Mohammadi, Nooredin; Kochak, Hamid Emadi; Gharacheh, Maryam
Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, "regretful past", "disappointing future", "loneliness", and "no other option", which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women. PMID:26156897
Globally, violence against women is increasing, and is currently recognized as a major public health problem with significant consequences to women’s health. The detrimental health effects such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder have been observed in abused women. Violence, like in other Asian countries, is a huge problem in Pakistan.
SILVERMAN, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...
Osinde Michael O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0.25-0.90, p-value = 0.018. Use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with increased prevalence of any type of violence (physical, sexual or psychological with ARR 3.04 (95%CI 1.15-8.45, p-value = 0.032. Conclusion Almost one in three women living with HIV had suffered intimate partner violence in the preceding 12 months. Nearly one in five HIV patients reported physical violence, and about one in every seven HIV patients reported sexual/psychological violence. Likewise, women who were taking antiretroviral drugs for HIV treatment were more likely to report any type of intimate partner violence (physical, sexual or psychological. The implication of these findings is that women living with HIV especially those on antiretroviral drugs should be routinely screened for intimate partner violence.
Laura K Murray; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; SINKALA, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A.
HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...
The situation of women and girls in the context of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in many parts of the world and particularly sub-Saharan Africa continues to be a cause of major concern. With more than 30% of women in some countries reporting their first sexual encounter as forced, and the continued feminization of the HIV epidemic, violence remains both a cause and consequence of HIV infection. Once infected with HIV, women often face varied forms of violence, particularly driven by stigma and di...
Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho; Sergio Dario Seibel
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have b...
Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037
Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya
HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women. PMID:25300600
Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymo...
Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.
Heraclito Barbosa de, Carvalho; Sergio Dario, Seibel.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related [...] to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2). Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1) of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement). Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.
Associação entre violência por parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e infecção por HIV / Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection / Asociación entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja íntima e infección por VIH
Claudia, Barros; Lilia Blima, Schraiber; Ivan, França-Junior.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres e a infecção ou suspeita de infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionários aplicados face-a-face e de prontuários médicos de 2.780 mulheres de 1 [...] 5 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema único de saúde da Grande São Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usuárias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", com "suspeita de HIV" e aquelas que procuraram os serviços por outros motivos. A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres na vida foi categorizada por gravidade e recorrência dos episódios de violência. A associação com o desfecho foi testada pelo modelo de Poisson com variância robusta e ajustada por variáveis sociodemográficas, sexuais e reprodutivas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de violência foi de 59,8%. Sofrer violência reiterada e grave apresentou maior associação de infecção confirmada pelo HIV (RP = 1,91). A violência independente da gravidade e da recorrência dos episódios apresentou maior associação para a suspeita de infecção por HIV (RP = 1,29). CONCLUSÕES: A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres tem papel relevante nas situações de suspeita e confirmação da infecção pelo HIV, sendo essencial incluir sua detecção, controle e prevenção como parte da atenção integral à saúde das mulheres. Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre la violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima y la infección o sospecha de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con base en datos de cuestionarios aplicados cara-a cara y de prontuarios médicos de 2.780 mujeres [...] de 15 a 49 años, atendidas en unidades del sistema único de salud de la Gran Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en 2001-2002. Las mujeres fueron categorizadas en: usuarias en tratamiento por ser "seropositivas para el VIH", con "sospecha de VIH" y aquellas que buscaron los servicios por otros motivos. La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima en la vida fue categorizada por gravedad y recurrencia de los episodios de violencia. La asociación con la infección fue evaluada por el modelo de Poisson con variancia robusta y ajustada por variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y reproductivas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia fue de 59,8%. Sufrir violencia reiterada y grave presentó mayor asociación de infección confirmada por el VIH (RP=1,91). La violencia independiente de la gravedad y de la recurrencia de los episodios presentó mayor asociación para la sospecha de infección por VIH (RP= 1,29). CONCLUSIONES: La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima tiene papel relevante en las situaciones de sospecha y confirmación de la infección por el HIV, siendo esencial incluir su detección, control y prevención como parte de la atención integral a la salud de las mujeres. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 wo [...] men aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System) units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence
Full Text Available HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.
Pere Soler; Isabel Caragol; Teresa Espanol; Manuel Hernez
HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infectio...
Silverman, Jay G
A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis. PMID:21357241
Full Text Available Abstract While unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of contaminated injection equipment account for the majority of HIV infections worldwide, other routes of HIV transmission have received less attention. We report on a case of HIV transmission attributable to illicit drug market violence involving a participant in a prospective cohort study of injection drug users. Data from a qualitative interview was used in addition to questionnaire data and nursing records to document an episode of violence which likely resulted in this individual acquiring HIV infection. The case report demonstrates that the dangers of drug market violence go beyond the immediate physical trauma associated with violent altercations to include the possibility for infectious disease transmission. The case highlights the need to consider antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis in cases of drug market violence presenting to the emergency room, as well strategies to reduce violence associated with street-based drug markets.
Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors? personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19% reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p? Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.
Siemieniuk, Reed A C; Krentz, Hartmut B; Gish, Jessica A; Gill, M John
There is a strong association between domestic violence victimization and HIV infection. This may lead to poor health outcomes including mental health disorders and reduced access to care. A standardized domestic violence screening interview was incorporated into ongoing care in the large and diverse population living with HIV in Southern Alberta, Canada. Results from May through December 2009 are reported, including the prevalence and outcomes of abuse. Thirty-four percent of 853 patients screened reported abuse. Of these, 16% reported abuse in their current relationship, 58% in a previous relationship, and 57% reported a history of childhood abuse. High-risk groups for abuse included females (43%), gay/bisexual males (35%), and Aboriginals (61%). We found an association between a history of domestic violence and delayed access to care (p Mental health conditions prior to HIV diagnosis, including depression (p < 0.0001), suicidal ideation (p < 0.0001), and anxiety disorder (p < 0.0001) were associated with abuse at any time, while a history of adjustment disorder was associated with childhood abuse (p < 0.05). A simple domestic violence screening tool was helpful for identifying patients experiencing abuse in our diverse HIV-infected population. This high prevalence of domestic violence among our HIV patients was associated with poor outcomes and an increased use of medical resources. HIV caregivers should be aware of domestic violence in order to optimize care and refer patients to appropriate support professionals as needed. PMID:21138382
Kaye, Dan K
Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...
Campbell, J.C.; Baty, M.L.; Ghandour, R.M.; Stockman, J.K.; Francisco, L.; Wagman, J.
The objective of this study was to review original research on the intersection of violence against women by intimate partners and risk for HIV infection and highlight opportunities for new research and programme development. Seventy-one articles presenting original, peer-reviewed research conducted with females aged 12 years and older in heterosexual relationships during the past decade (1998–2007) were reviewed. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they addressed intimate partner violence (IPV) against women and HIV/AIDS as mutual risk factors. The prevalence of IPV and HIV infection among women varies globally, but females remain at elevated risk for both IPV and sexually transmitted/HIV infection, independently and concurrently. Comparisons between sero-negative and -positive women varied by geographic region; African HIV-positive women reported higher rates of victimisation while findings were inconsistent for HIV-positive women in the USA. Studies among various populations support the existence of a temporally and biologically complex relationship between HIV risk, lifetime exposure to violence and substance use, which are further complicated by gender and sexual decision-making norms. A possible link between violence-related post traumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression on immunity to HIV acquisition and HIV disease progression warrants further investigation. Sexual risk related to IPV works through both male and female behaviour, physiological consequences of violence and affects women across the lifespan. Further physiological and qualitative research is needed on the mechanisms of enhanced transmission; prospective studies are critical to address issues of causality and temporality. Prevention efforts should focus on the reduction of male-perpetrated IPV and male HIV risk behaviours in intimate partnerships. PMID:19051085
von Reyn, C F; Mann, J.M.; Chin, J.
Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual p...
Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review
... bacterial infections. Viral infections include cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C. Fungi cause thrush (candidiasis), cryptococcal meningitis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and histoplasmosis, and parasites cause crypto (cryptosporidiosis) and toxo (toxoplasmosis). Having HIV/ ...
Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne
In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances. PMID:24322953
Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.
Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...
A fact sheet that describes the increased risk of certain types of cancer by people infected with HIV. These cancers include Kaposi sarcoma, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and cancers of the anus, cervix, liver, and lung. Also describes what people with HIV infection can do to lower their risk of cancer or find cancer early.
Gilbert, Louisa; El-Bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway
Whereas research has suggested that drug-involved men are at disproportionately high risk of engaging in transmission risk behaviors for HIV and of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, only a few cross-sectional studies have examined the relationship between IPV and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risks among heterosexual, drug-involved men. This study builds on previous cross-sectional research by using a longitudinal design to examine the tempora...
Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine
This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention w...
Full Text Available HIV infection is associated with impairment of hearing function, at any stage of disease causing complication to the external, middle, inner ear and CNS. Audiological manifestation of HIV is a direct consequence of virus or secondary to the pharmacological treatment or viral complication. Objectives: There is paucity of information pertaining to hearing status in HIV. As the deafness can occur at any stage of HIV with varying degree and people with HIV live longer, there is need to address the hearing problems in these individuals. So this study aimed detecting the outer hair cell functioning by doing DPOAE in normal hearing HIV infected adults.Method: The experimental group comprised of 12 HIV infected (24 ears within 20 to 40 years. The age matched control group comprised of 15 subjects (30 ears. All the subjects had normal hearing sensitivity. Initially puretone audiometry and immittance was performed for the subject selection. Subsequently DPOAE procedure was done. Results: The DPOAE was abnormal in 50% of the subjects.Conclusion: It can be concluded that the cochlear involvement is a common observation in HIV infected individuals. DPOAE test can be used as a tool for early identification of cochlear pathology in HIV infected.
Full Text Available South Africa is in the midst of the world’s largest human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people infected. Haematological manifestations of HIV are common and diverse, occurring at all stages of infection. Haematological emergencies occurring in this setting incl [...] ude the high-grade lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), opportunistic infections and drug side-effects are also frequent causes of cytopenias. A bone marrow biopsy has a high diagnostic utility in HIV patients presenting with unexplained cytopenias and/or fevers. It is not widely realised that HIV is also a prothrombotic state with an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is now widely available in South Africa and is a crucial adjunct to therapy of haematological complications. Medical professionals across all disciplines need to be alert to the haematological complications of HIV infection.
Slyker, JA; Lohman-Payne, BL; JOHN-STEWART, GC; Maleche-Obimbo, E; Emery, S.; Richardson, B; Dong, T; Iversen, AK; Mbori-Ngacha, D; Overbaugh, J; Emery, VC; Rowland-Jones, SL
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected infants. METHODS: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIV-exposed uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers. HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed uninfected...
Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the viral load during follow-up. The actual demonstration of dual infections involves a great deal of additional research to completely characterize the patient's viral quasispecies. The identification of a source partner would of course confirm the authenticity of the second infection.
McCree, Donna Hubbard; Koenig, Linda J; Basile, Kathleen C; Fowler, Dawnovise; Green, Yvonne
In 2012, the White House established a working group in recognition of the need to understand and address the intersection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and violence against women and girls. This report describes the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s efforts for addressing intimate partner violence and HIV among women and provides suggestions for future prevention efforts. CDC's current efforts are focused on understanding these often co-occurring public health problems, identifying effective interventions, and ensuring that states and communities have the capacity and resources to implement prevention approaches based on the best available evidence. Additional research is needed on effective strategies for integrating violence prevention and HIV programming into health services targeting adolescent girls and women who experience intimate partner violence or are at risk for HIV. PMID:25973798
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
Pitpitan, Eileen V; Seth C. Kalichman; Eaton, Lisa A.; SIKKEMA, KATHLEEN J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald
Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future ...
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Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…
This paper considers the impacts of sexual violence perpetrated while the Eritrean town of Senafe was occupied by the Ethiopian military in 2000, during the second Ethiopia-Eritrea war. It discusses the aftermath for the survivors, all women and girls belonging to the Saho ethnic group, and the responses of other groups in the Saho community. An attempt is made to understand the reasons for the failure of one intervention that sought to provide support to these survivors of sexual violence. The potential repercussions of community denial of the sexual violence are addressed. These include lack of access by survivors to information on HIV, testing and care; refusal to face up to the possible infection of survivors, their husbands and unborn children, and to the psychological, social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS. PMID:25870882
Dubrow, Robert; SIKKEMA, KATHLEEN J.; Kenneth H. Mayer; Bruce, R. Douglas; JULIAN, PAMELA; Rodriguez, Irma; Beckwith, Curt; ROOME, AARON; DUNNE, DANA; Boeving, Alexandra; KIDDER, THOMAS J.; JENKINS, HEIDI; DOBSON, MICHAEL; BECKER, JOSEPH; MERSON, MICHAEL H.
Acute HIV infection (AHI) is the earliest stage of HIV disease, when plasma HIV viremia, but not HIV antibodies, can be detected. Acute HIV infection often presents as a nonspecific viral syndrome. However, its diagnosis, which enables linkage to early medical care and limits further HIV transmission, is seldom made. We describe the experience of Yale's Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS with AHI diagnosis in Connecticut, as a participating center in the National Institute of Menta...
... page: About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections As a person living ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...
A violência intrafamiliar e o adolescente que vive com HIV/AIDS por transmissão vertical: análise dos fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade / Domestic violence and the adolescent that was infected with HIV through vertical transmission: analysis of protection and vulnerability factors
Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de, Barros; Olga Maria, Bastos; Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Pone; Suely Ferreira, Deslandes.
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar os fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade à violência intrafamiliar física e/ou psicológica entre adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids por transmissão vertical. Este grupo encontra-se especialmente suscetível por apresentar fatores de vulnerabilidade como [...] doença crônica, orfandade com consequente troca de cuidadores e comprometimento da imagem corporal. A pesquisa foi realizada com adolescentes atendidos em um hospital de referência. A primeira etapa abrangeu a aplicação dos instrumentos Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales e Escala de Violência Psicológica, para aferição do tipo de violência intrafamiliar acometida. A segunda parte, qualitativa, utilizou-se de entrevistas com os adolescentes, com os maiores e os menores escores para violência nos instrumentos quantitativos. Verificou-se uma alta prevalência de violência física e psicológica, bem como nas entrevistas realizadas foram detalhadas as dinâmicas familiares abusivas, corroborando a literatura. Tendo em vista as consequências deste tipo de violência, se torna fundamental que o profissional de saúde esteja atento à identificação das situações de violência, como também ao reconhecimento dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e ao incentivo aos fatores de proteção aos maus-tratos. Abstract in english The scope of this study was to analyze protection and vulnerability factors in physical and psychological domestic violence among adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS through vertical transmission. This group is especially susceptible as they have vulnerability factors such as chronic disease, orphanh [...] ood with consequent change of caregivers and impaired body image. The research was conducted in a public hospital. The first stage used the Parent Child Conflict Tactics and the Degree of Psychological Violence Scale to determine what domestic violence occurred. In the second qualitative stage, the adolescents who scored the most or the least for violence in the quantitative instrument were interviewed. The questionnaires and the interviews revealed a high prevalence of physical and psychological violence and abusive domestic dynamics, thereby corroborating the extant literature. In view of the consequences of this kind of violence, it is essential that the health professional should be able to identify violent situations and recognize vulnerability factors and to promote protection factors against ill-treatment.
SIGEL, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; CROTHERS, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy
Non–AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to th...
Liang, Hao; Wang, Xu; Chen, Hui; Song, Li; Ye, Li; Wang, Shi-Hong; Wang, Yan-Jian; Zhou, Lin; Ho, Wen-Zhe
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (meth), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. However, there is a lack of direct evidence that meth promotes HIV infection of target cells. This study examined whether meth is able to enhance HIV infection of macrophages, the primary target site for the virus. Meth treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase of HIV reverse transcriptase activity in huma...
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Guimarães, Mark D.C.; McKinnon, Karen; Cournos, Francine; Machado, Carla J.; Melo, Ana Paula S.; Campos, Lorenza N.; Wainberg, Milton L.
People living with mental illness are at increased risk for HIV. There are scarce data on correlates and prevalence of HIV infection, and none with a nationally representative sample. We report on correlates of HIV infection from a cross-sectional national sample of adults receiving care in 26 publicly funded mental health treatment settings throughout Brazil. Weighted prevalence rate ratios were obtained using multiple log-binomial regression modeling. History of homelessness, ever having an STD, early age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, having suffered sexual violence, previous HIV testing, self-perception of high risk of HIV infection and not knowing one’s risk were statistically associated with HIV infection. Our study found an elevated HIV seroprevalence and correlates of infection were not found to include psychiatric diagnoses or hospitalizations but instead reflected marginalized living circumstances and HIV testing history. These adverse life circumstances (history of homelessness, having suffered sexual violence, reporting a sexually transmitted disease, and early sexual debut) may not be unique to people living with mental illness but nonetheless the mental health care system can serve as an important point of entry for HIV prevention in this population. PMID:23998905
de Gaetano Donati, Katleen; Cauda, Roberto; Iacoviello, Licia
In the last 15 years, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has determined a dramatic reduction of both morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects, transforming this infection in a chronic and manageable disease. Patients surviving with HIV in the developed world, in larger number men, are becoming aged. As it would be expected for a population of comparable age, many HIV-infected individuals report a family history of cardiovascular disease, a smal...
Johnson, A M
In sub-Saharan Africa the highest rates of HIV infection are among sexually active young women ( 35 years old). In fact, 15-24 year old women in Africa are more likely to be HIV-infected than 15-24 year old men, indicating that women may have their first intercourse earlier and have older sexual partners than men. HIV risk factors in africa are number of partners, contact with prostitutes, being a prostitute, and a history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The ratio of HIV-infected males is essentially the same as HIV-infected females in Africa. In Thailand and India, prostitutes have some of the highest rates of HIV infection. In the US, the mid-Atlantic, southeastern states and Puerto Rico have the highest rates among parturient women. HIV prevalence is higher among black and Hispanic women than white women and higher among urban women than rural women. 51% of HIV-infected women in the US acquired HIV via IV drug use and 33% via heterosexual intercourse. On the other hand, 55% of HIV-infected women in the UK and in Europe acquired HIV via heterosexual intercourse, while 23% in the UK and few in Europe acquired it via IV drug use. HIV infection among female prostitutes in the US and UK has largely occurred from IV drug use. Transmission of HIV from male to female is more efficient than it is from female to male. Cofactors for heterosexual transmission are vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, presence of AIDS symptomatic disease, STDs (especially genital ulcers),and an uncircumcised penis. Mass education campaigns and counseling have increased people's knowledge about HIV/AIDS in developed and developing countries, but they do not always result in behavioral change. WHO believes that 3 million more women and children will die from AIDS during the 1990s. AIDS mortality will likely affect population growth in Africa and boost adult and infant mortality everywhere. PMID:1378779
Full Text Available Most of the patients with AIDS are homosexual men or intravenous drug users. HIV infected individuals are subject to the full Tange of psychiatric syndromes including adjusment disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, alcohol-substance related disorders, delirium, dementia and psychosec. HIV, opportunistic infections, anti-HIV medications, and the psychosocial stress of HIV illness cause substantial psychiatric morbidity over the course of illness. Dementia or milder forms of cognitive impairment are important manifestations of HIV infection with important consequences. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent progression. Fatigue and depressive Symptoms are common in HIV-infection. Depression has a significant impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV and is associated with HIV disease progression and mortality, either poor adherence with antiretroviral regiments or risk for suicide. Personality disorder is also common in the HIV- positive population. Symptoms of anxiety are very common in this patient population under substantial stress, while major anxiety disorders appear to occur with the same frequency as in the general population. Alcohol and substance abuse disorders are common in individuals across HIV risk factors. Psychiatric disorders often predate and are independent problems that interact with HIV infection and treatment. Patients with AIDS have an elevated rate of suicide. This suicidal patients require the same psychological and social Support as other persons at risk for suicide.
Nirmal Aryal; Pramod Raj Regmi; Naba Raj Mudwari
Background: Violence against Women (VAW) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 43 HIV positive women in three districts of Nepal, in ...
We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs
Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy
Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening. PMID:21695529
Kizito Bennet, J.
In 2011 The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) of The Netherlands launched a study to establish the gender-based violence prevalence in HIV-positive clients and its most common manifestations. This article reflects on some of the study findings and recommends how services can be better equipped to counsel clients with these problems.
Shah, Nirav; Owen, Leah; Bhagani, Sanjay
The authors report the case of a new diagnosis of advanced HIV-1 infection with a blood CD4 cell count of 0.003×109/L (2%), presenting with weight loss, night sweats, diarrhoea and anorexia. Symptoms were due to disseminated histoplasmosis (confirmed pulmonary and colonic disease), Pneumocystis pneumonia and oral candidiasis highlighting the limitations of ‘Occam's razor’ with advanced HIV infection.
Zumla, A.; Malon, P.; Henderson, J.; Grange, J.
Tuberculosis is increasing in prevalence in many countries and is now the leading infectious cause of death world wide, being responsible for three million deaths annually. Infection with HIV, likewise increasing in prevalence, has emerged as the most important predisposing factor for developing overt tuberculosis in people co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Owing to the widespread geographical overlap of these two infections, it is estimated that in 1999, HIV related tuberculosis w...
Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.
At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)
Shannon, Maureen T
Both survival with HIV and rates of perinatal HIV infection have significantly declined during the past decade, due to antiretroviral therapies that interrupt HIV transmission to the fetus and newborn. Although HIV is no longer routinely fatal to mothers or transmitted to fetuses, and the testing of newborns for HIV has been improved, evidence about HIV-infected mothers' experiences during the months of their infants' HIV testing predates these improvements. This qualitative study on 16 mothers was an analysis of interviews conducted several weeks after testing was completed and all infants had been determined to be uninfected. Mothers reported that their experiences evolved during the months of testing. Initial reactions included maternal trauma and guilt associated with infant testing. They then reported learning to cope with the roller coaster ride of repeated testing with the help of information from clinicians. By the end of the testing period, ambiguity began to resolve as they engaged in tentative maternal-infant attachment and expressed desire for a sense of normalcy. Need for support and fear of stigma persisted throughout. These findings expand current knowledge about this experience and suggest clinical strategies to guide HIV-infected women during this stressful period. PMID:25739368
Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B
Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332
Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.
Robinson-Papp, Jessica; David M. Simpson
Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...
Acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (AHI) is a highly infectious phase of disease that lasts approximately 2 months and is characterized by nonspecific clinical symptoms. AHI contributes disproportionately to HIV transmission because it is associated with a high level of viremia, despite negative or indeterminate antibody (Ab) tests. Diagnosis of AHI with individual or pooled nucleic acid amplification tests (p-NAAT) can enable infected persons to adopt behaviors that reduce HIV transmission, facilitate partner referral for counseling and testing, and identify social networks of persons with elevated rates of HIV transmission. The national HIV surveillance case definition does not distinguish AHI from other stages of HIV infection, and the frequency of AHI among reported HIV cases is unknown. In 2008, to increase detection of AHI and demonstrate the feasibility of AHI surveillance, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) initiated p-NAAT screening at four sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics and enhanced citywide HIV surveillance (using a standard case definition) to differentiate AHI among newly reported cases. Seventy cases of AHI (representing 1.9% of all 3,635 HIV diagnoses reported in New York City) were identified: 53 cases from enhanced surveillance and 17 cases from p-NAAT screening (representing 9% of 198 HIV diagnoses at the four clinics). Men who have sex with men (MSM) constituted 81% of AHI cases. Screening STD clinic patients, especially MSM, with p-NAAT can identify additional cases of HIV infection. Surveillance for AHI is feasible and can identify circumstances in which HIV prevention efforts should be intensified. PMID:19940835
Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A
The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1 replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the evidence presented in this review suggests that RAPA may be a useful drug that should be evaluated for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Grosch-Wörner, I; Koch, S; Vocks, M; Schäfer, A; Mielke, M; Wahn, U; Zorr, B; Maas, U
Both resolved and still open questions are discussed. The natural course of HIV infection from the time at which a child becomes symptomatic is known. The incidence rate of HI-virus transmission to the child remains uncertain. Likewise the time of transmission and its cofactors as well as data about the incubation and latency periods remain open questions. The greatest problem thus, is the early and reliable definition of HIV infection. Initial results from prospective HIV-perinatal studies are presented, showing that a transmission rate between 20% and 40% is to be reckoned with. PMID:2802703
Miller, Elizabeth; Bhardwaj, Nina
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a diverse subset of innate immune cells that are key regulators of the host response to human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. HIV-1 directly and indirectly modulates DC function to hinder the formation of effective antiviral immunity and fuel immune activation. This review focuses upon the differential dysregulation of myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) at various stages of HIV-1 infection providing insights into pathogenesis. HIV-1 evades innate immune sensing by mDCs resulting in suboptimal maturation, lending to poor generation of antiviral adaptive responses and contributing to T-regulatory cell (Treg) development. Dependent upon the stage of HIV-1 infection, mDC function is altered in response to Toll-like receptor ligands, which further hinders adaptive immunity and limits feasibility of therapeutic vaccine strategies. pDC interactions with HIV-1 are pleotropic, modulating immune responses on an axis between immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive. pDCs promote immune activation through an altered phenotype of persistent type I interferon secretion and weak antigen presentation capacity. Conversely, HIV-1 stimulates secretion of indolemine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) by pDCs resulting in Treg induction. An improved understanding of the roles and underlying mechanisms of DC dysfunction will be valuable to the development of therapeutics to enhance HIV-specific adaptive responses and to dampen immune activation. PMID:23772620
Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)
Ramani S. Durvasula
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co-infection with Hepatitis C.
Müller, S; Köhler, H
HIV-I infection affects many of the cellular components vital for the maintenance of immune homeostasis. Similar to the T cell superantigen effect on T cell expansion and depletion in AIDS. HIV components with B cell superantigenic properties could be responsible for the observed B cell activation and skewing of VH family usage. Current data on possible B cell superantigen properties of HIV proteins (gp120) are mostly based on studies describing the clonality and VH family usage of immunoglobulins in HIV infection. Various laboratories reported independently an unusual skewing of the VH-repertoire of antibodies that appears not to be random. According to these observations, an enrichment of VH1 and VH4 family-paralleled a depletion of VH3 family-utilizing anti-HIV-1 gp120 and p24 antibodies in HIV-1 infected individuals and a loss of total VH3+ Ig in patients with late stages of AIDS. Polyclonal and monoclonal (VH1, VH4, and VH5) anti-p24 and gp120 antibodies share a crossreactive idiotype (IF7). IF7 like antibodies were found in the serum of HIV-1 infected individuals, persisting in the course of infection, perhaps contributing to the depletion of VH3 Ig. Furthermore a restriction of clonal heterogeneity of anti-p24 and anti-gp120 antibodies was detected by isoelectric focusing and indicated by skewed kappa/lambda light chain isotype ratios, indicating clonal dominance of certain sets of anti-HIV-1 antibodies during infection. Taken these findings together, a strong case for the involvement of a B cell superantigen can be made, although the mechanism of B cell depletion is not fully understood. PMID:9186785
Kelly, B; Raphael, B; Judd, F; Perdices, M; Kernutt, G; Burnett, P; Dunne, M; Burrows, G
A cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation and past suicide attempt in an Australian sample of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and HIV-negative homosexual and bisexual men. Sixty-five HIV-negative and 164 HIV-positive men participated. A suicidal ideation score was derived from using five items selected from the Beck Depression Inventory and the General Health Questionnaire (28-item version). Lifetime and current prevalence rates of psychiatric disorder were evaluated with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Version-III-R. The HIV-positive (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC] Stage IV) men (n = 85) had significantly higher total suicidal ideation scores than the asymptomatic HIV-positive men (CDC Stage II/III) (n = 79) and the HIV-negative men. High rates of past suicide attempt were detected in the HIV-negative (29%) and HIV-positive men (21%). Factors associated with suicidal ideation included being HIV-positive, the presence of current psychiatric disorder, higher neuroticism scores, external locus of control, and current unemployment. In the HIV-positive group analyzed separately, higher suicidal ideation was discriminated by the adjustment to HIV diagnosis (greater hopelessness and lower fighting spirit), disease factors (greater number of current acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related conditions), and background variables (neuroticism). Significant predictors of a past attempted suicide were a positive lifetime history of psychiatric disorder (particularly depression diagnoses), a lifetime history of infection drug use, and a family history of suicide attempts. The findings indicate increased levels of suicidal ideation in symptomatic HIV-positive men and highlight the role that multiple psychosocial factors associated with suicidal ideation and attempted suicide play in this population. PMID:9775697
Espert, Lucile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Vergne, Isabelle
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against infectious agents like M.tb and HIV. Nevertheless, in some instances, autophagy machinery appears to be instrumental for HIV infection. Finally, there is mounting evidence that both pathogens deploy various countermeasures to thwart autophagy. This mini-review proposes an overview of the roles and regulations of autophagy in HIV and M.tb infections with an emphasis on microbial factors. We also discuss the role of autophagy manipulation in the context of HIV/M.tb co-infection. In future, a comprehensive understanding of autophagy interaction with these pathogens will be critical for development of autophagy-based prophylactic and therapeutic interventions for AIDS and TB. PMID:26082897
Full Text Available Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and advancements in humanized mouse models have allowed rapid developments of gene therapy for HIV treatment. In this review, we will discuss two aspects of HIV gene therapy using human hematopoietic stem cells. The first is to generate immune systems resistant to HIV infection while the second strategy involves enhancing anti-HIV immunity to eliminate HIV infected cells.
McCutchan, J. Allen
Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…
Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Vania Naomi, Hirakata.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a relação entre violência de gênero e ideação suicida em mulheres com HIV. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal com 161 usuárias de serviço de atenção especializada em HIV/aids. Investigou-se a presença de violência de gênero por meio da versão brasileira do instrumento World Health Org [...] anization Violence Against Women e a ideação suicida pelo Questionário de Ideação Suicida. A análise estatística foi realizada com o software SPSS utilizando o teste de Qui-quadrado e o modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson. RESULTADOS Oitenta e duas mulheres com HIV referiram ideação suicida (50,0%), 78 (95,0%) das quais haviam sofrido violência de gênero. Idade da primeira relação sexual Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between gender violence and suicidal ideation in women with HIV. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 161 users of specialized HIV/AIDS care services. The study investigated the presence of gender violence through the Brazilian version of the World Health O [...] rganization Violence against Women instrument, and suicidal ideation through the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software, using the Chi-square test and Poisson multiple regression model. RESULTS Eighty-two women with HIV reported suicidal ideation (50.0%), 78 (95.0%) of who had suffered gender violence. Age at first sexual intercourse
Pottiez, Gwenael; Jagadish, Teena; YU, FANG; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald; Duarte, Nichole A.; GRANT, Igor; GENDELMAN, HOWARD E.; Fox, Howard S; Ciborowski, Pawel
We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV i...
van der Kuyl Antoinette C
Full Text Available Abstract The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions. Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed.
Hesseling, A; Westra, A; Werschkull, H; DONALD, P; Beyers, N.; Hussey, G.; El-Sadr, W.; Simon, S
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is an important disease in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected children living in regions where TB is endemic. There are limited data on the outcome of culture confirmed TB in HIV infected children.
...the violence against women and girls, HIV/AIDS, and women's health communities...ensuring that the needs of vulnerable and underserved...AIDS, violence against women and girls, and gender-related...biological, behavioral, and social sciences bases for...
Apezteguia Fernández Carolina; Hernández Muniesa Belén; Vicente Sánchez María del Pilar; Álvarez García Ana; Ruiz Jiménez Marta; Ramos Amador José Tomás
We report the case of a Nigerian adolescent recently arrived to Spain, who presented at the emergency room with severe respiratory distress. She had been previously diagnosed of HIV-1 discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, what was hidden by the family. This case illustrates the difficulties in management and stigma in HIV-infected adolescents, particularly immigrants and the need to collect all the information available before starting antiretroviral therapy.
