear modulus. G (t ) and C(t ) | ? thus must become different for solids and it is impossible to obtain Geq alone from C(t ) | ? as often assumed. We comment briefly on self-assembled transient networks where Geq(f ) must vanish for a finite scission-recombination frequency f . We argue that G(t ) =C (t ) | ?=C(t ) | ? should reveal an intermediate plateau set by the shear modulus Geq(f =0 ) of the quenched network.

Wittmer, J. P.; Xu, H.; Baschnagel, J.

2015-02-01

250

Schematic mode coupling theories for shear thinning, shear thickening, and jamming

Mode coupling theory (MCT) appears to explain several, though not all, aspects of the glass transition in colloids (particularly when short-range attractions are present). Developments of MCT, from rational foundations in statistical mechanics, account qualitatively for nonlinear flow behaviour such as the yield stress of a hard-sphere colloidal glass. Such theories so far only predict shear thinning behaviour, whereas in real colloids both shear thinning and shear thickening can be found. The latter observation can, however, be rationalised by postulating an MCT vertex that is not only a decreasing function of strain rate (as found from first principles) but also an increasing function of stress. Within a highly simplified, schematic MCT model this can lead not only to discontinuous shear thickening but also to complete arrest of a fluid phase under the influence of an external stress (`full jamming').

Cates, M E; Fuchs, M; Henrich, O

2003-01-01

251

Collision statistics in sheared inelastic hard spheres.

The dynamics of sheared inelastic-hard-sphere systems is studied using nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations and direct simulation Monte Carlo. In the molecular-dynamics simulations Lees-Edwards boundary conditions are used to impose the shear. The dimensions of the simulation box are chosen to ensure that the systems are homogeneous and that the shear is applied uniformly. Various system properties are monitored, including the one-particle velocity distribution, granular temperature, stress tensor, collision rates, and time between collisions. The one-particle velocity distribution is found to agree reasonably well with an anisotropic Gaussian distribution, with only a slight overpopulation of the high-velocity tails. The velocity distribution is strongly anisotropic, especially at lower densities and lower values of the coefficient of restitution, with the largest variance in the direction of shear. The density dependence of the compressibility factor of the sheared inelastic-hard-sphere system is quite similar to that of elastic-hard-sphere fluids. As the systems become more inelastic, the glancing collisions begin to dominate over more direct, head-on collisions. Examination of the distribution of the times between collisions indicates that the collisions experienced by the particles are strongly correlated in the highly inelastic systems. A comparison of the simulation data is made with direct Monte Carlo simulation of the Enskog equation. Results of the kinetic model of Montanero [J. Fluid Mech. 389, 391 (1999)] based on the Enskog equation are also included. In general, good agreement is found for high-density, weakly inelastic systems. PMID:19518225

Bannerman, Marcus N; Green, Thomas E; Grassia, Paul; Lue, Leo

2009-04-01

252

Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The complete 10-year survey from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will image {approx} 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to r {approx} 27.5, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of algorithm-independent, additive systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing analysis techniques. We find that the main source of the errors comes from an inability to adequately characterise the atmospheric point spread function (PSF) due to its high frequency spatial variation on angular scales smaller than {approx} 10{prime} in the single short exposures, which propagates into a spurious shear correlation function at the 10{sup -4}-10{sup -3} level on these scales. With the large multi-epoch dataset that will be acquired by LSST, the stochastic errors average out, bringing the final spurious shear correlation function to a level very close to the statistical errors. Our results imply that the cosmological constraints from LSST will not be severely limited by these algorithm-independent, additive systematic effects.

Chang, C.; Kahn, S.M.; Jernigan, J.G.; Peterson, J.R.; AlSayyad, Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R.R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Hodge, M.A.; Jee, M.J.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, P.J.; Marshall, S.; Meert, A.

2012-09-19

253

The present study demonstrates the effects of different muscle types and chiller ageing periods on the chemical composition, meat quality parameters, sensory characteristics and volatile compounds of Karean native cattle beed. Longissimus dorsi (LD) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles aged for 7 days and 28 days were used. Moisture, cooking loss, total collagen and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values for the ST were higher than the LD muscle regardless of ageing period (P?

Ba, Hoa Van; Park, KyoungMi; Dashmaa, Dashdorj; Hwang, Inho

2014-02-01

254

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The relation between temperament with performance and meat quality was determined in 79 Charolais × Nellore steers kept in feedlot. Temperament was evaluated according to exit velocity, scale composite score and flight distance four times in the finishing phase, along with body weight, intake and fe [...] ed conversion measures. Cattle were classified as calm, intermediate and excited according to exit velocity measures at the beginning of the trial. Excited cattle presented larger values for composite score and flight distance. Irrespective of genotype, excited cattle presented lower average daily gain, dry matter intake and worse feed conversion. Temperament categories did not affect most of beef quality traits, except for calm Bos indicus steers, which presented greater pH measured 1 hour post mortem compared with more reactive steers. However, moderate but negative correlations were detected between exit velocity, flight distance and composite score and beef quality as well as Warner-Bratzler shear value, luminosity, pH measured 24 hours post mortem, although they were not consistent between genotypes raised under the same conditions.

Isabella Dias Barbosa, Silveira; Vivian, Fischer; Luis Henrique Ebling, Farinatti; João, Restle; Dari Celestino, Alves Filho; Luís Fernando Glasenapp de, Menezes.

1468-14-01

255

Effect of bleeding method and low voltage electrical stimulation on meat quality of ostriches

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available The effect on ostrich muscle quality of an additional thoracic stick (TS) to the normal ventral throat slit to bleed ostriches after electrical stunning was evaluated. The additional TS had no negative or positive effect on the drip loss, cooking loss, colour or pH and temperature readings of the fi [...] llet (Muscularis iliofibularis), big drum (M. gastrocnemius, pars interna) and inside loin (M. iliotibialis cranialis). None the less, personal observations would recommend the use of TS due to ethical considerations. An early post mortem low voltage electrical stimulation (ES) of the carcasses also had no influence on the cooking loss, drip loss and colour of these muscles. Electrical stimulation did result in a lower pH45 in both the fillet and big drum muscles. However, after 24 h the pH of the muscles did not differ. Electrical stimulation also caused elevated initial muscle temperatures, although this effect was only temporary due to the efficient cooling mechanism used in the abattoir. Electrical stimulation also had no effect on the Warner Bratzler shear force values in the fillet. It can be concluded that low voltage ES has no advantage pertaining to physical quality characteristics of importance in an ostrich abattoir.

L.C., Hoffman; S.W.P., Cloete; S.J., van Schalkwyk; S.St.C., Botha.

256

The palatability of tender [Warner-Bratzler shear force values <33.34N (3.4kg)] beef strip loins of 10 different treatments [USDA Prime, High Choice (upper 1/3 Choice), Low Choice (lower 1/3 Choice), Select, Standard, Australian Wagyu, American Wagyu, Holstein Select, Holstein Top Choice (upper 2/3 Choice) and Grass-finished] was evaluated by consumers and a trained flavor panel. In general, tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking ratings as well as acceptability percentage for each trait, increased with increased fat levels. Moreover, overall liking was highly correlated (P<0.01) with flavor liking (r=0.96) as well as fat percentage (r=0.79). Beef flavor scores were positively associated (P<0.01) with fat-like (r=0.67) and umami (r=0.59) flavors. Fat level was the primary driver of beef flavor acceptability in all samples when no undesirable off-flavors were present. PMID:25299587

Corbin, C H; O'Quinn, T G; Garmyn, A J; Legako, J F; Hunt, M R; Dinh, T T N; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

2015-02-01

257

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to 1) compare four models for breeding value prediction using genomic or pedigree information and 2) evaluate the impact of fixed effects that account for family structure. Comparisons were made in a Nellore-Angus population comprising F2, F3 and half-siblings to em [...] bryo transfer F2 calves with records for overall temperament at weaning (TEMP; n = 769) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF; n = 387). After quality control, there were 34,913 whole genome SNP markers remaining. Bayesian methods employed were BayesB ( ? = 0.995 or 0.997 for WBSF or TEMP, respectively) and BayesC (? = 0 and ?), where ? is the ideal proportion of markers not included. Direct genomic values (DGV) from single trait Bayesian analyses were compared to conventional pedigree-based animal model breeding values. Numerically, BayesC procedures (using ?) had the highest accuracy of all models for WBSF and TEMP ( ?gg = 0.843 and 0.923, respectively), but BayesB had the least bias (regression of performance on prediction closest to 1, ?y,x = 2.886 and 1.755, respectively). Accounting for family structure decreased accuracy and increased bias in prediction of DGV indicating a detrimental impact when used in these prediction methods that simultaneously fit many markers.

Lauren L. Hulsman, Hanna; Dorian J., Garrick; Clare A., Gill; Andy D., Herring; James O., Sanders; David G., Riley.

2014-12-01

258

Effects of broiler carcass scalding and chilling methods on quality of early-deboned breast fillets.

The impact of scalding and chilling methods on quality of broiler breast fillets (pectoralis major) was evaluated. In 4 replications, 6- to 7-wk-old male and female broilers were slaughtered and scalded either at 60°C for 1.5 min (hard scalding) or 52.8°C for 3 min (soft scalding). Following evisceration, the carcasses were either air-chilled (0.5°C, 120 min) or immersion-chilled in water and ice (79 L/carcass, 0.5°C, 40 min, air agitated). Breast fillets were removed from the carcass within 4 h postmortem. Quality attributes including fillet color (both dorsal-bone and ventral-skin sides), pH, total moisture content, water-holding capacity (drip loss and cook loss), and Warner-Bratzler shear force were determined. Significant interactions between replication and scalding were found for pH, ventral side redness (a*) value, and cook loss and between replication and chilling for pH and ventral side a* and yellowness (b*) values. There were no interactions (P > 0.05) between chilling and scalding methods for any of the measurements. Immersion chilling resulted in higher (P 0.05) between the 2 scalding methods were observed for any of the quality attributes. These results indicate that broiler carcass chilling method has a much greater impact on quality of breast meat than scalding method and that the influence of chilling on breast meat quality is independent of scalding treatment. PMID:23571351

Zhuang, Hong; Bowker, Brian C; Buhr, R Jeff; Bourassa, Dianna V; Kiepper, Brian H

2013-05-01

259

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Fifteen young Holstein Friesian bulls (18 mo of age) were divided into three groups of five. All groups were fed a diet consisting of 60% concentrate and 40% roughage. The control (C) group received a mixture of dry meadow hay, dry lucerne and wheat straw as roughage. The second and third treatment [...] groups were fed a similar mixture of roughage partially substituting wheat straw with wet sugar beet pulp (SBP) at levels of 4% and 8% on a dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency ratio (kg DM intake/kg weight gain) of the C group were significantly higher than those of the 4% SBP and 8% SBP groups. Slaughter and carcass traits indicated that there were no significant differences between dietary treatments. The inclusion of 8% SBP significantly improved panel ratings for tenderness, juiciness, beef flavour intensity and general acceptance, as well as number of chews before swallowing and the Warner Bratzler Shear value. Proximate analysis of the meat did not demonstrate differences between meat from the bulls fed C and the SBP diets. It was concluded that wheat straw could be replaced by 8% SBP in the finishing diet for young Holstein Friesian bulls in order to improve feed efficiency and sensory quality characteristics of their meat.

S., Y& #252; ksel; M., Yanar; L., Turgut; A., & #214; zl& #252; t& #252; rk; S., Kopuzlu; E., Sezgin.

260

The tenderisation of shin beef using a citrus juice marinade.

The effectiveness of organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic) and a citrus juice marinade as tenderising agents in shin beef muscle was investigated. At 0.2 M, citric acid was more effective as a tenderising agent than acetic or lactic acid. Immersion of shin beef strips in citric acid (0-0.05 M) showed that a significant tenderising effect was obtained above a concentration of 0.013 M. When shin beef strips were immersed in the citrus juice marinade (31% orange juice, 31% lemon juice, 38% distilled water) mean pH decreased from 5.7 to 3.1 and mean sample weight increased by ?65%. The mean Warner-Bratzler shear force value decreased from 178 to 44 N cm(-2) following marination while mean sensory analysis scores for tenderness and juiciness increased following marination. A mean total collagen content of 1.4 g/100 g was recorded in shin beef of which 9% was soluble in unmarinated samples and 29% was soluble in marinated samples. The results indicated that the tenderisation of beef samples using a citrus juice marinade could be attributed to marinade uptake by muscle proteins and also to solubilisation of collagen. PMID:22062175

Burke, R M; Monahan, F J

2003-02-01

261

Technological and organoleptic properties of beef cuts were predicted by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Spectra were collected on 189 beef Longissimus thoracis muscle samples using, transmission (NIRT) and reflectance with a probe. Quality assessment and NIR recordings were performed on sliced loin after 2 and 8 days ageing. Partial least squares regression yielded determination coefficients of cross-validation (R(2)(cv)) of 0.12-0.25 for the prediction of Warner-Bratzler Peak Shear Force in reflectance and 0.15-0.41 in transmission. Higher R(2)(cv) were obtained for L* parameter (0.83-0.85), a* (0.39-0.49) and b* (0.73-0.75) with reflectance. Predictions of drip loss and cooking loss were less accurate with a R(2)(cv) range of 0.38 to 0.54 and 0.25 to 0.47, respectively. The NIR spectra collected on fresh meat show good potential to predict CIE L* and b* parameters in reflectance mode. PMID:22063930

Leroy, B; Lambotte, S; Dotreppe, O; Lecocq, H; Istasse, L; Clinquart, A

2004-01-01

262

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effect of five mixtures of sodium chloride, sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodiumpyrophosphate on the texture and sensory properties of irradiated beef M. biceps femoris and M. semitendinosus muscles sterilised at 45 kGy were evaluated using pH after injection, drip loss measurement, Instron texture measurement and descriptive sensory analysis. The effect of cattle race was also investigated. Three breeds of cattle namely Afrikaner (Bos indicus), Hereford (Bos taurus) and Simmentaler (Bos taurus) were used. Steers were fed and raised in a controlled environment until 18 months of age, followed by slaughtering using the same procedure for each carcass. It was found that cattle breed had a significant influence on irradiated meat tenderness and juiciness. Afrikaner breed meat was the most tender and the most juicy. The Energy to break point measured using a Warner Bratzler Shear cell correlated with the ease of fragmentation (using fingers) as well as Initial Juiciness and Sustained Juiciness. Using polyphosphate levels of 13.2 mmol/kg produced undesirable flavours in the meat. The same tenderness was obtained using levels of 8.2 mmol/kg in the meat without undesirable taste. No differences were found between sodium tripolyphosphate and tetrasodium pyrophosphate treatments. Warmed Over Flavour was a significant factor influencing the quality of the products. (author)

263

Effect of ammonium hydroxide on ultrastructure and tenderness of buffalo meat.

This study was conducted with an objective to improve the tenderness of tough buffalo meat using ammonium hydroxide. Buffalo meat chunks from Biceps femoris muscle were marinated with distilled water (control), 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% solution of ammonium hydroxide for 48 h at 4±1 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical analysis and ultrastructural studies. Ammonium hydroxide increased (Pholding capacity (WHC), collagen solubility, total and salt soluble protein extractability and cooking yield. Reduction (P<0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force values were observed in all ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to non-treated control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins exhibited reduction in the intensity and number of certain protein bands for 0.1% and 0.5% ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy also revealed breakdown of endothelium layers surrounding muscle fibers and weakening of Z-discs respectively, in treated samples compared to controls. These results suggest that ammonium hydroxide might be used to tenderize tough buffalo meat. PMID:21450410

Naveena, B M; Kiran, M; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Ramakrishna, C; Vaithiyanathan, S; Devatkal, Suresh K

2011-08-01

264

Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBStreatment for both dry- and moist-heat cookery. PMID:22062018

Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W

2004-09-01

265

The effect of, and associations between, loin muscle morphology and pork quality indicator traits were assessed at three cooked temperatures in loin chops from 38 purebred Berkshire and 52 purebred Landrace swine. Three loin chops from each pig were randomly assigned to cooked temperature treatments of 62, 71, or 79 degrees C and loin tenderness was assessed as Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Cooked temperature (PMinolta a* at 62 degrees C (R(2)=0.07), and average muscle fiber diameter at 71 degrees C and 79 degrees C (R(2)=0.07 and 0.24, respectively), contributed to WBSF variation. In contrast, for loins from Berkshire pigs, loin ultimate pH and intramuscular fat percentage accounted for 27% and 30% of the variation in WBSF at 62 degrees C and 71 degrees C, respectively, and loin ultimate pH accounted for 7% of variation in WBSF at 79 degrees C. Results suggest that loins from Berkshire pigs have properties that resist toughening at greater cooked temperatures and that associations between quality measures and loin tenderness differ between Landrace and Berkshire pigs. PMID:20374831

Crawford, S M; Moeller, S J; Zerby, H N; Irvin, K M; Kuber, P S; Velleman, S G; Leeds, T D

2010-04-01

266

The purpose of this study was to develop and test a hyperspectral imaging system (900-1700 nm) to predict instrumental and sensory tenderness of lamb meat. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values and sensory scores by trained panellists were collected as the indicator of instrumental and sensory tenderness, respectively. Partial least squares regression models were developed for predicting instrumental and sensory tenderness with reasonable accuracy (Rcv=0.84 for WBSF and 0.69 for sensory tenderness). Overall, the results confirmed that the spectral data could become an interesting screening tool to quickly categorise lamb steaks in good (i.e. tender) and bad (i.e. tough) based on WBSF values and sensory scores with overall accuracy of about 94.51% and 91%, respectively. Successive projections algorithm (SPA) was used to select the most important wavelengths for WBSF prediction. Additionally, textural features from Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) were extracted to determine the correlation between textural features and WBSF values. PMID:23768372

Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Elmasry, Gamal; Sun, Da-Wen; Allen, Paul

2013-11-01

267

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beef quality parameters can be negatively affected by pre-slaughter stress. Slaughter via gunshot directly on the pasture appears to be suitable for the reduction of pre-slaughter stress by avoiding stressors such as transportation, lairage and human contact. The effect of slaughtering via gunshot on sensory and objective measures of beef quality parameters for the Musculus longissimus dorsi of Galloway steers was analyzed and compared to conventional slaughter at the abattoir using captive-bolt stunning. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF was significantly (P < 0.01 lower for the meat of the animals slaughtered via gunshot (arithmetic mean (AM gunshot: 4.34 kg; AM captive-bolt pistol: 4.77 kg. However, trained assessors were not able to recognize this difference (P > 0.05. No significant differences (P > 0.05 were observed for cooking loss and the sensory quality evaluation of juiciness. As measured by the WBSF, the meat of the animals slaughtered via gunshot was slightly more tender than was the meat of the animals stunned with a captive-bolt pistol. However, for the cooking loss and sensory evaluations, no effect of the slaughter methods was observed. Nevertheless, this study reveals the potential that slaughter via gunshot provides for the improvement of beef quality.

Markus S. Friedrich

2014-12-01

268

Effects of rapid chilling of carcasses (at -31°C in the first 3h of chilling, and then at 2-4°C) and earlier deboning (8h post-mortem), compared to rapid (till 24h post-mortem) and conventional chilling (at 2-4°C, till 24h post-mortem), on quality characteristics of pork M. semimebranosus and cooked ham were investigated. Quality measurements included pH value, colour (CIEL a b values) and total aerobic count of M. semimebranosus, as well as sensory (colour, juiciness, texture, and flavour), physical (pH value, colour - CIEL a b values and texture - Warner-Bratzler shear and penetration forces) and chemical (protein, total fat, and moisture content) characteristics of cooked ham. The cooked ham was manufactured from pieces of M. semimebranosus with ultimate lightness (CIEL value) lower than 50. Rapid chilling and earlier deboning significantly increased quantity of M. semimebranosus desirable for cooked ham manufacturing. Earlier start of pork fabrication did not affect important quality characteristics of cooked ham. PMID:22910801

Tomovi?, Vladimir M; Jokanovi?, Marija R; Petrovi?, Ljiljana S; Tomovi?, Mila S; Tasi?, Tatjana A; Ikoni?, Predrag M; Sumi?, Zdravko M; Soji?, Branislav V; Skaljac, Snežana B; Sošo, Milena M

2013-01-01

269

Conjugate-shear folding: A model for the relationships between foliations, folds and shear zones

Microstructural mapping of whole thin sections cut from two samples of micaschist containing cm-scale folds plus garnet porphyroblasts has provided new insight in the relationships between folding, shearing and foliation development. The garnets exhibit coherent inclusion-trail patterns that place important constraints on the kinematic development of both samples, which are shown to be representative of coaxial versus non-coaxial deformation in rocks containing a pre-existing schistosity. A comparison of crenulations-cleavages geometries in both samples and a review of the geometry of natural and experimental multilayer folds leads to the conclusion that folding involves conjugate shearing at different scales. At microscopic scales, crenulation cleavages nucleate as conjugate-kink or shear instabilities and develop further as a function of the macroscopic partitioning of deformation. In fold-hinge domains, bulk-coaxial deformation results in equal development of conjugate crenulations that progressively coalescence into symmetrical crenulation patterns so that, macroscopically, parallelism is achieved between foliation, fold-axial planes and long axes of strain ellipses. Fold-limb domains represent a system of conjugate-shear zones where single sets of crenulation instabilities with synthetic shearing component preferentially develop producing oblique relationships between the aforementioned elements. Cleavage fanning is inferred as a direct consequence of this conjugate-shear origin of folds. The model implies that crenulation cleavages and S-C fabrics in shear zones form by analogous processes, in both cases involving a component of shearing along foliation planes. The development of conjugate sets of foliation planes surrounding porphyroblasts during early, relatively coaxial stages of deformation explains continued "gyrostatic" behaviour during more advanced non-coaxial stages, as indicated by consistently oriented inclusion trails in the studied samples.

Aerden, Domingo G. A. M.; Sayab, Mohammad; Bouybaouene, Mohamed L.

2010-08-01

270

Periodic spinodal decomposition in a binary fluid under shear

Light scattering techniques have been used to study the phase separation of a sheared binary fluid of nitrobenzene and n-hexane at critical composition. Shear was seen to prevent the development of decomposition. The system is quenched when the shear is removed, allowing anisotropic spinodal decomposition rings to appear. When a periodic (frequency ?) shear was applied, a permanent anisotropic ring pattern was formed. The radius of the ring, in units of the correlation length, exhibits a sca...

Beysens, D.; Perot, F.

1984-01-01

271

Band crossing in Shears band of $^{108}$Cd

The level lifetimes have been measured for a Shears band of $^{108}$Cd which exhibits bandcrossing. The observed level energies and B(M1) rates have been successfully described by a semi-classical geometric model based on shear mechanism. In this geometric model, the bandcrossing in Shears band has been described as the reopening of the angle between the blades of a shear.

Roy, Santosh; Pal, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Bhattacharya, S; Goswami, A; Jain, H C; Joshi, P K; Bhowmik, R K; Kumar, R; Muralithar, S; Singh, R P; Madhavan, N; Rao, P V Madhusudhana

2010-01-01

272

Pre-yield shearing regime of a magnetorheological fluid (MRF)

Magneto-rheological fluids are dispersions of magnetic micro-particles in a non-magnetic carrier fluid. Their characteristics vary upon the application of a magnetic field. At large shear rates, the Bingham model predicts a linear dependency between the variations of the shear rate and the variations of the shear stress, above a so-called Bingham shear stress threshold. The MRFs behavior below this threshold has received less attention. Its understanding is needed when the fluid is used in hu...

Nassar, Waad

2012-01-01

273

Multipole Formulae for Gravitational Lensing Shear and Flexion

The gravitational lensing equations for convergence, potential, shear, and flexion are simple in polar coordinates and separate under a multipole expansion once the shear and flexion spinors are rotated into a ``tangential'' basis. We use this to investigate whether the useful monopole aperture-mass shear formulae generalize to all multipoles and to flexions. We re-derive the result of Schneider and Bartelmann that the shear multipole m at radius R is completely determined b...

Bernstein, Gary M.; Nakajima, Reiko

2008-01-01

274

In Vivo Wall Shear Measurements within the Developing Zebrafish Heart

Physical forces can influence the embryonic development of many tissues. Within the cardiovascular system shear forces resulting from blood flow are known to be one of the regulatory signals that shape the developing heart. A key challenge in investigating the role of shear forces in cardiac development is the ability to obtain shear force measurements in vivo. Utilising the zebrafish model system we have developed a methodology that allows the shear force within the developing embryonic hear...

Jamison, R. Aidan; Samarage, Chaminda R.; Bryson-richardson, Robert J.; Fouras, Andreas

2013-01-01

275

Vorticity Alignment and Negative Normal Stresses in Sheared Attractive Emulsions

Attractive emulsions near the colloidal glass transition are investigated by rheometry and optical microscopy under shear. We find that (a) the apparent viscosity \\eta drops with increasing shear rate, then remains approximately constant in a range of shear rates, then continues to decay; (b) the first normal stress difference N1 transitions sharply from nearly zero to negative in the region of constant shear viscosity; (c) correspondingly, cylindrical flocs form, align alon...

Montesi, Alberto; Pena, Alejandro A.; Pasquali, Matteo

2003-01-01

276

Turbulent transport across shear layers in magnetically confined plasmas

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shear layers modify the turbulence in diverse ways and do not only suppress it. A spatial-temporal investigation of gyrofluid simulations in comparison with experiments allows to identify further details of the transport process across shear layers. Blobs in and outside a shear layer merge, thereby exchange particles and heat and subsequently break up. Via this mechanism particles and heat are transported radially across shear layers. Turbulence spreading is the immanent mechanism behind this process.

Nold, B.; Ramisch, M. [Institut für Grenzflächenverfahrenstechnik und Plasmatechnologie, Universität Stuttgart, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Manz, P.; Birkenmeier, G. [Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ribeiro, T. T.; Müller, H. W.; Scott, B. D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fuchert, G. [IJL, Université de Lorraine, CNRS (UMR 7198), BP 40239 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Stroth, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department E28, Technische Universität München, James-Franck-Str.1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2014-10-15

277

High internal phase emulsions under shear. Co-surfactancy and shear stability.

Large changes in the rheology of high-internal phase aqueous-in-oil emulsions (HIPEs) using an oil-soluble polyisobutylene-based primary surfactant (PIBSA) are provoked by very small quantities of water-soluble polyamide-based cosurfactants (PAM with C(12), C(14), and C(16) tails). The structural origin of this was studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) from sheared emulsions, with simultaneous in situ rheology measurements. The PAM drastically lowers the droplet-oil interfacial tension by displacing PIBSA, causing large droplet deformation under shear and much lowered emulsion yield stress. With PAM, the surfactant monolayer at the droplet surface becomes more responsive to droplet shape change and redistributes in response to shear which the PIBSA-only system does not. Although it is oil-insoluble, PAM also reaches the nanoscale PIBSA micelles in the oil phase, changing micelle size and content in ways predictable from the hydrophilicity of the different PAMs. PAM does not, however, strongly affect the viscosities at high shear rates; shear thinning and thickening are unaffected. Droplet size, droplet-droplet flattening, and linkage determine the viscosities observed, more so than droplet-oil interfacial tension. We infer from this that the droplet motion under shear does not involve much transient droplet deformation as the droplets move by each other. PMID:21500797

Yaron, Peter N; Scott, Andrew J; Reynolds, Philip A; Mata, Jitendra P; White, John W

2011-05-19

278

We present direct measurements of the evolution of the segmental-level microstructure of a stable shear-banding polymerlike micelle solution during flow startup and cessation in the plane of flow. These measurements provide a definitive, quantitative microstructural understanding of the stages observed during flow startup: an initial elastic response with limited alignment that yields with a large stress overshoot to a homogeneous flow with associated micellar alignment that persists for approximately three relaxation times. This transient is followed by a shear (kink) band formation with a flow-aligned low-viscosity band that exhibits shear-induced concentration fluctuations and coexists with a nearly isotropic band of homogenous, highly viscoelastic micellar solution. Stable, steady banding flow is achieved only after approximately two reptation times. Flow cessation from this shear-banded state is also found to be nontrivial, exhibiting an initial fast relaxation with only minor structural relaxation, followed by a slower relaxation of the aligned micellar fluid with the equilibrium fluid's characteristic relaxation time. These measurements resolve a controversy in the literature surrounding the mechanism of shear banding in entangled wormlike micelles and, by means of comparison to existing literature, provide further insights into the mechanisms driving shear-banding instabilities in related systems. The methods and instrumentation described should find broad use in exploring complex fluid rheology and testing microstructure-based constitutive equations.

López-Barrón, Carlos R.; Gurnon, A. Kate; Eberle, Aaron P. R.; Porcar, Lionel; Wagner, Norman J.

2014-04-01

279

Spatially-resolved microstructure in shear banding wormlike micellar solutions

Recently proposed theories for shear banding in wormlike micellar solutions (WLMs) rely on a shear-induced isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase separation as the mechanism for banding. Critical tests of such theories require spatially-resolved measurements of flow-kinematics and local mesoscale microstructure within the shear bands. We have recently developed such capabilities using a short gap Couette cell for flow-small angle neutron scattering (flow-SANS) measurements in the 1-2 plane of shear with collaborators at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. This work combines flow-SANS measurements with rheology, rheo-optics and velocimetry measurements to present the first complete spatially-resolved study of WLMs through the shear banding transition for a model shear banding WLM solution near the I-N phase boundary. The shear rheology is well-modeled by the Giesekus constitutive equation, with incorporated stress diffusion to predict shear banding. By fitting the stress diffusivity at the onset of banding, the model enables prediction of velocity profiles in the shear banded state which are in quantitative agreement with measured flow-kinematics. Quantitative analysis of the flow-SANS measurements shows a critical segmental alignment for banding and validates the Giesekus model predictions, linking segmental orientation to shear banding and providing the first rigorous evidence for the shear-induced I-N transition mechanism for shear banding.

Helgeson, Matthew E.; Reichert, Matthew D.; Wagner, Norman J.; Kaler, Eric W.

2008-07-01

280

Spatially-resolved microstructure in shear banding wormlike micellar solutions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recently proposed theories for shear banding in wormlike micellar solutions (WLMs) rely on a shear-induced isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase separation as the mechanism for banding. Critical tests of such theories require spatially-resolved measurements of flow-kinematics and local mesoscale microstructure within the shear bands. We have recently developed such capabilities using a short gap Couette cell for flow-small angle neutron scattering (flow-SANS) measurements in the 1-2 plane of shear with collaborators at the NIST Center for Neutron Research. This work combines flow-SANS measurements with rheology, rheo-optics and velocimetry measurements to present the first complete spatially-resolved study of WLMs through the shear banding transition for a model shear banding WLM solution near the I-N phase boundary. The shear rheology is well-modeled by the Giesekus constitutive equation, with incorporated stress diffusion to predict shear banding. By fitting the stress diffusivity at the onset of banding, the model enables prediction of velocity profiles in the shear banded state which are in quantitative agreement with measured flow-kinematics. Quantitative analysis of the flow-SANS measurements shows a critical segmental alignment for banding and validates the Giesekus model predictions, linking segmental orientation to shear banding and providing the first rigorous evidence for the shear-induced I-N transition mechanism for shear banding banding

281

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The shear strength of NSC (Normal Strength Concrete) has been extensively researched. However, very little data is available on the shear strength of HSC beams for fc > 6000 psi (40MPa). In this research, 35 beams with five values of longitudinal steel and seven values of shear span to depth (aid) ratio have been tested to study the effect of longitudinal steel and shear span to depth ratio. The results have been compared with the provisions of ACI 318-06 as well. The results have shown that shear failure is anticipated when the longitudinal steel ratio for p > 1 %. The shear strength of HSC normally increases with the increase of longitudinal steel and decreases with the increase in shear span to depth ratio, as exhibited in normal strength, but the failure is more sudden and brittle. The ACI 318 provisions for shear strength of beams are normally good predictors but for a/d >5. (author)

282

We report on novel possibilities for studying colloidal suspensions in a steady shear field in real space. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is combined with the use of a counter-rotating cone–plate shear cell. This allows imaging of individual particles in the bulk of a sheared suspension in a stationary plane. Moreover, this plane of zero velocity can be moved in the velocity gradient direction while keeping the shear rate constant. The colloidal system under study consis...

Derks, D.; Wisman, H.; Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

2004-01-01

283

The shear-sensitive liquid crystal coating (SSLCC) method is an image-based technique for both visualizing dynamic surface-flow phenomena, such as transition and separation, and for measuring the continuous shear-stress vector distribution acting on an aerodynamic surface. Under proper lighting and viewing conditions (discussed below), the coating changes color in response to an applied aerodynamic shear. This color-change response is continuous and reversible, with a response time of milliseconds, and is a function of both the shear magnitude and the shear vector orientation relative to the observer. The liquid crystal phase of matter is a weakly-ordered, viscous, non-Newtonian fluid state that exists between the nonuniform liquid phase and the ordered solid phase of certain organic compounds. Cholesteric liquid crystal compounds possess a helical molecular arrangement that selectively scatters white light, incident along the helical axis, as a three-dimensional spectrum. This property is linked to the helical pitch length, which is within the range of wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The pitch length, and hence the wavelength of the scattered light, is influenced by shear stress normal to the helical axis. This unique optical property produces a measurable color change in response to an applied shearing force. The full-surface shear stress vector measurement method, developed at NASA-Ames, is schematically illustrated. As with the visualization method, the coated test surface is illuminated from the normal direction with white light and the camera is positioned at an above-plane view angle of approximately 30 deg. Experiments have been initiated at NASA Ames to begin the process of quantifying surface-inclination (surface-curvature) effects on shear vector measurement accuracy. In preliminary experiments, surface-inclination angles theta(sub x), theta(sub y) of 0, +/-5, +/-10, and +/-15 deg were employed. In this arrangement, white-light illumination was positioned normal to the untilted test surface, and the camera above-plane view angle was set at 30 deg relative to the untilted test surface. As can be seen, vector-aligned lambda(sub d) values showed no dependence on theta(sub x) or theta(sub y) for absolute values of these tilt angles is less than or equal to 15 deg. Acquisition and analyses of full-surface color images are presently underway to definitively document the insensitivity limits of the shear vector measurement methodology to surface-slope variations.

Reda, Daniel C.; Wilder, Michael C.; Nixon, David (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

284

A comparison between magnetic shear and flare shear in a well-observed M-class flare

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We give an extensive multi-wavelength analysis of an eruptive M1.0/1N class solar flare, which occurred in the active region NOAA 10044 on 2002 July 26. Our emphasis is on the relationship between magnetic shear and flare shear. Flare shear is defined as the angle formed between the line connecting the centroids of the two ribbons of the flare and the line perpendicular to the magnetic neutral line. The magnetic shear is computed from vector magnetograms observed at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), while the flare shear is computed from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) 1700 A images. By a detailed comparison, we find that: 1) The magnetic shear and the flare shear of this event are basically consistent, as judged from the directions of the transverse magnetic field and the line connecting the two ribbons' centroids. 2) During the period of the enhancement of magnetic shear, flare shear had a fast increase followed by a fluctuated decrease. 3) When the magnetic shear stopped its enhancement, the fluctuated decreasing behavior of the flare shear became very smooth. 4) Hard X-ray (HXR) spikes are well correlated with the unshearing peaks on the time profile of the rate of change of the flare shear. We give a discussion of the above phenomena. (invited reviews)

285

Generalized Shear Deformation Theory for Bending of Inhomogeneous Beams

A simple generalized shear deformation theory was developed to accurately analyze the bending behavior of shear deformable beams composed of inhomogeneous materials such as functionally graded materials. The generalized theory expresses the axial displacement in terms of the transverse shear strain derived from the equilibrium equations of stress in the axial direction. To confirm the validity of the generalized shear deformation theory, we analyzed simply supported beams subjected to a transverse load. The transverse shear strain and stress given by the generalized theory matched the ones by the solutions based on the two-dimensional elasticity. The generalized theory is thus accurate enough for any inhomogeneous beam.

Higuchi, Masahiro; Toyamine, Fumiya; Adachi, Tadaharu; Nagino, Harunobu

286

Flows induced by flat surfaces sheared in their own plane

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Exact steady solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow induced by flat plates executing uniform or nonuniform shearing motion in their own plane are reported. In several cases uniform transpiration through the plate is required for existence of solutions. Solutions combining plate shear with plate stretching are also given. It is shown that hyperbolic shearing motion can give rise to damped oscillatory fluid motion above the plate while simple and spatially periodic shearing motions do not. This is interpreted as waves traveling on vertically attenuated vortex lines set up in the fluid when the hyperbolic shear is sufficiently strong. (paper)

Weidman, P D, E-mail: weidman@colorado.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0427 (United States)

2013-02-15

287

Velocity profiles in shear-banding wormlike micelles

Using Dynamic Light Scattering in heterodyne mode, we measure velocity profiles in a much studied system of wormlike micelles (CPCl/NaSal) known to exhibit both shear-banding and stress plateau behavior. Our data provide evidence for the simplest shear-banding scenario, according to which the effective viscosity drop in the system is due to the nucleation and growth of a highly sheared band in the gap, whose thickness linearly increases with the imposed shear rate. We discuss various details of the velocity profiles in all the regions of the flow curve and emphasize on the complex, non-Newtonian nature of the flow in the highly sheared band.

Salmon, J B; Manneville, S; Molino, F; Salmon, Jean-Baptiste; Colin, Annie; Manneville, Sebastien; Molino, Francois

2003-01-01

288

Investigation of polymer brushes and adsorbed layers under shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neutron reflectometry was used to investigate the density profiles of polymer brushes and an adsorbed polymer layer under shear. The brushes consisted of end-functionalized deuterated polystyrene. The adsorbed polymer was a random copolymer of deuterated styrene and 4-vinylpyridine. The brush and the adsorbed layer were sheared by the flowing of solvents over the polymer, with a maximum shear rate of 104s-1. Density profiles of the brush and the layer were determined before, during and after shear. The shear had no observable effect on the polymer profiles in any of the experiments. We discuss these results in the context of other experiments and a recent theory. (orig.)

289

Origin of strain localization in sheared amorphous solids

A two dimensional amorphous material is modeled as an assembly of mesoscopic elemental pieces coupled together to form an elastically coherent structure. Plasticity is introduced as the existence of different minima in the energy landscape of the elemental constituents. Adding structural relaxation, it is shown that the model predicts homogeneous deformation at large shear rates, shear bands when the shear rate is reduced, and stick-slip-like motion at the shear bands for the lowest shear rates. Increase of dynamical yield stress with sample age is also observed.

Jagla, E A

2006-01-01

290

Flows induced by flat surfaces sheared in their own plane

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Exact steady solutions of the Navier–Stokes equations for fluid flow induced by flat plates executing uniform or nonuniform shearing motion in their own plane are reported. In several cases uniform transpiration through the plate is required for existence of solutions. Solutions combining plate shear with plate stretching are also given. It is shown that hyperbolic shearing motion can give rise to damped oscillatory fluid motion above the plate while simple and spatially periodic shearing motions do not. This is interpreted as waves traveling on vertically attenuated vortex lines set up in the fluid when the hyperbolic shear is sufficiently strong. (paper)

291

Inertial particles in homogeneous shear turbulence

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The characteristics of inertial particles distribution in a uniformly sheared turbulent flow are investigated, with the aim of quantifying the effects associated with the large-scale anisotropy induced by the mean velocity gradient. The focus of the analysis is on clustering aspects, and in particular on the dependence of the radial distribution function on both the directionality and the magnitude of the observation scale. We discuss experimental data measured in a homogeneous shear flow seeded with particles of size comparable with the Kolmogorov length scale and Stokes number St ? 0.3, and discuss their distribution properties in comparison with results provided by related one-way coupled direct numerical simulations which make use of the point-force approximation.

292

Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar® 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively

293

Microstructure and velocity fluctuations in sheared suspensions

The velocity fluctuations present in macroscopically homogeneous suspensions of neutrally buoyant, non-Brownian spheres undergoing simple shear flow, and their dependence on the microstructure developed by the suspensions, are investigated in the limit of vanishingly small Reynolds numbers using Stokesian dynamics simulations. We show that, in the dilute limit, the standard deviation of the velocity fluctuations is proportional to the volume fraction, in both the transverse and the flow directions, and that a theoretical prediction, which considers only for the hydrodynamic interactions between isolated pairs of spheres, is in good agreement with the numerical results at low concentrations. We also simulate the velocity fluctuations that would result from a random hard-sphere distribution of spheres in simple shear flow, and thereby investigate the effects of the microstructure on the velocity fluctuations. Analogous results are discussed for the fluctuations in the angular velocity of the suspended spheres. ...

Drazer, G; Khusid, B; Acrivos, A

2003-01-01

294

Implications of Orientation in Sheared Cocoa Butter

We will present x-ray and mechanical studies of oriented phases of cocoa butter. The structural elements of foods play an important role in determining such things as quality and shelf stability. The specific structure and properties of cocoa butter, however, are complicated due to the ability of the cocoa butter to form crystals in six polymorphic forms. Recent work has shown that the application of shear not only accelerates the transitions to more stable polymorphs, but also causes orientation of the crystallites[1]. The implications of orientation on the structures formed under conditions of shear and cooling will be described using x-ray diffraction and mechanical measurements. 1 G. Mazzanti, S. E. Guthrie, E. B. Sirota et al., Crystal Growth & Design 3 (5), 721 (2003).