Rogstad, K E; Shah, R.; Tesfaladet, G.; Abdullah, M.; Ahmed-Jushuf, I
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and extent of autonomic dysfunction in HIV infected individuals of one ethnic group. DESIGN: Prospective, age-sex matched study. METHODS: 25 patients (seven asymptomatic (HIV), eight AIDS related complex (ARC), 10 AIDS) and 25 controls were recruited from patients and staff at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Autonomic function was assessed by measurement of pulse rate variability on standing, rest, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, isometric exercis...
Kilonzo, Nduku; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Molyneux, Catherine; Kibaru, Josephine; Kimonji, Virginia; Theobald, Sally
Abstract In Kenya many people who have been affected by sexual violence turn to the health sector for clinical treatment and preventive therapies. This interface provides a vital opportunity to impact on the dual epidemics of HIV and sexual violence. Despite this, the uptake of existing post-rape care services was low when the study was commenced and health care providers feel ill-prepared to deal with the consequences of sexual violence. A qualitative study was conducted to better...
Kitchen, Christina MR; Nuño, Miriam; Kitchen, Scott G.; Krogstad, Paul
It has been over 25 years since the first diagnosis of what would be known as AIDS. Although great strides in anti-HIV therapeutics have been made, there is still a great need for antiretrovirals that are effective against drug-resistant HIV. Enfuvirtide (ENF) is the first of a new class of fusion inhibitors to be approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents among HIV-1 infected patients with previous treatment experience. The inclusi...
Sheward, Daniel J; Ntale, Roman; Garrett, Nigel J; Woodman, Zenda L; Abdool Karim, Salim S; Williamson, Carolyn
The relevance of superinfection as a model to identify correlates of protection against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) depends on whether the superinfecting transmission resembles primary infection, which has not been established. Here, we characterize the genetic bottleneck in superinfected individuals for the first time. In all 3 cases, superinfection produced a spike in viral load and could be traced to a single, C-C chemokine receptor 5-tropic founder virus with shorter, less glycosylated variable regions than matched chronic viruses. These features are consistent with primary HIV transmission and provide support for the use of superinfection as a model to address correlates of protection against HIV. PMID:25754982
Novitsky, V.; Woldegabriel, E.; Wester, C.; McDonald, E.; Rossenkhan, R.; Ketunuti, M.; Makhema, J.; Seage, G.R.; Essex, M
Methods for identification of primary HIV infections seem increasingly important to understand pathogenesis, and to prevent transmission, which is particularly efficient during acute infection. Most current algorithms for HIV testing are based on detection of HIV antibodies and are unable to identify early infections before seroconversion. The efficiency of prospective cohorts, which is a standard approach for identifying primary HIV-1 infection, depends on a variety of epidemiological and cu...
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative) at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedb...
Karamagi, Charles AS; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Kristian
Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT). Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2) and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7) were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7). Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms because of fear of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence is common in eastern Uganda and is related to gender inequality, multiple partners, alcohol, and poverty. Accordingly, programmes for the prevention of intimate partner violence need to target these underlying factors. The suggested link between intimate partner violence and HIV risky behaviours or prevention strategies calls for further studies to clearly establish this relationship. PMID:17116252
Baer, J. T.; Vugia, D J; Reingold, A. L.; Aragon, T.; Angulo, F. J.; Bradford, W. Z.
We investigated cases of shigellosis in San Francisco and Alameda Counties identified during 1996 by active laboratory surveillance to assess the role of HIV infection as a risk factor for shigellosis. Dramatically elevated rates of shigellosis in HIV-infected persons implicate HIV infection as an important risk factor for shigellosis in San Francisco.
Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A
We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. PMID:26175518
Mellins, Claude A; Elkington, Katherine S; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mckay, Mary M.; ABRAMS, Elaine J.
As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (P...
Cortes Martins, H; Paixao, Mt
Portugal has been the western European country with the highest rate of notified acquired immunodeficiency [corrected] syndrome (AIDS) cases since 1999 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection cases since 2000. Nonetheless, exact information on the magnitude and trends of recently acquired infections is missing. In a cross-sectional study we aimed to determine HIV prevalence, the proportion of recently acquired infections and the incidence among patients attending a Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinic and among HIV positive cases tested at the AIDS Reference Laboratory (ARL), by using the Avidity Index (AI) of antibodies to identify recent HIV-1 seroconversions. Demographic and behavioural data were collected. At the STI clinic 253 patients were enrolled, 16 were found to be HIV infected (14 HIV-1, 2 HIV-2) and a prevalence of 6.3% was obtained. Four recent HIV-1 infections were identified and the HIV-1 incidence was 3.3% per year. At the ARL, 332 newly diagnosed cases of HIV-1 infection were studied, 59 (17.8%) were recent infections and an annual incidence of 4.1% was estimated. These findings support STI clinics as key sentinel sites for recently acquired HIV infections and illustrate the viability of testing for recent HIV infections in these settings and reinforce the value of this method in the surveillance for better monitoring current trends of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Portugal. PMID:18775290
Johnson, Jennifer E; Peabody, Marlanea E; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fernandes, Karen; Zlotnick, Caron
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and interpersonal violence (IV; e.g., childhood abuse, partner violence, and rape) victimization are significant and interconnected public health problems facing incarcerated women. We adapted a best-evidence HIV-prevention intervention for women (the Women's CoOp) to address sexual safety among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence victimization. The standard Women's CoOp teaches safe sex, substance use harm reduction, and violence prevention information and skills needed to empower women to make more intentional decisions about their safety. We also incorporated strategies to increase affect management, social support, and access to community resources. This resulted in the first trauma-focused HIV-prevention intervention for women that directly addresses the sequelae of IV (such as affect dysregulation in sexual situations) within the context of HIV harm reduction. This manuscript describes the rationale, feasibility, acceptability, and pre-post outcomes of this intervention among 14 women nearing release from prison in two state prison systems. Assessments took place at baseline, prior to release, and at 2-, 5-, and 8 months after release. The intervention overall and each of its components were feasible and acceptable. Participants' number of unprotected sexual occasions, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depressive symptoms decreased significantly from baseline to post-release. Effectiveness in obtaining resources increased significantly from baseline to post-release. Because pre-post measurements of outcomes are confounded with incarceration and subsequent release in this preliminary study, a randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this tailored intervention. PMID:25395223
U. Shankarkumar, A. Shankarkumar & K. Ghosh
Background & objectives: Conflicting reports exist regarding the HIV-1 infection on the risk of malaria. Atransient almost one-log elevation in HIV viral load occurs during febrile malaria episodes. We prospectivelystudied malaria patients for HIV infection from Mumbai.Methods: A total of 171 malaria patients and 28,749 normal voluntary blood donors were studied for their HIVstatus. Diagnosis of malaria was done by microscopical examination of blood. HIV screening was done bydetection of HIV-...
Andrea L Wirtz
Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV prevention services. Results provide a number of priorities for research and prevention programmes for MSM, including providing access to and encouraging regular confidential HIV testing and counselling, and risk reduction counselling related to anal intercourse. Other targets include the provision of condoms and compatible lubricants, HIV prevention information, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection treatment and adherence support. Addressing multiple levels of HIV risk, including structural factors, may help to ensure that programmes have sufficient coverage to impact this HIV epidemic among MSM.
Full Text Available With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also negatively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS, and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.
Jalili, Ahmad; Mosleh, Martin; Grabmeier-Pfistershammer, Katharina; Loewe, Robert; Stingl, Georg; Rieger, Armin
We present a 47 year old female white HIV-1 infected patient with multiple painless rupioid skin lesions, a CD4 count of 155 cells/mm3, positive syphilis serology and a histopathology conspicuous for malignant syphilis. She could be successfully treated with Benzathine-Benzylpenicillin (Retarpen®) 2,4 Mega I.E., 3x intramuscularly in weekly intervals. PMID:25763666
Pedersen, Marianne G; Mortensen, Preben Bo
CONTEXT Two studies based on clinical samples have found an association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and history of suicide attempt. To our knowledge, these findings have never been replicated in a prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether T gondii-infected mothers have an increased risk of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide and whether the risk depends on the level of T gondii IgG antibodies. DESIGN Register-based prospective cohort study. Women were followed up from the date of delivery, 1992 to 1995 until 2006. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A cohort of 45 788 women born in Denmark whose level of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies was measured in connection with child birth between 1992 and 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence rates of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide in relation to T gondii seropositivity and serointensity. RESULTS T gondii-infected mothers had a relative risk of self-directed violence of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.27-1.85) compared with noninfected mothers, and the risk seemed to increase with increasing IgG antibody level. For violent suicide attempts, the relative risk was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.13-2.84) and for suicide, 2.05 (95% CI, 0.78-5.20). A similar association was found for repetition of self-directed violence, with a relative risk of 1.54 (95% CI, 0.98-2.39). CONCLUSION Women with a T gondii infection have an increased risk of self-directed violence.
Schadé Annemiek; van Grootheest Gerard; Smit Johannes H
Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problem...
McKellar, M. S.; Callens, S. F. J.; Colebunders, R
Pediatric HIV/AIDS has become less of a problem in resource-rich countries as the number of perinatal infections has reduced dramatically since the advent of antiretrovirals, resulting in the effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In resource-limited settings, however, pediatric HIV infection remains a colossal problem; a separate review in this same issue of Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy examines the international aspects of pediatric HIV/AIDS. Treatment of HIV infec...
The efficiency of transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of those exposed. Infectiousness is dictated by the concentration of HIV-1 in relevant fluids (regardless of route of transmission) and the viral genotype and phenotype. People newly infected with HIV-1 (i.e. acute infection) and those with STI co-infections excrete such a large concentration of virus as to be “hyperinfectious.” The actual transmission of HIV likely occur...
Eitner, Frank; Cui, Yan; Hudkins, Kelly L; Schmidt, Ann; Birkebak, Ted; Agy, Michael B; Hu, Shiu-Lok; Morton, William R.; Anderson, David M; Alpers, Charles E
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been increasingly reported in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected humans over the past decade. The pathogenesis is unknown. We prospectively analyzed the renal pathology and function of 27 pigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), infected intravenously with a virulent HIV-2 strain, HIV-2287, in addition to that of four uninfected control macaques. Necropsies were performed between 12 hours and 28 days after infection. HIV-2 antigen was detectable in...
Malaspina, Lauren; Woods, Steven Paul; David J Moore; Depp, Colin; Letendre, Scott L.; Jeste, Dilip; Grant, Igor
The number of older adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is growing and this subpopulation of the epidemic is at heightened risk for a variety of poor health outcomes including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. The current study sought to examine the factors associated with freedom from neurocognitive impairment in older HIV-infected adults. Participants included 74 middle-aged and older (mean age 51 years), HIV-infected individuals with a mean estimated dura...
Homann, Stefanie; Smith, Davey; Little, Susan; Richman, Douglas; Guatelli, John
The interferon-inducible antiviral factor BST-2 prevents several enveloped viruses, including HIV, from escaping infected cells. The HIV protein Vpu antagonizes this host defense. Little is known about the expression of BST-2 during HIV infection in vivo and whether it can be modulated to the host's advantage. We studied the expression of BST-2 on blood cells from HIV-infected patients during the acute and chronic phases of disease as well as after antiretroviral treatment (ART). The expressi...
Holt, John L.; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D; Chang, Linda
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals, and by 2015, at least half of all HIV-infected individuals will be over 50 years of age. Neurodegenerative processes associated with aging may be facilitated by HIV-1 infection, resulting in premature brain aging. This review will highlight brain abnormalities in HIV patients in the setting of aging, focusing on recent neuroimaging studies of the structural, physiological, functional and...
Saha Nirod; Kabir Humayun; Wansom Tanyaporn; Mercer Alec; Gazi Rukhsana; Azim Tasnim
Abstract Background Mobile population groups are at high risk for contracting HIV infection. Many factors contribute to this risk including high prevalence of risky behavior and increased risk of violence due to conflict and war. The Naf River serves as the primary border crossing point between Teknaf, Bangladesh and Mynamar [Burma] for both official and unofficial travel of people and goods. Little is known about the risk behavior of boatmen who travel back and forth between Teknaf and Myanm...
This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations. Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 9/23/2010.
E. B. S. M. Trindade
Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.
HIV-associated nephropathy has been found in children with HIV-1 infection as a late manifestation of this disease; it is associated with nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia with microcystic tubular dilatation. This is quite rare in children and no cases have been reported from India. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized for the HIV-induced renal damage. We report on two HIV-infected children with HIV-associated proteinuria and dramatic...
Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Olagnier, David
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host-pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune sensing of human retroviruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 is influenced by the target cell phenotype, viral replicative intermediates, and host restrictionfactors that limit retroviral replication. Macrophages and dendritic cells detect HIV-DNA intermediates, whereas CD4 T cells differentially sense HIV DNA depending on the level of T-cell activation. Furthermore, the structure of the viral capsid and interplay between innate DNA sensors and host restriction factors all contribute to the magnitude of the ensuing innate immune response. SUMMARY: The interplay between HIV infection and the innate immune system has emerged as an important component of HIV pathogenesis, linked to both induction of innate immunity and stimulation of cell death mechanisms. Ultimately, an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of innate immune control of human retrovirus infection may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies to control retrovirus-induced immunopathology.
Elinore F McCance-Katz; Lum, Paula J; Beatty, George; Gruber, Valerie A.; Peters, Marion; Rainey, Petrie M.
Alcohol abuse has been associated with HIV/AIDS progression, but the effects of HIV infection and treatment on alcohol exposure have not been explored to date. This pilot study examines the relationship of untreated HIV infection to blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) relative to BAC following initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.
Cholewinska Grazyna; Szymanska Bogna; Kalwa Agnieszka; Siwy-Hudowska Anna
Presence of the hepatitis C virus in HIV infected patients has an additional neurotoxic influence on the Central Nervous System. It has been described that HCV co-infection leads to neuropsychological impairment whose severity is greater than in mono-HIV infected subjects. In the present study we assessed the neuropsychological status of 46 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals from the Warsaw Hospital for Infectious Diseases. For the purpose of cognitive assessment, neurops...
Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise
Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...
Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S
The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel. PMID:25916037
Kelly, B; Raphael, B; Judd, F; Perdices, M; Kernutt, G; Burnett, P; Dunne, M; Burrows, G
This study investigated the psychological impact of HIV infection through assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV infection. Sixty-one HIV-positive homosexual/bisexual men were assessed for posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV infection (PTSD-HIV) using a modified PTSD module of the DIS-III-R. Thirty percent met criteria for a syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder in response to HIV diagnosis (PTSD-HIV). In over one-third of the PTSD cases, the disorder had an onset greater than 6 months after initial HIV infection diagnosis. PTSD-HIV was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses, particularly the development of first episodes of major depression after HIV infection diagnosis. PTSD-HIV was significantly associated with a pre-HIV history of PTSD from other causes, and other pre-HIV psychiatric disorders and neuroticism scores, indicating a similarity with findings in studies of PTSD from other causes. The findings from this preliminary study suggest that a PTSD response to HIV diagnosis has clinical validity and requires further investigation in this population and other medically ill groups. The results support the inclusion of the diagnosis of life-threatening illness as a traumatic incident that may lead to a posttraumatic stress disorder, which is consistent with the DSM-IV criteria. PMID:9854646
Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better characterize the oral microbiome in children and those with poorly-controlled HIV infections. PMID:26146997
Neutralizing antibodies represent an important component of immune control in many viral infections. In HIV-1 infection, almost all individuals develop antibodies capable of neutralizing autologous viruses in vitro; however, the role of these antibodies in vivo still remains unclear. Their absence during the acute phase of infection, when the viral levels are brought under control, suggests they play a minor role in immune control and that cellular immune responses are more critical during this time. However, during chronic infection these antibodies may be important in preventing cell-to-cell spread and they still represent our best hope of providing sterilizing immunity (i.e., prevention of infection) by vaccination. Significant advances over the last few years in understanding the structure of the envelope glycoproteins have renewed interest in the role of neutralizing antibodies and the possibility that immunogens capable of stimulating a neutralizing antibody response can be developed. PMID:12120994
Spina, Michele; Carbone, Antonino; Gloghini, Annunziata; Serraino, Diego; Berretta, Massimiliano; Tirelli, Umberto
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) represents one of the most common non-AIDS-defining cancers with an increasing incidence overtime. Clinically, patients present advanced stages of disease with extranodal involvement in the majority of cases. In the last years, significant improvements in the treatment of patients with HL and HIV infection have been achieved. In the lack of randomized trials, several phase II studies have showed that in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the same regimens employed in HIV-negative patients with HL can be used in HIV setting with similar results. Moreover, in the last years the feasibility of high dose chemotherapy and peripheral stem cell rescue has allowed to save those patients who failed the upfront treatment. Finally, in the near future, a better integration of diagnostic tools (including PET scan), chemotherapy (including new drugs), radiotherapy, HAART, and supportive care will significantly improve the outcome of these patients. PMID:20936156
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor prognosis, it is treated with various therapeutic modalities. Our patient with HIV infection had bone marrow documented aplastic a nemia and responded very well to antiretroviral therapy.
Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.
Tamashiro, H; Constantine, N. T.
The serological identification of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in blood is the most widely used method to diagnose HIV infection. Recently, however, the use of oral fluid samples for the detection of antibodies to HIV has been suggested as an alternative. This review describes some basic information about oral fluids, the application of these samples for HIV testing, and summarizes results from many of the studies performed using HIV tests with oral fluids. The fluids obta...
Lisandra S. Damasceno; Evelyne S. Girao; Rafael F.D. Queiroz; Renato L.D. Perdigao; Alessandra S. Damasceno; Lara G.F. Tavora
Problem statement: Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) are frequent and important complications, most commonly affecting hospitalized patients in intensive care units. Hospital average length of stay is usually 5-10 days higher in these patients. In HIV positive/Aids patients HAI vary from 8,7 and 15% in prevalence. The aims of this study was to compare HAI data from HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) patients admitted to the adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of ...
Bolton-Maggs, P H; Rogan, P D; Duguid, J. K.; Mutton, K. J.; Ball, L.M.
Eleven haemophiliac boys infected with HIV were screened for irregular red cell antibodies and were compared with nine haemophiliac boys who did not have antibodies to HIV. Seven (64%) of the children who had antibodies to HIV also had cold agglutinins, mostly of anti-I specificity, compared with one (11%) of those who did not have antibodies to HIV. The children with antibodies to HIV and cold agglutinins had a significantly increased mean IgM concentration. The presence of cold agglutinins ...
García, Felipe; Plana, Montserrat; Climent, Nuria; León, Agathe; Gatell, Jose M; Gallart, Teresa
Dendritic cells have a central role in HIV infection. On one hand, they are essential to induce strong HIV-specific CD4+ helper T-cell responses that are crucial to achieve a sustained and effective HIV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte able to control HIV replication. On the other hand, DCs contribute to virus dissemination and HIV itself could avoid a correct antigen presentation. As the efficacy of immune therapy and therapeutic vaccines against HIV infection has been modest in the best...
Umberto Tirelli; Massimiliano Berretta; Annunziata Gloghini; Diego Serraino; Antonino Carbone; Michele Spina
Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) represents one of the most common non-AIDS-defining cancers with an increasing incidence overtime. Clinically, patients present advanced stages of disease with extranodal involvement in the majority of cases. In the last years, significant improvements in the treatment of patients with HL and HIV infection have been achieved. In the lack of randomized trials, several phase II studies have showed that in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) the same reg...
Marques, Silvio Alencar; Silvares, Maria Regina Cavariani; de Camargo, Rosangela Maria Pires; MARQUES, MARIANGELA ESTHER ALENCAR
Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in extensive areas of the Americas. The authors report on an urban adult male patient with uncommon oral-cutaneous lesions proven to be histoplasmosis. Additional investigation revealed unnoticed HIV infection with CD4+ cell count of 7/mm3. The treatment was performed with amphotericin B, a 2065 mg total dose followed by itraconazole 200mg/daily plus antiretroviral therapy with apparent cure. Histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining opp...
Shin, YoungHyun; Yoon, Cheol-Hee; Lim, Hoyong; Park, Jihwan; Roh, Tae-Young; Kang, Chun; Choi, Byeong-Sun
Regarding the T cell function in HIV-1 infection, activation of T cells is enhanced in acutely HIV-1-infected T cells upon stimuli. However, T cell immune responses underlying the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling molecules and interleukin (IL)-2 production in latently HIV-1-infected cells are poorly understood. The expression and activation of TCR components and its downstream molecules in acutely and latently HIV-1-infected T cells were compared using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for mRNA expression and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for levels of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin M (PHA-M). The levels of T cell surface molecules and TCR signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were greatly decreased without changes in their mRNA levels. In addition, downstream TCR-signaling molecules in latently HIV-1-infected cells were not activated even in the presence of PHA-M. The phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in the presence of PHA-M was weakly induced in latently HIV-1-infected cells but was greater in acutely HIVNL4-3-infected cells. Finally, the production of IL-2 was significantly decreased in latently HIV-1-infected cells compared with uninfected parent cells. Thus, IL-2-related immunological functions in latently HIV-1-infected T cells were markedly impaired even in the presence of stimuli. PMID:26086100
Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Welles, Seth L; Santana, Maria Christina; Silverman, Jay G
Evidence indicates that abusive male partners pose increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV among females. However, research with males on this issue is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected sex, and sex trade involvement among heterosexual African American men. In this cross-sectional study, heterosexual African American males aged 18 to 65 years who reported two or more sex partners in the past year were recruited from urban health clinics to complete a computerized survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, IPV perpetration history, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed associations between IPV perpetration and STI/HIV risk. More than half of participants in this sample (61%) were unemployed; 28.2% had less than a high school education and 23.1% were homeless. One-fifth of the sample (21.2%) reported IPV perpetration in their current relationship. IPV perpetration was significantly associated with recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected anal sex, and buying sex. IPV perpetration is pervasive among heterosexually at-risk African American men presenting for clinical care, and those perpetrating IPV are at heightened risk for STI/HIV. PMID:19477792
Gerlach, Undine Ariane
This study deals with the effects of treatment withdrawal in HIV-infected children. In a retrospective survey 35 HIV-infected children who were under medical treatment in the Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades in Paris, France, were observed concerning their discontinuation of antiretroviral therapy after months or years of receiving treatment. All children had acquired HIV infection through vertical transmission and received antiretroviral therapy for at least ten months before interrupting ther...
Lee, S. C.; Hatch, W C; Liu, W.; Kress, Y; Lyman, W. D.; Dickson, D.W.
Central nervous system disease is a frequent finding in both pediatric and adult AIDS. Microglia have been shown to be the major target of HIV-1 infection in the central nervous system. However, studies in vitro concerning susceptibility of human microglia to HIV-1 infection reported conflicting results; microglia from adult brain showed productive infection by HIV-1, whereas microglia from fetal brain did not. To investigate this further and to define the possible mechanisms responsible for ...
Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication
Sokolova, Olga I.; Demyanov, Anton V.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Didier, Elizabeth S; Yakovlev, Alexei V.; Skarlato, Sergei O.; Sokolova, Yuliya Y.
Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem w...
Nair, Madhavan P N; Saiyed, Zainulabedin M; Nair, Narayanan; Nimisha H Gandhi; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Boukli, Nawal; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Malow, Robert M.; Miguez-Burbano, Maria Jose
The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5 amplification. Meth induces increased HIV-1 infection in association with an increase in the HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, and infection ...
Objective: To determine the common hematological abnormalities in HIV infected children and any association of these abnormalities with HIV disease severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Regional Pediatric ART centre, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from November 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: Children up to 12 years with confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection were clinically examined and tested for complete hemogram and CD4 count. Bone marrow study was done in selected patient depending on hemogram report. Children were divided in different stages according to WHO clinical staging. Each of the hematological parameters was assessed for any association with progression of disease. Fisher's Exact Test was used for determining the association between WHO clinical staging and abnormal blood parameters. P-value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Sixty nine percent of the study population was anemic; 47.37% (18/38), 66.67% (8/12), 71.43% (15/21) and 93.10% (27/29) of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were anemic in the study population (p=0.001). Leucopenia was present in 34% (34/100) children. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was present in 19% (19/100) and 22% (22/100) children. Lymphopenia was present in 7.89% (3/38), 16.67% (2/12), 19.05% (4/21) and 44.83% (13/29) of patient with stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively (p=0.020). Eosinophilia was present in 17% (17/100) and thrombocytopenia in 11% (11/100) children. 2 patients with stage 4 disease were with hypoplastic bone marrow. Conclusion: Anemia was the most common hematological abnormality in HIV infected children. Anemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with the stage of the disease. (author)
Chau, Deborah; Yee, Michael; Gebremedhin, Senait; Cheung, Jennifer; Chino, Takahiro; Düzgüne?, Nejat
An approach to curing HIV/AIDS is to specifically kill all infected cells. Because the lectins, Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin (HHA) and Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA), are potent inhibitors of HIV infection and bind the oligomannans on the HIV Env protein, we hypothesized that they would bind specifically to cells expressing the HIV Env protein on their plasma membrane. Flow cytometry experiments indicated, however, that these lectins bind equivalently to both Env-expressing and control cells without Env. PMID:25868224
Wejse, C; Patsche, C B
Background: HIV1 infection has been shown to impact outcome in patients with tuberculosis (TB), but limited data on HIV2 impact on TB outcomes exist. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV-types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII a clinical score used to assess disease-severity. Methods: In a prospective follow-up study we examined the prevalence of HIV1, HIV2 and HIV1+2 dual co-infection in TB patients in Guinea Bissau and the impact on outcome at 12 months follow-up. We included all adult TB patients in an observational TB-cohort at the Bandim Health Project (BHP) in Guinea-Bissau from 2003-2013 and assessed survival status at 12 months after start of treatment. Results: We included 1312 patients, 499 (38%) were female (male/female ratio: 1.6). A total of 379 patients were HIV infected, 241 had HIV1, 93 had HIV2 and 45 were HIV1+2 dually infected. HIV type associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV1+2 dually infected and 2-fold higher for HIV2 single infected, compared with HIV uninfected. Of the included patients 144 (11%) died, 62 (12%) among females and 82 (9%) among males (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.91 (95%CI 0.64-1.30), p=0.596). Female patients were younger (1 year younger (95%CI 0.5-2)) (p=0.04), reported a longer duration of symptoms than males (14 days longer (95%CI 4-25)) (p=0.003) and had a higher TBscoreII (0.5 points more (95%CI 0.3-0.7), p<0.001). More females than males were HIV-infected (36% vs 25%) (p<0.001) and more female had a Body mass index (BMI)<15 (11% vs 6%, p<0.001) and a Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC)<200 (13% vs 7%, p<0.001) HIV-infection increased mortality risk, with HIV1-infection displaying the highest HR (5.0 (95%CI 3.5-7.1)), followed by HIV1+2-infected (HR 4.2 (95%CI 2.2-7.8) and HIV2-infected (HR 2.1 (95%CI 1.2-3.8)). A TBscoreII?4 (HR 2.2 (95%CI 1.5-3.1)) was associated with increased mortality. Significantly increased HR's were found for signs of wasting; a BMI <18 was associated with a HR of 1.8 (95%CI 1.3-2.6)) and a MUAC <220 with a HR of 3.8 (95%CI 2.7-5.2). Conclusion: HIV type associated risk of TB was much higher for HIV-1 and less for HIV2 infected, compared with HIV uninfected. Clinical severity at presentation was also higher for HIV-infected, less for HIV2 infected and all HIV-infected had poorer outcome with 4-5 fold higher mortality for HIV1 and dually infected and two-fold higher for HIV-2 infected, these differences between HIV types did not disappear after adjusting for CD4 count.
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth
Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725
Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the neoplasm, and mortality is high.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the Psychological Well-being among HIV+ve and HIV TB coinfectedsamples selected from Gulbarga. The Sample consists of 80, 40 HIV +ve samples ( 20 male+ 20 femaleand 40 HIV TB co-infected ( 20 male+ 20 female. The sample was administered with Psychological Well-beingscale. And the data were subjected the t-test. The results revealed that there is a significant difference inPsychological well-being between HIV positive and HIV TB co-infected samples. The sample is matched forgender and diseases.
Flávia Helena da, Silva; Tiago Pires, Dalberto; Nance Beyer, Nardi.
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is classified as a retrovirus because of its RNA genome and the fact that it requires reverse transcriptase to convert it into DNA. This virus belongs to the lentivirinae subfamily and is able to infect quiescent cells but is better known for its association wi [...] th acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and can be described as one of the most effective vectors for gene transfer. Biosafety concerns are present whenever viral vectors are employed but are particularly pertinent to the development of HIV-based vectors. Insertional mutagenesis and the production of new replication-competent viruses (RCV) have been pointed to as major problems, but experimental data have shown that safe protocols can be developed for their production and application. Virological, evolutionary, immunological and cell biology studies must be conducted jointly to allow the clinical use of HIV vectors. This review will focus on the general properties, production and applications of retrovectors in gene therapy, with particular emphasis on those based on HIV systems.
Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.
Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…
Background Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Methods Adult women involved in sex work (n?=?35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Results Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, compromised women’s condom and sexual negotiation, and included forced and coerced anal intercourse. Sex work was a factor in intimate partner violence. Police abuse was largely an exploitation of power imbalances for coerced sex. Conclusions Findings affirm the need to address physical and sexual violence, particularly that perpetrated by clients, as a social determinant of health for women in sex work, as well as a threat to safety and wellbeing, and a contextual barrier to HIV risk reduction. PMID:24060235
CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)
Jespersen, Sanne; HØnge, Bo Langhoff
The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-na? ?ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ? o Mendes, the main hos- pital in Bissau, the capital of the country. From July 2007 to June 2013, 3762 HIV-infected patients (69% HIV-1, 18% HIV-2, 11% HIV-1/2 and 2% HIV type unknown) were included in the world’s largest single-centre HIV-2 cohort. Demographic and clinical data are col- lected at baseline and every 6 months, together with CD4 cell count and routine biochem- istry analyses. Plasma and cells are stored in a biobank in Denmark. The Bissau HIV Cohort is administered by the Bissau HIV Cohort study group. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the chair of the cohort study group, Christian Wejse, e-mail: [email@example.com].
Ahmed, Zahra; Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Shimada, Shinji; Piguet, Vincent
Dendritic cells (DCs) and their subsets have multifaceted roles in the early stages of HIV-1 transmission and infection. DC studies have led to remarkable discoveries, including identification of restriction factors, cellular structures promoting viral transmission including the infectious synapse or the interplay of the C-type lectins, Langerin on Langerhans cells (LCs), and dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin on other DC subsets, limiting or facilitating HIV transmission to CD4(+) T cells, respectively. LCs/DCs are also exposed to encountering HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections (herpes simplex virus-2, bacteria, fungi), which reprogram HIV-1 interaction with these cells. This review will summarize advances in the role of DCs during HIV-1 infection and discuss their potential involvement in the development of preventive strategies against HIV-1 and other sexually transmitted infections. PMID:25407434
Meloni, Alessandra; Tuveri, Milena; Floridia, Marco; Zucca, Francesca; Borghero, Grazia; Gariel, Donatella; Melis, Gian Benedetto
Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...
Vajpayee, Madhu; Mohan, Teena
After a diagnosis of HIV infection is made, the patient needs to be monitored using both clinical assessment and laboratory markers. HIV/AIDS monitoring is essential in guiding when to recommend initiation of therapy. Clinical monitoring will include staging of the HIV/AIDS disease using either the presence or absence of HIV-related signs and symptoms using the WHO staging system. Various laboratory methods can be used to monitor the disease progression and to guide whether the patient will n...
Rajashekar T; Singh Gurcharan; Shivakumar V; Okade Rajendra
A HIV infected patirent with recurrent herpes zoster has been presented. Recurrence of herpes zoster contralaterally on the same dermatome and concomitant occurrence of three viral infections, viz. HIV, HPV and VZV in the same patient were the unusual and interesting observations in the present case report.