Guthrie, Sarah E.; Mazzanti, Gianfranco; Marangoni, Alejandro; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

2004-03-01

295

Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models

The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through elastic collisions, production and annihilation. The system approaches a stationary state of mesons and their resonances, which is characterized by common temperature. After equilibration, thermodynamic quantities such as the energy density, particle density, and pressure are calculated. From such an equilibrated state the shear viscosity coefficient is calculated from the fluctuations of stress tensor around equilibrium using Green--Kubo relations. We do our simulations here at zero net baryon density so that the equilibration times depend o...

Muronga, A

2004-01-01

296

Shear coalescence studies of compatibilized polymer blends

The suppression or retardation of droplet coalescence during shear flow has become one way to assess the effectiveness of compatibilization in polymer blends. Such studies have typically been performed on immiscible blends to which pre-made block copolymer is added as a compatibilizing agent. In this work, we explore immiscible blends that have been compatibilized using solid-state shear pulverization. Recent research in the Torkelson lab at Northwestern has demonstrated that chain scission and recombination during pulverization can lead to in situ formation of block copolymers. In this work, we study immiscible blends of polystyrene and polypropylene. Chain scission during pulverization of individual homopolymers leads to reductions in viscosity and elasticity. We compare the coalescence behavior in blends that have been co-pulverized to those which have been simply physically mixed.

Brinker, Kristin; Burghardt, Wesley

2003-03-01

297

Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar{sup ®} 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively.

Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Oliveira, L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Serkiz, S. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Clemson Nanomaterials Center, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States)

2014-09-15

298

Direct measurement of shear properties of microfibers

As novel fibers with enhanced mechanical properties continue to be synthesized and developed, the ability to easily and accurately characterize these materials becomes increasingly important. Here we present a design for an inexpensive tabletop instrument to measure shear modulus (G) and other longitudinal shear properties of a micrometer-sized monofilament fiber sample, such as nonlinearities and hysteresis. This automated system applies twist to the sample and measures the resulting torque using a sensitive optical detector that tracks a torsion reference. The accuracy of the instrument was verified by measuring G for high purity copper and tungsten fibers, for which G is well known. Two industrially important fibers, IM7 carbon fiber and Kevlar® 119, were also characterized with this system and were found to have G = 16.5 ± 2.1 and 2.42 ± 0.32 GPa, respectively.

Behlow, H.; Saini, D.; Oliveira, L.; Durham, L.; Simpson, J.; Serkiz, S. M.; Skove, M. J.; Rao, A. M.

2014-09-01

299

Shear instabilities in shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics

Within the framework of shallow-water magnetohydrodynamics, we investigate the linear instability of horizontal shear flows, influenced by an aligned magnetic field and stratification. Various classical instability results, such as H{\\o}iland's growth rate bound and Howard's semi-circle theorem, are extended to this shallow-water system for quite general profiles. Two specific piecewise-constant velocity profiles, the vortex sheet and the rectangular jet, are studied analytically and asymptotically; it is found that the magnetic field and stratification (as measured by the Froude number) are generally both stabilising, but weak instabilities can be found at arbitrarily large Froude number. Numerical solutions are computed for corresponding smooth velocity profiles, the hyperbolic-tangent shear layer and the Bickley jet, for a uniform background field. A generalisation of the long-wave asymptotic analysis of Drazin & Howard (1962) is employed in order to understand the instability characteristics for both ...

Mak, Julian; Hughes, D W

2015-01-01

300

Power spectrum from weak-shear data

We demonstrate that the aperture mass as a measure for cosmic shear closely approximates (to better than ~5%) the scaled and shifted power spectrum of the projected mass density. This cosmological weak-lensing information can thus be used to directly infer the projected matter power spectrum with high accuracy. As an application, we show that aperture-mass observations can be used to constrain the cosmic density parameter and the power-spectrum amplitude. We show that, for a particular example, it should be possible to constrain Omega_0 to within ~ +/- 27%, and sigma_8 to within ~ +/- 8% using weak-shear data on a square-shaped field of 8 degrees side length.

Bartelmann, M; Bartelmann, Matthias; Schneider, Peter

1999-01-01

301

Concrete walls and their shear stress limits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eurocodes, aimed to replace national design codes, still have a degree of liberty for arrangements of some parameters by each European country with the possibility to have a National Annex. So is the EN 1992-1-1, the object of which is reinforced or plain concrete structures. Concrete walls or similar, which are of a frequent use in France for buildings, have shear stress limits to be specified. Current French design code specify these limits. They are introduced in the French National Annex of the Eurocode. Nevertheless, it is necessary to be able to justify the pertinence of the choice by delivering to European authorities an appropriate relevant paper. The present article is deemed to be this appropriate paper It is a synthetic work of bibliography related to tests and to their presentation about concrete walls and limit shear stress. (author)

302

Undulatory swimming in shear-thinning fluids

The swimming behaviour of microorganisms can be strongly influenced by the rheology of their fluid environment. In this manuscript, we experimentally investigate the effects of shear-thinning viscosity on the swimming behaviour of an undulatory swimmer, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Tracking methods are used to measure the swimmer's kinematic data (including propulsion speed) and velocity fields. We find that shear-thinning viscosity modifies the velocity fields produced by the swimming nematode but does not modify the nematode's speed and beating kinematics. Velocimetry data show significant enhancement in local vorticity and circulation, and an increase in fluid velocity near the nematode's tail, compared to Newtonian fluids of similar effective viscosity. These findings are in good agreement with recent theoretical and numerical results.

Gagnon, David A; Arratia, Paulo E

2014-01-01

303

Shear induced instabilities in layered liquids

Motivated by the experimentally observed shear-induced destabilization and reorientation of smectic A like systems, we consider an extended formulation of smectic A hydrodynamics. We include both, the smectic layering (via the layer displacement u and the layer normal p) and the director n of the underlying nematic order in our macroscopic hydrodynamic description and allow both directions to differ in non equilibrium situations. In an homeotropically aligned sample the nematic director does couple to an applied simple shear, whereas the smectic layering stays unchanged. This difference leads to a finite (but usually small) angle between n and p, which we find to be equivalent to an effective dilatation of the layers. This effective dilatation leads, above a certain threshold, to an undulation instability of the layers. We generalize our earlier approach [Rheol. Acta, vol.39(3), 15] and include the cross couplings with the velocity field and the order parameters for orientational and positional order and show...

Auernhammer, G K; Pleiner, H; Auernhammer, Guenter K.; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald

2002-01-01

304

Holographic chiral shear waves from anomaly

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study dispersion relations of hydrodynamic waves of hot N=4 SYM plasma at strong coupling with a finite U(1) R-charge chemical potential via holography. We first provide complete equations of motion of linearized fluctuations out of a charged AdS black-hole background according to their helicity, and observe that helicity ±1 transverse shear modes receive a new parity-odd contribution from the 5D Chern-Simons term, which is dual to 4D U(1)3 anomaly. We present a systematic solution of the helicity ±1 wave equations in long wave-length expansion, and obtain the corresponding dispersion relations. The results depend on the sign of helicity, which may be called chiral shear waves.

305

Stochastically driven instability in rotating shear flows

Origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flows is investigated. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Such a mismatch between the linear theory and observations/experiments is more severe when any hydromagnetic/magnetohydrodynamic instability and then the corresponding turbulence therein is ruled out. The present work explores the effect of stochastic noise on such hydrodynamic flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect. This also mimics a small section of an astrophysical accretion disk. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial correlations of perturbation velocities, and hence large energy dissipations of perturbation, which presumably generate instability. A ra...

Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

2012-01-01

306

Measuring the Cosmic Shear in Fourier Space

We propose to measure the weak cosmic shear using the spatial derivatives of the galaxy surface brightness field. The measurement should be carried out in Fourier space, in which the point spread function (PSF) can be transformed to a desired form with multiplications, and the spatial derivatives can be easily measured. This method is mathematically well defined regardless of the galaxy morphology and the form of the PSF, and involves simple procedures of image processing. Furthermore, with high resolution galaxy images, this approach allows one to probe the shape distortions of galaxy substructures, which can potentially provide much more independent shear measurements than the ellipticities of the whole galaxy. We demonstrate the efficiency of this method using computer-generated mock galaxy images.

Zhang, J

2006-01-01

307

Study of shear-stiffened elastomers

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents a novel shear-stiffened elastomer (SSE) fabricated with a mixture of silicone rubber and silicone oil. A total of four SSE samples were fabricated in this study. Their mechanical and rheological properties under both steady-state and dynamic loading conditions were tested with a parallel plate rheometer. The effects of silicone oil composition, strain amplitude and angular frequency were summarized. When raising the angular frequency in the dynamic shear test, the storage modulus of conventional silicone rubber shows a small increasing trend with the frequency. However, if silicone oil is selected to be mixed with silicone rubber, the storage modulus increases dramatically when the frequency and strain are both beyond the critical values. (paper)

308

A microscopic analysis of shear acceleration

A microscopic analysis of the viscous energy gain of energetic particles in (gradual) non-relativistic shear flows is presented. We extend previous work and derive the Fokker-Planck coefficients for the average rate of momentum change and dispersion in the general case of a momentum-dependent scattering time $\\tau(p) \\propto p^{\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha \\geq 0$. We show that in contrast to diffusive shock acceleration the characteristic shear acceleration timescale depends inversely on the particle mean free path which makes the mechanism particularly attractive for high energy seed particles. Based on an analysis of the associated Fokker-Planck equation we show that above the injection momentum $p_0$ power-law differential particle number density spectra $n(p) \\propto p^{-(1+ \\alpha)}$ are generated for $\\alpha >0$ if radiative energy losses are negligible. We discuss the modifications introduced by synchrotron losses and determine the contribution of the accelerated particles to the viscosity of the background ...

Rieger, F M; Rieger, Frank M.; Duffy, Peter

2006-01-01

309

Rheology of dense sheared granular liquids (Invited)

The rheology of dense sheared granular liquids is investigated based on the mode-coupling theory (MCT). This extended MCT includes correlations for the density-current mode as well as the density-density correlation mode, and a self-consistent coupling equation for the energy balance condition. The extended MCT exhibits disappearance of the two-step relaxation of the density-density correlation function, and also successfully reproduces the density dependence of the shear viscosity for volume fractions between 0.50 and 0.60, if we shift the density. However, it predicts unphysical tendency for the granular temperature. The cause of this drawback and the possibilities of its amendment are discussed.

Suzuki, Koshiro; Hayakawa, Hisao

2014-12-01

310

Viscous fingering in a shear-thinning fluid

We study the Saffman-Taylor instability in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell. The driven fluid is a dilute (or semidilute) polymer solution, with a viscosity that exhibits shear thinning. Other non-Newtonian properties such as elastic effects are negligible under the present experimental conditions; the system thus allows for separate investigation of the influence of shear thinning on the instability. The experiments show that, for weak shear-thinning, the results for the width of the fingers as a function of the capillary number collapse onto the universal curve for Newtonian fluids, provided the shear-thinning viscosity is used to calculate the capillary number. For stronger shear thinning, narrower fingers are found. The experiment allows also for a study of the applicability of Darcy's law to shear thinning fluids. For Newtonian fluids, this law gives the finger velocity as a function of the pressure gradient. For weakly shear-thinning fluids, we find that an effective Darcy's law, in which the constant viscosity is replaced by the shear-thinning viscosity, gives good agreement with the experiments. For stronger shear thinning, the predictions from the effective Darcy's law deteriorate. Satisfactory agreement with experimental data can be obtained when using a "shear-thinning" Darcy's law, which can be derived using a power law model for the shear rate dependence of the viscosity.

Lindner, Anke; Bonn, Daniel; Meunier, Jacques

2000-02-01

311

Stiffness matrix for beams with shear deformation and warping torsion

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A beam model which considers the warping effect in beams with arbitrary cross sections is discussed. This model takes into account bending, shear, and warping torsion. The derivation builds on a result in beam theory that, if shear is considered, for arbitrary cross sections the deflections in the different coordinate directions are not uncoupled as has been widely assumed. This conclusion follows from the calculation of the shear coefficients from an elasticity solution using an energy formulation. The shear coefficients form a symmetric tensor. The principal axes for this tensor are called principal shear axes. In Reference 2 structural matrices for the shear problem are derived using these shear coefficients. This paper extends these matrices to warping torsion. St. Venant`s semi-inverse method is applied to calculate warping shear stresses. The usual assumptions of the beam theory are made. The material is linear elastic. The loads may consist of shear forces, axial loads and twisting moments. Small deformations are considered. The cross section of the beam can be of arbitrary shape, thin-walled or solid. A deformation coefficient matrix is calculated which describes the relations between the deformations and the different load cases such as shear, torsion, and warping torsion. Numerical results for warping shear stresses and deformations are given. Also, a method to derive a stiffness matrix for a beam of arbitrary cross section under combined loading including warping torsion is presented.

Schramm, K.; Pilkey, W. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1995-12-31

312

Shear testing of stack bonded masonry

Stack bonded masonry is scarcely used in practice, except for aesthetic reasons. Nevertheless, a regular array of units allows to place reinforcement in the joints, which can be of major importance for masonry shell roofs, as proposed by Eladio Dieste. In order to contribute to the knowledge of the behavior of stack bonded masonry under shear loading, which seems not to have been addressed before, an experimental research program using the triplet test was carried out. The specime...

Lourenc?o, Paulo B.; Barros, Joaquim A. O.; Oliveira, Juliana T.

2004-01-01

313

Shear viscosity of a nonperturbative gluon plasma

Shear viscosity is evaluated within a model of the gluon plasma, which is based entirely on the stochastic nonperturbative fields. We consider two types of excitations of such fields, which are characterized by the thermal correlation lengths ~ 1/(g^2 T) and ~ 1/(g^4 T), where "g" is the finite-temperature Yang-Mills coupling. Excitations of the first type correspond to the genuine nonperturbative stochastic Yang-Mills fields, while excitations of the second type mimic the k...

Antonov, Dmitri

2012-01-01

314

Shear Viscosity Coefficient from Microscopic Models

The transport coefficient of shear viscosity is studied for a hadron matter through microscopic transport model, the Ultra--relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics (UrQMD), using the Green--Kubo formulas. Molecular--dynamical simulations are performed for a system of light mesons in a box with periodic boundary conditions. Starting from an initial state composed of $\\pi, \\eta ,\\omega ,\\rho ,\\phi$ with a uniform phase--space distribution, the evolution takes place through ela...

Muronga, Azwinndini

2003-01-01

315

Shear adhesion strength of aligned electrospun nanofibers.

Inspiration from nature such as insects' foot hairs motivates scientists to fabricate nanoscale cylindrical solids that allow tens of millions of contact points per unit area with material substrates. In this paper, we present a simple yet robust method for fabricating directionally sensitive shear adhesive laminates. By using aligned electrospun nylon-6, we create dry adhesives, as a succession of our previous work on measuring adhesion energies between two single free-standing electrospun polymer fibers in cross-cylinder geometry, randomly oriented membranes and substrate, and peel forces between aligned fibers and substrate. The synthetic aligned cylindrical solids in this study are electrically insulating and show a maximal Mode II shear adhesion strength of 27 N/cm(2) on a glass slide. This measured value, for the purpose of comparison, is 270% of that reported from gecko feet. The Mode II shear adhesion strength, based on a commonly known "dead-weight" test, is 97-fold greater than the Mode I (normal) adhesion strength of the same. The data indicate a strong shear binding on and easy normal lifting off. Anisotropic adhesion (Mode II/Mode I) is pronounced. The size and surface boundary effects, crystallinity, and bending stiffness of fibers are used to understand these electrospun nanofibers, which vastly differ from otherwise known adhesive technologies. The anisotropic strength distribution is attributed to a decreasing fiber diameter and an optimized laminate thickness, which, in turn, influences the bending stiffness and solid-state "wettability" of points of contact between nanofibers and surface asperities. PMID:25105533

Najem, Johnny F; Wong, Shing-Chung; Ji, Guang

2014-09-01

316

An implementation of Bayesian lensing shear measurement

The Bayesian gravitational shear estimation algorithm developed by Bernstein & Armstrong can potentially be used to overcome multiplicative noise bias and recover shear using very low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) galaxy images. In that work, the authors confirmed that the method is nearly unbiased in a simplified demonstration, but no test was performed on images with realistic pixel noise. Here, I present a full implementation for fitting models to galaxy images, including the effects of a point spread function (PSF) and pixelization. I tested the implementation using simulated galaxy images modelled as Sérsic profiles with n = 1 (exponential) and n = 4 (De Vaucouleurs'), convolved with a PSF and a flat pixel response function. I used a round Gaussian model for the PSF to avoid potential PSF-fitting errors. I simulated galaxies with mean observed, post-PSF full width at half-maximum equal to approximately 1.2 times that of the PSF, with lognormal scatter. I also drew fluxes from a lognormal distribution. I produced independent simulations, each with pixel noise tuned to produce different mean S/N ranging from 10-1000. I applied a constant shear to all images. I fitted the simulated images to a model with the true Sérsic index to avoid modelling biases. I recovered the input shear with fractional error ?g/g < 2 × 10-3 in all cases. In these controlled conditions, and in the absence of other multiplicative errors, this implementation is sufficiently unbiased for current surveys and approaches the requirements for planned surveys.

Sheldon, Erin S.

2014-10-01

317

Shear rheological characterization of motor oils

Measurements of high pressure viscosity, traction coefficient, and EHD film thickness were performed on twelve commercial automotive engine oils, a reference oil, two unformulated base oils and two unformated base oil and polymer blends. An effective high shear rate inlet viscosity was calculated from film thickness and pressure viscosity coefficient. The difference between measured and effective viscosity is a function of the polymer type and concentration. Traction measurements did not discriminate mileage formulated oils from those not so designated.

Bair, Scott; Winer, Ward O.

1988-01-01

318

Vortex shear effects in layered superconductors

Motivated by recent transport and magnetization measurements in BSCCO samples [B. Khaykovich et. al., Phys. Rev. B 61, R9261 (2000)], we present a simple macroscopic model describing effects of inhomogeneous current distribution and shear in a layered superconductor. Parameters of the model are deduced from a microscopic calculation. Our model accounts for the strong current non-linearities and the re-entrant temperature dependence observed in the experiment.

Braude, V.; Stern, A.

2002-01-01

319

Dynamical compressibility of dense granular shear flows

It has been conjectured by Bagnold [1] that an assembly of hard non-deformable spheres could behave as a compressible medium when slowly sheared, as the average density of such a system effectively depends on the confining pressure. Here we use discrete element simulations to show the existence of transverse and sagittal waves associated to this dynamical compressibility. For this purpose, we study the resonance of these waves in a linear Couette cell and compare the results...

Trulsson, Martin; Bouzid, Mehdi; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

2012-01-01

320

Motional Effect on Wall Shear Stresses

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death and severe disability. Wall Shear Stress (WSS), the stress exerted on vessel walls by the flowing blood is a key factor in the development of atherosclerosis. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is widely used for WSS estimations. Most CFD simulations are based on static models to ease computational burden leading to inaccurate estimations. The aim of this work was to estimate the effect of vessel wall deformations (expansion and bending) on WSS levels.

Kock, Samuel Alberg; Torben Fründ, Ernst

321

Stochastically driven instability in rotating shear flows

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flows is investigated, with particular emphasis on the flows whose angular velocity decreases but whose specific angular momentum increases with the increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain the observed data. Such a mismatch between the linear theory and the observations/experiments is more severe when any hydromagnetic/magnetohydrodynamic instability and then the corresponding turbulence therein is ruled out. This work explores the effect of stochastic noise on such hydrodynamic flows. We essentially concentrate on a small section of such a flow, which is nothing but a plane shear flow supplemented by the Coriolis effect. This also mimics a small section of an astrophysical accretion disc. It is found that such stochastically driven flows exhibit large temporal and spatial correlations of perturbation velocities and hence large energy dissipations of perturbation, which presumably generate the instability. A range of angular velocity (?) profiles of the background flow, starting from that of a constant specific angular momentum (? = ?r2; r being the radial coordinate) to a constant circular velocity (v? = ?r), is explored. However, all the background angular velocities exhibit identical growth and roughness exponents of their perturbations, revealing a unique universality class for the stochastically forced hydrodynamics oftochastically forced hydrodynamics of rotating shear flows. This work, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to understand the origin of instability and turbulence in three-dimensional Rayleigh stable rotating shear flows by introducing additive noise to the underlying linearized governing equations. This has important implications to resolve the turbulence problem in astrophysical hydrodynamic flows such as accretion discs. (paper)

322

Stochastically driven instability in rotating shear flows

Origin of hydrodynamic turbulence in rotating shear flows is investigated. The particular emphasis is the flows whose angular velocity decreases but specific angular momentum increases with increasing radial coordinate. Such flows are Rayleigh stable, but must be turbulent in order to explain observed data. Such a mismatch between the linear theory and observations/experiments is more severe when any hydromagnetic/magnetohydrodynamic instability and then the corresponding tu...

Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Chattopadhyay, Amit K.

2012-01-01

323

Shear modulus of neutron star crust

Shear modulus of solid neutron star crust is calculated by thermodynamic perturbation theory taking into account ion motion. At given density the crust is modelled as a body-centered cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temper...

Baiko, D. A.

2011-01-01

324

Shear modulus of the neutron star crust

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. The shear modulus of the solid neutron star crust is calculated by the thermodynamic perturbation theory, taking into account ion motion. At given density, the crust is modelled as a body-centred cubic Coulomb crystal of fully ionized atomic nuclei of one type with the uniform charge-compensating electron background. Classic and quantum regimes of ion motion are considered. The calculations in the classic temperature range agree well with previous Monte Carlo simulations. At these temperatures, the shear modulus is given by the sum of a positive contribution due to the static lattice and a negative / T contribution due to the ion motion. The quantum calculations are performed for the first time. The main result is that at low temperatures the contribution to the shear modulus due to the ion motion saturates at a constant value, associated with zero-point ion vibrations. Such behaviour is qualitatively similar to the zero-point ion motion contribution to the crystal energy. The quantum effects may be important for lighter elements at higher densities, where the ion plasma temperature is not entirely negligible compared to the typical Coulomb ion interaction energy. Additionally, the correction to the static lattice shear modulus due to the electron gas polarizability is evaluated. This effect is taken into account in the formalism of the dielectric function. Static zero temperature dielectric function of degenerate relativistic eleic function of degenerate relativistic electron gas obtained in the Random Phase Approximation is used. The results of numerical calculations are approximated by convenient fitting formulae. They should be used for precise neutron star oscillation modelling, a rapidly developing branch of stellar seismology. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-02-00253-a), by the State Program 'Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation' (grant NSh 3769.2010.2) and by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (contract 11.G34.31.0001).

325

Timescales in shear banding of wormlike micelles

We show the existence of three well defined time scales in the dynamics of wormlike micelles after a step between two shear rates on the stress plateau. These time scales are compatible with the presence of a structured interface between bands of different viscosities and correspond to the isotropic band destabilization during the stress overshoot, reconstruction of the interface after the overshoot and travel of a fully formed interface. The last stage can be used to estimate a stress diffusion coefficient.

Radulescu, O; Decruppe, J P; Lerouge, S; Berret, J F; Porte, G

2002-01-01

326

Shear-accelerated crystallization in a supercooled atomic liquid

A bulk metallic glass forming alloy is subjected to shear flow in its supercooled state by compression of a short rod to produce a flat disk. The resulting material exhibits enhanced crystallization kinetics during isothermal annealing as reflected in the decrease of the crystallization time relative to the nondeformed case. The transition from quiescent to shear-accelerated crystallization is linked to strain accumulated during shear flow above a critical shear rate ??c?0.3 s-1 which corresponds to Péclet number, Pe˜O (1 ) . The observation of shear-accelerated crystallization in an atomic system at modest shear rates is uncommon. It is made possible here by the substantial viscosity of the supercooled liquid which increases strongly with temperature in the approach to the glass transition. We may therefore anticipate the encounter of nontrivial shear-related effects during thermoplastic deformation of similar systems.

Shao, Zhen; Singer, Jonathan P.; Liu, Yanhui; Liu, Ze; Li, Huiping; Gopinadhan, Manesh; O'Hern, Corey S.; Schroers, Jan; Osuji, Chinedum O.

2015-02-01

327

Magnetic shear. IV - Hale regions 16740, 16815, and 16850

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dopplergrams made in C IV 1548 A are studied for evidence of velocity shear near H-alpha dark filaments and for large-scale flow convergent on active regions. The three regions studied support earlier conclusions that shear is a common property of active regions and that active regions may be the foci of converging plasma flow. Flow patterns near filaments show divergence or convergence as well as shear. Also the sense of the shear can be either cyclonic or anticyclonic. No preference is noted for convergence or divergence or for a particular sense of shear, and there appears to be no correlation between the sense of the shear and the sign of the velocity gradient normal to the filament. The close association of H-alpha dark filaments with shear lines leads to the suggestion that the filaments may arise from a cooling instability induced by the Bernoulli effect. 12 references

328

Density-shear instability in electron MHD

We discuss a novel instability in inertia-less electron magneto-hydrodynamics (EMHD), which arises from a combination of electron velocity shear and electron density gradients. The unstable modes have a lengthscale longer than the transverse density scale, and a growth-rate of the order of the inverse Hall timescale. We suggest that this density-shear instability may be of importance in magnetic reconnection regions on scales smaller than the ion skin depth, and in neutron star crusts. We demonstrate that the so-called Hall drift instability, previously argued to be relevant in neutron star crusts, is a resistive tearing instability rather than an instability of the Hall term itself. We argue that the density-shear instability is of greater significance in neutron stars than the tearing instability, because it generally has a faster growth-rate and is less sensitive to geometry and boundary conditions. We prove that, for uniform electron density, EMHD is "at least as stable" as regular, incompressible MHD, in...

Wood, Toby S; Lyutikov, Maxim

2014-01-01

329

Spurious Shear in Weak Lensing with LSST

The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) is one of the most powerful ground-based weak lensing survey telescopes in the upcoming decade. The complete 10-year survey will image $\\sim$ 20,000 square degrees of sky in six filter bands every few nights, bringing the final survey depth to $r\\sim27.5$, with over 4 billion well measured galaxies. To take full advantage of this unprecedented statistical power, the systematic errors associated with weak lensing measurements need to be controlled to a level similar to the statistical errors. This work is the first attempt to quantitatively estimate the absolute level and statistical properties of the systematic errors on weak lensing shear measurements due to the most important physical effects in the LSST system via high fidelity ray-tracing simulations. We identify and isolate the different sources of \\textit{additive} systematic errors on shear measurements for LSST and predict their impact on the final cosmic shear measurements using conventional weak lensing ana...

Chang, C; Jernigan, J G; Peterson, J R; AlSayyad, Y; Ahmad, Z; Bankert, J; Bard, D; Connolly, A; Gibson, R R; Gilmore, K; Grace, E; Hannel, M; Hodge, M A; Jee, M J; Jones, L; Krughoff, S; Lorenz, S; Marshall, P J; Marshall, S; Meert, A; Nagarajan, S; Peng, E; Rasmussen, A P; Shmakova, M; Sylvestre, N; Todd, N; Young, M

2012-01-01

330

Singular eigenfunctions for shearing fluids I

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors construct singular eigenfunctions corresponding to the continuous spectrum of eigenvalues for shear flow in a channel. These modes are irregular as a result of a singularity in the eigenvalue problem at the critical layer of each mode. They consider flows with monotonic shear, so there is only a single critical layer for each mode. They then solve the initial-value problem to establish that these continuum modes, together with any discrete, growing/decaying pairs of modes, comprise a complete basis. They also view the problem within the framework of Hamiltonian theory. In that context, the singular solutions can be viewed as the kernel of an integral, canonical transformation that allows us to write the fluid system, an infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian system, in action-angle form. This yields an expression for the energy in terms of the continuum modes and provides a means for attaching a characteristic signature (sign) to the energy associate with each eigenfunction. They follow on to consider shear-flow stability within the Hamiltonian framework. Next, the authors show the equivalence of integral superpositions of the singular eigenfunctions with the solution derived with Laplace transform techniques. In the long-time limit, such superpositions have decaying integral averages across the channel, revealing phase mixing or continuum damping. Under some conditions, this decay is exponential and is then the fluid analogue of Landau damping. Finally, the authors discuss the energetics of continuum damping

331

Fibre-reinforced plastic composites - Determination of the in-plane shear stress/shear strain response, including the in-plane shear modulus and strength, by the plus or minus 45 degree tension test method

International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

1997-01-01

332

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics study of shear and shear-free flows in simple fluids

Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations have been performed in order to compare the characteristics of planar Couette, planar elongation, uniaxial stretching, and biaxial stretching flows in simple fluids at different strain rates. After deriving the periodic boundary conditions for general flow fields and introducing some methodological improvements for elongation flow calculations we simulated the combination of shear and shear-free flows as well. We found that even at high strain rates where simple fluids exhibit strong non-Newtonian behavior (shear-thinning) it is a reasonable approximation to consider the two planar flows to be rotationally equivalent. This is because in planar Couette flow the in-plane normal stress difference of simple fluids is approximately zero even far from equilibrium. Similarly to planar Couette flow, the trace of the pressure tensor and the internal energy vary approximately as function of the 3/2 power of the strain rate in shear free flows. However, the individual diagonal elements of elongation flow pressure tensors deviate considerably from this approximation. In the extension direction the pressure seems to have a minimum in terms of the strain rate in every shear-free flow. We have discussed the implications of these results.

Baranyai, András; Cummings, Peter T.

1995-12-01

333

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A 3D lattice Boltzmann model for two-phase flow with amphiphilic surfactant was used to investigate the evolution of emulsion morphology and shear stress in starting shear flow. The interfacial contributions were analyzed for low and high volume fractions and varying surfactant activity. A transient viscoelastic contribution to the emulsion rheology under constant strain rate conditions was attributed to the interfacial stress. For droplet volume fractions below 0.3 and an average capillary number of about 0.25, highly elliptical droplets formed. Consistent with affine deformation models, gradual elongation of the droplets increased the shear stress at early times and reduced it at later times. Lower interfacial tension with increased surfactant activity counterbalanced the effect of increased interfacial area, and the net shear stress did not change significantly. For higher volume fractions, co-continuous phases with a complex topology were formed. The surfactant decreased the interfacial shear stress due mainly to advection of surfactant to higher curvature areas. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data for polymer blends in terms of transient interfacial stresses and limited enhancement of the emulsion viscosity at larger volume fractions where the phases are co-continuous.

Roar Skartlien; Espen Sollum; Andreas Akselsen; Paul Meakin

2012-07-01

334

Shear strength and permeability evolution during shear-holding in single rock fracture

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents direct shear test results for single jointed granite and mortar specimens to investigate effects of long-term load holding on mechanical and hydrological properties of rock joints. From the test results, it was confirmed that shear strength increased and permeability decreased for mortar specimens through three days load holding. For granite specimens, however, significant change was not confirmed on mechanical and hydrological properties through up to twenty days load holding due to smallness of confining pressure compared with the strength of granite and shortness of load holding. Relationship between the time of shear holding (th) and the growth of shear strength during shear holding (??) was examined for mortar specimens. When tn was shorter than 106sec, ?? increased in proportional to the logarithm of th as Dieterich's log-linear model, which explains the time-dependency of ?? as increase of contact area of fracture surface due to asperity creep. When th was about 106sec, however, ?? was larger than the value predicted by the Dieterich's log-linear model. This result implies growth of adhesion driven by chemical action at contact area of fracture surface such as pressure solution and precipitation. (author)

335

Distribution functions of a simple fluid under shear. II. High shear rates

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The distortion of structure of a simple, inverse 12 soft-sphere fluid undergoing plane Couette flow is studied by nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) and equilibrium molecular dynamics (EMD) with a high-shear-rate version of the nonequilibrium (NE) potential obtained recently from the NE distribution function theory of Gan and Eu [Phys. Rev. A 45, 3670; 46, 6344 (1992)]. The theory suggests a NE potential under which the equilibrium structure of the fluid is that of a NE fluid, and also suggests a corresponding Ornstein-Zernike equation with its closure relations. As in the low-shear-rate case [Yu. V. Kalyuzhnyi, S. T. Cui, P. T. Cummings, and H. D. Cochran, Phys. Rev. E 60, 1716 (1999)] the agreement between EMD and the modified hypernetted chain version of the theory is good. Although the high-shear-rate version of the NE potential improves the agreement between NEMD and EMD results (in comparison with the low-shear-rate version), its predictions are still unsatisfactory. With the high-shear-rate NE potential, EMD gives qualitatively correct predictions only for the shift of the position of the first maximum of the NE distribution function. The corresponding changes in the magnitude of the first maximum predicted by EMD have an opposite direction in comparison with those predicted by NEMD. It is concluded that the NE potential used is not very successful, and more accurate models for the potential are needed

336

Finite element analysis for the shear strength appearing in in situ rock shear tests

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The mechanisms of the strength which appeared in in situ rock shear tests were examined with a finite element analysis in this paper. A set of plaster model laboratory tests simulating the in situ rock shear tests was analyzed. The plaster models were expressed initially with constant strain triangles (CSTs). Then, the displacement was imposed gradually, and each CST was replaced with a triangular element containing an embedded interface at the point when the stress in each CST reached the failure criterion of the material. The cracking patterns and the deformation obtained from the computation resembled those in the laboratory tests. The cracking pattern under each normal stress deviated from that under different conditions; and therefore, the stress path and the shear strength appeared differently under the various normal stress conditions. The relationship between the apparent shear strength and the failure criterion of the material also changed depending on the normal stress. The shear strength measured in the model tests appeared to be lower than the material strength in the lower and in the higher normal stress ranges. Such differences were thought to occur due to the influence of the stress distributions, which were not assumed, but were caused by several different cracking patterns.

337

Shear flow effect on ion temperature gradient vortices in plasmas with sheared magnetic field

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The effect of velocity shear on ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven vortices in a nonuniform plasma in a curved, sheared magnetic field is investigated. In absence of parallel ion dynamics, vortex solutions for the ITG mode are studied analytically. It is shown that under certain conditions the coupled equations for potential and pressure exhibit special tripolar vortex-like structures. For the general case, however, parallel ion dynamics is included and the equation describing the stationary ITG vortex has the structure of a nonlinear Poisson-type equation. Analytical as well as numerical solutions of this equation are presented for various possible cases. It is shown that, for a critical value of the velocity shear asymmetric dipolar vortices can arise which are strongly modified as a localized vortex chain at resonance. For strong velocity shear these structures are destroyed and ultimately lead to a dominating monopolar form. The effects of magnetic shear indicate it may destroy these structures. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics.

Chakrabarti, N.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

1999-01-01

338

Strain localization in experimentally sheared gouge layers

Laboratory studies designed to understand fault and earthquake processes often use rotary-shear apparatus to investigate the frictional properties of rocks. Rotary-shear apparatus can apply a wide range of slip velocities and impose high displacements on cohesive and non-cohesive rocks and are thus ideal to study deformation processes taking place throughout the seismic cycle. However, in experiments performed on gouges, the mechanical results and the developing microstructures are often hard to interpret, because little is known about the distribution of strain (i.e., the ratio of displacement to the thickness of the deforming zones) within the gouge layer. A better understanding of the strain distribution may help to interpret microstructures associated with varying degrees of strain localization and infer the underlying physical-chemical processes. We report preliminary results from a series of experiments carried out with strain markers using the rotary-shear apparatus SHIVA at INGV in Rome. Within an annular steel sample holder (with outer and inner radii of 55 and 35 mm, respectively), a 3 mm thick calcite gouge layer (starting grain size mechanical properties to calcite. The strain marker experiments were conducted at varying slip rates (10-3 m/s and 1 m/s), displacements (8 cm to 1.5 m), normal stresses (3 to 20 MPa) and ambient conditions (room-humid and wet) to test the dependence of the strain distribution. Mechanical data (shear stress, shortening and dilation, etc.) were recorded during the experiments. Afterwards, the preserved samples were cut vertically through the dolomite strain markers (approximately parallel to the slip direction) and microstructural analysis was conducted with the scanning electron microscope. Preliminary results show that at a slip velocity of 0.1 m/s and normal stress of 3 MPa, localization to a relatively high-strain slipping zone occurs rapidly. Progressive strain localization at the onset of shearing is associated with gouge layer dilation and strain hardening. The onset of dynamic weakening (i.e. at the end of the strain hardening phase) broadly correlates with the establishment of a discrete slip surface that develops within the high strain slipping zone. Interestingly, the value of strain (? ~2) in the low-strain zone does not change significantly with increasing displacement, suggesting that, once formed, the high strain slipping zone and slip surface accommodate most of the ongoing displacement. More quantitative information on the dependence of strain distribution on displacement, slip rate, and normal stress will be gained from further microstructural analysis.

Di Toro, G.; Rempe, M.; Smith, S. A.; Mitchell, T. M.

2013-12-01

339

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Analytical solution of transverse shear strain vibration of a tube caused by internal gaseous detonation near the second critical speed (shear group velocity) is not reported in the literature. It is performed based on a steady state model and first order shear deformation theories (model I and II) in this paper, and the results are verified through comparison with the finite element results reported in the literature. There are no known experimental ways of directly measuring dynamic transverse shear strain and only theoretical results and numerical data are available. The finite element method is very time consuming compared with the analytical solution. It is shown in this paper that the resonance phenomenon of the transverse shear strain vibration near the second critical speed can be predicted by steady state model and first order shear deformation theories. The first order shear deformation theory (model II) has a good agreement with finite element results in prediction of dynamic amplification factors and critical speeds.

340

We explore the dynamical response, under Large Amplitude Oscillatory Shear (LAOS) deformation, of a new class of constitutive models (denoted generically VCM) designed to describe entangled solutions of wormlike micellar solutions or concentrated polymer solutions. The goal is to investigate the applicability of LAOS as a test protocol for determining the rheological properties of entangled fluids and the onset of shear banding events that are observed experimentally. The VCM family of models show that shear-banding transitions will develop in LAOS experiments at a frequency-dependent critical strain. The velocity and stress field exhibit a complex dynamical response that varies with both the frequency and amplitude of the forcing. The rheological response of the different states that are observed can be represented in terms of a Pipkin diagram together with Lissajous figures (phase plane portraits).

Zhou, Lin; Ewoldt, Randy H.; Cook, L. Pamela; McKinley, Gareth H.

2008-07-01

341

Mamaku gum is a polysaccharide extracted from the fronds of the black tree fern found in New Zealand. The cooked pith has traditionally been used for various medicinal purposes and as a food source by the Ma¯ori people of New Zealand. It has potential applications as a thickener in the food industry and as a palliative for patients with dysphagia. Studies on the shear rheology of Mamaku gum have revealed that the gum exhibits shear thickening at a critical shear rate due to a transition from intra- to inter-molecular chain interactions upon shear-induced chain elongation. In this paper, we demonstrate that these interactions are primarily due to hydrogen bonding. We perform extensional rheology on mixtures of Mamaku gum and urea (a known disruptor of hydrogen bonds) to quantify the nature of these interactions. Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheometry (CaBER) performed on the pure Mamaku gum solutions yield plateau values of the Trouton ratio as high as ?10(4), showing that the viscoelasticity of the gum in uniaxial elongation is much higher than in shear. For all Mamaku concentrations tested, the extensional viscosity decreases upon increasing urea concentration. Furthermore, the relaxation time decreases exponentially with increasing urea concentration. This exponential relationship is independent of the Mamaku concentration, and is identical to the relationships between urea concentration and characteristic timescales measured in nonlinear shear rheology. We show using the sticky reptation model for polymers with multiple sticker groups along the backbone how such a relationship is consistent with a linear decrease in the free energy for hydrogen bond dissociation. We then demonstrate that a time-concentration superposition principle can be used to collapse the viscoelastic properties of the Mamaku-gum/urea mixtures. PMID:25843844

Jaishankar, Aditya; Wee, May; Matia-Merino, Lara; Goh, Kelvin K T; McKinley, Gareth H

2015-06-01

342

Microstructural and crystal fabric evolution during shear zone formation

The microstructures and crystal fabrics associated with the development of an amphibolite facies quartzo-feldspathic mylonitic shear zone (Torridon, NW Scotland) have been investigated using SEM electron channelling. Our results illustrate a variety of microstructures and fabrics which attest to a complex shear zone deformation history. Microstructural variation is particularly pronounced at low shear strains: significant intragranular deformation occurs via a domino-faulting style process, whilst mechanical incompatibilities between individual grains result in characteristic grain boundary deformation accommodation microstructures. A sudden reduction in grain size defines the transition to medium shear strains, but many of the boundaries inherited from the original and low shear strain regions can still be recognized and define distinctive bands oriented at low angles to the shear zone margin. Grains within these bands have somewhat steeper preferred dimensional orientations. These domains persist into the high shear strain mylonitic region, where they are oriented subparallel to the shear zone margin and consist of sub-20 ?m grains. The microstructures suggest that the principal deformation mechanism was intracrystalline plasticity (with contributions from grain size reduction via dynamic recrystallization, grain boundary migration and grain boundary sliding). Crystal fabrics measured from the shear zone vary with position depending on the shear strain involved, and are consistent with the operation of several crystal slip systems (e.g. prism, basal, rhomb and acute rhomb planes) in a consistent direction (probably parallel to a and/or m). They also reveal the presence of Dauphine twinning and suggest that this may be a significant process in quartz deformation. A single crystal fabric evolution path linking the shear zone margin fabric with the mylonitic fabric was not observed. Rather, the mylonitic fabric reflects the instantaneous fabric which developed at a particular location for a particular shear strain and original parental grain orientation. The mature shear zone therefore consists of a series of deformed original grains stacked on top of each other in a manner which preserves original grain boundaries and intragranular features which develop during shear zone evolution. The stability of some microstructures to higher shear strains, the exploitation of others at lower shear strains, and a continuously evolving crystal fabric, mean that the strain gradient observed across many shear zones is unlikely to be equivalent to a time gradient.