Though thromboembolic complications in HIV infected patients have been described in literature, recurrent thrombosis is very rare. We present a six-year-old HIV infected boy who presented with recurrent thrombosis. He initially had renal artery thrombosis, then middle cerebral artery thrombosis and finally hepatic vein thrombosis that was fatal.
Wolf, Thomas M.; And Others
The goal of this study was to examine the complex interplay among family, neuropsychological, psychosocial, psychiatric, and immunological variables with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected homosexual/bisexual men and their families. The subjects were a broad spectrum of 29 outpatient HIV-infected homosexual/bisexual men between the ages…
Browning, Kristine K.; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy; Diaz, Philip
The smoking prevalence estimates among HIV-infected individuals range from 40%-84%; much higher than the overall adult prevalence in the United States. Characteristics that are associated with smokers who are HIV-positive include drug and alcohol abuse, psychiatric comorbidities, and lower education and socioeconomic status. There are important health implications for HIV-infected smokers, including bacterial and Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, COPD, lung cancer and coronary artery dise...
Nkenfou, Céline Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan
The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control gro...
Sullivan, Kristen A; Messer, Lynne C; Quinlivan, E Byrd
The combined epidemics of substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS, known as the SAVA syndemic, contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease among people of color in the US. To examine the association between HIV viral load suppression and SAVA syndemic variables, we used baseline data from 563 HIV+ women of color treated at nine HIV medical and ancillary care sites participating in HRSA's Special Project of National Significance Women of Color (WOC) Initiative. Just under half the women (n=260) were virally suppressed. Five psychosocial factors contributing to the SAVA syndemic were examined in this study: substance abuse, binge drinking, intimate partner violence, poor mental health, and sexual risk taking. Associations among the psychosocial factors were assessed and clustering confirmed. A SAVA score was created by summing the dichotomous (present/absent) psychosocial measures. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to account for site-level clustering and individual-covariates, a higher SAVA score (0 to 5) was associated with reduced viral suppression; OR (adjusted)=0.81, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99. The syndemic approach represents a viable framework for understanding viral suppression among HIV positive WOC, and suggests the need for comprehensive interventions that address the social/environmental contexts of patients' lives. PMID:25397666
Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.
Devon D Brewer
Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.
Full Text Available HIV-associated nephropathy has been found in children with HIV-1 infection as a late manifestation of this disease; it is associated with nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia with microcystic tubular dilatation. This is quite rare in children and no [...] cases have been reported from India. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized for the HIV-induced renal damage. We report on two HIV-infected children with HIV-associated proteinuria and dramatic response to antiretroviral therapy.
... of intimate partner abuse among women in non- urban domestic violence shelters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine ... of public health and prevention. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 5(5):407-417. 30. Black, M. ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPP? and sAPP?, amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (A?1-42, and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+ subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC, 25 with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV- subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. Results CSF sAPP? and sAPP? concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF A?1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Conclusions Parallel reductions of CSF sAPP? and sAPP? in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.
Elkington, Katherine S; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.
Objective?To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health.?Method?Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N?=?545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children.?Results?HIV+ youth reported ...
Full Text Available Purpose of the study: People living with HIV (PLWH appear to be at increased risk for earlier onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidity (AANCC and declines in physical and mental capacities, compared to the general population . This earlier onset of AANCC in the setting of HIV infection is likely to negatively affect work participation and quality of life. Present study investigates prevalence and determinants of unemployment among older HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Methods: Data were collected (Oct. 2010–Jan. 2012 within the ongoing prospective AGEhIV Cohort Study, recruiting HIV-1-infected patients >45 years from a tertiary care HIV outpatient clinic, and HIV-uninfected Public Health Service attendants, comparable regarding age, gender and ethnicity. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, quality of life, AANCC and unemployment were collected, using a self-administered questionnaire and through medical examination. Current analysis was restricted to participants in the working age (45–65 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to study determinants of unemployment. Summary of results: The majority from the first enrolled 277 HIV-1-infected and 251 HIV-uninfected subjects was male (88%, Dutch (76% and homosexual (74%. About 50% was highly educated and the median age was 52 [IQR: 48–57]. Almost all (94% HIV-1-infected individuals were on cART, median time since first ART was 11 years [IQR: 4–15], median time since HIV-diagnosis was 12 years [IQR: 7–18] and they had been diagnosed with more AANCC than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.01. Unemployment was higher among HIV-1-infected (36.5% compared to HIV-uninfected participants (21.9% (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, being HIV-infected (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3–3.3], experiencing >2 AANCC (ORadj 3.1 [95% CI: 1.4–6.8], lower physical health status (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.6–2.6], being unmarried (ORadj 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3–3.2] and older age (ORadj 60-65 yrs: 9.1 [95% CI: 4.5–18] were independently associated with higher levels of unemployment. Conclusions: Unemployment among HIV-1-infected individuals is higher compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, independent of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, quality of life or number of concomitantly diagnosed AANCC. This suggests that, apart from these factors, specific HIV-related determinants, such as stage of HIV disease, but also experienced stigma, work related conditions, influence unemployment.
Zheng, Natalie N.; McElrath, M. Juliana; Sow, Papa-Salif; Hawes, Stephen E; Diallo-Agne, Habibatou; Stern, Joshua E; Li, Fusheng; Mesher, Andrew L.; Robinson, Akeliah D.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Huang, Yunda; KIVIAT, Nancy B.
Progressive immune dysfunction and AIDS develop in most cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but in only 25 to 30% of persons with HIV-2 infection. However, the natural history and immunologic responses of individuals with dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection are largely undefined. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that among patients with dual infection the control of HIV-1 is associated with the ability to respond to HIV-2 Gag epitopes and to maintain HIV-s...
Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller
Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors. PMID:25950187
S S Madkar; Ashok Jaykumar Vankudre; SL Nilekar
Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs) in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy...
Homann, Stefanie; Smith, Davey; Little, Susan; Richman, Douglas; Guatelli, John
The interferon-inducible antiviral factor BST-2 prevents several enveloped viruses, including HIV, from escaping infected cells. The HIV protein Vpu antagonizes this host defense. Little is known about the expression of BST-2 during HIV infection in vivo and whether it can be modulated to the host's advantage. We studied the expression of BST-2 on blood cells from HIV-infected patients during the acute and chronic phases of disease as well as after antiretroviral treatment (ART). The expression of BST-2 was increased on mononuclear leukocytes, including CD4-positive T lymphocytes from HIV-positive patients, compared to that on cells of uninfected controls. The expression of BST-2 was highest during acute infection and decreased to levels similar to those of uninfected individuals after ART. Treatment of primary blood mononuclear cells in vitro with alpha interferon or with Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists increased the expression of BST-2 to levels similar to those found during infection in vivo. The interferon-induced levels were sufficient to overcome the Vpu protein in vitro, reducing the release of wild-type HIV. These data show that BST-2 is upregulated during HIV infection, consistent with its role as an interferon-stimulated gene. The data further suggest that this upregulation is sufficient to saturate the activity of Vpu and inhibit wild-type HIV. PMID:21849457
Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.
Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…
Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conot statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was described for the first time in 1981. Two years later the previously unknown human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was identified as the causative agent. HIV has been included in the genus Lent/viruses of the Retroviridae family. Two types are recognized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. Of these, HIV-1 is the primary etiologic agent of the current pandemic. HIV probably originates from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) which is endemic in African ...
Saggurti, Niranjan; RAJ, Anita; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Cheng, Debbie M; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Battala, Madhusudana; Silverman, Jay G.; Pardeshi, Manoj H.; Samet, Jeffrey H
This study examines non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners among HIV-infected adults involved with transactional sex in Mumbai, India. Surveys were conducted with HIV-infected female sex workers (n = 211) and infected male clients (n = 205) regarding HIV knowledge, awareness of sex partners’ HIV serostatus, alcohol use, transactional sex involvement post-HIV diagnosis and non-disclosure of HIV serostatus. Gender-stratified multiple logistic regression models were used for analysis. ...
Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole
In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative donors. CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients were readily expanded with PHA; 19-fold by day 10, 50-fold by day 20, and 156-fold by day 25. However, CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients grew at a slower rate than CD4 cells from HIV-negative donors. The expanded CD4 cells showed a high degree of CD4 expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production,and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activation of the HIV infection.
Tegbaru Belete; Tadesse Endale; Tebeje Mekashaw; Shimelis Techalew; Terefe Ashenafi
Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose ...
Lopo, Sílvia; Pereira, Maria Amável; Mendonça, Joana; Vinagre, Elsa; Reis, Tânia; Cordeiro, Dora; Almeida, Catarina; Água-Doce, Ivone; Manita, Carla; Palminha, Paula; Pádua, Elizabeth; Paixão, Maria Teresa; Carreiro, Helena; Barroso, Rosalina; Campos, Teresa
The incidence of HIV infections in gestational age is an important Public Health issue as are concerns about co-infection with opportunistic viruses, such as CMV/HCV. Several authors refer higher ratios of congenital CMV infection in children born to HIV infected mother than in uninfected. In the case of HCV, perinatal transmission increases in cases of mothers co-infected with HIV. Aims:To study CMV/HCV infection/co-infection in HIV/non-HIV women and their newborns between 2006-2010, acc...
Bandivdekar Atmaram H
Full Text Available Abstract The potential risk of HIV-1 infection following human bite although epidemiologically insignificant, but it is biologically possible. There are anecdotal reports of HIV transmission by human bites particularly if saliva is mixed with blood. The oral tissues support HIV replication and may serve as a previously unrecognized HIV reservoir. The HIV infected individuals have more viruses in blood than saliva, possibly due to the potent HIV-inhibitory properties of saliva. The case presented here is of a primary HIV infections following a human bite where in the saliva was not blood stained but it got smeared on a raw nail bed of a recipient. The blood and saliva of the source and blood of the recipient showed a detectable viral load with 91% sequence homology of C2-V3 region of HIV gp120 between the two individuals. The recipient did not receive PEP [post exposure prophylaxis] as his family physician was unaware of salivary transmission. The family physician should have taken PEP decision after proper evaluation of the severe and bleeding bite. Hence it is necessary to treat the HIV infected human bites with post exposure prophylaxis.
Shah, Ira; Bansal, Neha
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has been reported in India, but has been rarely documented in children. HIV co-infection has led to resurgence of tuberculosis (TB), making treatment even more difficult due to complex drug interactions. Poly-resistant TB is rare in children, especially in HIV-infected children. We report an HIV-infected child who developed poly-resistant TB (resistance to Streptomycin and Isoniazid) after 3 years of completion of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT). His moth...
The prevention of the HIV infection remains relevant considering the dynamics of the epidemic and the slackening of the preventive behavior of certain populations. The strategies associate initiatives of universal prevention: information, education, communication, screening; and specific actions in the direction of the most exposed populations. The paradigms of prevention evolved a lot these last years to take into account the preventive efficiency of antiretrovirals. If the condom remains the reference method, it is advisable for the populations the most exposed today to associate all the tools of prevention: behavioral methods, screening and antiretroviral. The possibility given to non-governmental organizations to realize test of fast screening allowed to go to closer of the most exposed populations.The arrival on the market of the autotests must be supervised to touch the people who do not turn to the screening. PMID:25510127
Schiffer, V; Hirschel, B
In developed countries, drug therapy has turned HIV infection into a chronic disease. More is known about viral replication and new, easily tolerated drugs will enter the marketplace in 2007 and 2008. For the majority of patients who suffer neither resistance nor intolerance, older molecules are combined in the same pill. Very effective triple therapy, combining efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir in one pill (Atripla - Gilead) is already available in the United States and will become the standard of therapy in 2007. Since the eradication of the virus remains impossible even under effective antiretroviral therapy, the scheduled treatment interruptions as well as simplified maintenance therapies represent still a topic of interest for well selected patients, with an aim of reducing the costs and toxicities. PMID:17354665
Farley, J.(Departments of Physics & Astronomy and Chemistry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA); Truong, A.; G. Horvath; Nguyen, Van. T.; W Shum
Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are commonly acquired through intravenous drug use (IDU). Treatment of HCV is beneficial in reducing hepatic complications and likely decelerating the rate of progression of HIV. HCV therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected individuals is increasingly being reported to be feasible. However, re-infection is emerging as an important concern, especially in the prison population where likely related to surreptitious IDU. In this study, we report the re-infection rate of inmates in...
Fierer, Daniel S.; Dieterich, Douglas T.; Mullen, Michael P; Branch, Andrea D; Uriel, Alison J.; Carriero, Damaris C.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Hijdra, Rosanne M.; Cassagnol, David G.; Akil, Bisher; Bailey, Juan; Bellman, Paul; Bowers, Daniel; Bungay, Krisczar; Burger, Susanne
Adding telaprevir to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treatment of acute genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected men significantly decreased treatment duration to 12 weeks and improved sustained virologic response rates to 84%.
Background: HIV-infected individuals born in Africa constitute about 30 percent of the about 5000 persons who are living with HIV in Sweden, and represent the largest group of those infected through heterosexual contact. Thus, most children of HIV-infected persons in Sweden have a parent of African origin. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis is to deepen our knowledge and understanding of the psychosocial situation of HIV-infected parents with African origin living in Stockh...
Imami, Nesrina; Herasimtschuk, Anna A
Immunotherapy in the context of treated HIV-1 infection aims to improve immune responses to achieve better control of the virus. To date, multifaceted immunotherapeutic approaches have been shown to reduce immune activation and increase CD4 T-lymphocyte counts, further to the effects of antiretroviral therapy alone, in addition to improving HIV-1-specific T-cell responses. While sterilizing cure of HIV-1 would involve elimination of all replication-competent virus, a functional cure in which the host has long-lasting control of viral replication may be more feasible. In this commentary, we discuss novel strategies aimed at targeting the latent viral reservoir with cure of HIV-1 infection being the ultimate goal, an achievement that would have considerable impact on worldwide HIV-1 infection. PMID:26048144
Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/106 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 106 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 ?32, but CCR5 expression on CD4+ T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4+ T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4+ T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFN? after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variaralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection
Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise
This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…
Josicleide Maciel da Silva
Full Text Available Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA no decorrer de suas vidas, destacando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA. Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania.This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.
Josicleide Maciel da, Silva; Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva.
Full Text Available Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA) no decorrer de suas vidas, destac [...] ando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA). Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania. Abstract in english This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. [...] We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.
McKeganey, N.; M Barnard; Leyland, A; Coote, I.; Follet, E.
OBJECTIVES--To identify the extent of HIV infection and injecting drug use among female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow; to estimate the size of the female streetworking prostitute population in the city; and to estimate the number of HIV positive women working as prostitutes on the streets in Glasgow. DESIGN--Observation and interviewing of female prostitutes over seven months in red light district; analysis of saliva samples for presence of antibodies to HIV; capture-recapture approach...
Chan, Philip A.; KANTOR, RAMI
HIV-1 nonsubtype B variants account for the majority of HIV infections worldwide. Drug resistance in individuals who have never undergone antiretroviral therapy can lead to early failure and limited treatment options and, therefore, is an important concern. Evaluation of reported transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is challenging owing to varying definitions and study designs, and is further complicated by HIV-1 subtype diversity. In this article, we discuss the importance of various mutation l...
Lebreton, Matthew; Yang, Otto; Tamoufe, Ubald; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Torimiro, Judith N; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Carr, Jean K; Prosser, A. Tassy; Rimoin, Anne W.; Birx, Deborah L; Burke, Donald S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.
HIV-1 is an immunosuppressive pathogen. Our behavioral data for 191 HIV-1–infected rural Cameroonians show frequent exposure to nonhuman primates through activities such as hunting and butchering. Immunosuppression among persons exposed to body fluids of wild nonhuman primates could favor the process of adaptation and subsequent emergence of zoonotic pathogens.
Hall, Christopher S.
Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…
Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne
Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15–29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of...
Lisandra S. Damasceno
Full Text Available Problem statement: Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI are frequent and important complications, most commonly affecting hospitalized patients in intensive care units. Hospital average length of stay is usually 5-10 days higher in these patients. In HIV positive/Aids patients HAI vary from 8,7 and 15% in prevalence. The aims of this study was to compare HAI data from HIV positive (HIV+ and HIV negative (HIV- patients admitted to the adult Intensive Care Unit (ICU of an Infectious Disease reference hospital located in the state of Ceara, Northeast Brazil. Approach: This was a retrospective study of all patients admitted to the Hospital Sao Jose ICU, from January 2006 to December 2007, which were diagnosed with a HAI. Results: During the study period, 144 cases of HAI were diagnosed in 106 patients. Sixty were HIV- and 46 HIV+. Eighty nine (62% HAI occurred in the HIV-group. The use of invasive devices, such as mechanical ventilation, central-line catheter and vesicle catheter, was identified in 114 HAI. Pneumonia was the most prevalent HAI (83/144- 80%, almost all of them related to mechanical ventilation (81/83-96%. Density of incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia was higher in HIV+ (HIV- : 19.9 Vs. HIV+: 24.0-p = 0.38, while the density of incidence of catheter associated urinary tract infection was higher in HIV- (HIV-: 4.5 vs. HIV+: 1.6-p = 0.09, although without statistical significance. Conclusion/Recommendation: HAI were similar in both groups. Therefore our data suggest that, HAI prevention precautions should be intensively used in all patients, especially in ICU ones, in order to minimize HAI risks and serious consequences.
Konishi, M; Mori, K; Teramoto, S; Sakamoto, M; Tsujimoto, M; Maeda, K; Hamada, K; Mikasa, K; Sawaki, M; Koizumi, A; Sano, R; Masutani, T; Narita, N
Gatrointestinal symptoms, which include diarrhea, are as common as respiratory symptoms in patients with HIV infection. Gastrointestinal symptoms may result from infections, neoplasma, HIV enteropathy or drug toxicity. Three HIV-infected patients admitted to our hospital complaining of diarrhea and fever. We confirmed their diagnosis as Campylobacter jejuni enteritis by bacteriological examination of their feces. All of them had eaten inadequately cooked meat in restaurants before the onset of their enteritis. Their symptoms immediately improved after the administration of antimicrobial agents. One strain of C. jejuni isolated in our cases, however, was resistant to ofloxacin. This case report suggests that we must counsel HIV-infected patients to avoid inadequately cooked food and observe resistant patterns of C. jejuni to antimicrobial agents in Japan in the future. PMID:9394561
Full Text Available Objective ?To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods ?Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results ?Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion ?The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.
Lynne M Mofenson
Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.
Cinque, Paola; Koralnik, Igor J.; Gerevini, Simonetta; Miro, Jose M.; Price, Richard W.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), is one of the most dreaded complications of HIV-1 infection. Unlike other opportunistic infections, PML may present while blood CD4+ T cells remain above AIDS-defining levels and while patients receive combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), either shortly after starting or, more rarely, during chronic successful treatment. PML can be suspected by typical presentation with focal neurological deficits and corresponding demyelinating lesions at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while definitive diagnosis requires identification of JCV in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or brain tissue. While there is no specific treatment, reversal of immunosuppression by cART leads to clinical and MRI stabilization in 50-60% of PML patients and JCV clearance from CSF. A proportion of cART-treated patients develop inflammatory lesions, which may either accompany a favorable outcome or associate with clinical worsening. The reasons for variability in PML natural history and treatment responses are largely undefined, and more specific and rational approaches to management are sorely needed. PMID:19778765
Mahadevan A; Gayathri N; Taly A; Santosh V; Yasha T; Shankar S
Vasculitis causing peripheral neuropathy may be the first sign of HIV infection. We report four such cases in whom the onset of peripheral neuropathy led to the detection of HIV infection. Two patients presented with features of mononeuritis multiplex, while the other two had a lumbosacral polyradiculopathy. A prior history of blood transfusion was forthcoming in one of the patients. Sural nerve biopsies in all the four cases and the muscle biopsy in two, histologically showed evidence of vas...
Bartlomiej Mateusz Zalewski; Tomasz Mikula; Monika Romul; Monika Jablonska; Iwona Cielniak; Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo
Introduction: This study aimed to identify knowledge about preparation for travel among Polish HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods: Our prospective questionnaire-based study assessed whether the abovementioned issues had an influence on travel plan decisions and whether HIV infected Polish people had any problems before and during travel. Results: All our 102 patients completed questionnaires. The majority sought pre-travel health advice. The mean duration of c...
Gleason LJ; Luque AE; Shah K
Lauren J Gleason1, Amneris E Luque2, Krupa Shah1 1Division of Geriatrics and Aging, Highland Hospital, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities th...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.
Politou, Marianna; Boti, Sofia; Androutsakos, Theodoros; Valsami, Serena; Pittaras, Theodoros; Kapsimali, Violetta
HEV infection is an emerging public health problem worldwide Data concerning HEV infection in HIV+ patients in Greece is scare. The aim of the study was to determine HEV seroprevalence in patients with HIV infection in Greece. We studied 243 HIV(+) patients 214 men (88%) and 29 women (12%) with a median age of 45 years (range 19-83) who attended the HIV unit of Pathophysiology Department of Laikon General Hospital in Athens for the presence of anti-HEV IgG antibodies with (EIA) (EIA HEV IgG, Adaltis, Rome, Italy Eighteen/243 patients (7.3%) were positive for HEV IgG antibodies, a seroprevalence that was not different from that described for the blood donors group from Greece There was no difference of the presence of HbsAg, hepatitis C and hepatitis A between the HEV(+) and HEV(-) patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the HEV(+) and HEV(-) group in terms of HIV acquisition, sexual orientation, median duration of HIV infection, ART treatment, or duration of ART. Only the median age of HEV(+) was 52years (35-78) while that of HEV(-) was 44years (19-83)(P?=?0.03). Only 2/18(11.1%) HEV(+) HIV(+) patients had abnormal ALT and AST values. The seroprevalence of hepatitis E in HIV(+) patients in Greece seems to be the same with that of the general population thus implying that HIV infection is not a risk factor for HEV infection and only age shows a positive correlation with seropositivity. J. Med. Virol. 87:1517-1520, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25965115
Full Text Available The efficiency of transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of those exposed. Infectiousness is dictated by the concentration of HIV-1 in relevant fluids (regardless of route of transmission and the viral genotype and phenotype. People newly infected with HIV-1 (i.e. acute infection and those with STI co-infections excrete such a large concentration of virus as to be “hyperinfectious.” The actual transmission of HIV likely occurs in the first few hours after exposure. The probability of transmission may be as low as 1/10,000 episodes of intercourse or 1/10 sexual exposures when anal intercourse is practiced. The transmission of HIV is generally limited to one or a small number of founder variants which themselves may be “hyperinfectious.” Synergistic behavioural and biologic HIV prevention strategies have been developed and implemented. Safer sex includes limiting the number of sexual partners, use of male latex condoms, and structural interventions to reduce exposure. These strategies appear to have contributed to reduced HIV incidence in many countries. Biological interventions have proved catalytic: these include treatment of inflammatory cofactors, voluntary male circumcision and use of antiviral agents either for infected people (who can be rendered remarkably less contagious or as pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP. Ecologic evidence suggests that broader, earlier antiviral treatment of HIV may be reducing incidence in some (but not all populations. However, maximal benefit of HIV “treatment for prevention” and application of PrEP will likely require a program of universal “test and treat,” where many more infected patients are identified, linked to care, and treated very early in disease and for life. Community randomized trials designed to support this approach are under way in Africa. The “test and treat” prevention strategy is resource-intensive and serves to emphasize research that searches for a cure for HIV infection so that people living with HIV can eventually reduce or stop treatment. Likewise, success in HIV prevention emphasizes the importance of development of an HIV vaccine, which remains focused on agents that may evoke CTL responses, antibody dependent cytotoxicity, and (perhaps most important broad neutralizing antibodies. A human clinical trial (RV144 and animal experiments have provided hope, excitement and a roadmap for development of an HIV vaccine.
Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay Glen; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Seage, George R.
Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.
Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection...
Zhang, Yulin; Qiao, Luxin; Ding, Wei; Wei, Feili; Zhao, Qingxia; Wang, Xicheng; Shi, Ying; Li, Ning; Smith, Davey; Chen, Dexi
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities, are common among people living with HIV and AIDS. In combined antiretroviral therapy era in Western countries, nearly 40% of HIV-infected patients continue to suffer from HAND, mainly with mild or asymptomatic cognitive impairment. However, the prevalence and the clinical features of HAND in China are still not well known. In this study, a multi-center cross-sectional study was per...
Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone; Grandits, Greg; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anurahda; Agan, Brian; Landrum, Michael
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) occur at higher rates among HIV-infected persons, but current trends and risk factors are largely undefined. We evaluated SSTIs among a prospective cohort of HIV-infected persons during the late HAART era (2006-2010). Of the 1918 HIV-infected persons evaluated, 379 (20%) developed an SSTI during a median of 3.7 years of follow-up; of these,118 (31%) developed at least one recurrent SSTI. The incidence rate of SSTIs was 101 (95% CI 93-109) cases per 1000...
Mota-Miranda, A; Gomes, H; Marques, R; Serrão, R; Lourenço, H; Santos-Ferreira, O; Lecour, H
We give details of a patient infected with HIV-2 which had what we believe to be the longest asymptomatic period so far reported. The infection was probably acquired though a blood transfusion in Africa 27 years ago. At present the patient remains asymptomatic and her cellular defence mechanisms, evaluated by CD+4 lymphocyte counts and hypersensitivity skin tests, are not severely compromised. HIV-2 has come distinct epidemiological, clinical and biological features which are different from the related HIV-1 and deserve investigation in order for its natural history to be better understood. PMID:8666851
Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya
Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive p...
Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei
The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.
Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati
Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...
JØnsson, Kasper L; Tolstrup, Martin
Adjunct therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin increases plasma viremia in HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a potential concern is that reversing HIV latency with an HDACi may reactivate the virus in anatomical compartments with sub-optimal cART concentrations leading to de novo infection of susceptible cells in these sites. We tested physiologically relevant romidepsin concentrations known to reactivate latent HIV in order to definitively address this concern. We found that romidepsin significantly inhibited HIV infection in PBMCs and CD4+ T cells, but not in monocyte-derived-macrophages. In addition, romidepsin impaired HIV spreading in CD4+ T cell cultures. When we evaluated the impact of romidepsin on quantitative viral outgrowth assays with primary resting CD4+ T cells, we found that resting CD4+ T cells exposed to romidepsin exhibited reduced proliferation and viability. This significantly lowered assay sensitivity when measuring the efficacyof romidepsin as an HIV latency reversal agent. All together our data indicate that romidepsin-based HIV eradication strategies are unlikely to reseed a latent T cell reservoir, even under sub-optimal cART conditions, because romidepsin profoundly restricts de novo HIV infections.
Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.
Cristiani, Sarah A; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D; Bornstein, Robert A
The effect of marijuana use on cognitive function is controversial. Although marijuana use is common in HIV-infected individuals for recreational and medicinal purposes, there have been no studies of the impact of marijuana on cognitive function in these subjects. Marijuana also has known immunologic effects, which increases the relevance in HIV-infected patients. We examined the interaction of HIV disease-stage and marijuana use in 282 subjects, stratified by disease stage and frequency of marijuana use. After controlling for the effects of depression, anxiety, and alcohol use, a significant interaction was observed on an overall measure of cognitive impairment. The effect of marijuana use was greatest in subjects with symptomatic HIV infection. Further inspection suggested that this effect was due primarily to performance on memory tasks. These data suggest that although there is minimal impact of marijuana on uninfected individuals or those at early stages of HIV infection, there is a synergistic effect of HIV and marijuana use in patients with advanced HIV disease. This is consistent with other data suggesting that the subtle effects of some conditions may become more manifest in the setting of immunocompromise. PMID:15377740
Larsen Carsten S
Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.
Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H
OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: OR of HIV diagnosis was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.3) among heterosexual individuals with low educational attainments, but no associations between educational attainment and time to HAART initiation, CD4 cell count, or viral suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated with late/very late presentation of HIV, time to HAART initiation, or HAART response. However, low educational attainment substantially increased lifestyle-related mortality, which indicates that increased mortality in HIV-infected patients with low educational attainments stems from risk factors unrelated to HIV.
This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)
Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)
This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)
Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.
Petropoulos Christos J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.
Akinbo, F. O.
Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.
Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine-dependent participants. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest significant brain structure alterations associated with both HIV infection and methamphetamine dependence. The regional patterns of the changes associated with these factors were distinct but overlapping, and the effects on brain volumes were opposing. Although the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results have implications for the interpretation of brain morphological findings in methamphetamine-dependent, HIV-positive individuals, a group whose numbers are unfortunately increasing
Blackstone, Kaitlin; Tobin, Alexis; Posada, Carolina; GOUAUX, Ben; GRANT, IGOR; Moore, David J.
Episodic memory deficits are common in HIV infection and bipolar disorder, but patient insight into such deficits remains unclear. Thirty-four HIV-infected individuals without bipolar disorder l(HIV+/BD?) and 47 HIV+ individuals with comorbid bipolar disorder (HIV+/BD+) were administered the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised to examine objective learning/memory functioning. Subjective memory complaints were assessed via the memory subscale of ...
Paula Matos Oliveira; Rita Elizabeth Mascarenhas; Claire Lacroix; Suzana Ramos Ferrer; Rone Peterson C Oliveira; Elaine Andrade Cravo; André P Ribeiro Alves; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference cente...
Khatiwada, Sudip Raj
Background: The HIV infection among adult male is high in Nepal. The chances of HIV infection from heterosexual route and infecting close partners are high due to their risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to assess the risk of HIV Infection and risk factors associated with high risk of HIV infection among adult male in Nepal. Methodology: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from the data of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Out of 4121 adult men aged between (15-...
Pieniazek, N J; Bornay-Llinares, F. J.; Slemenda, S B; Da Silva, A. J.; Moura, I. N.; Arrowood, M. J.; Ditrich, O; D.G. Addiss
Using DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we identified four distinct Cryptosporidium genotypes in HIV-infected patients: genotype 1 (human), genotype 2 (bovine) Cryptosporidium parvum, a genotype identical to C. felis, and one identical to a Cryptosporidium sp. isolate from a dog. This is the first identification of human infection with the latter two genotypes.
Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV-infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family. Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated by non-HIV-related conditions that may have a worse prognosis and therefore become more important than HIV-related conditions. Despite the improvements in antiretroviral therapy, there is still an excess mortality among HIV patients, which appears to be only partially attributable to immunodeficiency, with lifestyle factors potentially playing a pronounced role. Consequently, an effort to further increase survival must target risk factors for both HIV-related and -unrelated mortality. The continuation of the positive trend may be achieved by increased HIV testing, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population.
Full Text Available Abstract A correlation between increase in the integration of Human Immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 cDNA and cell death was previously established. Here we show that combination of peptides that stimulate integration together with the protease inhibitor Ro 31-8959 caused apoptotic cell death of HIV infected cells with total extermination of the virus. This combination did not have any effect on non-infected cells. Thus it appears that cell death is promoted only in the infected cells. It is our view that the results described in this work suggest a novel approach to specifically promote death of HIV-1 infected cells and thus may eventually be developed into a new and general anti-viral therapy.
Nielsen, Ulla S; Jensen-Fangel, SØren
BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe travel patterns, extent of professional pre-travel advice and health problems encountered during travel among HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: During a six-month period a questionnaire was handed out to 2821 adult HIV-infected individuals attending any of the eight Danish medical HIV care centers. RESULTS: A total of 763 individuals responded. During the previous two years 49% had travelled outside Europe; 18% had travelled less and 30% were more cautious when choosing travel destination than before the HIV diagnosis. Pre-travel advice was sought by only 38%, and travel insurance was taken out by 86%. However, 29%/74% did not inform the advisor/the insurance company about their HIV status. Nearly all patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were adherent, but 58% worried about carrying HIV-medicine and 19% tried to hide it. Only 19% experienced health problems during travel, 6% sought medical assistance and 0.5% was hospitalized. CONCLUSIONS: Danish HIV-infected patients travel frequently outside Denmark. Health and adherence to HAART were not major problems during travel. The main problems were failure to seek pre-travel advice, lack of disclosure of HIV status when seeking pre-travel advice or getting a travel insurance.