Lloyd, G. E.; Law, R. D.; Mainprice, D.; Wheeler, J.

1992-09-01

343

Acoustic wave propagation in transversely sheared flows

This thesis investigates acoustic wave propagation phenomena in transversely-sheared flows theoretically and computationally. As model problems, four types of aero- acoustic problems are considered: (i)sound radiation from a time-harmonic point source in a steady mixing layer; (ii)that in a steady boundary layer; (iii)acoustic scattering of plane waves in an unsteady subsonic mixing layer; and (iv)shock wave leakage across an unsteady supersonic mixing layer. In each problem, theoretical predictions are compared with direct numerical simulation (DNS) in two dimensions. In the first problem, Green's functions in a transversely-sheared mixing layer are re-derived or newly formulated including three types of waves: direct waves, refracted arrival waves, and instability waves. Likewise, in the second problem, Green's functions in a transversely-sheared boundary layer are derived including direct waves, channeled waves, and diffracted waves. Green's functions of direct waves, refracted arrival waves, and diffracted waves are derived based on the third order convective wave equation using asymptotic theories, i.e. low and high frequency limits as well as far field asymptotes. Green's functions of instability waves and channeled waves are formulated using the adjoint operator of the third order convective wave equation and the corresponding bi-orthogonal system. These theoretical predictions show fairly good agreement with DNS in most cases. In the third problem, the interaction between acoustic plane waves and an unsteady vortex-laden mixing layer is investigated. Here, scattered acoustic field and frequency broadening are numerically analyzed using DNS. The scattered acoustic field is also calculated using geometrical acoustics, and its comparison with DNS shows good agreement. In the fourth problem, the interaction between a weak shock wave and a supersonic unsteady vortex laden mixing layer is studied for the application to jet screech noise. The shock leakage across a mixing layer is analyzed based on geometrical acoustics, and the wave-front evolution of the leaked shock noise and its amplitude are predicted.

Suzuki, Takao

2001-09-01

344

Saturation of elliptic flow and shear viscosity

Effect of shear viscosity on elliptic flow is studied in causal dissipative hydrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. Elliptic flow is reduced in viscous dynamics. Causal evolution of minimally viscous fluid ($\\eta/s$=0.08), can explain the PHENIX data on elliptic flow in 16-23% Au+Au collisions up to $p_T\\approx$3.6 GeV. In contrast, ideal hydrodynamics, can explain the same data only up to $p_T\\approx$1.5 GeV. $p_T$ spectra of identified particles are also better explained in minim...

Chaudhuri, A. K.

2007-01-01

345

Propagation of waves in shear flows

The state of the art in a theory of oscillatory and wave phenomena in hydrodynamical flows is presented in this book. A unified approach is used for waves of different physical origins. A characteristic feature of this approach is that hydrodynamical phenomena are considered in terms of physics; that is, the complement of the conventionally employed formal mathematical approach. Some physical concepts such as wave energy and momentum in a moving fluid are analysed, taking into account induced mean flow. The physical mechanisms responsible for hydrodynamic instability of shear flows are conside

Fabrikant, A L

1998-01-01

346

Door assembly with shear layer control aperture

There is described a vehicle door assembly with shear layer control for controlling the airflow in and around an aperture in the vehicle fuselage. The vehicle door assembly consists of an upper door and a lower door, both slidably mounted to the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. In addition, an inner door is slidably mounted beneath the upper door. Beneath the inner door is an aperture assembly having an aperture opening positionable to be substantially flush with the exterior surface of the vehicle fuselage. Also provided are means for positioning the aperture assembly in an upward and downward direction in relation to the vehicle fuselage.

Kahn, William C. (Inventor); Johnston, John T. (Inventor); Fluegel, Kyle G. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

347

Particle Segregation in Collisional Shearing Flows

The size segregation of flowing or shaken grains is a commonly observed phenomenon in industrial processes and in nature. In systems that do not involve much agitation of the grains, several mechanisms that involve gravity have been identified as leading to such segregation. In highly agitated flows, there is a mechanism independent of gravity that is available to drive separation of different grains. This is associated with spatial gradients in the energy of their velocity fluctuations. Because collisions between grains inevitably dissipate energy, collisional granular shear flows are usually of limited extent in the direction transverse to the flow. One consequence of this is that shear flows are strongly influenced by their boundaries. Because grains, on average, slip relative to boundaries, a bumpy or frictional boundary can convert slip energy into fluctuation energy. However, because each collision between a grain and the boundary dissipates fluctuation energy, there is a competition between production and dissipation. In principle, it is possible to design the geometry of the boundary - for example, the size and spacing of the bumps - so that the boundary either produces or dissipates fluctuation energy. This permits the control of the component of the spatial gradient of the fluctuation energy that is normal to the boundary. The gradients in fluctuation energy established by such boundaries may be exploited to drive the separation by size or other properties in a binary mixture of spherical grains. Microgravity makes the visual observations possible by permitting us to employ moderate rates of shear. On earth, the effects of gravity can be minimized by shearing so rapidly that the particle pressure overwhelms gravity. However, in this event, separation takes place too rapidly for visual observation, buoyancy and/or condensation associated with the centripetal acceleration must be accounted for, and the particles can be severely damaged. Because, in the absence of gravity, the only available time scale is proportional to the speed of the moving boundary, this speed can be made arbitrarily slow to permit observations and to avoid particle damage, without altering the phenomenon under study. The primary goal of this research is to carry out a physical experiment in which particle segregation is induced and maintained in a collisional flow of a binary mixture of two different types of spheres.

Jenkins, J. T.; Louge, M. Y.

1999-01-01

348

Stochastic parametric resonance in shear flows

Time-periodic shear flows can give rise to Parametric Instability (PI), as in the case of the Mathieu equation (Stoker, 1950; Nayfeh and Mook, 1995). This mechanism results from a resonance between the oscillatory basic state and waves that are superimposed on it. Farrell and Ioannou (1996a, b) explain that PI occurs because the snap-shots of the velocity profile are subject to transient growth. If the flows were purely steady the transient growth would subside and not have any long l...

Poulin, F. J.; Scott, M.

2005-01-01

349

Shear-Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is found that the thermal fluctuation level of the shear-Alfven waves in a gyrokinetic plasma decreases with plasma b(* cs2/uA2), where cs is the ion acoustic speed and uA is the Alfven velocity. This unique thermodynamic property based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is verified in this paper using a new gyrokinetic particle simulation scheme, which splits the particle distribution function into the equilibrium part as well as the adiabatic and nonadiabatic parts

350

Shear flow on super-hydrophobic surfaces.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Super-hydrophobic surfaces, which exhibit large contact angles, can give rise to slip flow of aqueous fluids. We present our work on shear flow of atomistic fluids over simple super-hydrophobic surfaces. Molecular dynamic simulations are employed to investigate the flow field of fluid between two parallel surfaces, one of which is moving. Exploring a range of fluid thermodynamic state points, we demonstrate the influence of fluid phase and structure near the surfaces on prevalence, and degree, of slip at the super-hydrophobic surface.

van Swol, Frank B.; Truesdell, Richard; Vorobieff, Peter V.; Challa, Sivakumar R.; Mammoli, Andrea A.

2007-10-01

351

Intrinsic rotation and electric field shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel mechanism for the generation and amplification of intrinsic rotation at the low-mode to high-mode transition is presented. The mechanism is one where the net parallel flow is accelerated by turbulence. A preferential direction of acceleration results from the breaking of kparallel?-kparallel symmetry by sheared ExB flow. It is shown that the equilibrium pressure gradient contributes a piece of the parallel Reynolds stress, which is nonzero for vanishing parallel flow, and so can accelerate the plasma, driving net intrinsic rotation. Rotation drive, transport, and fluctuation dynamics are treated self-consistently

352

Interface instability in shear banding flow

We report on the spatio-temporal dynamics of the interface in shear-banding flow of a wormlike micellar system (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and sodium nitrate in water) during a start-up experiment. Using the scattering properties of the induced structures, we demonstrate the existence of an instability of the interface between bands along the vorticity direction. Different regimes of spatio-temporal dynamics of the interface are indentified along the stress plateau. We build a model based on the flow symetry which qualitatively describes the observed patterns.

Lerouge, S; Decruppe, J P

2006-01-01

353

dc-Magnetic-field generation in unmagnetized shear flows.

The generation of dc magnetic fields in unmagnetized electron-ion shear flows is shown to be associated to either initial thermal effects or the onset of electron-scale shear instabilities, in particular the cold Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. This mechanism, intrinsic to shear gradients on the electron scale, is described through a kinetic model that predicts the growth and the saturation of the dc field in both scenarios. The theoretical results are confirmed by multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations, demonstrating the formation of long-lived magnetic fields (t~100's ?(pi)(-1)) along the full longitudinal extent of the shear layer, with a typical transverse width of ?[?(0)]c/?(pe), reaching magnitudes eB(dc)/m(e)c?(pe)~?(0)?[?(0)] for an initial sharp shear. The case of an initial smooth shear is also discussed. PMID:23863009

Grismayer, T; Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O

2013-07-01

354

Stacking-dependent shear modes in trilayer graphene

We observe distinct interlayer shear mode Raman spectra for trilayer graphene with ABA and ABC stacking order. There are two rigid-plane shear-mode phonon branches in trilayer graphene. We find that ABA trilayers exhibit pronounced Raman response from the high-frequency shear branch, without any noticeable response from the low-frequency branch. In contrast, ABC trilayers exhibit no response from the high-frequency shear branch, but significant Raman response from the low-frequency branch. Such complementary behaviors of Raman shear modes can be explained by the distinct symmetry of the two trilayer allotropes. The strong stacking-order dependence is not found in the layer-breathing modes, and thus represents a unique characteristic of the shear modes.

Lui, Chun Hung; Ye, Zhipeng; Keiser, Courtney; Barros, Eduardo B.; He, Rui

2015-01-01

355

Plastic buckling of short cylinders under transverse shearing loads

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

If a pool-type fast breeder reactor is subjected to severe seismic loads, the cylindrical shell of a main vessel might fail by shear buckling due to horizontal inertia forces. Therefore, we investigate the plastic shear buckling of short cylinders. The buckling of cylinders subjected to transverse shearing loads has been studied by some researchers. We consider the static analogue on buckling behavior under seismic loads and conduct 4 static backling tests using 1/20 scale cylindrical models of a main vessel. We obtain not only the buckling strength but also the post-buckling behavior under repeated shearing loads. In addition, we carry out the non-linear numerical analysis to simulate plastic shear backling behavior and get a good agreement with experimental results. We study further parametric calculations to clarify the effect of initial imperfection on plastic shear buckling. (orig./GL)

356

Investigation into ferrofluid magnetoviscous effects under an oscillating shear flow

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The use of ferrofluid seals in mechanical systems can lead to viscous damping that affects their dynamic behavior. This paper describes an investigation into local viscous properties in the case of an axial harmonic force. The influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency are studied. Even for ferrofluid particles in a highly saturated magnetic field, it is shown that viscosity increases with magnetic intensity, decreases with the frequency of harmonic excitation and is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. Viscosity is lower for oscillatory flows than for steady flows. - Highlights: > Extension of the magnetoviscous effect of ferrofluids to the oscillatory shear flow. > Influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency is studied. > Ferrofluid viscosity is lower for oscillatory than for steady flow shearing. > Ferrofluid viscosity is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. > Negative-viscosity effect occurs even for a null magnetic field.

Pinho, M., E-mail: marcos.pinho.etu@univ-lemans.fr [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France); Brouard, B.; Genevaux, J.M. [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France); Dauchez, N. [LISMMA - Institut Superieur de Mecanique de Paris (SUPMECA), 93407 Saint Ouen (France); Volkova, O. [Centre de micro et nanorheometrie, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice-cedex2 (France); Meziere, H.; Collas, P. [LAUM - Laboratoire d' Acoustique de l' Universite du Maine UMR CNRS 6613 (France)

2011-10-15

357

Investigation into ferrofluid magnetoviscous effects under an oscillating shear flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The use of ferrofluid seals in mechanical systems can lead to viscous damping that affects their dynamic behavior. This paper describes an investigation into local viscous properties in the case of an axial harmonic force. The influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency are studied. Even for ferrofluid particles in a highly saturated magnetic field, it is shown that viscosity increases with magnetic intensity, decreases with the frequency of harmonic excitation and is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. Viscosity is lower for oscillatory flows than for steady flows. - Highlights: ? Extension of the magnetoviscous effect of ferrofluids to the oscillatory shear flow. ? Influence of magnetic field level, shear stress amplitude and frequency is studied. ? Ferrofluid viscosity is lower for oscillatory than for steady flow shearing. ? Ferrofluid viscosity is not sensitive to shear rate amplitude. ? Negative-viscosity effect occurs even for a null magnetic field.

358

Parametric evaluation of shear sensitivity in piezoresistive interfacial force sensors

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A three-axis load detector has been designed and manufactured utilizing four piezoresistive sensors on a flexible silicon membrane. The detector was prototyped using bulk microfabrication techniques on a single-crystal silicon wafer and was designed to detect normal and shear loadings applied to the membrane. Finite element analysis and experimental calibration methods have been used to determine the shear and normal sensitivity values. Device parameters were modified with emphasis on increasing the absolute shear to normal sensitivity ratio of the sensors without reducing their ultimate strength. It was determined that the shear to normal sensitivity ratio greater than 0.5 would allow detection of shear loads considering experimental error present. For devices with square membranes having 1000 µm edge lengths and 65 µm thicknesses, this amount of shear sensitivity was achievable using a mesa with a height of at least 150 µm.

359

Assessment of susceptibility of rape stems to shearing

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, the authors used a dynamic shearing and densitometric method for the asses- sment of susceptibility of stems of winter rape, vars Mar, Bolko, Leo, Ceres and Libravo to shearing. They determi- ned dynamic shearing energy per a unit of the stem cross section area, in the natural state as well as after the removed of parenchyma, density and DOD parameter, indicating the amount of X-ray energy absorbed by the stems. It was found that susceptibility of rape stems to shearing depends on their structure. A strict correlation was shown to exist between the dynamic shearing energy and the amount of X-ray radiation energy absorbed by the stem. Moreover, in study showed that the application of the X-ray method greatly enhanced the possibility to determine of the suscep- tibility of rape stems to shearing.

Vielikanov L.

2000-12-01

360

Resonant Low Frequency Interlayer Shear Modes in Folded Graphene Layers

Naturally or artificially stacking extra layers on single layer graphene (SLG) forms few-layer graphene (FLG), which has attracted tremendous attention owing to its exceptional properties inherited from SLG and new features generated by introducing extra freedom. In FLG, shear modes play a critical role in understanding its distinctive properties. Unfortunately, energies of shear modes are so close to excitation lasers to be fully blocked by a Rayleigh rejecter. This greatly hinders investigations of shear modes in FLG. Here, we demonstrate dramatically enhanced shear modes in properly folded FLG. Benefiting from the extremely strong signals, for the first time, enhancement mechanism, vibrational symmetry, anharmonicity and electron-phonon coupling (EPC) of shear modes are uncovered through studies of two-dimensional (2D) Raman mapping, polarization- and temperature-dependent Raman spectroscopy. This work complements Raman studies of graphene layers, and paves an efficient way to exploit low frequency shear m...

Cong, Chunxiao

2013-01-01

361

Large amplitude compression and shear wave propagation in an elastomer

Experimental techniques have been developed to measure the high strain-rate compression and shear response of Solithane 113. Compression and shear wave profiles have been measured in specimens compressed to 20% (compressive stresses ˜1.2 GPa). The compressive profiles are nearly steady and the compressive stress-strain response is typical of a compliant material. The shear wave profiles are dispersive and show attenuation with propagation. Analyses of these wave profiles will be presented. Shear moduli vary from 0.35 GPa to 0.8 GPa for the compression range examined to date. These values are within a factor of two of the static shear moduli in the glassy state. The data described here have been used to calculate the high strain rate compressive and shear stress-strain curves for Solithane 113.

Gupta, Y. M.; Murri, W. J.; Henley, D.

1982-04-01

362

Shear dispersion and turbulence decorrelation by differential rotation

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The shear enhanced dispersion of a passive scalar field subject to differential rotation is investigated analytically and interpretations are given in terms of turbulence shear decorrelation. Using the method of advected coordinates, the enhanced dispersion caused by steady and oscillatory flows with uniform shear is derived and the well-known turbulence shear decorrelation theory is recovered. The additional role of kinetic energy transfer due to differential advection of vorticity is also pointed out. Finally, the shear enhanced dispersion due to flows with periodic variations in space as well as time is given. It is found that radially alternating flows may significantly reduce the turbulence decorrelation time provided the root mean square flow shear is larger than the flow oscillation frequency. In the opposite limit of fast flow oscillations there is no turbulence decorrelation. (C) 2005 American Institute of Physics.

Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.

2005-01-01

363

Shear stress induced stimulation of mammalian cell metabolism

A flow apparatus was developed for the study of the metabolic response of anchorage dependent cells to a wide range of steady and pulsatile shear stresses under well controlled conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell monolayers were subjected to steady shear stresses of up to 24 dynes/sq cm, and the production of prostacyclin was determined. The onset of flow led to a burst in prostacyclin production which decayed to a long term steady state rate (SSR). The SSR of cells exposed to flow was greater than the basal release level, and increased linearly with increasing shear stress. It is demonstrated that shear stresses in certain ranges may not be detrimental to mammalian cell metabolism. In fact, throughout the range of shear stresses studied, metabolite production is maximized by maximizing shear stress.

Mcintire, L. V.; Frangos, J. A.; Eskin, S. G.

1988-01-01

364

Microscopic observations of adiabatic shear bands in three different steels

Microscopic observations are made of the shear band material in three different steels: (1) an AISI 1018 cold-rolled steel (CRS), (2) a structural steel (HY-100), and (3) an AISI 4340 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) steel tempered to either of two hardnesses, RHC 44 or 55. To produce the shear bands, specimens were subjected to large shear strains at relatively high strain rates, ?103/s, resulting in essentially adiabatic deformation conditions. It was found that whenever the shear band led to fracture of the specimen, the fracture occurred by a process of void nucleation and coalescence; no cleavage was observed on any fracture surface, including the most brittle of the steels tested (RHC = 55). This is presumably due to the softening of the shear band material that results from the local temperature rise occurring during dynamic deformation. Differences in shear band behavior between the various microstructures are also described.

Cho, K.; Chi, Y. C.; Duffy, J.

1990-05-01

365

Quasielastic neutron scattering for the investigation of liquids under shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Changes in the structural properties of polymers under shear are well explored by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). In the present work we show the influence of these structural ordering phenomenon on the dynamics on a atomistic length scale. Microscopic excitations have been explored for a polymer solution (P85 in deuterated water) under shear by neutron spectroscopy using the backscattering instrument IN16 at the Institut Laue-Langevin. We find that the microscopic diffusion slows down under shear at a hydrophilic interface whereas shear has no influence for a hydrophobic interface. In addition diffusion becomes anisotropic under shear at the hydrophilic interface with the modes in the direction of the shear gradient becoming faster than the modes in the direction of the flow. The experimental data are evaluated quantitatively by computer simulations

366

Transport Bifurcation Induced by Sheared Toroidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas

First-principles numerical simulations are used to describe a transport bifurcation in a differentially rotating tokamak plasma. Such a bifurcation is more probable in a region of zero magnetic shear, where the component of the sheared toroidal flow that is perpendicular to the magnetic field has the strongest suppressing effect on the turbulence, than one of finite magnetic shear. Where the magnetic shear is zero, there are no growing linear eigenmodes at any finite value of flow shear. However, subcritical turbulence can be sustained, owing to the transient growth of modes driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and the parallel velocity gradient (PVG). Nonetheless, in a parameter space containing a wide range of temperature gradients and velocity shears, there is a sizeable window where all turbulence is suppressed. Combined with the relatively low transport of momentum by collisional (neoclassical) mechanisms, this produces the conditions for a bifurcation from low to high temperature and velocity gr...