Tsunetsugu-Yokota, Yasuko; Muhsen, Mahmod
Although dendritic cells (DCs) represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccines. However, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC–T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC–T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology, antiviral immune responses and DC restriction factors, all of which will be important issues for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future. PMID:23847602
Busisiwe, Ncama; Gugu, Mchunu; Joanne, Naidoo; Sisana, Majeke; Padmini, Pillay; Thandazile, Myeza; Thandiwe, Ndebele.
Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the hi [...] gh vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
Quinti, I; Renganathan, E; El Ghazzawi, E; Divizia, M; Sawaf, G; Awad, S; Pana, A; Rocchi, G
During the years 1992-1994, we tested 948 individuals from different population groups for HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections by ELISA and WB and for HCV infection by ELISA. Repeated ELISA reactivity for HIV was found in 2.12% of blood donors, 2.95% of fire brigade personnel and 1.61% of prisoners. Western blotting studies, however, showed that these samples were non-reactive or indeterminate to either HIV-1 or HIV-2. In contrast, anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 39% of fire brigade personnel, 31.4% of prisoners and 20.8% of blood donors. The analysis of risk factors for acquiring HCV infection showed a strong association between a past history of parenteral therapy for schistosomiasis and anti-HCV seropositivity (p < 0.0001). The implementation of preventive strategies is at the moment the mandatory choice to stop a further spread of the HCV infection. Meanwhile the same preventive measures could avoid spreading of the HIV disease. PMID:8825115
Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P.; Stones, William
Abstract Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV sero-status were collected in the 2001-2 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a ...
Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Gromadzka, Olga; ABRAMS, Elaine J.; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A
This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV?infected (PHIV+), HIV?affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV? caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects o...
Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Kigozi, Godfrey; Manucci, Jordyn; Grabowski, Mary K.; Serwadda, David; Musoke, Richard; Redd, Andrew D.; Nalugoda, Fred; Reynolds, Steven J.; Kighoma, Nehemiah; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Lessler, Justin; Gray, Ronald H.; Quinn, Thomas C.; Wawer, Maria J.
Background A randomized trial of voluntary medical male circumcision (MC) of HIV—infected men reported increased HIV transmission to female partners among men who resumed sexual intercourse prior to wound healing. We conducted a prospective observational study to assess penile HIV shedding after MC. Methods and Findings HIV shedding was evaluated among 223 HIV—infected men (183 self—reported not receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART], 11 self—reported receiving ART and had a detectable plasma viral load [VL], and 29 self—reported receiving ART and had an undetectable plasma VL [HIV shedding and VL using a real—time quantitative PCR assay. Unadjusted prevalence risk ratios (PRRs) and adjusted PRRs (adjPRRs) of HIV shedding were estimated using modified Poisson regression with robust variance. HIV shedding was detected in 9.3% (17/183) of men not on ART prior to surgery and 39.3% (72/183) of these men during the entire study. Relative to baseline, the proportion shedding was significantly increased after MC at 1 wk (PRR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.12–3.14, p = 0.012), 2 wk (PRR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.94–5.13, p HIV shedding was decreased by 6 wk after MC (PRR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.09–0.83, p = 0.023) and remained suppressed at 12 wk after MC (PRR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.06–0.64, p = 0.008). Detectable HIV shedding from MC wounds occurred in more study visits among men with an HIV plasma VL > 50,000 copies/ml than among those with an HIV plasma VL HIV shedding was less common in visits from men with healed MC wounds compared to visits from men without healed wounds (adjPRR = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.07–0.23, p HIV shedding, the median log10 HIV copies/milliliter of lavage fluid was significantly lower in men with ART—induced undetectable plasma VL (1.93, interquartile range [IQR] = 1.83–2.14) than in men not on ART (2.63, IQR = 2.28–3.22, p HIV shedding is significantly reduced after healing of MC wounds. Lower plasma VL is associated with decreased frequency and quantity of HIV shedding from MC wounds. Starting ART prior to MC should be considered to reduce male-to-female HIV transmission risk. Research is needed to assess the time on ART required to decrease shedding, and the acceptability and feasibility of initiating ART at the time of MC. PMID:25919012
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Hansen, Nathan B; Sullivan, Tami P.
Posttraumatic stress disorder resulting from intimate partner violence (IPV-related PTSD), drug problems, and alcohol problems were tested as correlates of women’s sexual risk behavior. Participants were 136 low-income women experiencing physical violence by a male partner during the past 6 months. Sexual risk behavior was assessed by whether women had unprotected sex with a risky primary partner (i.e., HIV-positive, injection drug user, and/or nonmonogamous), unprotected sex with a risky non...
Laeyendecker, Oliver; Brookmeyer, Ron; Oliver, Amy E.; Mullis, Caroline E; Eaton, Kevin P.; Mueller, Amy C.; Jacobson, Lisa P; MARGOLICK, Joseph B.; BROWN, Joelle; Rinaldo, Charles R.; Thomas C. Quinn; Eshleman, Susan H
The BED capture enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was developed for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional data. This assay misclassifies some individuals with nonrecent HIV infection as recently infected, leading to overestimation of HIV incidence. We analyzed factors associated with misclassification by the BED-CEIA. We analyzed samples from 383 men who were diagnosed with HIV infection less than 1 year after a negative HIV test (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study). Samples were collected 2–8...
Y. LIU; T. Shen; Zhang, C.; Long, L; Duan, Z.; LU, F
Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a c...
Maria Bruna Pasticci
Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.
Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies/mL, p =?0.2. There were only 53 patients that presented at the same time HE and HBV infection and the majority, 78.69%, were first infected with HBV. Conclusions: In our studied cohort HBV infection was associated with HE but further studies are needed to prove HBV neurotropic potential. Absolute CD4 nadir count and class C3 are proved to be strong predictors of HE in HIV-infected patients even after several changes in antiretroviral therapy schemes.
Trevenzoli, M; Cattelan, A.; F. Marino; Marchioro, U.; Cadrobbi, P
The case of an HIV infected man who developed sarcoidosis after the initiation of HAART is described. Skin nodule images and histological specimens are reported. The association between sarcoidosis and HIV infection is also reviewed.
Tenenbaum, H C; Mock, D; Simor, A E
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) in people at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be the first symptom of previously unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Dental clinic. PATIENTS: Twenty patients who presented or were referred to the dental clinic over 6 months for the treatment of unexplained RPP and were at high risk for AIDS. OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of HIV i...
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses exert a suppressive effect on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Under the CTL pressure, viral CTL escape mutations are frequently selected for with viral fitness costs. Viruses with such CTL escape mutations often need additional viral genome mutations for recovery of viral fitness. Persistent HIV/SIV infection sometimes shows replacement of a CTL escape mutation with an alternative escape mutation toward higher viral fitness. Thus...
Seki, Sayuri; Matano, Tetsuro
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses exert a suppressive effect on HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Under the CTL pressure, viral CTL escape mutations are frequently selected with viral fitness costs. Viruses with such CTL escape mutations often need additional viral genome mutations for recovery of viral fitness. Persistent HIV/SIV infection sometimes shows replacement of a CTL escape mutation with an alternative escape mutation toward higher viral fitness. Thus, mu...
Sathekge, Mike Machaba; Maes, Alex; Van De Wiele, Christophe
The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have global prevalence with devastatingmorbidity andmassive mortality. Using FDG-PET imaging it was shown that in HIV-infected individuals, involvement of the head and neck precedes that of the chest and of the abdomen. The sequence of lymph node involvement observed suggests the existence of a diffusible activation mediator that may be targeted via therapeut...
WANG, Tong; Gong, Nan; Liu, Jianuo; Kadiu, Irena; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D; Schlautman, Joshua D.; Ciborowski, Pawel; Volsky, David J; Gendelman, Howard E
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) invades the central nervous system early after viral exposure but causes progressive cognitive, behavior, and motor impairments years later with the onset of immune deficiency. Although in the brain, HIV preferentially replicates productively in cells of mononuclear phagocyte (MP; blood borne macrophage and microglia), astrocytes also can be infected, at low and variable frequency, particularly in patients with encephalitis. Among their many functions, a...
Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cloete, Allanise; Clayford, Mario; Arnolds, Warda; Mxoli, Mpumi; Smith, Gino; Cherry, Chauncey; Shefer, Tammy; Crawford, Mary; Kalichman, Moira O
South Africa is in the midst of one of the world’s most devastating HIV/AIDS epidemics and there is a well documented association between violence against women and HIV transmission. Interventions that target men and integrate HIV prevention with gender-based violence prevention may demonstrate synergistic effects. A quasi-experimental field intervention trial was conducted with two communities randomly assigned to receive either: (a) a five session integrated intervention designed to simulta...
Carina Nilsen Moreno
Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as principais considerações sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na última década, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART, a evolução dos pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta população. Neste contexto, o número de pacientes HIV positivos com doença renal crônica com necessidade de terapia dialítica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicação absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da função renal. Questões sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possível ação aumentando a replicação do HIV, além do risco de infecções oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, são amplamente discutidas. Porém, a experiência clínica nessa área mostra que a utilização dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ação antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta população. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critérios de seleção dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituição renal em pacientes HIV positivos.This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has significantly improved, showing a marked decrease in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.
Carina Nilsen, Moreno; Raquel Cruzeiro de, Siqueira; Irene L, Noronha.
Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as principais considerações sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na última década, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART), a evolução dos pacientes infectados pelo [...] vírus da imunodeficiência humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV) mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta população. Neste contexto, o número de pacientes HIV positivos com doença renal crônica com necessidade de terapia dialítica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicação absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da função renal. Questões sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possível ação aumentando a replicação do HIV, além do risco de infecções oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, são amplamente discutidas. Porém, a experiência clínica nessa área mostra que a utilização dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ação antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta população. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critérios de seleção dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituição renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Abstract in english This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has significantly improved, showing a marked decrea [...] se in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.
Savard, J; Laberge, B; Gauthier, J G; Ivers, H; Bergeron, M G
Because there is a large overlap between HIV manifestations and somatic symptoms of anxiety and depression, it is crucial to use measures that do not contain somatic items to validly and reliably assess these psychological states in HIV-infected patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a questionnaire that does not include any somatic items, in HIV-seropositive individuals. Because the study was conducted among French Canadian individuals, the quality of the translation was 1st subjectively and empirically assessed. Then, the psychometric properties of the HADS were evaluated in 162 HIV-seropositive patients, who, in addition to the HADS, also completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The French Canadian version used was found to be subjectively and empirically equivalent to the original English version. Moreover, results of this study demonstrated a bifactorial structure with factors corresponding to the HADS subscales, an excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability, a very good convergent validity, and an acceptable discriminant validity. Strikingly, in contrast to the BDI, HADS scores were found to be unconfounded by the presence of HIV symptomatology. The HADS appears to represent the best currently available self-report scale to reliably and validly assess anxiety and depression in HIV-infected patients. The HADS is simple and brief to administer (14 items) and may therefore be easily implemented in routine HIV care. PMID:9933941
Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D
There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818
S S Madkar
Full Text Available Aim: AIDS is characterized by a number of opportunistic infections which are responsible for high morbidity and mortality. The spectrum and distribution of opportunistic infections (OIs in AIDS patients is ever-expanding. This spectrum varies from continent to continent. The aim of the present study was to document the spectrum of OIs in HIV-infected patients in Ambajogai. Material and Method: 178 HIV positive symptomatic patients, either hospitalized or coming to ART (Antiretroviral Therapy centre in S.R.T.R. Medical College, Ambajogai, were included in the study for finding the spectrum of opportunistic infections. Result: The commonest opportunistic infection seen was tuberculosis (59% of patients, followed by oral candidiasis (37.6% of patients and parasitic diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum(18 % of patients. It was observed that out of 178 patients, maximum 53.3% were in the age group of 29-38 years followed by 21% in the age group of 39-48 years. It was found that 77% were males and 23% were females, with male to female ratio is 3.3:1. Conclusion: This study demonstrates that tuberculosis is the commonest opportunistic infection seen in HIV patients. Clinicians should consider HIV in the differential diagnosis and management of all persons with tuberculosis.
Huang, Yunlong; Zhao, Lixia; Jia, Beibei; Wu, Li; Li, Yuju; Curthoys, Norman; Zheng, Jialin C.
Microglia represent the main cellular targets of HIV-1 in the brain. Infected and/or activated microglia play a pathogenic role in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) by instigating primary dysfunction and subsequent death of neurons. Although microglia are known to secrete neurotoxins when infected with HIV-1, the detailed mechanism of neurotoxicity remains unclear. Using a human microglia primary culture system and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains, we have now demonstrated that HI...
Frleta, D; Ochoa, CE; Kramer, HB; Khan, SA; Stacey, AR; Borrow, P.; Kessler, BM; Haynes, BF; Bhardwaj, N
Acute HIV-1 infection results in dysregulated immunity, which contributes to poor control of viral infection. DCs are key regulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses needed for controlling HIV-1, and we surmised that factors elicited during acute HIV-1 infection might impede DC function. We derived immature DCs from healthy donor peripheral blood monocytes and treated them with plasma from uninfected control donors and donors with acute HIV-1 infections. We found that the plasma f...
Rickabaugh, Tammy M.; Baxter, Ruth M.; Sehl, Mary; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Hultin, Patricia M.; Hultin, Lance E.; Quach, Austin; Martínez-maza, Otoniel; Horvath, Steve; Vilain, Eric; Jamieson, Beth D.
Patients with treated HIV-1-infection experience earlier occurrence of aging-associated diseases, raising speculation that HIV-1-infection, or antiretroviral treatment, may accelerate aging. We recently described an age-related co-methylation module comprised of hundreds of CpGs; however, it is unknown whether aging and HIV-1-infection exert negative health effects through similar, or disparate, mechanisms. We investigated whether HIV-1-infection would induce age-associated methylation change...
Full Text Available In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97% were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76 years. Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79% with ?1 year of follow-up. At initial presentation, two of 74 (3% women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown; coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis. Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.
P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)
Luo, Shishi; Perelson, Alan S
Antibody affinity maturation by somatic hypermutation of B-cell immunoglobulin variable region genes has been studied for decades in various model systems using well-defined antigens. While much is known about the molecular details of the process, our understanding of the selective forces that generate affinity maturation are less well developed, particularly in the case of a co-evolving pathogen such as HIV. Despite this gap in understanding, high-throughput antibody sequence data are increasingly being collected to investigate the evolutionary trajectories of antibody lineages in HIV-infected individuals. Here, we review what is known in controlled experimental systems about the mechanisms underlying antibody selection and compare this to the observed temporal patterns of antibody evolution in HIV infection. We describe how our current understanding of antibody selection mechanisms leaves questions about antibody dynamics in HIV infection unanswered. Without a mechanistic understanding of antibody selection in the context of a co-evolving viral population, modelling and analysis of antibody sequences in HIV-infected individuals will be limited in their interpretation and predictive ability. PMID:26194760
Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway
This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...
Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV ... infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan KA. Trends I ... ;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV ... infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease ... ? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV ... infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease ...
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne
Previous studies have suggested high rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections in theU.S.-Mexico border region. However, no information is available on the risk for HIV infection among Mexican adolescents living in this geographic area. This study examines the prevalence of HIV risk practices and psychosocial correlates…
Almeida, Francisco Aécio; Sager, Jeffrey S; Eiger, Glenn
The CD4 lymphocyte plays a pivotal role in both sarcoidosis and HIV infection. Caring for a patient with both conditions represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe a patient, previously diagnosed with sarcoidosis, who subsequently contracted HIV infection. Manifestations of sarcoidosis were clinically silent until highly active anti-retroviral therapy was instituted. Her condition improved with the institution of corticosteroids. The diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas encountered in patients with both conditions will be discussed including a complete review of the literature. PMID:16083964
Dulce, Stauffert; Mariângela Freitas da, Silveira; Marilia Arndt, Mesenburg; Thiago, Gaspar; Adriane Brod, Manta; Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira, Bicca; Marcos Marreiro, Villela.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obt [...] ained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.
Alstrup, Karen; Kangas, Ida
Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and progression to AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection has now turned into a chronic disease with improved survival and prognosis. Hence, patients with well-controlled HIV infection are no longer prevented from receiving transplants, but treatment must be based on knowledge of pharmacokinetics for the drugs involved. The common approach measuring the cyclosporine level after 2 h or trough level is misleading and it was necessary to determine the area under the curve.
R, Masekela; T, Moodley; N, Mahlaba; D F, Wittenberg; P, Becker; O, Kitchin; R J, Green.
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has n [...] ot been documented in children. METHODS: A prospective convenience sample of 50 children aged between 3 months and 12 years attending the Tshwane District Hospital Paediatric HIV clinic in Pretoria was recruited. Their personal and family histories of atopy, World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical staging and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immunological staging with CD4 counts were documented. An age- and sex-matched control group of 50 HIV-negative children was included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) to identify common aeroallergens were conducted on all patients. RESULTS: One hundred children were enrolled, with 50 in each group. Ten per cent of the HIV-infected patients compared with 16% of controls had positive SPTs to aeroallergens. A higher percentage of the HIV-infected patients had chronic rhinitis and eczema (60% and 68%, respectively). There was no relationship between CD4 count and positive SPTs (p=0.61), mean log CD4 count and presence of reported asthma (p=0.71), and CD4 count and presence of reported dermatitis (p=0.84). The CD4 count was not statistically different between children with and without a family history of atopy (p=0.68). CONCLUSION: It appears that the stage of HIV disease does not influence the development or expression of allergy. There is a high prevalence of dermatitis and chronic rhinitis in HIVinfected children, probably not atopic in origin.
TIEMESSEN, CAROLINE T.; KUHN, Louise
Vertical exposure to HIV occurs at a time when functional capacity of the infant’s immune system is attenuated through immaturity. Immune response capability is rooted in host genetic makeup, and the broad and fine specificity of innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively, shape the outcomes of HIV encounter in some instances and imprint viral changes through selective immune pressure in others. Findings from recent studies have profound implications for understanding immune pathogene...
Negishi, Kumiko; Shitara, Minori; Sasaki, Yoshio; Ajisawa, Atushi; Obayashi, Taminori
To assess the merit of serum HIV-1 RNA quantification in detecting acute HIV infection, we reviewed the results of HIV-1 RNA assay and antibody tests in all patients who received those tests at our hospital from August 1999 to December 2004. Of 3530 such patients, five were sero-negative and PCR-positive with more than 105 copies/ml at initial examination. Four of them had HAART and followed a favorable course; they were later confirmed to be sero-positive by Western blotting. The other one, positive only by CLEIA, was lost to follow-up. This reconfirms the importance of using PCR in the initial assessment of HIV infection in high-risk patients. PMID:16722451
Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.
Hoehn, Kenneth B; Gall, Astrid; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Fidler, S J; Kaye, S; Weber, J N; McClure, M O; Kellam, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G
Advances in immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing technology are leading to new perspectives on immune system dynamics. Much research in this nascent field has focused on resolving immune responses to viral infection. However, the dynamics of B-cell diversity in early HIV infection, and in response to anti-retroviral therapy, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate these dynamics through bulk Ig sequencing of samples collected over 2 years from a group of eight HIV-1 infected patients, five of whom received anti-retroviral therapy during the first half of the study period. We applied previously published methods for visualizing and quantifying B-cell sequence diversity, including the Gini index, and compared their efficacy to alternative measures. While we found significantly greater clonal structure in HIV-infected patients versus healthy controls, within HIV patients, we observed no significant relationships between statistics of B-cell clonal expansion and clinical variables such as viral load and CD4(+) count. Although there are many potential explanations for this, we suggest that important factors include poor sampling resolution and complex B-cell dynamics that are difficult to summarize using simple summary statistics. Importantly, we find a significant association between observed Gini indices and sequencing read depth, and we conclude that more robust analytical methods and a closer integration of experimental and theoretical work is needed to further our understanding of B-cell repertoire diversity during viral infection. PMID:26194755
Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley
To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination. PMID:25853184
Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to investigate the Death Anxiety and Psychological Well-being of HIV +ve patients and HIV TB co-infected patients and the examine the difference between gender and type of disease of the study on their death anxiety and psychological well-being. For this investigation sample consists of 80, (40 HIV +ve and 40 HIV TB co-infected were taken from Gulbarga District, Karnataka State. This sample consists of both male and female HIV +ve patients and HIV TB coinfected male and female samples. Death anxiety scale and psychological well-being scale was used for this study, and't' test was applied to examine the difference between sample subgroups. The result through the study showed significant difference between male and female HIV +ve patients and HIV TB co-infected patients in death anxiety and psychological well-being.
Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years? duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ?flail arm-like syndrome.? The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.
Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ
Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR?1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945
N P, Govender; R E, Magobo; T G, Zulu; M, du Plooy; C, Corcoran.
Full Text Available We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 [...] h of admission. Intracellular yeast-like bodies were observed on the peripheral blood smear. A serum cryptococcal antigen test was negative. Blood cultures flagged positive after 2 days; on direct microscopy, yeast-like bodies were observed and a thermally dimorphic fungus, confirmed as T. marneffei, was cultured after 5 days. The clinical features of HIV-associated disseminated penicilliosis overlap with those of tuberculosis and endemic deep fungal infections. In the southern African context, where systemic opportunistic fungal infections such as cryptococcosis are more common among HIV-infected patients with a CD4+ count of
ALCZUK, Silvia de Souza Dantas; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patrícia de Souza; ROCHA-BRISCHILIARI, Sheila Cristina; SHINOBU-MESQUITA, Cristiane Suemi; MARTINS, Helen Priscilla Rodrigues; GIMENES, Fabrícia; de Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta; Carvalho, Maria Dalva de Barros; Pelloso, Sandra Marisa; SVIDZINSKI Terezinha Inez Estivalet; CONSOLARO, Marcia Edilaine Lopes
Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) in HIV-infected women contributed to the impairment of their quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use on the vaginal Candida spp. isolation in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected women. This cross-sectional study included 178 HIV-infected (HIV group) and 200 HIV-uninfected women (control) that were studied at the Specialized Assistance Service (SAE) for sexually t...
Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti
While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.
Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan
Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759
Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Atibioke, Oluyemi; Balogun, Tolulope; Oluwasanu, Mojisola
Paediatric HIV-infected patients have higher risk of developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs, and from public health perspective, drug resistance remains a limiting factor for effective management of HIV infection in children. We reviewed the current evidences available on the antiretroviral treatment and resistance patterns in HIV-infected children. Prevalence of HIV drug resistance varied among the three main classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in both treatment naïve and treatment-experienced children in different countries. Most of the patients with extensive triple-class drug-resistant mutations were found to be considerably exposed to the three main classes of antiretroviral agents. Identification of genetic factors linked with susceptibility to perinatal transmission of HIV may be key in understanding the development of resistance due to waning antiviral effectiveness. Children who were less likely to achieve viral re-suppression were more likely to have resistance mutations. Newer drugs such as etravirine can be used as alternatives in case of resistance to efavirenz while newly developed diagnostic method such as next-generation sequencing is a platform for improving quality of detections especially minor variant drug resistance mutations. PMID:26319052
Zorenos dos Santos, R M; Zorzenon dos Santos, Rita M; Coutinho, Sergio
We use a cellular automata model to study the evolution of HIV infection and the onset of AIDS. The model takes into account the global features of the immune response to any pathogen, the fast mutation rate of the HIV and a fair amount of spatial localization. Our results reproduce quite well the three-phase pattern observed in T cell and virus counts of infected patients, namely, the primary response, the clinical latency period and the onset of AIDS. We have also found that the infected cells may organize themselves into special spatial structures since the primary infection, leading to a decrease on the concentration of uninfected cells. Our results suggest that these cell aggregations, which can be associated to syncytia, leads to AIDS.
During the first weeks of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) select for multiple escape mutations in the infecting HIV population. In recent years, methods that use escape mutation data to estimate rates of HIV escape have been developed, thereby providing a quantitative framework for exploring HIV escape from CTL response. Current methods for escape-rate inference focus on a specific HIV mutant selected by a single CTL response. However, recent s...
Ezeani Michael; Ahaneku Joseph Ebere; Ifeanyichukwu Martins Ositadinma; Onyenekwe Charles Chinedu; Osuji Faustina Nkechi; Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla
Severe Oxidative stress has been reported in Tuberculosis infected individuals as a result of tissue inflammation, poor nutrition and poor immunity and this stress becomes more severe in those co-infected with HIV. Therefore the present study was designed to assess the antioxidant status of HIV infected participants with or without tuberculosis co-infections and in HIV seronegative participants infected with tuberculosis. 193 participants were randomly recruited for the study and groupe...
Okeoma Mmeje; Cohen, Craig R.; Deborah Cohan
HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.
Prilutski?, A S; Lysenko, K L; Koshkareva, I N; Seliverstova, V G; Kalimbet, N V
201 HIV infected and 200 non HIV infected patients have been observed to detect antibodies to virus hepatitis G. It was established that IgG antibodies are detected more often in HIV infected than in non-HIV-infected persons (24,9% of cases). The highest number of hepatitis G-infected patients is observed among HIV patients at before-HIV clinically apparent stage and HIV clinical stage as well as in patients infected by HIV virus during parenteral infusion. PMID:17312879
Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.
Gill Christopher J.
Full Text Available Infants with HIV infection are vulnerable to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP during their first year of life. WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now recommend that all children of HIV-positive mothers receive prophylactic cotrimoxazole against PCP from six weeks of age and continue this therapy until exposure through breast milk ceases and the infant is confirmed to be HIV-negative (rarely before one year of age. Empirical prophylaxis invokes a trade-off between possible benefit to the infant versus the risk of resistance to antibiotics and antimalarials. From a critical analysis of the literature, we offer a conceptual model demonstrating how, under certain circumstances, a policy of mass cotrimoxazole prophylaxis may be counterproductive.
Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral
Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.
R Monica Lascar
Full Text Available R Monica Lascar, Paul BennThe Mortimer Market Centre, Camden PCT, London WC1E 6JBAbstract: There is an ongoing need for potent antiretroviral therapies to deal with the increasing pool of treatment-experienced patients with multiple drug resistance. The last few years have seen the arrival of 2 new and very potent protease inhibitors – darunavir and tipranavir – alongside 2 whole new classes of anti-HIV agents – the integrase inhibitors and chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists. This review focuses on the role of darunavir in managing HIV infection, with an emphasis on darunavir’s exceptional resistance profile and related clinical effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and toxicity data. Darunavir in combination with the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir has proved to be very effective in the treatment of highly treatmentexperienced HIV patients with multiple drug resistance. The favorable tolerability and toxicity profile alongside the drug’s high genetic barrier to the development of resistance prompted approval of darunavir for HIV-treatment naïve patients. Furthermore, the paradigm of treating HIV with a combination of anti-HIV agents is currently being challenged by ongoing darunavir monotherapy trials and these preliminary data will be discussed.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, darunavir
Chin, Jerome H
Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been infrequently described in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Underreporting, missed diagnoses or a true negative association between MS and HIV infection are all possible explanations for the paucity of published cases. Since MS involves inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system by autoreactive T cells, immunosuppression caused by HIV infection would be expected to confer a reduced risk of MS. This report describes a case of relapsing-remitting MS in a woman with non-progressive HIV-1 infection for 5 years. The patient has stable normal CD4+ cell counts and a low viral load in the absence of combination antitretroviral treatment (cART). She experienced typical neurological symptoms of MS including optic neuritis, trigeminal neuralgia, and transverse myelitis. MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated multiple lesions on T2-weighted images. Immune mechanisms associated with HIV control that may have contributed to the development and relapses of MS in this patient are discussed. PMID:25801686
F. Karam; Mbow, F; Fletcher, H; Senghor, CS; Coulibaly, KD; LeFevre, AM; Ngom Gueye, NF; Dieye, T.; Sow, PS; Mboup, S.; Lienhardt, C.
BACKGROUND: Detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in HIV infected individuals is strongly recommended to decrease morbidity and mortality in countries with high levels of HIV. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a newly developed in-house ELISPOT interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for the detection of LTBI amongst HIV infected individuals, in comparison with the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESAT6/CFP10 (EC) ELISPOT assays were performed, toge...
Gandhi, Rajesh T; O'Neill, David; Bosch, Ronald J; Chan, Ellen S; Bucy, R. Pat; Shopis, Janet; Baglyos, Lynn; ADAMS, ELIZABETH; Fox, Lawrence; Purdue, Lynette; Marshak, Ann; Flynn, Theresa; Masih, Reena; Schock, Barbara; Mildvan, Donna
Targeting canarypox (CP)-HIV vaccine to dendritic cells (DCs) elicits anti-HIV-1 immune responses in vitro. We conducted a phase I/II clinical trial to evaluate whether adding DC to a CP-HIV vaccine improved virologic control during analytic treatment interruption (ATI) in HIV-1-infected subjects. Twenty-nine subjects on suppressive antiretroviral therapy were randomized to vaccination with autologous DCs infected with CP-HIV + keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) (arm A, n = 14) or CP-HIV + KLH a...
Collins, Intira Jeannie; Cairns, John; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Sirirungsi, Wasna; Leechanachai, Pranee; Le Coeur, Sophie; Samleerat, Tanawan; Kamonpakorn, Nareerat; Mekmullica, Jutarat; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc
Background: HIV-infected infants have high risk of death in the first two years of life if untreated. WHO guidelines recommend early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) of all HIV-exposed infants and immediate antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children under 24-months. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in HIV-exposed non-breastfed children in Thailand. Methods: A decision analytic model of HIV diagnosis and disease progression compared: EID using DNA PCR with immediate ART...
Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert
Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...
Richterman, Aaron; Blumberg, Emily
Solid organ transplantation is now the standard of care for many HIV-infected patients with end-stage kidney or liver disease. There is an overall organ shortage that affects all transplant candidates, including those with HIV. The use of HIV-infected donors could help alleviate this shortage. The precedent for this approach was set in South Africa, where promising short-term outcomes have been reported in a limited number of HIV-infected recipients of kidney transplants from HIV-infected donors. As a consequence, the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) Act was passed in the United States, legalizing research into HIV-infected organ donation. In this review, we discuss some of the key issues related to HIV-infected organ donation, including the need for transplant in HIV-infected populations, characterization of the potential donor pool in the USA, criteria for donor selection, concerns specific to the HIV-infected donor, the ethics of HIV-infected organ donation, and the next steps toward making HIV-infected donation a reality in the USA. PMID:25870139
Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.
Grunseit, A C; Perdices, M; Dunbar, N; Cooper, D A
There have been conflicting reports as to whether significant neuropsychological deterioration occurs in asymptomatic HIV-1 infection. Comparisons among studies have been hindered by substantial variations in sample size, statistical methods, definitions of neuropsychological abnormality, and attention to potential confounding factors. In this study, the neuropsychological performance of 44 subjects with asymptomatic HIV-1 infection and 41 seronegative (SN) controls was compared using analysis of variance models. Rates of abnormality were also determined using commonly employed impairment criteria. The seropositive (SP) subjects performed comparably to SN controls once differences in full scale IQ were taken into account. Rates of abnormality for HIV-1 SP subjects were estimated at 10%, 17.5%, and 67.5% by three different criteria, and were not significantly different from the rates of the control group. The findings indicated that both premorbid characteristics, and the validity and biases of definitions of impairment should be examined and incorporated into the interpretation of study findings. PMID:7890823
Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W
In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population. High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other, sometimes less well understood, mechanisms, has been linked to increased CVD risk. HIV infection, especially untreated, is a further contributing factor to increased CVD risk in HIV-positive patients. As the HIV-positive population continues to age, the risk of CVD will continue to increase. Guidelines for the management and prevention of CVD risk have been developed, and are largely modelled on those used in the general population. However, the data currently suggest that these interventions, such as the use of lipid-lowering medications and smoking cessation programs, remain quite low. A better understanding the mechanisms of CVD risk in this aging population and further efforts in improving uptake of prevention strategies will remain an important research area.
Full Text Available Abstract Prognosis for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Evidence over recent years suggests that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in HIV patients. The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a cheap and easy test that has been validated in the general population. Abnormal ABI values are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. To date, six series of ABI values in persons with HIV have been published, but none was a prospective study. No agreement exists concerning the risk factors for an abnormal ABI, though its prevalence is clearly higher in these patients than in the general population. Whether this higher prevalence of an abnormal ABI is associated with a higher incidence of vascular events remains to be determined.
Vranda, M. N.; Mothi, S.N.
The chronic medical conditions in the paediatric population pose a range of potential psychosocial challenges not only to the child, but also to the family members and health care providers. This paper comprehensively reviews the psychosocial issues of children infected with HIV and AIDS and offer some of the strategies to address the issues comprehensively by multidisciplinary team.
D, Moyo; G, Tanthuma; O, Mushisha; G, Kwadiba; F, Chikuse; M S, Cary; A P, Steenhoff; M J A, Reid.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little in the literature on HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at 4 sites. Each HIV [...] -infected patient with DM (n=48) was matched with 2 HIV-infected controls (n=108) by age (±2 years) and sex. Primary analysis was conditional logistic regression to estimate univariate odds and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each characteristic. RESULTS: There was no significant association between co-morbid diseases, tuberculosis, hypertension or cancer and risk of diabetes. DM patients were more likely to have higher pre-ART weight (odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.14). HIV-infected adults >70 kg were significantly more likely to have DM (OR 12.30; 95% CI 1.40 - 107.98). Participants receiving efavirenz (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.44 - 14.57) or protease inhibitor therapy (OR 20.7; 95% CI 1.79 - 240.02) were more likely to have DM. Neither mean pre-ART CD4 cell count (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.99 - 1.01) nor pre-ART viral load >100 000 copies/ml (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.21 - 2.43) were associated with a significant risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a complex interrelation among traditional host factors and treatment-related metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of DM inpatients receiving ART. Notably, pre-ART weight, particularly if >70 kg, is associated with the diagnosis of diabetes in HIV-infected patients in Botswana.
Anggorowati, Nungki; Yano, Yoshihiko; Subronto, Yanri Wijayanti; Utsumi, Takako; Heriyanto, Didik Setyo; Mulya, Deshinta Putri; Rinonce, Hanggoro Tri; Widasari, Dewiyani Indah; Lusida, Maria Inge; Soetjipto; Hayashi, Yoshitake
GB virus C (GBV-C), a human virus of the Flaviviridae family that is structurally and epidemiologically closest to hepatitis C virus (HCV), has been reported to confer beneficial outcomes in HIV-positive patients. However, the prevalence of GBV-C in HIV-positive individuals in Indonesia is unknown. Since GBV-C is more prevalent in anti-HCV positive patients than in anti-HCV negative subjects, transmission of GBV-C and HCV could be by the same method. This study examined the prevalence and molecular characteristics of GBV-C infection in HIV patients in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The prevalence of GBV-C among HIV patients (n = 125, median age 31 years) based on the 5'UTR region was 111/125 (88.8%), including 39/48 (81.3%) and 72/77 (93.5%) HIV-infected patients with and without HCV infection, respectively. GBV-C isolates were of genotype 2a, 3 and 6 in 58.3%, 12.6% and 28.4% of patients, respectively. Patients with genotype 3 were significantly younger than those with genotypes 2a or 6 (P = 0.001 and P = 0.012, respectively). Genotypes 3 and 6 were significantly associated with injection drug use (P = 0.004 and P = 0.002, respectively) and HCV co-infection (P < 0.001 for both genotypes), indicating a shared transmission route with HCV. In conclusion, the prevalence of GBV-C among HIV-positive patients in Indonesia is high, and three genotypes were detected, namely genotype 2a, 3 and 6. PMID:23590588
Stanton, Cassandra A; Moadel, Alyson B; Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Shuter, Jonathan
Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, "other or unknown" HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness, whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196
Palepu, Anita; Milloy, M-J.; Kerr, Thomas; ZHANG, Ruth; WOOD, Evan
Homelessness is prevalent among HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU) and may adversely affect access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There are limited descriptions of the effect of homelessness on adherence to ART in long-term cohorts of HIV-infected IDU. We used data from a community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-infected IDU, including comprehensive ART dispensation records, in a setting where HIV care is free. We examined the relationship between the homelessness me...
Beau K. Nakamoto; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kalpana J. Kallianpur; Chow, Dominic C; Valcour, Victor G; Robert H Paul; Marotz, Liron; Thompson, Paul M.; Shikuma, Cecilia M.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infecte...
de Gourville, EM; Mabey, D; QUIGLEY, M.; Jack, N; Mahabir, B
Risk factors for HIV infection in partners of HIV-seropositive index cases were investigated in a cross-sectional survey. Between September 1992 and April 1994 a total of 251 HIV-infected persons and 76 of their sexual partners were interviewed at the main sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) clinic in Trinidad. All participants gave signed consent and responded to a questionnaire. Sixty-four couples had risks for HIV infection through heterosexual intercourse only. However, many recruited se...
BACKGROUND: The introduction of HAART has decreased mortality and progression to AIDS in perinatally HIV-1-infected children, but information on modification of the rate of specific clinical events is limited. METHOD: An observational population study on changes in HIV-1-related morbidity was conducted on 1402 perinatally HIV-1-infected children enrolled in the Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children and prospectively followed in the pre-HAART (1985-1995) and post-HAART periods (1996-2...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
Sathekge, Mike; Maes, Alex; Van de Wiele, Christophe
The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have global prevalence with devastating morbidity and massive mortality. Using FDG-PET imaging it was shown that in HIV-infected individuals, involvement of the head and neck precedes that of the chest and of the abdomen. The sequence of lymph node involvement observed suggests the existence of a diffusible activation mediator that may be targeted via therapeutic intervention strategies. Furthermore, the degree of FDG uptake proved directly related to viral load and inversely related to CD4 cell count. Available data in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers further suggest that FDG-PET/CT imaging may be useful for prognostication of cervical cancer and for identifying appropriate sites for biopsy, staging, and monitoring lymphoproliferative activity owing to HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and multicentric Castleman disease. Inversely, in HIV-associated lymphoma, FDG uptake in HIV-involved lymphoid tissue was shown to reduce the specificity of FDG-PET imaging findings, the effect of which in clinical practice warrants further investigation. In the latter setting, knowledge of viremia appears to be essential for FDG-PET image interpretation. Early HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, formerly known as AIDS dementia complex, proved to be characterized by striatal hypermetabolism and progressive HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or AIDS dementia complex by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected individuals, lipodystrophy proved associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue, likely resulting from the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, ongoing chronic low-grade infection in arteries of HIV-infected individuals could be depicted by FDG-PET/CT imaging. And there is promising data that FDG-PET/CT in HIV may serve as a new marker for the evaluation of thymic function in HIV-infected patients. In the setting of TB, FDG-PET has proven unable to differentiate malignancy from TB in patients presenting with solitary pulmonary nodules, including those suffering from HIV, and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy or thoracotomy in these patients. In patients presenting with extrapulmonary TB, FDG-PET imaging was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT for the identification of more sites of involvement. Thus supporting that FDG-PET/CT can demonstrate lesion extent, serve as guide for biopsy with aspiration for culture, assist surgery planning and contribute to follow-up. Limited available data suggest that quantitative FDG-PET findings may allow for prediction or rapid assessment, at 4 months following treatment instigation, of response to antituberculostatics in TB-infected HIV patients. These results and more recent findings suggest a role for FDG-PET/CT imaging in the evaluation of therapeutic response in TB patients. PMID:23905617
Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.
Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.
Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mckay, Mary M.; Abrams, Elaine J.
As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (PHIV?) youth over time. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. Individual interviews were administered at baseline and 18-month follow-up to 166 PHIV+ and 114 PHIV-youth (49% male, age 9–16 at baseline). Youth psychiatric disorder was assessed using the caregiver and youth versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Over two-thirds of participants met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at either baseline or follow-up, with few group differences. Among PHIV+ youth, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder, as well as anxiety disorders specifically over time, while prevalence of any psychiatric disorder among PHIV? youth remained the same and mood disorders increased. Rates of SUD were low in both groups, increasing slightly by follow-up. PHIV+ youth reported more use of mental health services at follow-up. CD4 count and HIV RNA Viral Load were not associated with presence or absence of disorder at either time point. In conclusion, among PHIV+ and PHIV? youth, rates of psychiatric disorder were high, even compared to other vulnerable populations, suggesting that factors other than perinatal HIV infection may be important determinants of mental health. PHIV+ youth were more likely to improve over the observation period. The data underscore the critical need for mental health interventions for both PHIV+ and PHIV? youth. PMID:22519762
Janocko, Laura; Althouse, Andrew D; Brand, Rhonda M; Cranston, Ross D; McGowan, Ian
The ex vivo mucosal explant model is frequently used to test the efficacy of microbicides that have the potential for preventing HIV-1 transmission. The conventional assessment of product efficacy has been the extent of HIV-1 p24 suppression in supernatant fluids sampled up to day 14 after HIV-1 challenge ex vivo. The purpose of this study was to determine if measurement of HIV-1 nucleic acids by real-time PCR and HIV-1 integration by Alu-gag PCR provides advantages with regard to monitoring HIV-1 infection in explants. Rectal biopsies from HIV-1-negative individuals were challenged with 1?×?10(5) virions/ml of HIV-1BaL or HIV-1CH077 ex vivo. HIV-1 RNA and HIV-1 p24 in supernatant fluids and HIV-1 nucleic acids and integrated provirus in individual biopsies were measured at days 1-14 after infection. HIV-1 RNA and proviral DNA were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) while integrated virus was detected by Alu-gag PCR. Real-time PCR assays detecting HIV-1 DNA and RNA performed similarly provided that the infecting virus sequences were a good match with the sequences of the assay primers and probes. Increased HIV-1 nucleic acid levels and DNA integration were measurable on days 11 and 14 after infection. The magnitude of explant infection was similar after challenge with HIV-1BaL and HIV-1CH077, although the trajectory of infection was delayed in the HIV-1CH077-infected biopsies. In the majority of experiments, qRT-PCR did not appreciably shorten the time necessary to detect evidence of HIV-1 infection. PMID:26214703
Swordy, Alice; Mori, Luisa; Laker, Leana; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Matthews, Philippa C.; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Lavandier, Nora; van Zyl, Anriette; Hurst, Jacob; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Prendergast, Andrew; Goulder, Philip; Jooste, Pieter
The incidence and severity of infections in childhood is typically greater in males. The basis for these observed sex differences is not well understood, and potentially may facilitate novel approaches to reducing disease from a range of conditions. We here investigated sex differences in HIV-infected children in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and post-treatment outcome. In a South African cohort of 2,101 HIV-infected children, we observed that absolute CD4+ count and CD4% were significantly higher in ART-naïve female, compared to age-matched male, HIV-infected children. Absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in HIV-uninfected female versus male neonates. We next showed that significantly more male than female children were initiated on ART (47% female); and children not meeting criteria to start ART by >5yrs were more frequently female (59%; pART-treated children, immune reconstitution of CD4 T-cells was more rapid and more complete in female children, even after adjustment for pre-ART absolute CD4 count or CD4% (p=0.011, p=0.030, respectively). However, while ART was initiated as a result of meeting CD4 criteria less often in females (45%), ART initiation as a result of clinical disease in children whose CD4 counts were above treatment thresholds occurred more often in females (57%, psex difference in morbidity observed in children initiating ART above CD4 thresholds, above that of TB disease, was as a result of wasting and stunting observed in females with above-threshold CD4 counts (p=0.002). These findings suggest the possibility that optimal treatment of HIV-infected children might incorporate differential CD4 treatment thresholds for ART initiation according to sex. PMID:26151555
Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.
Gray, Katherine D.; Cunningham, Coleen K; Clifton, Dana C; Afwamba, Isaac A.; Mushi, Godfrey S.; Msuya, Levina J; John A. Crump; Buchanan, Ann M
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a common cause of bloodstream infections among HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We found no cases of mycobacteremia among 93 ill, HIV-infected children in northern Tanzania, despite optimization of laboratory methods and selection of patients thought to be at highest risk for disseminated infection.
Bhatt Nilesh; Tanuri Amilcar; Abreu Celina; Curvo Raphael; Walle Carla; Ismael Nalia; Meggi Bindiya; Costa Deise; Maueia Cremildo; Jani Ilesh V; Ferreira Orlando C
Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. H...
Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.
The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.
Zorzenon Dos Santos, Rita Maria; Coutinho, Sérgio
We use a cellular automata model to study the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the onset of acquired innumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The model takes into account the global features of the immune response to any pathogen, the fast mutation rate of the HIV, and a fair amount of spatial localization, which may occur in the lymph nodes. Our results reproduce the three-phase pattern observed in T cell and virus counts of infected patients, namely, the primary response, the clinical latency period, and the onset of AIDS. The dynamics of real experimental data is related to the transient behavior of our model and not to its steady state. We have also found that the infected cells organize themselves into spatial structures, which are responsible for the decrease on the concentration of uninfected cells, leading to AIDS.
Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S
Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p <0.005). Cell-associated HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA (p <0.02). However, when HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p <0.05). The interplay between HIV RNA and DNA levels is discussed, together with the possibility that cell-associated HIV DNA load is a marker of the HIV RNA peak seen shortly after primary HIV infection.
Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To identify and primarily characterize the elite controllers (EC in Moscow Regional HIV Living People Cohort (Russia. Methods: 2682 HIV-1-positive individuals with A1 (asymptomatic stage of HIV infection were under regular physician observation continuously for at least 5 years. Verification antibody testing was performed with “New Love Blot” and “Autoblot 2000” (Biorad. Patients underwent scheduled HIV viral load and T-lymphocyte subpopulation measurement (twice a year and did not have indications to HAART (viral load less then 5 log10/ml, CD4+ counts more then 500 cells/mm3. HIV viral load was detected by PCR m2000rt Abbott Biosystems analyzer, “RealTime HIV-1” sets with 20 copies per ml sensitivity and major subpopulation of T-lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometer BD FACSCount, sets of antibodies ÑD3/CD4/CD8/CD45 . Summary of results: Average log10 viral load was defined in each patient for 5-year period, and the distribution appeared to have a bimodal character (Figure 1. 106 EC were primarily identified as having average viral load less then 1.7 log10 (50 HIV copies/ml.The incidence of EC appeared to be 3.95% (95% CI: 3.2%; 4.7% of population with A1 (asymptomatic disease with no indications to HAART, that corresponds to literary data . Belonging to EC was then proved by laboratory dynamics. In EC 3 types of viral load dynamics were identified: 1 absence of detectable viremia, 2 single spikes, 3 episodic temporary elevation(s (at mean 500-900 copies lasting half a year. All these emphasize the control of virus. In EC 3 types of ÑD4+ T-lymphocyte dynamics were defined: 1 CD4+ elevation (in case beginning from the acute stage of the disease, 2 stable ÑD4+ cells, 3 CD4+ cell depletion with very small velocity. 12 EC had “minimal change disease” defined additionally by the absence or trace appearance of pol 68/66, 52/51, 34/31 antibodies (Table 1 and non-detectable PCR levels in all measurements. These represent 11.32% (95% CI: 5.17%; 17.47% from EC and 0.45% (95% CI: 0.19%; 0.71% from population with A1 (asymptomatic HIV-disease. Conclusions: Among EC patients with “minimal change disease” were identified. They may represent: (i primarily persistent HIV infection (with reduced productive cycle, (ii low dose (localized HIV-infection, (iii rare successful immune-mediated elimination of HIV that could be the model for novel elimination strategies.
Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H
Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728
Landau, Steven; Pryor, John B.; Haefli, Katrine
In response to the rising number of adolescents and infants who are infected with HIV, school psychologists must become experts in issues pertaining to pediatric HIV/AIDS. This article describes medical consequences of HIV and psychosocial sequalea. Discusses recommendations for school-based AIDS-education programs designed to prevent HIV…
Edgardo G. Bottaro
Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors. We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.
Yehia, Baligh R; Stephens-Shield, Alisa J; Momplaisir, Florence; Taylor, Lynne; Gross, Robert; Dubé, Benoit; Glanz, Karen; Brady, Kathleen A
Improving outcomes for people with HIV and mental illness will be critical to meeting the goals of the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy. In a retrospective analysis of the 2008-2010 cycles of the locally representative Philadelphia Medical Monitoring Project, we compared the proportions of HIV-infected adults with and without mental illness: (1) retained in care (?2 primary HIV visits separated by ?90 days in a 12-month period); (2) prescribed antiretroviral therapy (ART) at any point in a 12-month period; and (3) virally suppressed (HIV-1 RNA ?200 copies/mL at the last measure in the 12-month period). Multivariable regression assessed associations between mental illness and the outcomes, adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance, alcohol abuse, injection drug use, CD4 count, and calendar year. Of 730 HIV-infected persons, representative of 9409 persons in care for HIV in Philadelphia, 49.0 % had mental illness. In adjusted analyses, there were no significant differences in retention (91.3 vs. 90.3 %; AOR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63-2.56) and prescription of ART (83.2 vs. 88.7 %; AOR 0.79, 95 % CI 0.49-1.25) between those with and without mental illness. However, mentally ill patients were less likely to achieve viral suppression than those without mental illness (65.9 vs. 74.4 %; AOR 0.64, 95 % CI 0.46-0.90). These findings argue for the need to optimize ART adherence in this population. PMID:25931243
Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas
Background: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. Methods: Patients with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interferon gamma (IFN-?), and IFN-?-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). Results: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas patient 2 initiated HCV therapy and remained HCV RNA-negative. Available plasma samples obtained before and after the episode with undetectable HCV RNA were phylogenetically identical, making the possibility of spontaneous clearance and HCV reinfection less likely. The IL-10, TNF-?, and IP-10 levels increased at the time of syphilis diagnosis in patient 1 and decreased again after treatment of the syphilis infection. Conclusions: We propose that T. pallidum-induced cytokine secretion resulted in an immune response hindering HCV replication during syphilis infection. We suggest that HIV/HCV-co-infected patients with unexpected undetectable HCV RNA are tested for syphilis infection and that the serological tests include both non-treponemal and treponemal tests to avoid false-positive results caused by HCV.
P., Monteiro; D.B., Miranda-Filho; F., Bandeira; H.R., Lacerda; H., Chaves; M.F.P.M., Albuquerque; U.R., Montarroyos; R.A.A., Ximenes.
Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiova [...] scular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count
Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)
It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)
It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)
Marcos Almeida Matos
Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.
Huber, Kelly; Doyon, Geneviève; Plaks, Joseph; Fyne, Elizabeth; Mellors, John W.; Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas
Deacetylation of histone proteins at the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) by histone deactylases (HDACs) can promote transcriptional repression and virus latency. As such, HDAC inhibitors (HDACI) could be used to deplete reservoirs of persistent, quiescent HIV-1 proviral infection. However, the development of HDACI to purge latent HIV-1 requires knowledge of the HDAC isoforms contributing to viral latency and the development of inhibitors specific to these isoforms. In this study...
Raghuprakash Reddy; Manoranjan Midde; Gerardo Alvarez-Uria; Naik, Praveen K.; Shanmugamari Kannan
With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at age less than one year in a rural setting of India. The HIV rapid test was negative in seven and indeterminate in two cases, whereas the HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test was negat...
Roberts, Kathleen Johnston
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine, from the perspectives of both HIV-infected children and such children's primary guardians, the barriers children face in adhering to combination antiretroviral therapies. Nine HIV-infected young children and 14 guardians of HIV-positive children were interviewed about what the children's lives…
Vitoria, María Asunción; González-Domínguez, María; Salvo, Soledad; Crusells, María José; Letona, Santiago; Samper, Sofía; Sanjoaquín, Isabel
Highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients may trigger the onset of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Among HIV patients with IRIS, infections are commonly due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria. We report the first case in Spain and the second in Europe of Mycobacterium simiae pulmonary infection unmasked during immune reconstitution in an HIV patient. PMID:23040511
Park, Eun Kyoung; Cho, Heerim; Lee, Sun hee; Lee, Seung Geun; Lee, Sang Yeup; Kim, Ki Hyung; Lee, Chang Hun; Chung, Joo Seop; Kwak, Ihm Soo
The epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women in Korea is not well established. A retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence and genotype distribution of HPV infection among HIV-infected women in Korea. HPV DNA genotype and cervical cytology were examined in 60 HIV-positive women and 1,938 HIV-negative women. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip. HIV-infected women had higher prevalence of high-risk HPV...
H S, Schaaf; M F, Cotton; G P G, Boon; P M, Jeena.
Full Text Available Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in immunocompetent children [...] sk for TB in HIV-infected children, especially when started early in infancy. In HIV-infected children, as in HIV-uninfected children, we recommend post-exposure IPT after each TB exposure episode; but in HIV-infected children, this should be given irrespective of age or antiretroviral therapy. However, evidence for routine IPT without known exposure to TB in HIV-infected children is not convincing and is therefore not recommended.
Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their ts (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)
Sohn, Annette H.; Rohan Hazra
The global paediatric HIV epidemic is shifting into a new phase as children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) move into adolescence and adulthood, and face new challenges of living with HIV. UNAIDS reports that 3.4 million children aged below 15 years and 2 million adolescents aged between 10 and 19 years have HIV. Although the vast majority of children were perinatally infected, older children are combined with behaviourally infected adolescents and youth in global reporting, making it difficu...
Kristina Krohn; Luisa Pessoa-Brandão; Ann O'Fallon; Brett Hendel-Paterson; Kailey Nelson; Blain Mamo; Glenise Johnson; Lowther, Sara A.; William Stauffer
In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97%) were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–...
Braga Eduardo Lorens; Lyra André Castro; Ney-Oliveira Fabrizio; Nascimento Lourianne; Silva Adriano; Brites Carlos; Marbak Rosicreuza; Lyra Luiz Guilherme Costa; Ribeiro Neto Manuel L.; Shah Koonj Asvin
Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i)...
JUNIASTUTI,; Utsumi, Takako; NASRONUDIN,; ALIMSARDJONO, LINDAWATI; AMIN, MOCHAMAD; Adianti, Myrna; Yano, Yoshihiko; SOETJIPTO; HAYASHI, YOSHITAKE; HOTTA, HAK; LUSIDA, MARIA INGE
Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant global health problem. The two viruses are transmitted with high efficacy via blood-to-blood contact, mainly intravenous drug use (IVDU), whereas HCV is less easily transmitted sexually. Antibody testing is the main screening method for HCV infection, although it may not be the optimal option for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate HCV infection in HIV-positive patients, with ...
Schneider, T.; Zippel, T; Schmidt, W.; Pauli, G.; Wahnschaffe, U; Chakravarti, S.; Heise, W; Riecken, E; Zeitz, M; Ullrich, R.
Background—Secretory immunity is a major defence mechanism against infections at mucosal surfaces which are common in HIV infected patients. ?Aims—To analyse intestinal immunoglobulin production in HIV infection in comparison with that in saliva and serum. ?Patients and methods—Immunoglobulin G (IgG), A (IgA), and M (IgM) concentrations were determined in supernatants of short term cultured duodenal biopsy samples, serum, and saliva from HIV infected patients (n = 28) and co...
Tandon, Ravi; Giret, Maria T. M.; SenGupta, Devi; York, Vanessa A.; Wiznia, Andrew A; Rosenberg, Michael G; Kallas, Esper G.; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Nixon, Douglas F.
As perinatally HIV-1-infected children grow into adolescents and young adults, they are increasingly burdened with the long-term consequences of chronic HIV-1 infection, with long-term morbidity due to inadequate immunity. In progressive HIV-1 infection in horizontally infected adults, inflammation, T cell activation, and perturbed T cell differentiation lead to an “immune exhaustion”, with decline in T cell effector functions. T effector cells develop an increased expression of CD57 and loss...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of an algorithm used by primary care health workers to identify children with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This HIV algorithm is being implemented in South Africa as part of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI, a strategy that aims to improve childhood morbidity and mortality by improving care at the primary care level. As AIDS is a leading cause of death in children in southern Africa, diagnosis and management of symptomatic HIV infection was added to the existing IMCI algorithm. METHODS: In total, 690 children who attended the outpatients department in a district hospital in South Africa were assessed with the HIV algorithm and by a paediatrician. All children were then tested for HIV viral load. The validity of the algorithm in detecting symptomatic HIV was compared with clinical diagnosis by a paediatrician and the result of an HIV test. Detailed clinical data were used to improve the algorithm. FINDINGS: Overall, 198 (28.7% enrolled children were infected with HIV. The paediatrician correctly identified 142 (71.7% children infected with HIV, whereas the IMCI/HIV algorithm identified 111 (56.1%. Odds ratios were calculated to identify predictors of HIV infection and used to develop an improved HIV algorithm that is 67.2% sensitive and 81.5% specific in clinically detecting HIV infection. CONCLUSIONS: Children with symptomatic HIV infection can be identified effectively by primary level health workers through the use of an algorithm. The improved HIV algorithm developed in this study could be used by countries with high prevalences of HIV to enable IMCI practitioners to identify and care for HIV-infected children.
van Soolingen Dick
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem and HIV is the major cause of the increase in TB. Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for both TB and HIV infection. Determination of the prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains and their drug susceptibility is important for TB control. TB positive culture, BAL fluid or sputum samples from 130 patients were collected and genotyped. The spoligotypes were correlated with anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility in HIV-infected and non-HIV patients from Tanzania. Results One-third of patients were TB/HIV co-infected. Forty-seven spoligotypes were identified. Fourteen isolates (10.8% had new and unique spoligotypes while 116 isolates (89.2% belonged to 33 known spoligotypes. The major spoligotypes contained nine clusters: CAS1-Kili 30.0%, LAM11- ZWE 14.6%, ND 9.2%, EAI 6.2%, Beijing 5.4%, T-undefined 4.6%, CAS1-Delhi 3.8%, T1 3.8% and LAM9 3.8%. Twelve (10.8% of the 111 phenotypically tested strains were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Eight (7.2% were monoresistant strains: 7 to isoniazid (INH and one to streptomycin. Four strains (3.5% were resistant to multiple drugs: one (0.9% was resistant to INH and streptomycin and the other three (2.7% were MDR strains: one was resistant to INH, rifampicin and ethambutol and two were resistant to all four anti-TB drugs. Mutation in the katG gene codon 315 and the rpoB hotspot region showed a low and high sensitivity, respectively, as predictor of phenotypic drug resistance. Conclusion CAS1-Kili and LAM11-ZWE were the most common families. Strains of the Beijing family and CAS1-Kili were not or least often associated with resistance, respectively. HIV status was not associated with spoligotypes, resistance or previous TB treatment.
Golpe Gómez, R; Cifrián Martínez, J M; Fernández Rozas, S M; García Pérez, M M; Mons Lera, R; Jiménez Gómez, A
Spontaneous pneumothorax is a relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Seven hundred sixty-five HIV-infected inpatients were treated at Marques de Valdecilla University Hospital between 1990 and 1996. Spontaneous pneumothorax developed in 9 patients. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia was diagnosed in 6 patients (66%), either before or simultaneous to the appearance of pneumothorax. Pneumothorax was related to active or old tuberculosis infection in 3 patients (33%). Prophylactic therapy with nebulized pentamidine was used in 55% of the patients. Successful initial control of pneumothorax was achieved with simple drains in 58% of the episodes, although the recurrence rate was 71%. Pleurodesis with talcum with a chest tube was used successfully in 3 patients, in 2 because of sings of persistent air leakage uncorrected by simple drainage. Pleurodesis initially failed but later controlled pneumothorax the second time it was used. The mortality rate in this series was 66%, with a mean survival time of 55.6 days. We conclude that spontaneous pneumothorax is associated with poor prognosis in HIV infected patients. Prior or concurrent P. carinni pneumonia or tuberculosis were the etiologic factors identified in our patients. A simple pleural drain was associated with a high rate of recurrence, such that pleurodesis seems warranted in all patients. PMID:9611652
Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that the host range of primate lentiviruses is in part determined by their ability to counteract innate restriction factors that are effectors of the type 1 interferon (IFN-1 response. For HIV-1, in vitro experiments have shown that its tropism may be narrow and limited to humans and chimpanzees because its replication in other nonhuman primate species is hindered by factors such as TRIM5?, APOBEC3G, and Tetherin. Based on these data, it has been hypothesized that primate lentiviruses will infect and replicate in a new species if they are able to counteract and evade suppression by the IFN-1 response. Several studies have tested whether engineering HIV-1 recombinants with minimal amounts of SIV sequences would enable replication in CD4+ T-cells of non-natural hosts such as Asian macaques and proposed that infection of these macaque species could be used to study transmission and pathogenesis. Indeed, infection of macaques with these viruses revealed that Vif-mediated counteraction of APOBEC3G function is central to cross-species tropism but that other IFN-induced factors may also play important roles in controlling replication. Further studies of these macaque models of infection with HIV-1 derivatives could provide valuable insights into the interaction of lentiviruses and the innate immune response and how lentiviruses adapt and cause disease.
Miranda, A.; Fernandes, D; Peres, S.; Q Biague; R. Salvado; Faria, M; Mansinho, K.
Comparison of hospital admission causes for previously known (group A) and HIV-infected patients diagnosed during in-ward stay (group B), from 2009 to 2011. Retrospective evaluation of demographic, epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic and treatment parameters at time of admission. 1167 patients were admitted; of those 617 (52,9%) were HIV-infected: 92% HIV-1 and 8% HIV-2. 83% had previously known HIV infection and 15% were diagnosed during hospital stay (missing data in 2%). 66% we...
Andersson, M.I.; Maponga, T.G.; Ijaz, S.; Barnes, J.; Theron, G.B.; Meredith, S.A.; Preiser, W.; Tedder, R. S.
•HIV-infected pregnant women have evidence of HBV escape compared to uninfected women.•One in six HBV-infected pregnant women is HBeAg seropositive, regardless of HIV status.•These data support the call to implement a birth dose of HBV vaccine.
Brackis-Cott, Elizabeth; Kang, Ezer; Dolezal, Curtis; ABRAMS, Elaine J.; Mellins, Claude Ann
Perinatally HIV-infected youths are reaching adolescence in large numbers. Little is known about their cognitive functioning. This study aims to describe and compare the receptive language ability, word recognition skills, and school functioning of older school-aged children and adolescents perinatally HIV infected (HIV-positive) and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected (seroreverters; HIV-negative). Participants included 340 youths (206 HIV-positive, 134 HIV-negative), 9–16 years old, and ...
Sandler, Netanya G; Wand, Handan
Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with intestinal permeability and microbial translocation that contributes to systemic immune activation, which is an independent predictor of HIV disease progression. The association of microbial translocation with clinical outcome remains unknown.
... Most adults are already protected because they got MMR vaccine or were infected with measles, mumps, and rubella ... this vaccine.* Hepatitis A (HepA) Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) ... [polysaccharide vaccine]; PCV13 [conjugate vaccine]) Tetanus, diph theria, whooping cough ( ...