Highcock, E G; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A; Roach, C M; Cowley, S C

2011-01-01

367

The structure of sheared turbulence near a plane boundary

An analysis is presented of how a plane boundary affects the structure of turbulence in a sheared free stream. A uniform-shear boundary layer (USBL) is formulated with slip velocity condition at the surface, and inhomogeneous rapid distortion theory is applied. The effects of blocking by the surface on the turbulence structure in USBL is compared with those in the shear-free boundary layer (SFBL). Shear produces highly anisotropic eddies elongated in the flow direction. The vertical velocity variance is reduced with shear at all heights, roughly in proportion to the reduction in the homogeneous value, but the shape of the profile remains unchanged only near the surface. The streamwise integral scales increase with shear, indicating elongation of the streamwise extent of eddies.

Lee, Moon J.; Hunt, J. C. R.

1988-01-01

368

Shear Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using GFRP Wraps

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of the experimental work described in this paper was to investigate the efficiency of GFRP composites in strengthening simply supported reinforced concrete beams designed with insufficient shear capacity. Using the hand lay-up technique, successive layers of a woven fiberglass fabric were bonded along the shear span to increase the shear capacity and to avoid catastrophic premature failure modes. The strengthened beams were fabricated with no web reinforcement to explore the efficiency of the proposed strengthening technique using the results of control beams with closed stirrups as a web reinforcement. The test results of 18 beams are reported, addressing the influence of different shear strengthening schemes and variable longitudinal reinforcement ratios on the structural behavior. The results indicated that significant increases in the shear strength and improvements in the overall structural behavior of beams with insufficient shear capacity could be achieved by proper application of GFRP wraps.

M. A. A. Saafan

2006-01-01

369

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the µ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF, final weight (FW, average daily gain (ADG, backfat thickness (BFT, average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG, rib-eye area (REA, and beef rib-eye depth (RED as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05 for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18, FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68, and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014 Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001. The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG.

María C. Miquel

2009-01-01

370

The combined effect of blade tenderization (TD,NTD), pre-massaging (0 and 30min), moisture enhancement and post-injection tumbling (2h) on the chemical, binding and textural characteristics of pre-cooked roasts made from beef top round was investigated. Properties of the beef roasts were determined by measuring processing (i.e., cooking yield, expressible moisture (EM)) and textural characteristics (Warner-Bratzler shear, Kramer shear (KS), texture profile analysis). Brine injection helped to improve the cook yield and had the largest effect on tenderness of semimembranosus muscles. Post-injection tumbling did not significantly improve yield and textural properties of roasts; however, combined with the tenderization, it had beneficial effects on water holding and moisture retention. Pre-tumbling and blade tenderization treatments prior to injection generally were found to be beneficial for textural characteristics; pre-tumbling also tended to improve cook yield, but did not influence EM. However, no synergistic effect between these two variables was observed. An interaction between injection/tumbling and pre-tumbling was observed for KS. There was a significant improvement of KS values of roasts due to pre-tumbling observed for either non-injected roasts or those injected but without tumbling. However, no additional reduction in shear force was observed with pre-tumbling when roasts were tumbled after injection. This suggests that pre-tumbling may not be necessary to ensure more tender roasts when post-injection tumbling is applied, but would be beneficial for non-injected roasts or when tumbling is not applied after injection. PMID:22060925

Pietrasik, Z; Shand, P J

2005-11-01

371

In this study, the effects of low-voltage electrical stimulation (LVES) and rapid chilling (RC) treatments on the quality characteristics of beef carcasses were evaluated, including the rate of pH and temperature decline, evaporative loss of carcasses, purge loss, cooking loss, and shear force values of m. longissimus steaks. Each carcass of 28 Chinese Yellow crossbred (SimmentalxYanbian) bulls was subjected to one of the four treatments, i.e., electrical stimulation and conventional chilling (ES/NR), electrical stimulation and rapid chilling (ES/RC), no electrical stimulation and rapid chilling (NE/RC), or no electrical stimulation and conventional chilling (NE/NR). Carcass pH and temperature were measured at 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 24h post-mortem. After that, a 2.5-cm-thick m. longissimus steak was taken from the right side of each carcass and used for analyses of purge loss, cooking loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The results showed that LVES accelerated the rate of carcass pH decline (Pchilling increased the rate of carcass temperature decline (P0.05). Mean purge losses for m. longissimus steaks from rapidly chilled carcasses were lower (Pchilled carcasses. Electrical stimulation had no impact on m. longissimus steak purge losses (P>0.05). Rapid chilling significantly decreased (Pcooking loss of m. longissimus steaks from electrically stimulated carcasses whilst it increased the cooking loss of m. longissimus steaks from carcasses without stimulation (Pcooking loss of m. longissimus steaks from conventionally chilled carcasses, but had no effect under the procedure of pre-rigor rapid chilling (P>0.05). The lowest mean shear force value was found for the ES/NR-treated m. longissimus steaks, whilst the highest one for the NE/RC-treated carcasses (Pmeat quality by using low-voltage stimulation together with pre-rigor rapid chilling. PMID:20416844

Li, C B; Chen, Y J; Xu, X L; Huang, M; Hu, T J; Zhou, G H

2010-04-22

372

Multi-functional direct joint shear test machine

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A shear testing machine to carry out precise and comprehensive studies of the frictional properties of rock interfaces has been designed. The shear box testing machine has been used to investigate the frictional properties of the discontinuities in Coal Measures rocks associated with opencast coal mining in the UK; the parameters that affect the frictional behaviour that is the surface roughness; and the direct shear strength of weaker rock types within the strata, that is, mudstone, cleatearth, etc.

Hassani, F.P.

1980-01-01

373

Rheology of concentrated suspensions and shear-induced migration

This thesis deals with an experimental and numerical investigation of the phenomenon of shear-induced particle migration in inhomogeneous shear flows of mono-dispersed non-colloidal suspensions at neglected inertia. Variety of diffusion flux models that predict the shear-induced migration were presented. However, in this work, the Suspension Balance Model (SBM) is adopted. The latter describes the migration flux of particles as the divergence of the particle Stress tensor. According to the ne...

Dbouk, Talib

2011-01-01

374

Influence of particle shape on sheared dense granular media

We study by means of molecular dynamics simulations of periodic shear cells, the influence of particle shape on the global mechanical behavior of dense granular media. Results at macro-mechanical level show that for large shear deformation samples with elongated particles, independent of their initial orientation, reach the same stationary value for both shear force and void ratio. At the micro-mechanical level the stress, the fabric and the inertia tensors of the particles ...

Pen?a, A. A.; Garci?a-rojo, R.; Herrmann, H. J.

2006-01-01

375

Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.

1985-11-01

376

The role of magnetic shear for zonal flow generation

The role of magnetic shear for zonal flow generation by ion-temperature-gradient (ITG-) and trapped electron (TE-) mode turbulence is studied analytically using fluid descriptions. The scaling of the zonal flow (ZF) growth rate with magnetic shear is examined and compared with linear growth rates for typical tokamak parameter values. The results indicate that large levels of ZF are obtained in regions of negative magnetic shear, in particular for ZF driven by TE mode turbule...

Anderson, J.; Nordman, H.

2009-01-01

377

Punching shear strength of steel fibre reinforced concrete slabs

The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete slabs is frequently governed by the punching shear capacity, which may be increased with addition of traditional fitments such as reinforcing steel, headed studs or shear heads. In addition to these traditional methods of strengthening against punching, steel fibre reinforcement has proved to be an effective and viable alternative. The addition of fibres into the concrete improves not only the shear behaviour but also the deformation capacity of re...

Maya Duque, L. Felipe; Ferna?ndez Ruiz, Miguel; Muttoni, Aurelio; Foster, S. J.

2012-01-01

378

Precessive sand ripples in intense steady shear flows

We describe experimental observations of fully developed, large-amplitude bars under the action of a shearing fluid. The experiments were performed in an annular tank filled with water and sheared above by a steady motor source. The same steady shearing flow can produce a variety of different erodible bed manifestations: advective or precessive bars, which refer to bar structures with global regularity and a near-steady precession velocity; interactive bars, the structure of which depends on ...

Restrepo, Jm; Moulton, DE; Uys, H.

2011-01-01

379

Particle-scale origins of shear strength in granular media

The shear strength of cohesionless granular materials is generally attributed to the compactness or anisotropy of their microstructure. An open issue is how such compact or anisotropic microstructures, and thus the shear strength, depend on the particle properties. We first recall the role of fabric and force anisotropies with respect to the critical-state shear stress. Then, a model of accessible geometrical states in terms of particle connectivity and contact anisotropy is...

Radjai, Farhang

2008-01-01

380

Inplane shear capacity of reinforced composite masonry block walls

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this paper is to describe a test program performed to determine the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility of composite masonry walls subjected to earthquake type loadings. Specimens were simultaneously subjected to a range of compressive loads to simulate dead load; and inplane shear loads with full load reversal to simulate the earthquake cycling load. The influence of horizontal and vertical reinforcing steel percentages on the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility was also investigated. (orig./HP)

381

A transport bifurcation model for enhanced confinement with negative shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A magnetic shear driven transport bifurcation model for transition to enhanced confinement regime with negative shear and neutral beams is proposed. Strong fueling by high power beams leads to peaking of pressure profile and generation of large bootstrap current. The resulting negative shear reduces the growth of fluctuations. The transition to enhanced confinement regime occurs when fluctuations are completely quenched. Relevance of this to recent results from TFTR is briefly discussed. (author)

382

SHEARING STRENGTH TESTING ON »ROBERTSON RESEARCH« AND »AMP-1«

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Paper describes shearing machines »Robertson Research« and shearing machine »AMP-1« for »softer« rocks. Maximal horizontal and vertical power for »AMP-1« is 400 kN for sample surface between 100 and 200 cm2, and can be used for shear tests along the plane of discontinuity of very hard rocks. Average content of CaCO3 in tested samples is 71,39%.

Miroslav Petzel

1994-12-01

383

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn es un hongo dematiáceo, saprófito y fitopatógeno, presente principalmente en áreas tropicales y subtropicales, asociado a distintos sustratos orgánicos. Se ha identificado escasamente en infecciones sistémicas, cutáneas y sólo existe una comunicación de un caso [...] de rinosinusitis alérgica descrito anteriormente. Presentamos el caso clínico de un paciente con una rinosinusitis alérgica fúngica por Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn en cuyo diagnóstico se consideró los síntomas y signos clínicos, la TAC de senos paranasales y el cultivo de la mucina. El paciente fue tratado con un aseo quirúrgico por vía endoscópica, además del uso de corticoesteroides inhalatorios e itra-conazol sistémico. Presentó una buena respuesta clínica, encontrándose asintomático a un año del tratamiento. Abstract in english Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn is a fungus dematiaceo, saprophyte and plant pathogen found mainly in tropical and subtropical areas, associated with various organic substrates. Rarely been identified in systemic infections, skin and there is only one report of allergic rhinosinusitis describe [...] d above. A case of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis by Curvularia inaequalis (Shear) Boedijn in which diagnosis was considered the signs and symptoms, sinus CT and cultivation of mucin.The patient was treated with endoscopic surgical toilet, plus use of inhaled steroids and itraconazole systemic. With good clinical response, is asymptomatic at one year.

Rodrigo, Cruz; Elizabeth, Barthel; Jaime, Espinoza.

2013-06-01

384

Shear and shear friction of ultra-high performance concrete bridge girders

Ultra-High Performance Concrete (UHPC) is a new class of concrete characterized by no coarse aggregate, steel fiber reinforcement, low w/c, low permeability, compressive strength exceeding 29,000 psi (200 MPa), tensile strength ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 psi (8 to 17 MPa), and very high toughness. These properties make prestressed precast UHPC bridge girders a very attractive replacement material for steel bridge girders, particularly when site demands require a comparable beam depth to steel and a 100+ year life span is desired. In order to efficiently utilize UHPC in bridge construction, it is necessary to create new design recommendations for its use. The interface between precast UHPC girder and cast-in-place concrete decks must be characterized in order to safely use composite design methods with this new material. Due to the lack of reinforcing bars, all shear forces in UHPC girders have to be carried by the concrete and steel fibers. Current U.S. codes do not consider fiber reinforcement in calculating shear capacity. Fiber contribution must be accurately accounted for in shear equations in order to use UHPC. Casting of UHPC may cause fibers to orient in the direction of casting. If fibers are preferentially oriented, physical properties of the concrete may also become anisotropic, which must be considered in design. The current research provides new understanding of shear and shear friction phenomena in UHPC including: (1) Current AASHTO codes provide a non-conservative estimate of interface shear performance of smooth UHPC interfaces with and without interface steel. (2) Fluted interfaces can be created by impressing formliners into the surface of plastic UHPC. AASHTO and ACI codes for roughened interfaces are conservative for design of fluted UHPC interfaces.(3) A new equation for the calculation of shear capacity of UHPC girders is presented which takes into account the contribution of steel fiber reinforcement. (4) Fibers are shown to preferentially align in the direction of casting, which significantly affects compressive behavior of the UHPC.

Crane, Charles Kennan

385

Injectable solid peptide hydrogel: shear-thinning and instant recovery

Peptides were designed to fold into ?-hairpins once exposed to physiological conditions and consequently self-assemble into rigid hydrogel. The network consists of branched and entangled 3nm-wide fibrils. These physical gels shear thin and flow under a proper shear stress but immediately recover back into solids on removal of stress with further rigidity restoring over time. To elucidate mechanisms of these physical properties, gel behavior during and after flow was investigated. Gel stiffness recovered immediately after shear, as well as gel stiffening over time post-recovery, were found dependent on shear rate and shear duration. From scattering measurements during flow, the gel network structure was observed unchanged from the static state at all shear rates investigated. Thus, the peptide gel networks fracture into gel domains (>200nm as determined by scattering) during shear thinning/flow but can instantly percolate back into a solid hydrogel after cessation of shear, stiffening further as particle boundaries relax. As these gels are essentially the same solid material, before and after shear, they offer great potential as well-defined, injectable carriers of biomedical therapies where a desired encapsulated therapeutic payload is delivered to an in vivo site by simple syringe injection.

Yan, Congqi; Schneider, Joel; Pochan, Darrin

2011-03-01

386

Viscoelastic Properties of Dynamically Asymmetric Binary Fluids Under Shear Flow

We study theoretically the viscoelastic properties of sheared binary fluids that have strong dynamical asymmetry between the two components. The dynamical asymmetry arises due to asymmetry between the viscoelastic stresses, particularly the bulk stress. Our calculations are based on the two-fluid model that incorporates the asymmetric stress distribution. We simulate the phase separation process under an externally imposed shear and compare the asymmetric case with the usual phase separation under a shear flow without viscoelastic effects. We also simulate the behavior of phase separated stable morphologies under applied shear and compute the stress relaxation.

Dwivedi, V; Lookman, T; Saxena, A; Dwivedi, Vinay; Ahluwalia, Rajeev; Lookman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh

2003-01-01

387

Morphologies of three-dimensional shear bands in granular media

Using three-dimensional Distinct Element Method with spherical particles we simulated shear band formation of granular materials in axisymmetric triaxial shear test. The calculated three-dimensinoal shear band morphologies are in good agreement with those found experimentally. We observed spontaneous symmetry braking strain localization provided it was allowed by the boundaries. If the symmetry was enforced, we found strain hardening. We discuss the formation mechanism of shear bands in the light of our observations and compare our results with high resolution NMR experiments.

Fazekas, S; Kertész, J; Wolf, D E

2005-01-01

388

Interface shear and pressure characteristics of wheelchair seat cushions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pressure ulcer incidence rates have remained constant despite advances in support surface technology. Interface shear stress is recognized as a risk factor for pressure ulcer development and is the focus of many shear reduction technologies incorporated into wheelchair cushions; however, shear reduction has not been quantified in the literature. We evaluated 21 commercial wheelchair seat cushions using a new methodology developed to quantify interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. Interface shear stress increased significantly with applied horizontal indenter displacement, while no significant difference was found for interface pressure. Material of construction resulted in significant differences in interface shear stress, interface pressure, and horizontal stiffness. This study shows that the existing International Organization for Standardization (ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure provides similar information to the new horizontal stiffness measure. The lack of a relationship between interface shear stress and the overall horizontal stiffness measure, however, suggests that a pressure and shear force sensor should be used with the ISO 16840-2 horizontal stiffness measure to fully quantify a cushion's ability to reduce interface shear stress at the patient's bony prominences.

Jonathan S. Akins

2011-03-01

389

Shear Induced Crystallization in Isotactic Polypropylene: Optical and SAXS Studies

We describe an apparatus constructed to study the effect of shearing a polymer melt on its subsequent crystallization kinetics and morphology. Pressure driven flow is used to force the polymer melt through a slit imposing large wall shear stresses similar to those in commercial processing. Shear-induced crystallization of isotactic polypropylene of relatively low polydispersity was monitored using optical and X-ray scattering techniques. The polymer melt was subjected to intense shear for a precisely controlled shearing time. While shear speeds up the crystallization kinetics, the effect seems to saturate beyond a certain shearing time for each value of the wall shear stress. The effects of shear on morphology were probed using real time, in-situ SAXS measurements with synchrotron X-rays. Well-defined materials together with a new apparatus to control the transient flow allow us to explore the interplay between the relaxation time of the polymer and the crystallization time that determines the crystallization kinetics and the final morphology.

Guruswamy, K.; Verma, R. K.; Kornfield, J. A.; Yeh, F.; Hsiao, B. S.

1998-03-01

390

The Role of Shear in Dissipative Gravitational Collapse

In this paper, we investigate the physics of a radiating star undergoing dissipative collapse in the form of a radial heat flux. Our treatment clearly demonstrates how the presence of shear affects the collapse process; we are in a position to contrast the physical features of the collapsing sphere in the presence of shear with the shear-free case. By employing a causal heat transport equation of the Maxwell-Cattaneo form we show that the shear leads to an enhancement of the core temperature thus emphasizing that relaxational effects cannot be ignored when the star leaves hydrostatic equilibrium.

Govender, M.; Reddy, K. P.; Maharaj, S. D.

2014-11-01

391

Aerosol penetration through a seismically loaded shear wall

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An experimental study was performed to measure the aerosol penetration through a reinforced concrete shear wall after simulated seismic damage. Static load-cycle testing, to stress levels sufficient to induce visible shear cracking, was used to simulate the earthquake loading. Air permeability tests were performed both before and after the simulated seismic loading damaged the structure. Aerosol penetration measurements were conducted on the cracked shear wall structure using 0.10 ?m monodisperse particles. The measured aerosol number penetration through the cracked shear wall was 0.5%. 7 refs

392

Onset of three-dimensional shear in granular flow.

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The evolution of granular shear flow is investigated as a function of height in a split-bottom Couette cell. Using particle tracking, magnetic-resonance imaging, and large-scale simulations, we find a transition in the nature of the shear as a characteristic height H* is exceeded. Below H* there is a central stationary core; above H* we observe the onset of additional axial shear associated with torsional failure. Radial and axial shear profiles are qualitatively different: the radial extent is wide and increases with height, while the axial width remains narrow and fixed.

Lechman, Jeremy B.; Nagel, Sidney, R. (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Grest, Gary Stephen; Mobius, Matthias E. (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Karczmar, Greg S. (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Heinrich, M. Jaeger (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Barbero, Antonio F. (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL); Cheng, Xiang (University of Chicago, Chicago, IL)

2005-07-01

393

Shearing effects on density burst propagation in SOL plasmas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

SOL turbulence is characterised by intermittent ballistic transport of density fronts. The interaction of such density structures with velocity shear layers is found to yield shearing effects over scales that are comparable to those of the fronts. Enhanced diffusion transport governed by the thinning of the radial extent of the density structure governs the decay of such a structure over a Dupree time. Velocity shear layers extending poloidally over a fraction of the poloidal wave length can also exhibit a stopping capability due to the collapse of the radial velocity within the shear layer. The penetration of the density structure within such a barrier is of the order of five hybrid Larmor radius.