This essay discusses the rationale for targeting HIV prevention programs to the general public, as opposed to focusing strictly on high-risk populations. The author first considers varying definitions of the term "general public," then explains the goal of general public education programs. Additionally, the author lays down the theoretical foundations of general audience education programs and weights related research findings. Finally, he offers recommendations for future practice. Noting the complex socioecological elements involved in health behavior, the author argues in favor of a broad definition for the general public. This broad outlook allows programs to still target high-risk population while not bypassing low-risk persons, who are sometimes treated as irrelevant because they do not contribute to excess morbidity or mortality. When it comes to HIV educational programs for the general public, their goals should be to instruct the public on how the virus is transmitted, to allay unfounded fears, and to increase the level of support for AIDS prevention and control. Such a program would require a theoretical basis drawn from multiple sources: health education, health communication, clinical and social psychology, and social marketing. The author concludes by proving recommendations designed to reinforce existing programs: 1) strengthen efforts to ensure that all people are educated about HIV and to encourage people to treat AIDS patients with compassion; 2) continue to explore for the most effective communication channels; 3) strengthen the communication infrastructure for those who are disenfranchised from health education; and 4) strengthen evaluation efforts of health communication programs. PMID:12317020
Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan
BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS: In a Danish, nationwide, population-based cohort study (1995-2011), incidences of cancer were compared between an HIV-infected cohort and a population-based matched cohort in analyses stratified on cancer category, smoking status and for HIV patients: low CD4 cell count. RESULTS: We included 3503 HIV patients [baseline CD4 450?cells/?l (inter-quartile range 310-630)] and 12?979 population controls. Smoking-related and virological cancers accounted for 23 and 43% of cancers in the HIV-infected population. The risk of these cancers were higher among HIV patients compared to controls [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-4.9; and IRR 11.5, 95% CI 6.5-20.5], whereas the risk of other cancers did not differ (IRR 1.0, 95% CI 0.7-1.3). Non-smoking HIV patients did not have increased risk of non-virological cancers compared to non-smoking controls (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.1). The PAFs of cancer associated with smoking and with being HIV-infected were 27 and 49%, respectively. For cancers not strongly related to smoking or viral infections, the PAFs associated with being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency were 0%. CONCLUSION: The risk of cancer is increased in HIV patients compared to the background population. In absence of smoking, the increase in risk is confined to cancers related to viral infections, whereas the risk of other cancers is not elevated and does not seem to be associated with immune deficiency.
Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.
Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec
OBJECTIVE: Estimates of healthcare costs associated with HIV infection would provide valuable insight for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of possible prevention interventions. We evaluate the additional lifetime healthcare cost incurred due to living with HIV. METHODS: We used a stochastic computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain as now. RESULTS: Based on a median (interquartile range) life expectancy of 71.5 (45.0-81.5) years for MSM in such a setting, the estimated mean lifetime cost of treating one person was £ 360,800 ($567,000 or € 480,000). With 3.5% discounting, it was £ 185,200 ($291,000 or € 246,000). The largest proportion (68%) of these costs was attributed to antiretroviral drugs. If patented drugs are replaced by generic versions (at 20% cost of patented prices), estimated mean lifetime costs reduced to £ 179,000 ($ 281,000 or € 238,000) and £ 101,200 ($ 158,900 or € 134,600) discounted. CONCLUSIONS: If 3,000 MSM had been infected in 2013, then future lifetime costs relating to HIV care is likely to be in excess of £ 1 billion. It is imperative for investment into prevention programmes to be continued or scaled-up in settings with good access to HIV care services. Costs would be reduced considerably with use of generic antiretroviral drugs.
Mellins, Claude A; Elkington, Katherine S; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mckay, Mary M; Abrams, Elaine J
As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV +) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing the changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in PHIV + and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (PHIV -) youth over time. Participants were recruited from four medical centers in New York City. Individual interviews were administered at baseline and 18-month follow-up to 166 PHIV + and 114 PHIV- youth (49% male, age 9-16 years at baseline). Youth psychiatric disorder was assessed using the caregiver and youth versions of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Over two-thirds of participants met criteria for at least one psychiatric disorder at either baseline or follow-up, with few group differences. Among PHIV + youth, there was a significant decrease in the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder, as well as anxiety disorders specifically over time, whereas the prevalence of any psychiatric disorder among PHIV- youth remained the same and mood disorders increased. Rates of SUD were low in both groups, increasing slightly by follow-up. PHIV + youth reported more use of mental health services at follow-up. CD4 count and HIV RNA viral load were not associated with the presence or absence of disorder at either time point. In conclusion, among PHIV + and PHIV- youth, the rates of psychiatric disorder were high, even compared to other vulnerable populations, suggesting that factors other than perinatal HIV infection may be important determinants of mental health. PHIV + youth were more likely to improve over the observation period. The data underscore the critical need for mental health interventions for both PHIV + and PHIV- youth. PMID:22519762
Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A; Cornman, Deborah H.; CHRISTIE, Sarah; MacDonald, Susan; PILLAY, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D
The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...
Jacques Simpore, Salvatore Pignatelli, Salvatore Musumeci.
Background: Malnutrition is a public health problem in the entire world, particularly in the developing countries. The effect of Spiruline supplement in the weight recovery of HIV-negative and HIV-infected undernourished children has been largely demonstrated. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of Spiruline on the immune status of 46 HIV-infected undernourished children, aged 15 ± 5 months, and of 23 undernourished HIV-negative children, aged 14 ± 6 months.Methodology: The durat...
de Almeida, Sergio Monteiro; Ribeiro, Clea Elisa; Pereira, Ana Paula; Badiee, Jayraan; CHERNER, MARIANA; Smith, Davey; Maich, Ingrid; Raboni, Sonia Mara; Rotta, Indianara; Barbosa, Francisco Jaime; HEATON, Robert K.; UMLAUF, Anya; Ellis, Ronald J.
HIV-1 clade C isolates show reduced Tat protein chemoattractant activity compared with clade B. This might influence neuropathogenesis by altering trafficking of monocytes into the CNS. A previous study suggested low rates of HIV-associated dementia in clade C infected individuals. The present study evaluated neurocognitive impairment rates in clade B- and C-infected individuals from the same local population. HIV+ and HIV- participants were recruited from the same geographic region in southe...
Zagury, Daniel; Lachgar, Abderrahim; Chams, Vida; Fall, Lat S.; Bernard, Jacky; Zagury, Jean-François; Bizzini, Bernard; GRINGERI, ALESSANDRO; Santagostino, Elena; Rappaport, Jay; Feldman, Michael; O’Brien, Stephen J.; Burny, Arsene; Gallo, Robert C.
Exposure to HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not usually lead to infection. Although this could be because of insufficient virus titer, there is now abundant evidence that some individuals resist infection even when directly exposed to a high titer of HIV. This protection recently has been correlated with homozygous mutations of an HIV-1 coreceptor, namely CCR5, the receptor for the ?-chemokines. Moreover, earlier results already had shown that the same chemokines markedly suppress the nonsyncitial in...
Marcio de Oliveira Silva
Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.
TrØseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W
The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk.
Paula Matos Oliveira
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.
Paula Matos, Oliveira; Rita Elizabeth, Mascarenhas; Claire, Lacroix; Suzana Ramos, Ferrer; Rone Peterson C, Oliveira; Elaine Andrade, Cravo; André P Ribeiro, Alves; Maria Fernanda Rios, Grassi.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patie [...] nts, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil). RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7%) than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5%) (p = 0.02). The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03). Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3%) and uninfected women (85.7%), followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.
Canavarro, Maria C; Pereira, Marco; Simoes, Mario R; Pintassilgo, Ana L
The assessment of quality of life (QOL) in HIV infection has emerged as being vital to research and clinical practice. This assessment is also a challenge due to the specific characteristics of the infection, the increased availability of therapeutics, as well as the epidemiological variability inherent to HIV infection. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the European Portuguese version of the World Health Organization's QOL Instrument in HIV Infection (WHOQOL-HIV) and to test its performance in a sample of HIV-infected patients. The European Portuguese version of WHOQOL-HIV was administered in a sample of 200 HIV-positive patients. The patients also completed the Portuguese versions of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). The WHOQOL-HIV showed quite an acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's ? ranged from 0.86 to 0.95 across domains). Convergent validity with BDI and BSI was satisfactory for all domains (all r>0.50; pvalidity studies of the European Portuguese version of the WHOQOL-HIV revealed good psychometric characteristics, which allows for the use of this version of WHOQOL in our country, and cross-cultural comparability. PMID:21259131
Celse, Michel; Geffroy, Laurent; Yeni, Patrick
Increased efficacy of HIV therapy has resulted in a dramatic improvement in patient's health condition regarding life expectancy and life quality. However, such favorable evolution had no significant impact on the social condition of the population living with HIV, which remains more exposed to socio-economical difficulties and to different forms of stigmatization and discrimination. Public policies do address these issues. The national HIV/AIDS and STI strategic plan 2010-2014 provides a range of actions aimed at fighting against discriminations and improving social care for the most vulnerable people living with HIV. It notably tries to achieve equal access to programs and services developed for patients with chronic diseases and to improve their condition regarding access to care, employment, housing and income. Implementation of these measures, however, proves difficult. Addressing social and societal concerns that HIV infection still raises is part of the care and support that should be offered to patients. Providing this comprehensive approach remains critical for ensuring optimized individual therapeutic outcomes as well as an efficient collective response to the epidemic. PMID:25510134
Bobbin, Maggie L; Burnett, John C; Rossi, John J
HIV/AIDS is a chronic and debilitating disease that cannot be cured with current antiretroviral drugs. While combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART) can potently suppress HIV-1 replication and delay the onset of AIDS, viral mutagenesis often leads to viral escape from multiple drugs. In addition to the pharmacological agents that comprise cART drug cocktails, new biological therapeutics are reaching the clinic. These include gene-based therapies that utilize RNA interference (RNAi) to silence the expression of viral or host mRNA targets that are required for HIV-1 infection and/or replication. RNAi allows sequence-specific design to compensate for viral mutants and natural variants, thereby drastically expanding the number of therapeutic targets beyond the capabilities of cART. Recent advances in clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated the promise of RNAi therapeutics, reinforcing the concept that RNAi-based agents might offer a safe, effective, and more durable approach for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Nevertheless, there are challenges that must be overcome in order for RNAi therapeutics to reach their clinical potential. These include the refinement of strategies for delivery and to reduce the risk of mutational escape. In this review, we provide an overview of RNAi-based therapies for HIV-1, examine a variety of combinatorial RNAi strategies, and discuss approaches for ex vivo delivery and in vivo delivery. PMID:26019725
Kenneth O Simbiri
Full Text Available Purpose: Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is a rare cancer previously seen in elderly men. In Botswana there is an increase in OSSN and pterygia among young HIV-1 infected patients. Factors that determine the course of this cancer have not been characterized. Recent studies identified HPV, EBV, KSHV, HSV-1/2, and CMV in patient samples. We now characterize the microbiome associated with the disease that may contribute to its course.Results: Pyrosequencing identified viruses, bacteria, fungus and parasites. Analysis of shotgun cloning sequences showed a majority of infectious agents identified by pyrosequencing.Conclusion: HIV patients with OSSN in Botswana are infected with a range of infectious agents which may represent a unique microbiome. The persistent expressions of gene products by these agents some of which are oncogenic are likely to contribute to the oncogenic process and suggest that treatment modalities of the cancer should involve the screening for endemic agents.
The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)
Bell Thomas W; Balzarini Jan; Schols Dominique; Bouhlal Hicham; Charpentier Charlotte; Saïdi Héla; Jenabian Mohammad-Ali; Vanham Guido; Bélec Laurent
Abstract Background HIV-1 in genital secretions may be opsonized by several molecules including complement components. Opsonized HIV-1 by complement enhances the infection of various mucosal target cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and epithelial cells. Results We herein evaluated the effect of HIV-1 complement opsonization on microbicide candidates' activity, by using three in vitro mucosal models: CCR5-tropic HIV-1JR-CSF transcytosis through epithelial cells, HIV-1JR-CSF attachment on imm...
Smith, Kendall A; Andjelic, Sofija; Popmihajlov, Zoran; Kelly-Rossini, Liza; Sass, Aquanette; Lesser, Martin; Benkert, Steven; Waters, Cory; Ruitenberg, Joyce; Bellman, Paul
Background: Currently, providing that an individual infected with HIV can get access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), prognosis can be very good. However, although these treatments suppress replication of HIV, they do not eliminate HIV entirely. One current area of HIV research focuses on whether and how it is possible to take a break from antiretroviral therapy—which is very toxic—and at the same time achieve very low levels of HIV. Some research groups are also interested in...
Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline
The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors.
Fuller, G N; Jacobs, J. M.; Guiloff, R. J.
Fifty four patients with peripheral nerve syndromes were seen during a 15 month period in a population of about 1500 HIV infected patients at all stages of the disease. Distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathies were seen in 38 of the 54 patients, (11.5% of AIDS patients) and could be distinguished into two forms. The most common (n = 25) was a painful peripheral neuropathy during AIDS, which is distinct clinically and pathologically, having axonal atrophy, and is associated with cytomegalovi...
Rahmanian, Shiva; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Koletar, Susan; Reynolds, Nancy; Ferketich, Amy; Diaz, Philip
As mortality due to AIDS-related causes has decreased with the use of antiretroviral therapy, there has been a rise in deaths related to non–AIDS-defining illnesses. Given the exceedingly high prevalence of cigarette smoking among individuals living with HIV infection, tobacco has been implicated as a major contributor to this paradigm shift. Evidence suggests that smoking-related illnesses, such as cardiovascular disease, respiratory illnesses, and certain malignancies, contribute substantia...
Pablo Rivas; Judit Morello; Carolina Garrido; Sonia Rodríguez-Nóvoa; Vincent Soriano
Pablo Rivas1, Judit Morello2, Carolina Garrido1, Sonia Rodríguez-Nóvoa2, Vincent Soriano11Department of Infectious Diseases; 2Pharmacology Unit, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, SpainAbstract: Atazanavir (ATV) is one of the latest protease inhibitors (PI) approved for the treatment of HIV infection. The drug has a relatively long-life (?7 h) and large inhibitory quotient which allows once daily administration. It is generally well tolerated and the main side effect i...
AIDS and HIV infection raise a number of important ethical issues and problems for general practitioners. The ethical issues which impinge most directly on the personal relationship between patient and practitioner are duty to care, consent and confidentiality. These issues, and some practical problems which are likely to be encountered by practitioners, are discussed with the help of case studies and by applying fundamental ethical principles.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.
Desmond, N M; Kingdon, E; Beale, T J; Coker, R J; Tanner, A G; Harris, J W
Pancreatic tuberculosis is unusual occurring in only 2.7% of autopsy studies of persons with miliary disease. Reports of focal pancreatic tuberculosis are rare, even in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom abdominal tuberculosis is a frequent feature. We describe two patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed tuberculous pancreatic abscesses. In both this was their AIDS-defining illness. Images Figure 1 PMID:7769586
Desmond, N. M.; Kingdon, E; Beale, T J; Coker, R J; Tanner, A. G.; Harris, J W
Pancreatic tuberculosis is unusual occurring in only 2.7% of autopsy studies of persons with miliary disease. Reports of focal pancreatic tuberculosis are rare, even in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in whom abdominal tuberculosis is a frequent feature. We describe two patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who developed tuberculous pancreatic abscesses. In both this was their AIDS-defining illness.
Cook, Judith A.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A.; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Maki, Pauline M.
In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (pmemory (pstress was associated with poorer performance in those cognitive domains (p’sstress interaction was found only for the verbal memory domain (p=0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p’smemory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women. PMID:25791344
Routy, Jean-Pierre; Cao, Wei; Mehraj, Vikram
Prompt identification of individuals during the highly infectious acute or early stage of HIV infection has implications for both patient management and public health interventions. The studies on natural history of HIV infection over the last three decades have uncovered several clinical features and virological markers to diagnose early infection. However, the brevity of the acute symptomatic phase combined with the difficulty in identifying non-specific signs and symptoms poses diagnosis of early HIV infection as a remaining challenge. Furthermore, underestimation of risky behavior in the absence of detailed patient history and possible concurrent sexually transmitted infections render the diagnosis of recent infection difficult. Herein, we focus on the multifaceted clinical manifestations and the best usage of technological advancements to detect early HIV infection. Early diagnosis of HIV infection contributes to further improving patient outcomes and preventing transmission. PMID:26359532
Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi
Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…
Dahal, Santosh; Chitti, Sai V. P.; Nair, Madhavan P. N.; Saxena, Shailendra K.
Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nervous system stimulating drug, which increases the level of neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the brain, by blocking the dopamine transporters (DAT) which is critical for DA homeostasis and neurocognitive function. Tat protein of HIV acts as an allosteric modulator of DAT, where as cocaine acts as reuptake inhibitor. When macrophages in the CNS are exposed to DA, their number increases. These macrophages release inflammatory mediators and neurotoxins, causing chronic neuroinflammation. Cocaine abuse during HIV infection enhances the production of platelet monocyte complexes (PMCs), which may cross transendothelial barrier, and result in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). HAND is characterized by neuroinflammation, including astrogliosis, multinucleated giant cells, and neuronal apoptosis that is linked to progressive virus infection and immune deterioration. Cocaine and viral proteins are capable of eliciting signaling transduction pathways in neurons, involving in mitochondrial membrane potential loss, oxidative stress, activation of JNK, p38, and ERK/MAPK pathways, and results in downstream activation of NF-?B that leads to HAND. Tat-induced inflammation provokes permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB) in the platelet dependent manner, which can potentially be the reason for progression to HAND during HIV infection. A better understanding on the role of cocaine in HIV infection can give a clue in developing novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in cocaine using HIV infected population.
Dang, T; Jaton-Ogay, K; Flepp, M; Kovari, H; Evison, J M; Fehr, J; Schmid, P; Boffi El Amari, E; Cavassini, M; Odorico, M; Tarr, P E; Greub, G
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) were enrolled in an anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis screening study. Anorectal Chlamydia DNA was detected in 16 (10.9%) of 147 men, mainly among asymptomatic patients and patients having >20 sexual partners. These results support routine anorectal Chlamydia screening in HIV-infected MSM who report unprotected anal intercourse.
Sherwood, Jeffrey E.; Mesner, Octavio C.; Weintrob, Amy C.; Hadigan, Colleen M; Wilkins, Kenneth J.; Nancy F. Crum-Cianflone; Aronson, Naomi E.
Despite a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) among a predominantly black human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected cohort, deficiency did not explain an observed racial disparity in low bone mineral density. Prevalence of VDD among HIV-infected persons was not significantly different from non-HIV infected controls.
Full Text Available Lawrence D Petz,1 John C Burnett,2 Haitang Li,3 Shirley Li,3 Richard Tonai,1 Milena Bakalinskaya,4 Elizabeth J Shpall,5 Sue Armitage,6 Joanne Kurtzberg,7 Donna M Regan,8 Pamela Clark,9 Sergio Querol,10 Jonathan A Gutman,11 Stephen R Spellman,12 Loren Gragert,13 John J Rossi2 1StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; 4CCR5-?32/?32 Research Department, StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 5Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 8St Louis Cord Blood Bank, SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA; 9Enhance Quality Consulting Inc., Oviedo, FL, USA; 10Cell Therapy Service and Cord Blood Bank, Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona, Spain; 11BMT/Hematologic Malignancies, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 12Immunobiology and Observational Research, CIBMTR, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 13National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-?32/?32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-?32/?32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-?32/?32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood. Keywords: curing HIV infection, hematopoietic cell transplantation, genetic modification of stem cells, CCR5 mutation, CCR5-?32/?32 cord blood inventory
Dumaresq, Jeannot; Langevin, Stéphanie; Gagnon, Simon; Serhir, Bouchra; Deligne, Benoît; Tremblay, Cécile; Tsang, Raymond S. W.; Fortin, Claude; Coutlée, François; Roger, Michel
The diagnosis of neurosyphilis (NS) is a challenge, especially in HIV-infected patients, and the criteria for deciding when to perform a lumbar puncture (LP) in HIV-infected patients with syphilis are controversial. We retrospectively reviewed demographic, clinical, and laboratory data from 122 cases of HIV-infected patients with documented early syphilis who underwent an LP to rule out NS, and we evaluated 3 laboratory-developed validated real-time PCR assays, the Treponema pallidum particle...
Kirk, Gregory D; MERLO, Christian A.
Persons infected with HIV have an elevated risk of lung cancer, but whether the increase simply reflects a higher smoking prevalence continues to be debated. This review summarizes existing data on the association of HIV infection and lung cancer, with particular attention to study design and adjustment for cigarette smoking. Potential mechanisms by which HIV infection may lead to lung cancer are discussed. Finally, irrespective of causality and mechanisms, lung cancer represents an important...
Watanabe, Koji; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Cadiz, Aleyla Escueta-de; Tanuma, Junko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; OKA, SHINICHI
Invasive amebic diseases caused by Entamoeba histolytica are increasing among men who have sex with men and co-infection of ameba and HIV-1 is an emerging problem in developed East Asian countries. To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E. histolytica genotype was assayed in 14 cases. In this series of HIV-1-infected patients, clinical presentation of inv...
Nagy, Lauren H.; Grishina, Irina; Macal, Monica; Hirao, Lauren A.; Hu, William K.; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi; Gaulke, Christopher A.; Pollard, Richard; Brown, Jennifer; Suni, Maria; Baumler, Andreas J.; Ghanekar, Smita; Marco, Maria L.; Dandekar, Satya
Chronic immune activation despite long-term therapy poses an obstacle to immune recovery in HIV infection. The role of antigen presenting cells (APCs) in chronic immune activation during HIV infection remains to be fully determined. APCs, the frontline of immune defense against pathogens, are capable of distinguishing between pathogens and non-pathogenic, commensal bacteria. We hypothesized that HIV infection induces dysfunction in APC immune recognition and response to some commensal bacteri...
Sengupta Sharmila; Bhattacharya Subhasish; Saha Bibhuti; Bal Baishali; Pal Reshmi; Sarkar Kamalesh; Mazumdar Partha; Chakraborti Shekhar
Abstract Background Prevalence of both cervical cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are very high in India. Natural history of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infection is known to be altered in HIV positive women and there is an increased possibility of persistence of HPV infections in this population. Therefore, this study was conducted to understand the epidemiology and circulating genotypes of oncogenic HPV among HIV positive and negative female population in West Bengal, ...
Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; CAVALLO, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco
To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients.
Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico
To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1–positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1–positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1–positive patients. PMID:20735940
Babakir-Mina, Muhammed; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Farchi, Francesca; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Cavallo, Rossana; Adorno, Gaspare; Perno, Carlo Federico; Ciotti, Marco
To investigate an association between KI and WU polyomavirus (KIPyV and WUPyV) infections and CD4+ cell counts, we tested HIV-1-positive patients and blood donors. No association was found between cell counts and virus infections in HIV-1-positive patients. Frequency of KIPyV infection was similar for both groups. WUPyV was more frequent in HIV-1-positive patients. PMID:20735940
Kerr-Layton, J A; Stamm, C A; Peterson, L S; McGregor, J. A.
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common and troublesome problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We sought to evaluate endometrial pathology among HIV-infected women requiring hysterectomy to explore if endometritis may be common among these patients. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of uterine pathology specimens obtained from HIV-infected and control patients requiring hysterectomy in two urban hospitals between 1988 and 1997 matched for age, surg...
Jennifer R. King; Yogev, Ram; JEAN-PHILIPPE, Patrick; Graham, Bobbie; Wiznia, Andrew; Britto, Paula; Carey, Vincent; Hazra, Rohan; Acosta, Edward P.
HIV-infected children are treated with tenofovir in combination with other, potentially interacting, antiretroviral agents. We report the pharmacokinetic parameters of tenofovir in combination with efavirenz, darunavir-ritonavir, or atazanavir-ritonavir in HIV-infected children. HIV-infected patients 8 to 18 years of age receiving a tenofovir (300 mg)-based regimen containing efavirenz (300 or 600 mg) once daily (group 1), darunavir (300 or 600 mg)-ritonavir (100 mg) twice daily (group 2), or...
Brilha, Sara Sofia dos Santos, 1985-
Background: HIV-infected patients have a known increased risk of kidney disease. For that reason, a biomarker that enables reliable detection of early and mild kidney dysfunction would be advantageous. Cystatin C is considered to be a better marker of kidney function than creatinine. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate if serum cystatin C was a better marker than creatinine in a HIV-infected population. Material and Methods: This was an observational study of HIV-infected patients ...
Tumaini M. Nyamhanga
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.
García Vázquez Elisa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand some of the clinical and demographic features of the epidemic of infection by HIV in El Salvador prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy in that country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of HIV-infected individuals who were admitted to Hospital Rosales, which is a large public teaching hospital in San Salvador, El Salvador, during the 5-year period of 1994 through 1998. Chart abstraction was done of 194 out of the 208 individuals admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit at Hospital Rosales (14 charts could not be located. We also carried out a sampling of other HIV-infected adults treated in other parts of the hospital. RESULTS: Of the 250 patients whose records we reviewed, 67% were men and 86% were from an urban area. The mean age at HIV diagnosis was 34 years. In terms of occupation, 50% of the men were day laborers; 76% of the women were housewives, and 8% of the women were commercial sex workers. All the women studied listed only heterosexual contact as their risk behavior. Of the men, 9% of them said they had sex only with men, 17% said with both men and women, and 65% said with female commercial sex workers. In terms of drug use, 2% of the patients reported they had used injection drugs at some point. At their initial medical visit to Hospital Rosales, over half of the 250 patients presented with a respiratory complaint or with diarrhea, 6% had pulmonary tuberculosis (TB, and 5% had extrapulmonary TB. Of the 250 patients, 177 of them (71% had AIDS at the first medical visit. Of the 250, 138 of them (55% were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 112 persons, 81 of them (72% were known to have died. Of those 81, 38 of them (47% died of unknown causes and 21 (26% died of TB. CONCLUSIONS: The HIV-infected adults treated at the Hospital Rosales during the 1994-1998 period were usually infected through heterosexual sex, were symptomatic at the time of presentation, and were often lost to follow-up. Utilizing the results of our study and of other research, efforts to expand early intervention, counseling and testing, and targeted prevention activities should be strengthened.
Ana Gabriela Álvares, Travassos; Carlos, Brites; Eduardo M., Netto; Sheyla de Almeida, Fernandes; George W., Rutherford; Conceição Maria, Queiroz.
Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and associated risk factors in HIV-infected pregnant women followed for prenatal care in Salvador, Bahia. This was a cross-sectional study of 63 women seeking prenatal care at a reference center. Participants were [...] interviewed regarding socio-epidemiological and clinical history, and were tested for HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti HTLV I/II, VDRL, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, CD4 count, and HIV plasma viral load. The main outcome variable was the presence of any STI. The mean age of patients was 28.2 years (16-40 years). 23 (36.5%) were diagnosed with at least one STI. The frequency of diagnoses was: HBV, 3.2%; HCV, 8.1%; HTLV I/II, 3.4%; syphilis, 9.5%; Chlamydia trachomatis, 11.1%; HPV, 15.0%; Mycoplasma hominis, 2.1%, and Ureaplasma urealyticum, 2.1%. No case of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was identified. No association was found between socio-epidemiological variables and the presence of an STI. CD4 T lymphocyte 1,000 copies (p = 0.027) were associated with the presence of sti. stis are frequent in pregnant women infected with hiv, and all hiv-infected pregnant women should be screened to decrease transmission of these pathogens and to protect their own health.
Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Zybarth, Gabriele; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav; Tang, Hao; Guo, Huiming; Toole, Bryan; Sherry, Barbara; Bukrinsky*, Michael
Cyclophilin A (CyPA) is specifically incorporated into the virions of HIV-1 and has been shown to enhance significantly an early step of cellular HIV-1 infection. Our preliminary studies implicated CD147 as a receptor for extracellular CyPA. Here, we demonstrate a role for CyPA–CD147 interaction during the early steps of HIV-1 infection. Expression of human CD147 increased infection by HIV-1 under one-cycle conditions. However, susceptibility to infection by viruses la...
Parcesepe, Angela M; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S
Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mongolia is low, it could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Two-hundred twenty-two women who (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression and modified Poisson regression were performed. Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs. PMID:25383593
Whitehorn, J; Edwards, S G; Cartledge, J D; Miller, R F
The British HIV Association (BHIVA) recommends that specialist clinical networks are involved in care of HIV-positive patients admitted to district general hospitals (DGHs) and that transfer to a specialist HIV treatment centre is considered for each patient. We audited our experience of 29 patients transferred to our specialist inpatient unit over a two year period. Fifteen (52%) patients were known to be HIV-infected before admission to the referring hospital. Ten (71%) of 14 patients with newly diagnosed HIV had an opportunistic infection at transfer. At the referring hospital the time taken to diagnose HIV infection ranged from one to 26 days (median = 3.5). Only five patients (17%) were transferred by 72 hours of admission to the referring hospital. The duration of stay at our centre was 1-212 days (median = 15): seven patients (24%) required admission to the intensive care unit. Seven patients died; of these, three had newly diagnosed HIV infection. This audit demonstrates that sick HIV-infected patients transferred to a specialist HIV unit had a poor outcome and lengthy hospital admissions. Our audit supports roll-out of HIV testing to avoid adverse outcomes associated with late diagnosis and development of clinical networks involving specialist HIV treatment centres in order to support provision of HIV care in DGHs. PMID:21515756
Samet, Jeffrey H.; PACE, Christine A.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardesi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita
Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated with heavy alcohol use and evaluated the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex. We surveyed 211 female and 205 m...
Silvio Alencar, Marques; Maria Regina Cavariani, Silvares; Rosangela Maria Pires de, Camargo; Mariangela Esther Alencar, Marques.
Full Text Available Histoplasmose é infecção sistêmica endêmica em extensas áreas do continente Americano. Os autores relatam caso de paciente do sexo masculino, de zona urbana com lesões cutâneas e mucosas incomuns de histoplasmose. Investigação adicional posterior revelou [...] infecção subjacente pelo HIV com contagem de células CD4 de 7/mm3. O tratamento foi realizado com anfotericina B, dose total de 2065 mg, seguido por itraconazol 200 mg/dia associado à terapêutica antirretroviral com cura aparente do quadro. Histoplasmose é enfermidade oportunística definidora da síndrome de imunodeficiência adquirida, portanto, diagnóstico clinico de histoplasmose implica em investigação laboratorial de infecção subjacente pelo HIV. Abstract in english Histoplasmosis is a systemic mycosis endemic in extensive areas of the Americas. The authors report on an urban adult male patient with uncommon oral-cutaneous lesions proven to be histoplasmosis. Additional investigation revealed unnoticed HIV infection [...] with CD4+ cell count of 7/mm3. The treatment was performed with amphotericin B, a 2065 mg total dose followed by itraconazole 200mg/daily plus antiretroviral therapy with apparent cure. Histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining opportunistic disease process; therefore, its clinical diagnosis must drive full laboratory investigation looking for unnoted HIV-infection.
Robert, Güerri-Fernández; Judit, Villar-García; Adolfo, Díez-Pérez; Daniel, Prieto-Alhambra.
Full Text Available Com o advento da terapia antirretroviral, houve uma melhora considerável na sobrevida dos indivíduos portadores do vírus HIV. Dessa forma, as alterações ósseas referentes ao HIV se tornaram um fator importante no cuidado desses indivíduos. O HIV altera o remodelamento ósseo causando fragilidade ósse [...] a. As alterações causadas por esse vírus nos linfócitos T afetam a produção de RANKL e de citocinas pró-inflamatórias levando à osteoclastogênese. Ademais, a terapia antirretroviral também pode afetar negativamente o metabolismo ósseo. Vários estudos descrevem aumento da incidência de fraturas nesses indivíduos quando comparados a controles sem a doença. Diretrizes da Sociedade Europeia de SIDA (EACS) têm orientado o manejo da osteoporose nesses sujeitos, enfatizando a identificação de pacientes com baixa massa óssea. A suplementação de cálcio e vitamina D e o uso de alendronato nesses indivíduos devem ser recomendados caso a caso. Abstract in english With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also nega [...] tively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS), and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.
Ferrand, Rashida A.; Munaiwa, Lucia; Matsekete, John; Bandason, Tsitsi; Nathoo, Kusum; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E.; Munyati, Shungu; Cowan, Frances M.; Gibb, Diana M.; Corbett, Elizabeth L.
Background Mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was extremely common in southern Africa during the 1990s, and a substantial minority of infected infants have survived to reach adolescence undiagnosed. Studies have shown a high prevalence of HIV infection in hospitalized adolescents who have features associated with long-standing HIV infection, including stunting and frequent minor illnesses. We therefore investigated the epidemiology of HIV infection at the primary care level. Methods Adolescents (aged 10–18 years) attending two primary care clinics underwent HIV and Herpes simplex virus–2 (HSV-2) serological testing, clinical examination, and anthropometry. All were offered routine HIV counseling and testing. Patients attending for acute primary care (APC) who were HIV infected were asked about their risk factors. Results Five hundred ninety-four participants were systematically recruited (97% participation), of whom 88 (15%) were attending for antenatal care. HIV infection prevalence was higher among APC attendees than among antenatal care attendees (17% vs 6%; P HIV, the converse was true (4% vs 14%; P HIV-positive APC attendees were previously undiagnosed. They had a broad range of presenting complaints, with a median CD4 cell count of 329 cells/?L (interquartile range, 176–485 cells/?L) and a high prevalence of stunting, compared with the corresponding prevalence among HIV-negative attendees (40% vs 12%; P HIV-positive APC attendees, only one of whom was HSV-2 positive. Conclusions Unrecognized HIV infection was a common cause of primary care attendance. Routine HIV counseling and testing implemented at the primary care level may provide a simple and effective way of identifying older long-term survivors of mother-to-child transmission before the onset of severe immunosuppression and irreversible complications. PMID:20804412
Nielsen, Lars Toft; Tolstrup, Martin
UNLABELLED: Background Men and women with HIV infection are at increased risk of developing cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The two licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines protect against de novo infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which cause the majority of HPV-associated cancers. Currently, no vaccine efficacy data are available for persons with HIV infection. Nevertheless, some countries have implemented specific HPV vaccination recommendations for HIV-positive populations. To specifically recommend prophylactic HPV vaccination in people with HIV, the vaccines must be safe and immunogenic in immunosuppressed people at a high risk of HPV infection. This review aims to summarise the current knowledge from published HPV vaccine trials in HIV-infected populations, to compile scheduled and ongoing HPV vaccine trials with HIV-positive study populations and to extrapolate the relevant knowledge about HPV vaccine efficacy in HIV-negative populations to an HIV context. METHODS: The databases PubMed, Scopus and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for peer-reviewed articles and scheduled or ongoing clinical HPV vaccine trials enrolling HIV-positive persons. RESULTS: Current data indicate that prophylactic HPV vaccines are safe and immunogenic in different HIV-positive populations (children, female adolescents, adults). Increased immunogenicity has been reported in persons on antiretroviral therapy compared with antiretroviral-naïve persons, whereas no clear association has been found between CD4(+) cell count at immunisation and vaccine response. Several scheduled and ongoing HPV vaccine trials aim to determine vaccine efficacy against disease endpoints in HIV-infected study populations. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic HPV vaccination appears safe, immunogenic and, by extrapolation, likely to reduce HPV-associated cancer development among persons with HIV infection.
Victoria, Sabina; Temerozo, Jairo R; Gobbo, Livia; Pimenta-Inada, Haynna K; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer
Patients infected with HIV-1, the etiological agent of AIDS, have increased intestinal permeability, which allows for the passage of microbial products, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, into circulation. The exposure of HIV-1-infected cells to certain TLR agonists affects viral replication, but studies associating viral production with the activation of TLR2 in HIV-1-infected cells are rare and controversial. Here, we report that the TLR2 ligands Zymosan and Pam3CSK4 potently inhibit HIV-1 replication in acutely infected monocyte-derived macrophages and the exposure to TLR2 ligands prior to infection renders macrophages refractory to HIV-1 production. Macrophage treatment with Pam3CSK4 did not change the cellular expression of the HIV-1 entry receptors CD4 and CCR5. Both TLR2 ligands increased the macrophage production of ?-chemokines and IL-10, and the blockage of these soluble factors prevented the inhibitory effect of TLR2 activation on HIV-1 replication. Our findings show that the direct engagement of TLR2 in HIV-1-infected macrophages increase cellular resistance to HIV-1 infection, and that controlling HIV-1 replication with agonists for TLR2 might have implications for the development of antiretroviral therapies. PMID:23891328
Guo, Xiaohuan; Fu, Yang-Xin
HIV-1 infection usually leads to systemic chronic inflammation that is associated with gut microbial translocation. The recently defined group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) are critical for maintenance of intestinal barrier function; however, it is not clear whether and how HIV-1 infection influences the function of these cells. In this issue of the JCI, Zhang and colleagues present compelling evidence that the survival and function of ILC3s are dramatically impaired by HIV-1 infection. The authors provide evidence that HIV-1 infection induces persistent activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and production of type I IFNs, which together increase expression of death receptor CD95 on ILC3s and thereby promote subsequent ILC3 apoptosis. Together, these results identify a mechanism that explains the impaired intestinal barrier function that results from chronic HIV-1 infection and shed light on the role of pDCs in HIV-1 immunopathogenesis and therapy. PMID:26301808
Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia and poor nutrition have been previously described as independent risk factors for death among HIV-infected children. We sought to describe nutritional status, anemia burden and HIV disease correlates among infected children in India. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from 248 HIV-infected children aged 1–12 years attending three outpatient clinics in South India (2004–2006. Standard WHO definitions were used for anemia, HIV staging and growth parameters. Statistical analysis included chi square, t tests, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results The overall prevalence of anemia (defined as hemoglobin Conclusion The high prevalence and strong interrelationship of anemia and poor nutrition among HIV-infected children in India, particularly those living in rural areas underscores the need for incorporating targeted nutritional interventions during national scale up of care, support and treatment among HIV-infected children.
Vasylyeva, T I; Friedman, S R; Smyrnov, P; Bondarenko, K
Past research suggests that as many as 50% of onward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmissions occur during acute and recent HIV infection. It is clearly important to develop interventions which focus on this highly infectious stage of HIV infection to prevent further transmission in the risk networks of acutely and recently infected individuals. Project Protect tries to find recently and acutely infected individuals and prevents HIV transmission in their risk networks. Participants are recruited by community health outreach workers at community-based HIV testing sites and drug users' community venues, by coupon referrals and through referrals from AIDS clinics. When a network with acute/recent infection is identified, network members are interviewed about their risky behaviors, network information is collected, and blood is drawn for HIV testing. Participants are also educated and given prevention materials (condoms, syringes, educational materials); HIV-infected participants are referred to AIDS clinics and are assisted with access to care. Community alerts about elevated risk of HIV transmission are distributed within the risk networks of recently infected. Overall, 342 people were recruited to the project and screened for acute/recent HIV infection. Only six index cases of recent infection (2.3% of all people screened) were found through primary screening at voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) sites, but six cases of recent infection were found through contact tracing of these recently infected participants (7% of network members who came to the interview). Combining screening at VCT sites and contact tracing the number of recently infected people we located as compared to VCT screening alone. No adverse events were encountered. These first results provide evidence for the theory behind the intervention, i.e., in the risk networks of recently infected people there are other people with recent HIV infection and they can be successfully located without increasing stigma for project participants. PMID:25244688
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados à presença de RNA-HIV na vagina. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, em mulheres infectadas por HIV, excluindo-se aquelas com antecedente de histerectomia, as em uso de medicações vaginais nas últimas 48 horas, as que se referiram à relação sexual desprotegida há menos de 72 horas, as gestantes e aquelas com sangramento genital. Após consentimento, coletou-se amostra sanguínea para contagem de linfócitos T CD4 e carga viral plasmática de HIV, além de lavado vaginal com 10mL de solução salina, que foi centrifugado, aliquotado e armazenado em freezer -70°C para posterior quantificação de RNA-HIV livre. A mensuração de carga viral de RNA-HIV livre plasmática e vaginal foi realizada utilizando-se o kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor®, Roche. Pesquisou-se a presença de HPV de alto e baixo risco, clamídia e gonococo por Captura Híbrida II®, Digene, em amostra endocervical. Colheu-se amostra vaginal para bacterioscopia com coloração de Gram, utilizando-se os critérios de Nugent. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 mulheres estudadas, 73,5% usavam terapia anti-retroviral (TARV com drogas múltiplas. O RNA-HIV foi detectável no lavado vaginal de 18 delas (9%, mas em apenas uma daquelas que tinham carga viral plasmática indetectável (0,5%. A prevalência de HIV vaginal foi 24 vezes maior naquelas em que HIV plasmático era detectável. Carga viral plasmática de HIV, não usar TARV, CD4 reduzido e vaginose bacteriana aumentaram a prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal, mas apenas a carga viral plasmática se manteve significativa na análise ajustada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal foi baixa (9%. A carga viral acima de 1.500 cópias/mL foi a única variável que permaneceu como fator de risco para RNA-HIV vaginal livre.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated to presence of free RNA-HIV in the vagina. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with HIV-infected women, excluding those who had undergone histerectomy, had used vaginal medication within the last 48 hours, had had unprotected sex less than 72 hours before, were pregnant, or had genital bleeding. After signing an informed consent, blood samples were obtained for T CD4 lymphocytes count and plasmatic viral load, in addition to cervico-vaginal lavage using 10mL of sterile normal saline, later centrifuged, aliquoted and stored at - 70°C to quantify free HIV-RNA. Plasmatic and vaginal viral load were measured using the kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor, Roche. Hybrid Capture test Digene was utilized for HPV (high and low risk, clamydia trachomatis and N. gonorrhoae detection from an endocervical sample. Vaginal swab for bacterioscopy by the Gram method, evaluated according to Nugent criteria was obtained. RESULTS: Among 200 women evaluated, 73.5% were using HAART. The RNA-HIV was detectable in the vaginal lavage of 18 (9%, but in only one of those who had undetectable plasma viral load (0.5%. The vaginal prevalence of HIV was 24 times higher among those with detectable plasmatic HIV. Plasma viral load > 1500 copies/mL, no HAART use, reduced CD4 and bacterial vaginosis had increased prevalence of vaginal HIV-RNA, but in the adjusted statistical analysis, only the former remained significant CONCLUSION: Prevalence of vaginal HIV-RNA was low (9%. Plasmatic viral load > 1500 copies/mL, was the only risk factor for free vaginal HIV-RNA.
Angela, Campos; Eliana, Amaral; José Eduardo, Levi; Priscila, Portugal; Marina, Villarroel; Karina C., Bezerra; Marcos T. Nolasco da, Silva; Sirlei Siani, Morais.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os fatores associados à presença de RNA-HIV na vagina. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, em mulheres infectadas por HIV, excluindo-se aquelas com antecedente de histerectomia, as em uso de medicações vaginais nas últimas 48 horas, as que se referiram à relação sexual desprotegi [...] da há menos de 72 horas, as gestantes e aquelas com sangramento genital. Após consentimento, coletou-se amostra sanguínea para contagem de linfócitos T CD4 e carga viral plasmática de HIV, além de lavado vaginal com 10mL de solução salina, que foi centrifugado, aliquotado e armazenado em freezer -70°C para posterior quantificação de RNA-HIV livre. A mensuração de carga viral de RNA-HIV livre plasmática e vaginal foi realizada utilizando-se o kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor®, Roche. Pesquisou-se a presença de HPV de alto e baixo risco, clamídia e gonococo por Captura Híbrida II®, Digene, em amostra endocervical. Colheu-se amostra vaginal para bacterioscopia com coloração de Gram, utilizando-se os critérios de Nugent. RESULTADOS: Entre as 200 mulheres estudadas, 73,5% usavam terapia anti-retroviral (TARV) com drogas múltiplas. O RNA-HIV foi detectável no lavado vaginal de 18 delas (9%), mas em apenas uma daquelas que tinham carga viral plasmática indetectável (0,5%). A prevalência de HIV vaginal foi 24 vezes maior naquelas em que HIV plasmático era detectável. Carga viral plasmática de HIV, não usar TARV, CD4 reduzido e vaginose bacteriana aumentaram a prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal, mas apenas a carga viral plasmática se manteve significativa na análise ajustada. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de RNA-HIV vaginal foi baixa (9%). A carga viral acima de 1.500 cópias/mL foi a única variável que permaneceu como fator de risco para RNA-HIV vaginal livre. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated to presence of free RNA-HIV in the vagina. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with HIV-infected women, excluding those who had undergone histerectomy, had used vaginal medication within the last 48 hours, had had unprotected sex less than 72 hours before, were p [...] regnant, or had genital bleeding. After signing an informed consent, blood samples were obtained for T CD4 lymphocytes count and plasmatic viral load, in addition to cervico-vaginal lavage using 10mL of sterile normal saline, later centrifuged, aliquoted and stored at - 70°C to quantify free HIV-RNA. Plasmatic and vaginal viral load were measured using the kit HIV Monitor v1.5 Cobas Amplicor, Roche. Hybrid Capture test Digene was utilized for HPV (high and low risk), clamydia trachomatis and N. gonorrhoae detection from an endocervical sample. Vaginal swab for bacterioscopy by the Gram method, evaluated according to Nugent criteria was obtained. RESULTS: Among 200 women evaluated, 73.5% were using HAART. The RNA-HIV was detectable in the vaginal lavage of 18 (9%), but in only one of those who had undetectable plasma viral load (0.5%). The vaginal prevalence of HIV was 24 times higher among those with detectable plasmatic HIV. Plasma viral load > 1500 copies/mL, no HAART use, reduced CD4 and bacterial vaginosis had increased prevalence of vaginal HIV-RNA, but in the adjusted statistical analysis, only the former remained significant CONCLUSION: Prevalence of vaginal HIV-RNA was low (9%). Plasmatic viral load > 1500 copies/mL, was the only risk factor for free vaginal HIV-RNA.
Karris, Maile Y.; Anderson, Christy M; Morris, Sheldon R; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J
Efforts to identify all persons infected with HIV in the United States are driven by the hope that early diagnosis will lower risk behaviors and decrease HIV transmission. Identification of HIV-infected people earlier in the course of their infection with HIV antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combination assays (4th-generation HIV assays) should help achieve this goal. We compared HIV RNA nucleic acid test (NAT) results to the results of a 4th-generation Ag/Ab assay (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo [HIV Com...
Banjoko S Olatunbosun
Full Text Available Abstract Background There had been conflicting reports with levels of markers of iron metabolism in HIV infection. This study was therefore aimed at investigating iron status and its possible mediation of severity of HIV- 1 infection and pathogenesis. Method Eighty (80 anti-retroviral naive HIV-1 positive and 50 sero-negative controls were recruited for the study. Concentrations of serum total iron, transferrin, total iron binding capacity (TIBC, CD4+ T -lymphocytes, vitamin C, zinc, selenium and transferrin saturation were estimated. Results The mean CD4+ T-lymphocyte cell counts, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation for the tests and controls were 319 ± 22, 952 ± 57 cells/?l (P 4+ T-lymphocyte cell count had a positive correlation with levels of vitamin C (r = 0.497, P Conclusion It could be inferred that derangement in iron metabolism, in addition to oxidative stress, might have contributed to the depletion of CD4+ T cell population in our subjects and this may result in poor prognosis of the disease.
Touzot, M; Pillebout, E; Matignon, M; Tricot, L; Viard, J P; Rondeau, E; Legendre, C; Glotz, D; Delahousse, M; Lang, P; Peraldi, M N
Kidney transplantation is now considered as a reasonable option for HIV-infected patients with end-stage renal disease. We describe here a retrospective study conducted in five transplantation centers in Paris. Twenty-seven patients were included. Immunosuppressive protocol associated an induction therapy and a long-term treatment combining mycophenolate mofetil, steroids and either tacrolimus or cyclosporine. All the patients had protocol biopsies at 3 months and 1 year. Patient's survival was 100% at 1 year and 98% at 2 years. Graft survival at 1 and 2 years is 98% and 96% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The mean glomerular filteration rate values at 12 and 24 months were 60.6 mL/min/1.73 m² (range 23-98) and 65.4 mL/min/1.73 m² (range 24-110), respectively. Acute cellular rejection was diagnosed in four cases (15%). Because of high trough levels of calcineurin inhibitor, protease-inhibitor therapies were withdrawn in 11 cases. HIV disease progression was not observed. One patient developed B-cell lymphoma. In conclusion, our study confirms the safety of renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients with few adverse events and a low incidence of acute rejection. PMID:20840478
Gorse, Geoffrey J.; Simionescu, Ramona E.; Patel, Gira B.
Effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) recombinant envelope glycoprotein vaccines on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses were assessed in HIV-1-infected patients. Asymptomatic, antiretroviral-treatment-naïve, HIV-1-infected patients with CD4+ T-cell counts greater than 400/?l received multiple intramuscular injections of HIV-1 IIIB recombinant envelope glycoprotein (rgp160) vaccine or HIV-1 MN recombinant envelope glycoprotein (rgp120) vaccine (eight patients, referred to as ...
Meijer A; Borleffs JCC; Roosendaal G; van Loon AM
The work presented here was initiated to determine the possibilities of molecular methods for the detection and epidemiological investigation of HIV and HTLV infections. We present the results of a literature research and describe the development and partial evaluation of a new PCR method for the amplification of RNA and DNA sequences of the HIV-1 pol, env and gag, HIV-2 ltr and HTLV-I/II tax/rex genes. For the amplification of viral RNA, samples were treated with guanidium ...
Renata Cruz Soares de Azevedo; Neury José Botega; Liliana Andolpho Magalhães Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To compare a sample of injecting cocaine users and crack users, assessing sexual behavior, risk for infection by HIV and its seroprevalence. METHOD: 109 injecting cocaine users and 132 crack users were assessed, using the World Health Organization questionnaire from the expanded "Cross-Site Study of Behaviors and HIV Seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users" and HIV serology. Data were assessed by Multiple Correspondences Analysis. RESULTS: Crack users showed less time of drug con...
Renata Cruz Soares de, Azevedo; Neury José, Botega; Liliana Andolpho Magalhães, Guimarães.
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar uma amostra de usuários de cocaína injetável e usuários de crack avaliando comportamento sexual, risco para contaminação pelo HIV e sua soroprevalência. MÉTODO: Avaliou-se 109 usuários de cocaína injetável e 132 usuários de crack, utilizando o questionário da Organização Mundial d [...] e Saúde para o "Estudo Multicêntrico de Comportamentos e Soroprevalência de HIV entre Usuários de Droga Injetável" ampliado e sorologia para o HIV. Os dados foram avaliados pela Análise de Correspondências Múltiplas. RESULTADOS: Os usuários de crack apresentaram menor tempo gasto no consumo de drogas quando comparados com os usuários de cocaína injetável. Apesar disso, tiveram maiores taxas de atividade sexual de risco, diferenças no consumo de múltiplas drogas e maiores taxas de problemas com a justiça. A soroprevalência do HIV entre os usuários de crack, embora inferior aos usuários de cocaína injetável (7% x 33%), é elevada quando comparada à população geral nesta faixa etária. CONCLUSÕES: O comportamento sexual dos usuários de crack da amostra estudada pode ser considerado fator de risco para a contaminação pelo HIV. Os usuários de crack têm acesso à informações sobre HIV/AIDS, porém, não as utilizam para modificar comportamentos de risco que os expõem à possibilidade de contaminação e disseminação do HIV. A soroprevalência do HIV entre eles (7%) é um dado preocupante, o que torna necessário criar estratégias preventivas de contaminação e disseminação do HIV especificamente direcionadas a esta população. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare a sample of injecting cocaine users and crack users, assessing sexual behavior, risk for infection by HIV and its seroprevalence. METHOD: 109 injecting cocaine users and 132 crack users were assessed, using the World Health Organization questionnaire from the expanded "Cross-Si [...] te Study of Behaviors and HIV Seroprevalence among Injecting Drug Users" and HIV serology. Data were assessed by Multiple Correspondences Analysis. RESULTS: Crack users showed less time of drug consumption when compared to the injecting cocaine users. Despite this fact, they had higher rates of risky sexual activity, differences in poli-consumption of drugs, and higher rates of involvement in illegal issues. HIV seroprevalence among crack users, although lower than for injecting cocaine users (7% vs. 33%) is high when compared to the general population at the same age. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual behavior of crack users in the studied sample may be considered a risk factor for HIV infection. Crack users have access to information on HIV/ AIDS, but do not make use of it to change risk behaviors that may expose them to HIV infection and dissemination. HIV seroprevalence among crack users (7%) is concerning, which makes it necessary to create preventive strategies for HIV infection and dissemination that are specifically directed toward this population.
Figueirêdo, P H; Santos, R M Zorzenon dos
An investigation was conducted to study the robustness of the results obtained from the cellular automata model which describes the spread of the HIV infection within lymphoid tissues [R. M. Zorzenon dos Santos and S. Coutinho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 168102 (2001)]. The analysis focussed on the dynamic behavior of the model when defined in lattices with different symmetries and dimensionalities. The results illustrated that the three-phase dynamics of the planar models suffered minor changes in relation to lattice symmetry variations and, while differences were observed regarding dimensionality changes, qualitative behavior was preserved. A further investigation was conducted into primary infection and sensitiveness of the latency period to variations of the model's stochastic parameters over wide ranging values. The variables characterizing primary infection and the latency period exhibited power-law behavior when the stochastic parameters varied over a few orders of magnitude. The power-law exponents were app...
Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.
Full Text Available Hepatitis C (HCV and HIV are commonly acquired through intravenous drug use (IDU. Treatment of HCV is beneficial in reducing hepatic complications and likely decelerating the rate of progression of HIV. HCV therapy in HCV/HIV co-infected individuals is increasingly being reported to be feasible. However, re-infection is emerging as an important concern, especially in the prison population where likely related to surreptitious IDU. In this study, we report the re-infection rate of inmates in the Pacific region of Canada who have HCV/HIV and were successfully treated for HCV. Retrospective medical chart reviews of 57 co-infected inmates with a history of IDU who received HCV therapy between April 2003 and June 2012. All received standard doses of pegylated interferon alpha 2a or 2b and weight-base ribavirin for durations of 24–48 weeks depending on genotypes. After successfully attaining SVR, inmates are routinely monitored for re-infection every 6–12 months with HCV RNA qualitative analysis. Of the 57 inmates with HCV/HIV, 48 (82.8% were Caucasians and 10 (17.2% were First Nations. 94.7% (54 of the study population were males. The mean age at the start of treatment was 39.6±7.5 years. 100% (inclusion criteria admitted to IDU before treatment and 7 (12.1% admitted IDU after treatment. Genotype 1 made up 56.1% (32, followed by genotype 3 at 35.1% (20 and genotype 2 at 8.8% (5. Treatment was discontinued due to adverse side effects in 4 (6.9% and discontinued due to no response in 9 (15.5% inmates. 2 (3.7% were lost to follow up due to discharge to community. SVR was attained in 33 (56.9% inmates and of those 30.3% (10 were re-infected. These re-infected cases were noted mainly in genotype 3 (60% and genotype 1 (40%. Six had viral relapsed. SVR results are pending for three. Achieving a SVR is encouraging in HCV/HIV co-infected. Our study revealed that 30.3 % of the inmate population became re-infected after treatment. Of note, these numbers are relatively small. However, it is important that counseling regarding harm reduction and strategies should be provided before, during and after treatment to help reduce the rate of re-infection.
Full Text Available La trombocitopenia es una de las múltiples alteraciones hematológicas presentes en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV. Puede ser de curso crónico, en la cual la destrucción inmune, el secuestro esplénico o el daño en la producción son los mecanismos primariamente involucrados, o aguda, acompañando a otra intercurrencia. En este trabajo se evaluó la prevalencia de trombocitopenia en un lapso de 14 años, en una población pediátrica con HIV/sida, analizando las características clínicas y la relación con el estado inmuno-virológico. La prevalencia de trombocitopenia fue de 8.5%, (29 de los 339 niños en seguimiento. En 22 fue de curso crónico y en 7 aguda. Los pacientes evaluados presentaron niveles porcentuales de TCD4+ variables y la presencia de trombocitopenia no estuvo en relación con el compromiso inmunitario. Los pacientes trombocitopénicos tuvieron niveles de carga viral significativamente mayores que los que no la presentaron. En 10 de los 29 niños con recuentos plaquetarios disminuidos, la trombocitopenia fue la manifestación inicial de la infección por HIV. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas de las trombocitopenias crónicas fueron leves, presentes en el 23% de los niños y no se asociaron al deterioro inmunológico, mientras que en las agudas fueron más graves y condicionadas a la evolución de la enfermedad coexistente. El desarrollo de trombocitopenias se ve favorecido por la continua actividad viral y la falla en la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral adecuado.Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic finding in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Multiple mechanisms may contribute to the development of chronic thrombocytopenia as immune-mediated platelet destruction, enhanced platelet splenic sequestration and impaired platelet production. Acute thrombocytopenia is frequently associated with coexisting disorders. In this study, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia was evaluated in a cohort of HIV infected children analyzing the clinical features and the association with the immunological and virological status of the disease in a 14 year-follow-up period. Thrombocytopenia prevalence was of 8.5% (29 out 339 children evaluated. Chronic and acute thrombocytopenia was observed in 22 and 7 children respectively. The percentages of CD4+ T cells were variable and not related with the presence of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenic patients showed viral load levels significantly increased; being the thrombocytopenia the initial clinical manifestation of HIV infection in 10 out 29 children. Mild chronic thrombocytopenia bleeding found in 23% of children evaluated was not correlated with the immunologic status of the disease. In contrast, the severity of acute thrombocytopenia depended on the evolution of associated clinical conditions. Constant viral activity and failure in the use of antiretroviral agents might induce the development of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected children.
Graciela, Barboni; Marcela, Candi; Mariela, Bayon; Jeannette, Balbaryski; Eduardo, Gaddi.
Full Text Available La trombocitopenia es una de las múltiples alteraciones hematológicas presentes en pacientes infectados con el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV). Puede ser de curso crónico, en la cual la destrucción inmune, el secuestro esplénico o el daño en la producción son los mecanismos primariamente [...] involucrados, o aguda, acompañando a otra intercurrencia. En este trabajo se evaluó la prevalencia de trombocitopenia en un lapso de 14 años, en una población pediátrica con HIV/sida, analizando las características clínicas y la relación con el estado inmuno-virológico. La prevalencia de trombocitopenia fue de 8.5%, (29 de los 339 niños en seguimiento). En 22 fue de curso crónico y en 7 aguda. Los pacientes evaluados presentaron niveles porcentuales de TCD4+ variables y la presencia de trombocitopenia no estuvo en relación con el compromiso inmunitario. Los pacientes trombocitopénicos tuvieron niveles de carga viral significativamente mayores que los que no la presentaron. En 10 de los 29 niños con recuentos plaquetarios disminuidos, la trombocitopenia fue la manifestación inicial de la infección por HIV. Las manifestaciones hemorrágicas de las trombocitopenias crónicas fueron leves, presentes en el 23% de los niños y no se asociaron al deterioro inmunológico, mientras que en las agudas fueron más graves y condicionadas a la evolución de la enfermedad coexistente. El desarrollo de trombocitopenias se ve favorecido por la continua actividad viral y la falla en la implementación del tratamiento antirretroviral adecuado. Abstract in english Thrombocytopenia is a common hematologic finding in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Multiple mechanisms may contribute to the development of chronic thrombocytopenia as immune-mediated platelet destruction, enhanced platelet splenic sequestration and impaired platelet produc [...] tion. Acute thrombocytopenia is frequently associated with coexisting disorders. In this study, the prevalence of thrombocytopenia was evaluated in a cohort of HIV infected children analyzing the clinical features and the association with the immunological and virological status of the disease in a 14 year-follow-up period. Thrombocytopenia prevalence was of 8.5% (29 out 339 children evaluated). Chronic and acute thrombocytopenia was observed in 22 and 7 children respectively. The percentages of CD4+ T cells were variable and not related with the presence of thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenic patients showed viral load levels significantly increased; being the thrombocytopenia the initial clinical manifestation of HIV infection in 10 out 29 children. Mild chronic thrombocytopenia bleeding found in 23% of children evaluated was not correlated with the immunologic status of the disease. In contrast, the severity of acute thrombocytopenia depended on the evolution of associated clinical conditions. Constant viral activity and failure in the use of antiretroviral agents might induce the development of thrombocytopenia in HIV-infected children.
Chaillon, Antoine; Le Vu, Stéphane; Brunet, Sylvie; Gras, Guillaume; Bastides, Frédéric; Bernard, Louis; Meyer, Laurence; Barin, Francis
The aim of this study was to estimate the rate of misclassification in treated HIV patients who initiated treatment at the chronic stage of HIV infection using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that discriminates between recent infection (RI; within 6 months) and established infection. The performance of EIA-RI was evaluated in 96 HIV-1 chronically infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with an undetectable viral load (VL) for at least 3 years. Demographic data, HIV-1 vir...
Thwaites, GE; Duc Bang, N; Huy Dung, N; Thi Quy, H; Thi Tuong Oanh, D; Thi Cam Thoa, N; Quang Hien, N; Tri Thuc, N; Ngoc Hai, N; Thi Ngoc Lan, N; Ngoc Lan, N; Hong Duc, N; Ngoc Tuan, V; Huu Hiep, C; Thi Hong Chau, T.
BACKGROUND: Tuberculous meningitis occurs more commonly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals than in HIV-uninfected individuals, but whether HIV infection alters the presentation and outcome of tuberculous meningitis is unknown. METHODS: We performed a prospective comparison of the presenting clinical features and response to treatment in 528 adults treated consecutively for tuberculous meningitis (96 were infected with HIV and 432 were uninfected with HIV) in 2 tertiary...
Heymann, Sally Jody
Models the survival outcomes of children in developing countries born to women infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who are breast-fed, bottle-fed, and wet-nursed. Uses decision analysis to assess the relative risk of child mortality from HIV transmission and non-HIV causes associated with different methods of feeding. (FMW)
Hayes, Richard; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Celum, Connie; van de Wijgert, Janneke; Wasserheit, Judith
Observational and biological data provide compelling evidence of the importance of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in HIV transmission, but only one of nine intervention trials has shown an effect. This article reviews the observational studies, critically examines the nine randomized controlled trials evaluating the impact of STI treatment interventions on HIV incidence, and discusses implications for HIV prevention policy, programs and future research. The role of other vaginal infections is also briefly considered. In aggregate, the evidence strongly supports the concept that STI treatment prevents HIV infection. However, issues in trial design and conduct, including HIV epidemic phase, STI prevalence, intervention in comparison groups, and power have affected five of the six trials of treatment of curable STIs. In the three herpes intervention trials, antivirals for HSV suppression were insufficiently potent to alleviate persistent genital inflammation in HIV-negative HSV2-positive persons, and the reduction in HIV levels in HIV-positive persons was insufficient to reduce HIV transmission. It is time for a new phase of exploration of how, when, and in whom to include STI control as a key component of HIV prevention, driven by basic research to elucidate the mechanisms by which STIs and vaginal infections facilitate HIV transmission. From a policy perspective, treatment of curable STIs is an essential part of primary healthcare and is a cheap, simple, and effective intervention when appropriately targeted and delivered. It should be promoted as an essential component of HIV control programs in communities in which the burden of STIs is substantial. PMID:21042049
Cotter, Aoife G
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in those with HIV, associated with higher bone turnover and a higher prevalence of fractures. This review explores low BMD in HIV, focusing on underlying mechanisms and relationships between low BMD and HIV infection, immune dysfunction, and antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Sulie L. Chang
Full Text Available Epidemiological research indicates that drug abuse is prevalent among individuals infected with HIV-1. Evidence from preclinical research also suggests that drugs of abuse exacerbate the progression of neuropathological changes in the HIV-1 infected brain probably through common mechanisms of neuronal injury. The effects of HIV-1 on the efficacy and abuse potential of controlled drugs such as morphine, however, has not been explored. The current study reports that the noninfectious HIV-1 transgenic (HIV-1 Tg rat shows up-regulated expression of the mu opioid receptor (MOR at the transcriptional level and functional supersensitivity to morphine, a MOR agonist. Compared to nontransgenic control rats, the HIV-1 Tg rats also show greater motivation to run in a wheel, a behavior that is known to be associated with increased drug self-administration. These results suggest the potential role of HIV-1 infection in enhancing vulnerability to addiction and this possibility warrants further investigation to better understand the link between HIV-1 infection and the abuse of drugs including opioids.