394

Control over colloidal crystallization by shear and electric fields

We used shear flow and an electric field to control colloidal crystallization. The structures were examined in situ with confocal microscopy. For experiments under shear, a new parallel plate shear cell was designed. It had a zero-velocity plane that was stationary with respect to the microscope. The plates were microscopy slides of a few square centimeters. They both had a maximum travel of 1 cm and for the systems that we study an oscillatory shear with such a large amplitude can be regarde...

Wu, Y. L.

2007-01-01

395

Investigation of counterflow shear effects in heat pipes

The entrainment-shear performance limit in heat pipes is investigated. The entrainment heat flux limit is defined as the condition where the Weber number is greater than or equal to one. In this analysis, the critical value for the entrainment Weber number is between 2pi and 3pi. Performance degradation due to vapor-liquid shearing stress is predicted. Preliminary qualitative experiments were conducted to observe the shear stress wave formation phenomena. The equations presented may be used to predict and minimize the vapor-liquid shear stress performance effects in axial groove and puddle flow artery heat pipes.

Feldman, K. T., Jr.; Thupvongsa, C.

1977-01-01

396

Rheo-NMR studies of liquid crystals in shear flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has proven a useful tool for the investigation of shear-induced phenomena in liquid crystals. Due to the anisotropy of the interactions of nuclear spins, information about shear-induced orientations can be obtained. In deuterium NMR, the quadrupolar interaction is used to probe the orientation of the liquid crystalline director. In situ observations of director orientations under shear can reveal the microscopic origin of macroscopic rheological phenomena. Recent examples for deuterium NMR investigations of shear phenomena in different types of liquid crystals, such as nematic, lamellar and hexagonal phases will be presented

397

Shear-driven magnetic buoyancy oscillations

The effects of uniform horizontal shear on a stably stratified layer of gas is studied. The system is initially destabilized by a magnetically buoyant flux tube pointing in the cross-stream direction. The shear amplifies the initial field to Lundquist numbers of about 200-400, but then its value drops to about 100-300, depending on the value of the sub-adiabatic gradient. The larger values correspond to cases where the stratification is strongly stable and nearly isothermal. At the end of the runs the magnetic field is nearly axisymmetric, i.e. uniform in the streamwise direction. In view of Cowling's theorem the sustainment of the field remains a puzzle and may be due to subtle numerical effects that have not yet been identified in detail. In the final state the strength of the magnetic field decreases with height in such a way that the field is expected to be unstable. Low amplitude oscillations are seen in the vertical velocity even at late times, suggesting that they might be persistent.

Vermersch, Violaine; 10.1002/asna.200911242

2009-01-01

398

Dilatant shear bands in solidifying metals.

Compacted granular materials expand in response to shear, and can exhibit different behaviour from that of the solids, liquids and gases of which they are composed. Application of the physics of granular materials has increased the understanding of avalanches, geological faults, flow in hoppers and silos, and soil mechanics. During the equiaxed solidification of metallic alloys, there exists a range of solid fractions where the microstructure consists of a geometrically crowded disordered assembly of crystals saturated with liquid. It is therefore natural to ask if such a microstructure deforms as a granular material and what relevance this might have to solidification processing. Here we show that partially solidified alloys can exhibit the characteristics of a cohesionless granular material, including Reynolds' dilatancy and strain localization in dilatant shear bands 7-18 mean crystals wide. We show that this behaviour is important in defect formation during high pressure die casting of Al and Mg alloys, a global industry that contributes over $7.3 billion to the USA's economy alone and is used in the manufacture of products that include mobile-phone covers and steering wheels. More broadly, these findings highlight the potential to apply the principles and modelling approaches developed in granular mechanics to the field of solidification processing, and also indicate the possible benefits that might be gained from exploring and exploiting further synergies between these fields. PMID:17203058

Gourlay, C M; Dahle, A K

2007-01-01

399

Anisotropy and Heterogeneity Interaction in Shear Zones

Rocks are heterogeneous on many different scales and deformation may introduce a coexistence of heterogeneity and anisotropy in shear zones. A competent inclusion embedded in a laminated matrix is a typical example. Indisputably, the presence of a mechanical heterogeneity leads to a flow perturbation and consequently to a deflection of the lamination in its vicinity. Assuming a passive response of the matrix phase, the pattern formation around rigid objects has been modeled in two and three dimensions using analytical solutions. Yet, the laminas may be mechanically distinct, leading to an effectively anisotropic rheology of the matrix. The feedback of an evolving matrix structure on the inclusion motion cannot be precluded in this case. In our study elliptical inclusions of varying aspect ratios are embedded in a laminated linear viscous host and subject to a large simple shear deformation in finite element numerical simulations. Increasing the viscosity ratio of the weak and strong lamina significantly changes the pattern characteristics in the matrix. The structural evolution around an inclusion proves to have a major impact on the inclusion motion, leading to the stabilization of elongated inclusions at antithetic orientations. We provide a comparison of two different modeling approaches. In the first approach discrete layers are introduced in the matrix and the large strain evolution of individual minute layers is resolved. Next, the matrix is modeled as an anisotropic medium using an evolving director field that locally describes the anisotropy direction. The length scale of layering can be restored in this model using the micropolar medium formulation.

Dabrowski, M.; Schmid, D. W.

2009-04-01

400

Shear viscosity in neutron star cores

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We calculate the shear viscosity ???e?+?n in a neutron star core composed of nucleons, electrons, and muons (?e? being the electron-muon viscosity, mediated by collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles, and ?n the neutron viscosity, mediated by neutron-neutron and neutron-proton collisions). Deriving ?e?, we take into account the Landau damping in collisions of electrons and muons with charged particles via the exchange of transverse plasmons. It lowers ?e? and leads to the nonstandard temperature behavior ?e??T-5/3. The viscosity ?n is calculated taking into account that in-medium effects modify nucleon effective masses in dense matter. Both viscosities, ?e? and ?n, can be important, and both are calculated including the effects of proton superfluidity. They are presented in the form valid for any equation of state of nucleon dense matter. We analyze the density and temperature dependence of ? for different equations of state in neutron star cores, and compare ? with the bulk viscosity in the core and with the shear viscosity in the crust.

401

Cosmic Shear Analysis with CFHTLS Deep data

We present the first cosmic shear measurements obtained from the T0001 release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. The data set covers three uncorrelated patches (D1, D3 and D4) of one square degree each observed in u*, g', r', i' and z' bands, out to i'=25.5. The depth and the multicolored observations done in deep fields enable several data quality controls. The lensing signal is detected in both r' and i' bands and shows similar amplitude and slope in both filters. B-modes are found to be statistically zero at all scales. Using multi-color information, we derived a photometric redshift for each galaxy and separate the sample into medium and high-z galaxies. A stronger shear signal is detected from the high-z subsample than from the low-z subsample, as expected from weak lensing tomography. While further work is needed to model the effects of errors in the photometric redshifts, this results suggests that it will be possible to obtain constraints on the growth of dark matter fluctuations wi...

Semboloni, E; Van Waerbeke, L; Hoekstra, H; Tereno, I; Benabed, K; Gwyn, S; Fu, L; Hudson, M J; Maoli, R; Parker, L

2005-01-01

402

An Implementation of Bayesian Lensing Shear Measurement

The Bayesian gravitational shear estimation algorithm developed by Bernstein and Armstrong (2014) can potentially be used to overcome noise bias and recover shear using very low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) galaxy images. In that work the authors confirmed the method is sufficiently unbiased for planned surveys (fractional error less than 2 x 10^{-3}) in a simplified demonstration, but no test was performed on images. Here I present a full implementation for fitting models to galaxy images, including the effects of a point spread function (PSF) and pixelization. I tested the implementation using simulated galaxy images modeled as Sersic profiles with n=1 (exponential) and n=4 (De Vaucouleurs'), convolved with a PSF and a flat pixel response function. I used a round Gaussian model for the PSF to avoid potential PSF-fitting errors. I simulated galaxies with mean observed, post-PSF full-width at half maximum equal to approximately 1.2 times that of the PSF, with log-normal scatter. I also drew fluxes from a log-n...

Sheldon, Erin S

2014-01-01

403

Leakage through cracks in RC shear walls

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The negative pressure inside BWR buildings and in the annular zone of PWRs should be maintained under control even in the case that an S1 design earthquake occurs after LOCA. The leakage through the cracks in a reinforced concrete shear wall is one of the important problems when the air tightness of these structures after earthquakes is considered. In order to obtain the methods for estimating the leakage, two types of the model tests were carried out. In the basic test, 20 specimens were tested for examining the air flow rate through the single cracks having different crack width under the pressure difference of 20 - 1000 mm Aq. In the application test, four flat plate specimens were tested for examining the air flow rate through the multiple residual shear cracks of different stress intensity under the pressure difference of approximately 20, 100 and 200 mm Aq. The specimens, the methods of loading and measurement, the test results and the evaluation of the test results are reported. Based on the basic test results, a simplified formula for estimating the flow rate through a single crack was obtained. (K.I.)

404

Rotation shear and drift wave stability

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The stability of short wavelength (high n, where n is the toroidal mode number) drift eigenmodes in toroidally confined plasma is conventionally analysed using the ballooning transformation. In lowest order in 1/n there is a local eigenvalue, ?(x, k), where k is a parameter representing the radial wave-number. Usually profile variation defines a radial position where the growth rate is a maximum. In next order one finds that this position determines the mode's radial location and that the parameter k is such as to maximise the growth rate. However, if the effects of sheared plasma rotation, d?/dq, dominate other profile variation, the growth rate is smaller and, instead, involves an average over a period of k. In this paper we consider a generic drift wave model that generates a local eigenvalue having quadratic radial variations of frequency, ?(x), and growth rate, ?(x), and a periodic variation with k. We derive an analytic dispersion relation for the global eigenvalue, ?. Although requiring numerical solution, this shows that there is a continuous evolution between these two limits as d?/dq increases, the transition being quite sharp for high n. The transition can be associated with a critical rotation shear, d?crit/dq ? O(1/n). The detailed character of the results depends on which of the radial variations, ?(x) or ?(x), dominates

405

Shear-induced instabilities in layered liquids

Motivated by the experimentally observed shear-induced destabilization and reorientation of smectic-A-like systems, we consider an extended formulation of smectic-A hydrodynamics. We include both, the smectic layering (via the layer displacement u and the layer normal pcirc) and the director ncirc of the underlying nematic order in our macroscopic hydrodynamic description and allow both directions to differ in nonequilibrium situations. In an homeotropically aligned sample the nematic director does couple to an applied simple shear, whereas the smectic layering stays unchanged. This difference leads to a finite (but usually small) angle between ncirc and pcirc, which we find to be equivalent to an effective dilatation of the layers. This effective dilatation leads, above a certain threshold, to an undulation instability of the layers. We generalize our earlier approach [G. K. Auernhammer, H. R. Brand, and H. Pleiner, Rheol. Acta 39, 215 (2000)] and include the cross couplings with the velocity field and the order parameters for orientational and positional order and show how the order parameters interact with the undulation instability. We explore the influence of various material parameters on the instability. Comparing our results to recent experiments and molecular dynamic simulations, we find a good qualitative agreement.

Auernhammer, Günter K.; Brand, Helmut R.; Pleiner, Harald

2002-12-01

406

Amorphous Systems in Athermal, Quasistatic Shear

We present results on a series of 2D atomistic computer simulations of amorphous systems subjected to simple shear in the athermal, quasistatic limit. The athermal quasistatic trajectories are shown to separate into smooth, reversible elastic branches which are intermittently broken by discrete catastrophic plastic events. The onset of a typical plastic event is studied with precision, and it is shown that the mode of the system which is responsible for the loss of stability has structure in real space which is consistent with a quadrupolar source acting on an elastic matrix. The plastic events themselves are shown to be composed of localized shear transformations which organize into lines of slip which span the length of the simulation cell, and a mechanism for the organization is discussed. Although within a single event there are strong spatial correlations in the deformation, we find little correlation from one event to the next, and these transient lines of slip are not to be confounded with the persiste...

Maloney, C E; Maloney, Craig E.; Lema\\^{\\i}tre, Ana\\"el

2005-01-01

407

Dynamics of developable cones under shear.

We identify and study a persistent structure characteristic of the post-buckling regime of a thin cylindrical shell subjected to axial torsion. It consists of a pair of developable cones ( d cones) joined by an S-shaped ridge, having a size of the order of the radius of the cylinder. We study its formation by applying a concentrated load at the center of the shell, which creates an isolated pair of d cones, joined by a straight ridge that progressively tilts when a torsion angle is imposed. We interpret this response as the equilibrium state of a pair of interacting d cones in the presence of an in-plane shear field, created by axial torsion, which tends to drive them away from each other. We find that the amplitude of displacement of the d cones for a given torsion angle is amplified by decreasing the thickness of the sheet, therefore concluding that the equilibrium state is the result of a balance between bending and stretching energies. We propose a model where the driving effect is the coupling between the deformation field around the d cones and the imposed shear field, while the stabilizing effect is the increasing bending energy of the system. PMID:15447610

Hamm, Eugenio; Roman, Benoît; Melo, Francisco

2004-08-01

408

Uranium mineralization in Singbhum shear zone, Bihar:

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Uraniferous apatite-magnetite veins occur in several parts of the Singhbhum Shear Zone, Bihar. Besides these veins, apatite and magnetite are ubiquitous minerals in the uranium ore deposits of the zone, with which too uranium values are associated. Both primary and secondary uranium occur in the apatite-magnetite veins, though the latter is more abundant. Diadochic uranium in apatite lattice, inclusions of uraninite in apatite and uranium-bearing accessory minerals such as allanite, sphene, xenotime and rare monazite are the source of primary uranium. Secondary uranium is in the form of minerals like autunite, potassium autunite, uranophane and torbernite, uraniferous iron oxides and rare interstitial uraninite/pitchblende. The relationship between uranium-bearing minerals and magnetite indicates that magnetite has played a role in the precipitation of uranium, not only in the apatite-magnetite veins, but also in the mineralised schists of the shear zone. Oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ with the concomitant reduction and precipitation of uranium is the probable mechanism. This can take place both at elevated temperatures leading to coprecipitation of uraninite and hematite, and supergene and low temperature conditions which favour the formation of uraniferous iron oxides and fine-grained pitch-blende. (author)

409

Alfven eigenmodes in shear reversed plasmas

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Plasma configurations with shear reversal are known to be propitious for creating internal transport barriers in tokamaks. Experiments on JT-60 and JET have shown that these configurations are also prone to excitation of unusual Alfven eigenmodes by energetic particles. Surprisingly, these modes emerge significantly below the TAE frequency gap, where one would expect them to be strongly damped. The modes often appear in bunches and they exhibit a quasi-periodic pattern of predominantly upward frequency sweeping (Alfven Cascades) as the safety factor q changes in time. This work presents a theory that explains the key features of the observed unusual modes including their connection to TAE's as well as the modifications of TAE's themselves near the shear reversal point. The developed theory has been incorporated into a reduced numerical model and verified with full geometry codes. JET experimental data on Alfven spectroscopy have been simulated to infer the mode numbers and the evolution of qmin in the discharge. Work is currently underway on extending the numerical model to evaluate the mode growth rates for realistic energetic particle distributions. (author)

410

Evolution of twist-shear and dip-shear during X-class flare of 13 December 2006: Hinode observations

The non-potentiality (NP) of the solar magnetic fields is measured traditionally in terms of magnetic shear angle i.e., the angle between observed and potential field azimuth. Here, we introduce another measure of shear that has not been studied earlier in solar active regions, i.e. the one that is associated with the inclination angle of the magnetic field. This form of shear, which we call as the "dip-shear", can be calculated by taking the difference between the observed ...

Gosain, Sanjay; Venkatakrishnan, P.

2010-01-01

411

We developed and tested a parallel plate shear cell that can be mounted on top of an inverted microscope to perform confocal real-space measurements on complex fluids under shear. To follow structural changes in time, a plane of zero velocity is created by letting the plates move in opposite directions. The location of this plane is varied by changing the relative velocities of the plates. The gap width is variable between 20 and 200 microm with parallelism better than 1 microm. Such a small gap width enables us to examine the total sample thickness using high numerical aperture objective lenses. The achieved shear rates cover the range of 0.02-10(3) s(-1). This shear cell can apply an oscillatory shear with adjustable amplitude and frequency. The maximum travel of each plate equals 1 cm, so that strains up to 500 can be applied. For most complex fluids, an oscillatory shear with such a large amplitude can be regarded as a continuous shear. We measured the flow profile of a suspension of silica colloids in this shear cell. It was linear except for a small deviation caused by sedimentation. To demonstrate the excellent performance and capabilities of this new setup we examined shear induced crystallization and melting of concentrated suspensions of 1 microm diameter silica colloids. PMID:17979430

Wu, Yu Ling; Brand, Joost H J; van Gemert, Josephus L A; Verkerk, Jaap; Wisman, Hans; van Blaaderen, Alfons; Imhof, Arnout

2007-10-01

412

Stabilization of collisionless drift-wave instabilities by rotational drift shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Drift-mode fluctuations were found to be destabilized in the range of slightly negative electric field and controlled ExB rotation frequency shear. When the shear is increased with E? being fixed, the drift-mode fluctuations increase once in a weaker shear region, attain its peak at a certain shear and then decrease in the stronger shear region. (author)

413

A constitutive relation describing the shear-banding transition.

An additional contribution to the standard expression for the shear stress must be considered in order to describe shear banding. A possible extension of the standard constitutive relation is proposed. Its physical, purely hydrodynamic origin is discussed. The corresponding Navier-Stokes equation is analyzed for the two-plate geometry, where flow gradients are assumed to exist only in the direction perpendicular to the two plates. The linearized Navier-Stokes equation is shown to be very similar to the Cahn-Hilliard equation for spinodal decomposition, with a similar term that stabilizes rapid spatial variations. Only slowly varying flow gradients are unstable. Just as in the initial stage of spinodal decomposition there is a most rapidly growing wavelength in the initial stage of the shear-banding transition, leading to a predictable number of shear bands. A modified Maxwell equal area construction is derived, which dictates the stress and the shear rates in the bands under controlled shear conditions, and which shows that under controlled stress conditions no true shear bands can coexist. The kinetics of the shear-banding transition is studied numerically. For the two-plate geometry it is found that there exist multiple stationary states under controlled shear conditions, depending on the initial state of the flow profile. Shear banding occurs not only when the system is initially unstable, but can also be induced outside the unstable region when the amplitude of the initial perturbation is large enough. The shear-banding transition can thus proceed via "spinodal demixing" (from an unstable initial state) or via "condensation." Under controlled stress conditions no stationary state is found. Here, coupling with flow gradients extending in other directions, not perpendicular to the two plates, should probably be taken into account. PMID:11970310

Dhont, J K

1999-10-01

414

Dynamic shear viscosity in a 2D Yukawa system

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Complete text of publication follows. We present non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation studies on the dynamic (complex) shear viscosity of a 2D Yukawa system. We make use of the homogeneous shear algorithm with an applied oscillatory shear, based on the Gaussian thermostated SLLOD equations of motion in planar Couette flow, in conjunction with Lees-Edwards boundary conditions. We perform the calculation for N = 11400 particles, in a wide range of shear rates (1), for a series of perturbation frequencies (2) and Coulomb coupling parameters (3), with a Yukawa screening parameter ? = 1: ?-bar = (¶vx /¶y)(a /vtherm) = 0.04 - 4.00 (1); ?-bar = ? / ?p = 0.1 - 1.00, where ?p2 = nQ2/(2?0 m a) (2); ? = Q2/4??0 1/akBT =100,200,500 (3). The principal investigated quantities are the real (viscous dissipative) and imaginary (elastic) parts of the complex viscosity, the energy absorbed by the thermostat (equivalent to the energy absorbed by the particle ensemble from the external perturbation), the density and current fluctuation spectra, and the pair correlation function. In the small shear limit our 2D simulation results are in good qualitative agreement with 3D simulation results [2]. We obtain good agreement with 2D dusty plasma experiments [3] (i) for the shear rate dependence of the viscosity at small excitation frequencies and (ii) frequency dependence of thii) frequency dependence of the viscosity at intermediate shear rates. At high shear rates and frequencies we observe a qualitatively new, non-monotonic behavior of shear viscosity. Our simulations show a peak in the absorbed energy near the Einstein frequency at intermediate shear rates (?-bar ? 1). An enhanced collective wave activity is observed, when the excitation is near the plateau frequency of the longitudinal wave dispersion. Significant configurational anisotropy develops at small frequencies and high shear rates resulting in the change of structural properties.

415

Structure formation in thermoresponsive microgel suspensions under shear flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Shear-induced structures of concentrated temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgel suspensions have been studied employing small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS). The interaction potential of swollen PNiPAM microgels could be varied from repulsive at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature to attractive at temperatures above the lower critical solution temperature. In contrast to the case for suspensions of rigid spheres, the effective volume fraction could be changed by means of temperature while the mass concentration and particle number density were kept constant. Thus, aqueous PNiPAM microgels are interesting model systems with unique colloidal properties. Complementary information about shear-induced changes of both the internal particle structure and the overall microstructural phenomena were obtained from rheo-SANS experiments with PNiPAM microgels with different particle sizes. The shear-induced particle arrangements strongly depended on the particle-particle interaction potential. When the interaction potential was repulsive at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature, no significant deformation of the swollen PNiPAM particles was observed even at high shear rates. Shear-induced ordering was found at high shear rates resulting in the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close packed layers that aligned along the flow direction giving rise to shear thinning. The formation of sliding hexagonalinning. The formation of sliding hexagonal close packed layers under shear flow is therefore proposed to be a general property of colloidal dispersion independent of the internal structure of the particle. At temperatures near the lower critical solution temperature, when the particle interaction potential is not yet strongly attractive, shear flow induces the collapse of an individual particle in concentrated suspension at high shear rates. A so-called butterfly scattering pattern indicates the shear-induced enhancement of concentration fluctuations along the flow direction leading to solvent being squeezed out of the particles until phase separation occurs finally

416

Structure formation in thermoresponsive microgel suspensions under shear flow

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Shear-induced structures of concentrated temperature-sensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAM) microgel suspensions have been studied employing small angle neutron scattering (rheo-SANS). The interaction potential of swollen PNiPAM microgels could be varied from repulsive at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature to attractive at temperatures above the lower critical solution temperature. In contrast to the case for suspensions of rigid spheres, the effective volume fraction could be changed by means of temperature while the mass concentration and particle number density were kept constant. Thus, aqueous PNiPAM microgels are interesting model systems with unique colloidal properties. Complementary information about shear-induced changes of both the internal particle structure and the overall microstructural phenomena were obtained from rheo-SANS experiments with PNiPAM microgels with different particle sizes. The shear-induced particle arrangements strongly depended on the particle-particle interaction potential. When the interaction potential was repulsive at temperatures below the lower critical solution temperature, no significant deformation of the swollen PNiPAM particles was observed even at high shear rates. Shear-induced ordering was found at high shear rates resulting in the formation of two-dimensional hexagonal close packed layers that aligned along the flow direction giving rise to shear thinning. The formation of sliding hexagonal close packed layers under shear flow is therefore proposed to be a general property of colloidal dispersion independent of the internal structure of the particle. At temperatures near the lower critical solution temperature, when the particle interaction potential is not yet strongly attractive, shear flow induces the collapse of an individual particle in concentrated suspension at high shear rates. A so-called butterfly scattering pattern indicates the shear-induced enhancement of concentration fluctuations along the flow direction leading to solvent being squeezed out of the particles until phase separation occurs finally.

Stieger, Markus [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Kiel, Olshausenstrasse 40, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Lindner, Peter [Institute Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156-38042, Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France); Richtering, Walter [Institute of Physical Chemistry II, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 59, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2004-09-29

417

A refined shear deformation theory for flexure of thick beams

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english A Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory (HPSDT) taking into account transverse shear deformation effects, is used for the static flexure analysis of thick isotropic beams. The displacement field of the theory contains two variables. The hyperbolic sine function is used in the displacement field in ter [...] ms of thickness coordinate to represent shear deformation. The transverse shear stress can be obtained directly from the use of constitutive relations, satisfying the shear stress-free boundary conditions at top and bottom of the beam. Hence, the theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing differential equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. General solutions of thick isotropic simply supported, cantilever and fixed beams subjected to uniformly distributed and concentrated loads are obtained. Expressions for transverse displacement of beams are obtained and contribution due to shear deformation to the maximum transverse displacement is investigated. The results of the present theory are compared with those of other refined shear deformation theories of beam to verify the accuracy of the theory.

Yuwaraj M., Ghugal; Rajneesh, Sharma.

2011-06-01

418

Sheared and unsheared rotation of driven dust clusters

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Finite size plasma crystals confined in an anisotropic potential well were studied under a rotating and radially unsheared drive in experiment and simulation at moderate rotational frequencies. A radially sheared rotation of these strongly coupled systems is observed for most cluster configurations with a low symmetry. The results show that a differential rotation can be effected by a non-sheared driving force

419

Shear-induced Transitions in Ternary Polymeric System

The first three-dimensional simulation of shear-induced phase transitions in a polymeric system has been performed. The method is based on dynamic density-functional theory. The pathways between a bicontinuous phase with developing gyroid mesostructure and a lamellar/cylinder phase coexistence are investigated for a mixture of flexible triblock ABA-copolymer and solvent under simple steady shear.

Zvelindovsky, A V; Fraaije, J G E M

2000-01-01

420

Rotation shear induced fluctuation decorrelation in a toroidal plasma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The enhanced decorrelation of fluctuations by the combined effects of the E x B flow (VE) shear, the parallel flow (Vparallel) shear, and the magnetic shear is studied in toroidal geometry. A two-point nonlinear analysis previously utilized in a cylindrical model shows that the reduction of the radial correlation length below its ambient turbulence value (?r0) is characterized by the ratio between the shearing rate ?s and the ambient turbulence scattering rate ??T. The derived shearing rate is given by ?s2 = (?r0)2[1/??2{?/?r(qVE/r)}2 + 1/??2{?/?r(V parallel/qR)}2], where ?? and ?? are the correlation angles of the ambient turbulence along the toroidal and parallel directions. This result deviates significantly from the cylindrical result for high magnetic shear or for ballooning-like fluctuations. For suppression of flute-like fluctuations, only the radial shear of qVE/r contributes, and the radial shear of V parallel/qR is irrelevant regardless of the plasma rotation direction

421

Constant rate shearing on two dimensional cohesive disks

We performed two-dimensional Molecular Dynamics simulations of cohesive disks under shear. The cohesion between the disks is added by the action of springs between very next neighbouring disks, modelling capillary forces. The geometry of the cell allows disk-disk shearing and not disk-cell wall shearing as it is commonly found in literature. Does a stick-slip phenomenon happen though the upper cover moves at a constant velocity, i.e. with an infinite shearing force? We measured the forces acted by the disks on the upper cover for different shearing rates, as well as the disk velocities as a function of the distance to the bottom of the cell. It appears that the forces measured versus time present a periodic behavior,very close to a stick slip phenomenon, for shearing rates larger than a given threshold. The disks' collective displacements in the shearing cell (back and ahead) is the counterpart of the constant velocity of the upper cover leading to a periodic behavior of the shear stress.

Olivi-Tran, N; Fraysse, N

2005-01-01

422

The Behavior of Granular Materials under Cyclic Shear

The design and development of a parallel plate shear cell for the study of large scale shear flows in granular materials is presented. The parallel plate geometry allows for shear studies without the effects of curvature found in the more common Couette experiments. A system of independently movable slats creates a well with side walls that deform in response to the motions of grains within the pack. This allows for true parallel plate shear with minimal interference from the containing geometry. The motions of the side walls also allow for a direct measurement of the velocity profile across the granular pack. Results are presented for applying this system to the study of transients in granular shear and for shear-induced crystallization. Initial shear profiles are found to vary from packing to packing, ranging from a linear profile across the entire system to an exponential decay with a width of approximately 6 bead diameters. As the system is sheared, the velocity profile becomes much sharper, resembling an...

Mueggenburg, N W

2004-01-01

423

Innovative isogeometric formulations for shear deformable beams and plates

We present different innovative formulations for shear deformable beams and plates exploiting the high inter-element continuity provided by NURBS basis functions. We develop isogeometric collocation methods in standard and mixed formulations as well as Galerkin methods using an alternative set of discrete variables. All methods are free of shear locking, which is con?rmed by numerical tests.

Kiendl, Josef; Auricchio, Ferdinando; Beirao Da Veiga, Lourenco; Lovadina, Carlo; Reali, Alessandro

2013-01-01

424

Shearing box simulations of accretion disk winds

The launching process of a magnetically driven outflow from an accretion disk is investigated in a local, shearing box model which allows a study of the feedback between accretion and angular momentum loss. The mass-flux instability found in previous linear analyses of this problem is recovered in a series of 2D (axisymmetric) simulations in the MRI-stable (high magnetic field strength) regime. At low field strengths that are still sufficient to suppress MRI, the instability develops on a short radial length scale and saturates at a modest amplitude. At high field strengths, a long-wavelength "clump" instability of large amplitude is observed, with growth times of a few orbits. As speculated before, the unstable connection between disk and outflow may be relevant for the time dependence observed in jet-producing disks. The success of the simulations is due in a large part to the implementation of an effective wave-transmitting upper boundary condition.

Moll, R

2012-01-01

425

Quasilinear transport modelling at low magnetic shear

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Accurate and computationally inexpensive transport models are vital for routine and robust predictions of tokamak turbulent transport. To this end, the QuaLiKiz [Bourdelle et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 112501 (2007)] quasilinear gyrokinetic transport model has been recently developed. QuaLiKiz flux predictions have been validated by non-linear simulations over a wide range in parameter space. However, a discrepancy is found at low magnetic shear, where the quasilinear fluxes are significantly larger than the non-linear predictions. This discrepancy is found to stem from two distinct sources: the turbulence correlation length in the mixing length rule and an increase in the ratio between the quasilinear and non-linear transport weights, correlated with increased non-linear frequency broadening. Significantly closer agreement between the quasilinear and non-linear predictions is achieved through the development of an improved mixing length rule, whose assumptions are validated by non-linear simulations.

426

Shear Wave Splitting Beneath the Galapagos Archipelago

We report measurements of teleseismic shear wave splitting in the Galápagos Archipelago. The inferred lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy allow us to examine the dynamics of an evolving hotspot-ridge system. The data are from SKS and SKKS phases, as well as S waves from deep sources, recorded by a relatively dense network of 10 portable broadband seismometers deployed from 1999 to 2003 for the IGUANA (Imaging Galápagos Upwelling and Neotectonics of the Archipelago) experiment and from the GSN broadband station in Santa Cruz (PAYG). We find a delay time between fast and slow shear waves of 0.4 to 0.9 s and fast polarization directions of N85-90° E beneath five stations at the leading and southern edge of the archipelago. Despite clear seismic signals, we did not find any anisotropy at the six stations located in the interior of the archipelago. For those stations that show shear wave splitting, there is an increase in the delay time toward the expected location of the Galápagos hotspot at the western edge of the archipelago. With the exception of Española, fast polarization directions (N85-90° E) are close to the current direction of absolute plate motion of the overlying Nazca plate (N91° E). The lack of azimuthal anisotropy in the interior of the archipelago is interpreted as an absence of strongly oriented mantle fabric beneath these stations. The apparent isotropy in this dynamic region, where we expect considerable mantle strain, is surprising. It is not likely that the olivine a-axis is oriented vertically beneath the interior of the archipelago as the Galápagos plume is thought to lie at the western edge. It is also unlikely that there are two layers of perpendicularly-oriented anisotropy which are solely confined to the center of the archipelago. However, there appears to be some correlation between the region of apparent isotropy and a zone of anomalously low upper mantle velocities imaged beneath Santiago and Marchena from surface waves by Villagomez and others, though the low-velocity region is spatially more confined. This pattern suggests that the presence of melt in the upper mantle may weaken the effects of fabric on shear wave splitting, as suggested by Holtzman and others. An alternative explanation is that the flow field in the near ridge setting is complex, resulting in apparent isotropy. Due to the very young lithospheric age and to the effect of both the neighboring ridge and Galápagos hotspot, the lithosphere thickness is likely thinner than 40 km. Therefore no more than about 40% of the recorded delay time could originate from the lithosphere. We propose that the splitting pattern in the Galápagos Archipelago may be the result of plate drag and frozen lithospheric anisotropy which, beneath the center of the archipelago, is weakened by the presence of melt in the upper mantle.

Fontaine, F. R.; Burkett, P. G.; Hooft, E. E.; Toomey, D. R.; Solomon, S. C.; Silver, P. G.

2004-12-01

427

Tensile & shear strength of porous dust agglomerates

Context.Within the sequential accretion scenario of planet formation, planets are build up through a sequence sticking collisions. The outcome of collisions between porous dust aggregates is very important for the growth from very small dust particles to planetesimals. In this work we determine the necessary material properties of dust aggregates as a function the porosity. Aims: Continuum models such as SPH that are capable of simulating collisions of macroscopic dust aggregates require a set of material parameters. Some of them such as the tensile and shear strength are ?difficult to obtain from laboratory experiments. The aim of this work is to determine these parameters from ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations. Methods: We simulate the behavior of porous dust aggregates using a detailed micro-physical model of the interaction of spherical grains that includes adhesion forces, rolling, twisting, and sliding. Using different methods of preparing the samples we study the strength behavior of our samples...

Seizinger, Alexander; Kley, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

428

Shearing instability of a dilute granular mixture.

The shearing instability of a dilute granular mixture composed of smooth inelastic hard spheres or disks is investigated. By using the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic equations, it is shown that the scaled transversal velocity mode exhibits a divergent behavior, similarly to what happens in one-component systems. The theoretical prediction for the critical size is compared with direct Monte Carlo simulations of the Boltzmann equations describing the system, and a good agreement is found. The total energy fluctuations in the vicinity of the transition are shown to scale with the second moment of the distribution. The scaling distribution function is the same as found in other equilibrium and nonequilibrium phase transitions, suggesting the existence of some kind of universality. PMID:23496508

Brey, J Javier; Ruiz-Montero, M J

2013-02-01

429

Quasi-one dimensional conductors exhibiting sliding charge-density-waves (CDW's) are among the most unusual materials ever known. The elastic anomalies are still not fully understood. My research motivation is to further study the shear compliance by extending the experiment to low frequencies and low temperatures, and try to understand what is really relaxed in CDW. We have developed a new subresonance technique to measure the quasi-static and low-frequency shear compliance of filamentary samples such as crystals of TaSsb3. A thin, magnetized steel wire as inertial element was glued down with silver paint to the center of the sample. Torque was then applied by applying current to Helmholz coils surrounding the sample. We studied the dependence of torsional strain (i.e., twist angle) in TaSsb3 as a function of stress (i.e., torque), stress frequency (0.002 mHz to 30 Hz), sample voltage, and temperature. The very low temperature (4.2 K) experiment was done by immersing the sample header into liquid helium. We found that, unlike for static experiments of the Young's modulus in which no change with CDW depinning was found, for every frequency (even zero) we measure in our shear compliance experiment, the compliance is observed to increase by ?25% when the voltage is increased above the threshold for T ? 100 K. We also observed a current-reversible strain memory effect, which is that if the CDW is repinned when the crystal is statically strained, the extra strain due to the CDW will be locked into the crystal until the CDW is again depinned. At 4.2 K, we didn't observe any changes in the shear compliance of o-TaSsb3 at fields almost 300 times the non-Ohmic threshold; any compliance changes are at least an order of magnitude smaller than the changes observed at 5EsbT near 100 K. We also fitted the frequency and voltage dependent elastic complex compliance at liquid nitrogen temperatures to a Havriliak-Negami expression by assuming only the relaxation strength and average relaxation time to be voltage dependent. By using the above assumption, we have determined the voltage dependence of the relaxation strength and average relaxation time, and the distribution functions of the relaxation times. From the Havriliak-Negami expression, we found that our extrapolated high frequency results are not consistent with that of the previous Young's modulus. We have shown that the strong dependence of the elastic anomalies on the frequency of current reversal, previously observed at higher frequency, persists to low frequency, suggesting that even at very low frequencies, the anomalies must be due to the rearrangement of the internal CDW structure, i.e., "domains", rather than intrinsic to the sliding CDW state. However, it is not clear whether the relaxation of velocity coherent domains or phase coherent domains is responsible for the elastic anomalies.

Zhan, Xiaonong

430

Surface Shear Transformation Zones in Amorphous Solids

We perform a systematic study of the characteristics of shear transformation zones (STZs) that nucleate at free surfaces of two-dimensional amorphous solids subject to tensile loading using two different atomistic simulation methods, the standard athermal, quasistatic (AQ) approach and our recently developed self-learning metabasin escape (SLME) method to account for the finite temperature and strain-rate effects. In the AQ, or strain-driven limit, the nonaffine displacement fields of surface STZs decay exponentially away from their centers at similar decay rates as their bulk counterparts, though the direction of maximum nonaffine displacement is tilted away from the tensile axis due to surface effects. Using the SLME method at room temperature and at the high strain rates that are seen in classical molecular dynamics simulations, the characteristics for both bulk and surface STZs are found to be identical to those seen in the AQ simulations. However, using the SLME method at room temperature and experimenta...

Cao, Penghui; Park, Harold S

2014-01-01

431

Shear Resistance between Concrete-Concrete Surfaces

The application of precast beams and cast-in-situ structural members cast at different times has been typical of bridges and buildings for many years. A load-bearing frame consists of a set of prestressed precast beams supported by columns and diaphragms joined with an additionally cast slab deck. This article is focused on the theoretical and experimental analyses of the shear resistance at an interface. The first part of the paper deals with the state-of-art knowledge of the composite behaviour of concrete-concrete structures and a comparison of the numerical methods introduced in the relevant standards. In the experimental part, a set of specimens with different interface treatments was tested until failure in order to predict the composite behaviour of coupled beams. The experimental part was compared to the numerical analysis performed by means of FEM basis nonlinear software.

Kova?ovic, Marek

2013-12-01

432

Entanglements in Quiescent and Sheared Polymer Melts

We visualize entanglements in polymer melts using molecular dynamics simulation. A bead at an entanglement interacts persistently for long times with the non-bonded beads (those excluding the adjacent ones in the same chain). The interaction energy of each bead with the non-bonded beads is averaged over a time interval $\\tau$ much longer than microscopic times but shorter than the onset time of tube constraints $\\tau_{\\rm e}$. Entanglements can then be detected as hot spots consisting of several beads with relatively large values of the time-averaged interaction energy. We next apply a shear flow with rate much faster than the entangle motion. With increasing strain the chains take zigzag shapes and a half of the hot spots become bent. The chains are first stretched as a network but, as the bends approach the chain ends, disentanglements subsequently occur, leading to stress overshoot observed experimentally.

Yamamoto, R; Yamamoto, Ryoichi; Onuki, Akira

2004-01-01

433

Shear friction capacity of recycled concretes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the behavior of recycled concrete in response to the phenomenon of shear transfer. To perform it, a conventional control concrete and a concrete with 50% recycled coarse aggregate were designed. An additional goal was to shed light on how this behavior is modified with a pozzolanic addition, silica fume. Therefore, two types of concrete were designed, a conventional and a recycled concrete, both made with 8% of silica fume.
In conclusion, a reduction of shear friction capacity was observed in recycled concretes, considerably higher in the case of the specimen without reinforcement. The addition of silica fume improved the behavior of recycled concretes.
The results obtained were compared with the formulations of the different authors. In all cases, these were found to be conservative. However, the safety margins offered by recycled concretes are lower than those obtained with conventional concretes.

En esta investigación se estudió el comportamiento de los hormigones reciclados frente al fenómeno de transmisión de cortante. Para ello se diseñó un hormigón convencional de control y un hormigón con el 50% del árido grueso reciclado. Adicionalmente, para determinar cómo este comportamiento se ve modificado con la incorporación de una adición puzolánica (humo de sílice, se procedió al diseño de un hormigón convencional y su correspondiente reciclado con un 8% de humo de sílice.
Los resultados indicaron una disminución de la capacidad frente a este fenómeno en los hormigones reciclados, más acusada en ausencia de armadura pasante. La adición de humo de sílice mejora el comportamiento de este material.
Los resultados experimentales obtenidos se compararon con formulaciones teóricas de diversos autores, concluyéndose que éstas son, en todos los casos, conservadoras, aunque reducen el margen de seguridad en los hormigones reciclados.

Eiras, J.

2010-09-01

434

Nonaxisymmetric Instability of Shear-Banded Taylor-Couette Flow

Recent experiments show that shear-banded flows of semidilute wormlike micelles in Taylor-Couette geometry exhibit a flow instability in the form of Taylor-like vortices. Here we perform the nonaxisymmetric linear stability analysis of the diffusive Johnson-Segalman model of shear banding and show that the nature of this instability depends on the applied shear rate. For the experimentally relevant parameters, we find that at the beginning of the stress plateau the instability is driven by the interface between the bands, while most of the stress plateau is occupied by the bulk instability of the high-shear-rate band. Our work significantl