Vidal, P; Lalande, M; Rodiere, M
Structured treatment interruption in HIV is now being debated. There are 2 cases in which it may be discussed: when the initial treatment was started early and when there is no compliance to treatment [Yeni P, et al. Les nouvelles recommandations de prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH 2006. Paris: Flammarion médecine-sciences; 2006]. Noncompliant behavior is one of the characteristics of chronic illness during adolescence. In HIV infection, however, the prognosis is negatively influenced because the resulting resistance to the antiretroviral therapy can further reduce therapeutic options. Therefore, it is important in such a critical period to consider both what is consciously and unconsciously at stake and what responsible action could be taken when a specialist is faced with spontaneous (unplanned) treatment interruption. We report here examples of follow-up care, interruption, and resumption of treatment in 4 female adolescents. PMID:19369045
Couzigou, Carine; Taburet, Anne Marie; Voyer, Catherine; Bourée, Patrice; Vittecoq, Daniel
Patients with human immunodeficient virus (HIV) must make special preparations before traveling. They have a higher risk of infection than the general population. They are more likely to develop malaria and the clinical episodes will be more severe, particularly in pregnant women. Prescriptions for malaria prophylaxis and treatment must take into account their interactions with antiretroviral drugs. Vaccination decisions require consideration of the risk and severity of the vaccine preventable diseases in the destination area, the nature of the vaccine, the patient's immune status, and the risk of virological rebound as a consequence of vaccination. Some countries have entry restriction for travelers with HIV. Special precautions may be necessary for transporting and storing antiretroviral medications. PMID:18036772
Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load virus genome. RESULTS: JCV excretion in urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs are multipotent, self-renewing cells known for their differentiation potential into cells of mesenchymal lineage. The ability of single cell clones isolated from adipose tissue resident MSCs (ASCs to differentiate into cells of hematopoietic lineage has been previously demonstrated. In the present study, we investigated if the hematopoietic differentiated (HD cells derived from ASCs could productively be infected with HIV-1. Results HD cells were generated by differentiating clonally expanded cultures of adherent subsets of ASCs (CD90+, CD105+, CD45-, and CD34-. Transcriptome analysis revealed that HD cells acquire a number of elements that increase their susceptibility for HIV-1 infection, including HIV-1 receptor/co-receptor and other key cellular cofactors. HIV-1 infected HD cells (HD-HIV showed elevated p24 protein and gag and tat gene expression, implying a high and productive infection. HD-HIV cells showed decreased CD4, but significant increase in the expression of CCR5, CXCR4, Nef-associated factor HCK, and Vpu-associated factor BTRC. HIV-1 restricting factors like APOBEC3F and TRIM5 also showed up regulation. HIV-1 infection increased apoptosis and cell cycle regulatory genes in HD cells. Although undifferentiated ASCs failed to show productive infection, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of several hematopoietic lineage associated genes such as c-Kit, MMD2, and IL-10. Conclusions Considering the presence of profuse amounts of ASCs in different tissues, these findings suggest the possible role that could be played by HD cells derived from ASCs in HIV-1 infection. The undifferentiated ASCs were non-permissive to HIV-1 infection; however, HIV-1 exposure increased the expression of some hematopoietic lineage related genes. The findings relate the importance of ASCs in HIV-1 research and facilitate the understanding of the disease process and management strategies.
Warren, R Q; WOLF, H.; Shuler, K R; Eichberg, J.W.; Zajac, R A; Boswell, R N; Kanda, P.; Kennedy, R C
The fine specificities of antibodies produced against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp160 were examined in sera from 23 HIV-1-infected chimpanzees. These animals had been infected with one of six isolates of HIV-1. Sera were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for reactivity against seven synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of gp160. Chimpanzees appear to remain healthy after infection with HIV-1, suggesting that these animals may prevent extensive spread of th...
Rodriguez-Guardado, A.; Suarez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, O; S. Rojo; Perez, F.
Background: Foreign-born, HIV-infected persons are at risk for sub-clinical parasitic infections acquired in their countries of origin. This study presents the results of this screening program. Methods: A prospective, descriptive study was designed to include all the immigrant patients diagnosed of HIV infection attending in Hospital Central de Asturias, Spain, 2006–2011. We included demographic variables, CD4+cells count and viral load at time of diagnosis. Screening comprised blood ...
Zhang, Yulin; Qiao, Luxin; Ding, Wei; Wei, Feili; Zhao, Qingxia; Wang, Xicheng; Shi, Ying; Li, Ning; Smith, Davey
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), characterized by cognitive, motor, and behavioral abnormalities, are common among people living with HIV and AIDS. In combined antiretroviral therapy era in Western countries, nearly 40% of HIV-infected patients continue to suffer from HAND, mainly with mild or asymptomatic cognitive impairment. However, the prevalence and the clinical features of HAND in China are still not well known. In this study, a multi-center cross-sectional study was performed to determine the prevalence and clinical features of HAND in 134 HIV-1 infected patients in China. The International HIV Dementia Scale and a neuropsychological test battery were administered for screening and diagnosis HAND. Subjective complaints, CD4 count and viral loads in both blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were correlated with diagnosis of HAND. The results showed that the prevalence of HAND was approximately 37% in these patients. CD4 counts at time of sampling were significant lower in the HAND group than in the non-HAND group. But the distribution of the HAND severity did not differ by CD4 count or viral load. The presence of HAND was associated with cognitive and behavior disorder complaints (4.9- and 4.1-fold higher than those without HAND, respectively). The present data suggest that CD4 count and viral load cannot predict the severity of HAND, although the prevalence of HAND is similar to previous report in these patients. Cognitive and behavioral disorder is major complaint rather than cognitive and motor impairment. A larger prospective study is needed to obtain better estimates of HAND in China. PMID:22411002
SIGEL, Keith; WISNIVESKY, Juan; SHAHRIR, Shahida; BROWN, Sheldon; JUSTICE, Amy; KIM, Joon; RODRIGUEZ-BARRADAS, Maria; AKGÜN, Kathleen; RIMLAND, David; SOO HOO, Guy; CROTHERS, Kristina
Background HIV infected persons have a two to five-fold increased unadjusted risk of lung cancer. In the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), computed tomography (CT) screening was associated with a reduction in lung cancer mortality among high-risk smokers. These results may not generalize to HIV infected persons, particularly if they are more likely to have false-positive chest CT findings. Methods We utilized data including standardized chest CT scans from 160 HIV infected and 138 uninfected Veterans enrolled between 2009-2012 in the multicenter Examinations of HIV Associated Lung Emphysema (EXHALE) Study. Abnormal CT findings were abstracted from clinical interpretations of the scans and classified as positive by NLST criteria vs. other findings. Clinical evaluations and diagnoses that ensued were abstracted from the medical record. Results There was no significant difference by HIV in the proportion of CT scans classified as positive by NLST criteria (29% of HIV infected and 24% of HIV uninfected, p=0.3). However, HIV infected participants with CD4 counts 0.05). Conclusion HIV status was not associated with an increased risk of abnormal findings on CT or increased rates of follow-up testing in clinically stable outpatients with CD4 cell count >200. These data reflect favorably on the balance of benefits and harms associated with lung cancer screening for HIV infected smokers with less severe immunodeficiency. PMID:24401647
Daniel, O. J.; Gidado, M.; Abdur-Razzaq, H. A.; Jaiyesimi, E. O.
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the leading causes of death from infectious disease worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of HIV among children with TB in moderate to high prevalence countries ranges between 10% and 60%. This study aimed to determine the access to HIV services of HIV-TB co-infected children. Methods: A retrospective review of data of children diagnosed with TB in Lagos State, Nigeria from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013. Results: A total of 1199 children aged between 0 and 14 years were diagnosed with TB. Of 1095 (91.3%) who underwent testing for HIV, 320 (29.2%) were HIV seropositive. The male-to-female ratio of HIV-TB positive outcomes was 1:0.9. Of the 320 HIV-TB co-infected children, 57 (17.8%) were aged HIV-TB services were co-located (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The uptake of CPT and ART was low. There is a need to intensify efforts to improve access to HIV services in Lagos State, Nigeria.
Heo Mi-Kyung; Hong Kee-Jong; Choi Byeong-Sun; Kim Gab; Lee Jin-Hee; Kim Sung; Kee Mee-Kyung
Abstract Background The number of Koreans diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections is increasing annually; however, CD4+ T-cell counts at diagnosis have decreased. The purpose of the present study was to identify clinical and epidemiologic associations with low CD4+ T-cell counts at the time of HIV diagnosis in a Korean population. Methods Data from 2,299 HIV-infected individuals with initial CD4+ T-cell counts measured within 6 months of HIV diagnosis and reason for HIV t...
Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha; Price, Lance B.; Kaul, Rupert
Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseli...
E.U. Umeh; D. Ishaleku; C.C. Iheukwumere
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) coinfection rate was investigated among patients referred to a chest clinic in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. Out of the 344 patients who presented with respiratory problems at the clinic, 44.8% had M. tuberculosis infection, 24.7% HIV infection and 12.8% HIV/tubercle bacilli co-infection. Coinfection rate in HIV infected persons (HIV+) was 51.8 and 28.6% in those with M. tuberculosis infection. The relative risk of HIV positive...
B. R. Sharma
Full Text Available While HIV infection is considered protected information in most parts of the world, it is clear that if a health care provider knows, that the patient is infected or is likely to be infected, then either the patient or those responsible for making their medical decisions must be informed of the infection or likelihood of infection. If not, the liability exposure of the health care provider, like the virus itself, will spread to more and more people. It must be remembered that despite the existence of a confidential patient-physician relationship, a health care provider has a duty to warn a clearly identifiable third party of possible serious harm. This reliance suggests that states may eventually extend provider liability to ?significant others? and individuals with whom the provider knows, or has reason to believe, the infected individual is engaged in activity which may spread this virus. The focus by the courts reinforces the need for health care providers to stay current with local reporting requirements and their legal obligations.
Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Good penetration of antiretroviral drugs to the seminal plasma may be associated with a decrease in viral replication and play an important role in the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV. We present data from a series of HIV-infected ARV-experienced patients receiving etravirine-containing regimens, in whom etravirine concentrations and viral loads were determined in blood plasma and seminal plasma. The objective was to determine etravirine concentrations and HIV-1 viral load (VL in blood plasma (BP and seminal plasma (SP of HIV-infected patients. Methods: Ten HIV-1 adult antiretroviral-experienced patients receiving an etravirine-containing regimen for at least 1 month were enrolled. Semen and blood samples were both collected around 12–24 h after the last etravirine dose, depending on once-daily or twice-daily dosing, respectively. HPLC/MS/MS was used to determine etravirine concentrations, and HIV-1 VL was determined by real-time PCR (limit of detection, VL 40 copies/mL. Results: Ten blood and twenty semen samples were collected. Median (range CD4 count was 502 cells/mm3 (252–817 and median (range BP VL was<40 copies/mL (40–362. Median (range time on etravirine was 52 weeks (12–124. Median (range BP etravirine concentration was 452.5 ng/mL (258–751. Median (range SP etravirine concentration was 62.9 ng/mL (31.2–166, and values were above the protein-free IC50 range (0.39–2.4 ng/mL in all cases. Median (range etravirine SP:BP ratio was 0.16 (0.07–0.26. SP VL was<40 copies/mL in all patients, whereas BP VL was detectable in one patient with poor adherence to treatment. Conclusions: Total etravirine concentrations in male genital secretion are modest, reaching only 16% of the BP concentration, but nevertheless, more than 10 times above the wild type IC50 range.
Kamp, C; Kamp, Christel; Bornholdt, Stefan
The origin of the unusual incubation period distribution in the development of AIDS is largely unresolved. A key factor in understanding the observed distribution of latency periods, as well as the occurrence of infected individuals not developing AIDS at all, is the dynamics of the long lasting struggle between HIV and the immune system. Using a computer simulation, we study the diversification of viral genomes under mutation and the selective pressure of the immune system.In common infections vast spreading of viral genomes usually does not takes place. In the case of an HIV infection this may occur, as the virus successively weakens the immune system by depletion of CD4+ cells.In a sequence space framework, this leads to a dynamically induced percolation transition, corresponding to the onset of AIDS. As a result, we obtain the prolongated shape of the incubation period distribution, as well as a finite fraction of non-progressors that do not develop AIDS, comparing well with results from recent clinical r...
Full Text Available Abstract During the extended clinically latent period associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection the virus itself is far from latent. This phase of infection generally comes to an end with the development of symptomatic illness. Understanding the factors affecting disease progression can aid treatment commencement and therapeutic monitoring decisions. An example of this is the clear utility of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-RNA for disease stage and progression assessment. Elements of the immune response such as the diversity of HIV-specific cytotoxic lymphocyte responses and cell-surface CD38 expression correlate significantly with the control of viral replication. However, the relationship between soluble markers of immune activation and disease progression remains inconclusive. In patients on treatment, sustained virological rebound to >10 000 copies/mL is associated with poor clinical outcome. However, the same is not true of transient elevations of HIV RNA (blips. Another virological factor, drug resistance, is becoming a growing problem around the globe and monitoring must play a part in the surveillance and control of the epidemic worldwide. The links between chemokine receptor tropism and rate of disease progression remain uncertain and the clinical utility of monitoring viral strain is yet to be determined. The large number of confounding factors has made investigation of the roles of race and viral subtype difficult, and further research is needed to elucidate their significance. Host factors such as age, HLA and CYP polymorphisms and psychosocial factors remain important, though often unalterable, predictors of disease progression. Although gender and mode of transmission have a lesser role in disease progression, they may impact other markers such as viral load. Finally, readily measurable markers of disease such as total lymphocyte count, haemoglobin, body mass index and delayed type hypersensitivity may come into favour as ART becomes increasingly available in resource-limited parts of the world. The influence of these, and other factors, on the clinical progression of HIV infection are reviewed in detail, both preceding and following treatment initiation.
Chin-Hong, Peter V.; Husnik, Marla; Cranston, Ross D.; Colfax, Grant; Buchbinder, Susan; Da Costa, Maria; Darragh, Teresa; Jones, Dana; Judson, Franklyn; Koblin, Beryl; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Palefsky, Joel M.
Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted agent that causes anogenital cancer and precancer lesions that have an inflammatory infiltrate, may be friable and bleed. Our aim was to determine the association between anal HPV infection and HIV acquisition. Design A prospective cohort study. Methods We recruited 1409 HIV-negative men who have sex with men recruited from a community-based setting in Boston, Denver, New York and San Francisco. We used Cox proportional hazards regression modeling and assessed the independent association of HPV infection with the rate of acquisition of HIV infection. Results Of 1409 participants contributing 4375 person-years of follow-up, 51 HIV-seroconverted. The median number of HPV types in HPV-infected HIV-seroconverters was 2 (interquartile range 1–3) at the time of HIV seroconversion. After adjustment for sexual activity, substance use, occurrence of other sexually transmitted infections and demographic variables, there was evidence (P?=?0.002) for the effect of infection with at least two HPV types (hazard ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.2–10.6) in HIV seroconversion. Conclusion Anal HPV infection is independently associated with HIV acquisition. Studies that incorporate high-resolution anoscopy to more accurately identify HPV-associated disease are needed to determine the relationship between HPV-associated disease and HIV seroconversion. PMID:19390418
Adedimeji, Adebola A; Hoover, Donald R; Shi, Qiuhu; Gard, Tracy; Mutimura, Eugene; Sinayobye, Jean d'Amour; Cohen, Mardge H; Anastos, Kathryn
It is not well understood how infection with HIV and prior experience of sexual violence affects sexual behavior in African women. We describe factors influencing current sexual practices of Rwandan women living with or without HIV/AIDS. By design, 75 % of participants were HIV positive and ~50 % reported having experienced genocidal rape. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to describe demographic and clinical characteristics that influenced sexual behavior in the previous 6 months, condom use, history of transactional sex, and prior infection with a non-HIV sexually transmitted disease. Respondents' age, where they lived, whether or not they lived with a husband or partner, experience of sexual trauma, CD4 count, CES-D and PTSD scores were strongly associated with risky sexual behavior and infection with non-HIV STI. HIV positive women with a history of sexual violence in the contexts of war and conflict may be susceptible to some high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:25488169
Full Text Available Background: Gender-based violence is universal, differing only in scope from one society to the other. The most common form of violence against women is domestic violence or violence within families. Objectives: 1. To study the prevalence and different forms of domestic violence perpetrated by intimate partner against married women. 2. To study socio economic and demographic factors which affect the victimization of woman for domestic violence. 3.To study prevalence of sexually transmitted infection and its association with domestic violence in the study group. Methods: Based on a pilot study results, a sample size of 257 was determined. Total 257 currently married women in the reproductive age group (15-49 yrs were interviewed by systematic random sampling with prior consent using a well designed, pre- tested questionnaire . All the women were screened for sexually transmitted infections as per the WHO guidelines by syndromic approach. The data was analyzed by percentages and chi-square test. Results: Prevalence of domestic violence was found to be 29.57% in the study group. Verbal abuse was reported by 81.58% of the women, Physical abuse by 31.58% of the women ,Psychological abuse by 27.63% of the women and Sexual abuse by 10.53% of the women. Among the 76 victimized women none of them reported to the police. Interpretation and conclusions: The vulnerability to domestic violence was found significantly associated with age at marriage, duration of marriage and addiction of husband to alcohol. The association between domestic violence and sexually transmitted infections was also found significant.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breast-feeding accounts for 15–20% of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV, it is not prohibited in some developing countries because of the higher mortality associated with not breast-feeding. We assessed the potential impact, on HIV infection and infant mortality, of a recommendation for shorter durations of exclusive breast-feeding (EBF and poor compliance to these recommendations. Methods We developed a deterministic mathematical model using primarily parameters from published studies conducted in Uganda or Kenya and took into account non-compliance resulting in mixed-feeding practices. Outcomes included the number of children HIV-infected and/or dead (cumulative mortality at 2 years following each of 6 scenarios of infant-feeding recommendations in children born to HIV-infected women: Exclusive replacement-feeding (ERF with 100% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 100% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 100% compliance, ERF with 70% compliance, EBF for 6 months with 85% compliance, EBF for 4 months with 85% compliance Results In the base model, reducing the duration of EBF from 6 to 4 months reduced HIV infection by 11.8% while increasing mortality by 0.4%. Mixed-feeding in 15% of the infants increased HIV infection and mortality respectively by 2.1% and 0.5% when EBF for 6 months was recommended; and by 1.7% and 0.3% when EBF for 4 months was recommended. In sensitivity analysis, recommending EBF resulted in the least cumulative mortality when the a mortality in replacement-fed infants was greater than 50 per 1000 person-years, b rate of infection in exclusively breast-fed infants was less than 2 per 1000 breast-fed infants per week, c rate of progression from HIV to AIDS was less than 15 per 1000 infected infants per week, or d mortality due to HIV/AIDS was less than 200 per 1000 infants with HIV/AIDS per year. Conclusion Recommending shorter durations of breast-feeding in infants born to HIV-infected women in these settings may substantially reduce infant HIV infection but not mortality. When EBF for shorter durations is recommended, lower mortality could be achieved by a simultaneous reduction in the rate of progression from HIV to AIDS and or HIV/AIDS mortality, achievable by the use of HAART in infants.
Tandon, Ravi; SenGupta, Devi; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C.; Vieira, Raphaella G. S.; Jones, R. Brad; York, Vanessa A.; Vieira, Vinicius A.; Sharp, Elizabeth R.; Wiznia, Andrew A.; Ostrowski, Mario A.; Rosenberg, Michael G.; Nixon, Douglas F.
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-specific T cell responses in HIV-1-infected adults have been reported. Whether HERV-specific immunity exists in vertically HIV-1-infected children is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HERV-specific T cell responses in 42 vertically HIV-1-infected children. HERV (-H, -K, and -L family)-specific T cell responses were identified in 26 of 42 subjects, with the greatest magnitude observed for the responses to HERV-L. These HERV-specific T cell responses were inversely correlated with the HIV-1 plasma viral load and positively correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. These data indicate that HERV-specific T cells may participate in controlling HIV-1 replication and that certain highly conserved HERV-derived proteins may serve as promising therapeutic vaccine targets in HIV-1-infected children. PMID:21880743
Tandon, Ravi; SenGupta, Devi; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Vieira, Raphaella G S; Jones, R Brad; York, Vanessa A; Vieira, Vinicius A; Sharp, Elizabeth R; Wiznia, Andrew A; Ostrowski, Mario A; Rosenberg, Michael G; Nixon, Douglas F
Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-specific T cell responses in HIV-1-infected adults have been reported. Whether HERV-specific immunity exists in vertically HIV-1-infected children is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of HERV-specific T cell responses in 42 vertically HIV-1-infected children. HERV (-H, -K, and -L family)-specific T cell responses were identified in 26 of 42 subjects, with the greatest magnitude observed for the responses to HERV-L. These HERV-specific T cell responses were inversely correlated with the HIV-1 plasma viral load and positively correlated with CD4(+) T cell counts. These data indicate that HERV-specific T cells may participate in controlling HIV-1 replication and that certain highly conserved HERV-derived proteins may serve as promising therapeutic vaccine targets in HIV-1-infected children. PMID:21880743
Real, Luis M; Herrero, Rocío; Rivero-Juárez, Antonio; Camacho, Ángela; Macías, Juan; Vic, Sandra; Soriano, Vincent; Viedma, Sergio; Guardiola, Josep M; Fibla, Joan; Rivero, Antonio; Pineda, Juan A; Caruz, Antonio
The interferon (IFN)L4 polymorphism rs368234815 is associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) spontaneous clearance and response to IFN-based treatments. The role of this polymorphism in HIV-1 infection is controversial. We investigated whether genetic variation at IFNL4 is associated to HIV-1 acquisition. The HCV protective allele TT was associated with decreased likelihood of HIV-1 infection in male intravenous drug users [odds ratio (OR): 0.3; P?=?0.006], and this association was not modified by the genotype of CCR5. These results suggest that genetic susceptibility to HCV and HIV-1 infection shares common molecular pathways. PMID:26372394
Ludvigsen, Lene Ugilt Pagter; SØgaard, Ole Schmeltz
Oral lesions such as candidiasis, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, herpes simplex infection, and ulcerative periodontitis are associated with HIV infection and may be the primary presentation in persons with undiagnosed HIV. We report a clinical case in which an 80-year-old man presented with an oral ulcer with morphological signs of immuno-suppression. The patient was perceived to be at low risk of HIV infection and thus, diagnostic HIV testing was delayed until subsequent development of Kaposi's sarcoma on the skin.
Kawamura, Tatsuyoshi; Cohen, Sandra S.; Borris, Debra L.; Aquilino, Elisabeth A.; Glushakova, Svetlana; Margolis, Leonid B.; Orenstein, Jan M; Offord, Robin E.; NEURATH, A. ROBERT; Blauvelt, Andrew
Initial biologic events that underlie sexual transmission of HIV-1 are poorly understood. To model these events, we exposed human immature Langerhans cells (LCs) within epithelial tissue explants to two primary and two laboratory-adapted HIV-1 isolates. We detected HIV-1Ba-L infection in single LCs that spontaneously emigrated from explants by flow cytometry (median of infected LCs = 0.52%, range = 0.08–4.77%). HIV-1–infected LCs downregulated surface CD4 and CD83, whereas MHC class II, CD80,...
Karen Ingrid, Tasca; Sueli Aparecida, Calvi; Lenice do Rosário de, Souza.
Full Text Available Enquanto modernas terapias antirretrovirais (TARV) têm resultado em menores índices de morbidade e mortalidade e na melhora visível dos parâmetros clínicos e laboratoriais em infectados pelo HIV, sabe-se que seu uso em longo prazo contribui com aparecimento dos vários eventos não associados à aids c [...] omo doenças cardiovasculares, cânceres e osteoporose, comorbidades as quais têm sido propostas como algumas das mais importantes que privam a maioria dos infectados pelo vírus a apresentarem prognóstico ainda melhor. Isso ocorre porque, mesmo com diminuição da inflamação e ativação imune após intervenção medicamentosa ao paciente, tais parâmetros continuam maiores que os apresentados por indivíduos saudáveis e o desequilíbrio dos perfis de citocinas também persiste. Por isso, avaliações de outros biomarcadores na prática clínica são necessárias para complementar os exames já realizados rotineiramente e permitir o monitoramento mais eficaz dos portadores do HIV. Esta revisão tem o intuito de investigar o papel das citocinas como potenciais marcadores, relacionando estudos sobre o comportamento de várias delas em diversas fases da infecção por HIV, na presença ou não de TARV. Abstract in english Although modern combined antiretroviral therapies (cART) result in lower morbidity and mortality and a visible improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected, it is known that their long-term use contributes to appearance of the many events unrelated to AIDS such as cardiovascular [...] diseases, cancer and osteoporosis, comorbidities which have been proposed as some of the most important that deprive the majority of infected to present an even better prognosis. This is because even with a decrease in inflammation and immune activation after drug intervention to the patient, these parameters remain higher than those shown by healthy individuals and the imbalance of cytokine profiles also persists. Therefore, evaluations of other biomarkers in clinical practice are needed to complement the exams already carried out routinely and allow more effective monitoring of HIV patients. This review aims to investigate the role of cytokines as potential markers showing studies on their behavior in various stages of HIV infection, with or without cART.
Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and Non-HIV-Infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy : Persistent High Risk Among HIV-Infected Injecting Drug Users
Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette Vang
BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults treated at all Danish HIV treatment centers during 1995-2012. Nineteen population-matched controls per HIV-infected individual were retrieved. The risk of IPD was assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The incidence of IPD was 304.7 cases per 100 000 person-years of follow-up (PYFU) in HIV-infected and 12.8 per 100 000 PYFU in HIV-uninfected individuals. After adjusting for confounders, HIV infection (relative risk [RR], 24.4 [95% confidence interval [CI], 23.7-25.1]), male sex (RR, 1.20 [95% CI, 1.16-1.24]), increasing age (per year) (RR, 1.03 [95% CI, 1.03-1.04]), and calendar period (pre-cART RR, 2.80 [95% CI, 2.70-2.91] compared with late cART) were significantly associated with an increased risk of IPD. Among HIV-infected individuals, male sex (RR, 1.57 [95% CI, 1.49-1.66]), smoking (RR, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.26-1.42]), and injecting drug use (RR, 2.51 [95% CI, 2.26-2.67]) were associated with an increased risk of IPD. Detectable viral loads (RR, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.79-1.98]) and a relative fall in CD4 T-cell counts were also associated with an increased risk (?500 to 350-500 CD4 T cells/µL: RR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.21-1.37] and <100 cells/µL: RR, 7.4 [95% CI, 6.87-8.02]). The risk of IPD declined over time, although this was not the case for IDUs where the risk remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of IPD in HIV-infected individuals remained significantly higher than the incidence observed in non-HIV-infected subjects, despite the widespread use of cART. IDUs have a persistently high risk of IPD. Injecting drug use, smoking, and the receipt of cART are suitable targets for preventive measures in the future.
Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-infected and non-HIV infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy : Persisting High Risk among HIV-infected Injecting Drug Users
Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette Vang
BACKGROUND: ?Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among HIV-infected individuals. We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS: ?Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults treated at all Danish HIV-treatment centers during 1995-2012. Nineteen population-matched controls per HIV-infected individual were retrieved. The risk of IPD (RR, [95% CI]) was assessed using Poisson regression. RESULTS: ?The incidence of IPD was 304.7 cases/100,000 PYFU in HIV-infected and 12.8/100,000 PYFU in HIV-uninfected individuals. After adjusting for confounders, HIV-infection (RR 24.4 [23.7-25.1]), male sex (RR 1.20 [1.16-1.24]), increasing age (per year) (RR 1.03 [1.03-1.04]) and calendar period (pre-cART [RR 2.80 [2.70-2.91] compared to late cART) were significantly associated with an increased risk of IPD. Among HIV-infected individuals, male sex (RR 1.57 [1.49-1.66]), smoking (RR 1.34 [1.26-1.42]), and intravenous drug use (RR 2.51 [2.26-2.67]) were associated with an increased risk of IPD. Detectable viral loads (RR 1.88 [1.79-1.98]) and a relative fall in CD4 T-cell counts were also associated with an increased risk (?500 to 350-<500 CD4 T-cells/µl RR 1.29 [1.21-1.37], and <100 cells/µl RR 7.4 [6.87-8.02]). The risk of IPD declined over time though this was not the case for IDUs where the risk remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: ?The incidence of IPD in HIV-infected individuals remained significantly higher than the incidence observed in non-HIV-infected, in spite of the widespread use of cART. IDUs have a persisting high risk of IPD. IDU, smoking, the receipt of cART are suitable targets for preventive measures in the future.
Cowgill, Burton O.; Corona, Rosalie; Ryan, Gery W.; Murphy, Debra A.; Nguyen, Theresa; Kennedy, David P.; Bogart, Laura M; SCHUSTER, MARK A.
We interviewed 33 HIV-infected parents from the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), 27 of their minor children, 19 adult children, and 15 caregivers about the process of children learning that their parents were HIV positive. We summarize the retrospective descriptions of parents’ disclosure of their HIV status to their children, from the perspective of multiple family members. We analyzed transcripts of these interviews with systematic qualitative methods. Both parents and child...
White, R.G.; Orroth, K. K.; Glynn, J.R.; Freeman, E. E.; Bakker, R.; Habbema, J.D.F.; Terris-Prestholt, F.; Kumaranayake, L; Buvé, A.; Hayes, R. J.
BACKGROUND: Evidence regarding the effectiveness of sexually transmitted infection (STI) treatment for HIV prevention in Africa is equivocal, leading some policy makers to question whether it should continue to be promoted for HIV control. We explore whether treating curable STIs remains a cost-effective HIV control strategy in Africa. METHODS: The model STDSIM was fitted to the characteristics of 4 populations in East and West Africa. Over the simulated HIV epidemics, the population-attribut...
Fichtenbaum, Carl J.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an inflammatory process that takes decades to develop. In HIV-seronegative persons, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein is a biologic marker of CHD risk. HIV infection induces chronic inflammation, despite adequate suppression of HIV replication with antiretroviral therapy, resulting in elevations of several biologic markers associated with CHD risk in HIV-seronegative persons. Indeed, the SMART study demonstrated that interruption in antiretroviral therapy is ...
Full Text Available While CMV myeloradiculitis is a known complication in AIDS patients with severe immunosuppression, HSV-2 necrotizing myeloradiculitis is rare and often associated with disabling a fatal outcome. We hereby describe a 46 year-old HIV infected patient with profound and sustained immunosuppression who presented with an acute ascending paraparesis and urinary retention. Lumbar spine MRI showed contrast enhancement at the conus medullaris and cauda equine, and both CMV and HSV-2 CSF PCR were positive. Despite treatment, the patient died 20 days later. We review the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of herpes virus associated myeloradiculitis and discuss the approach in similar cases.
Pinto, Adriana; Santos, Edwiges; Correa, Danusa F; Escada, Rodrigo; Vorsatz, Carla de Mello; Cardoso, Sandra Wagner; Lima, Marco A
While CMV myeloradiculitis is a known complication in AIDS patients with severe immunosuppression, HSV-2 necrotizing myeloradiculitis is rare and often associated with disabling a fatal outcome. We hereby describe a 46 year-old HIV infected patient with profound and sustained immunosuppression who presented with an acute ascending paraparesis and urinary retention. Lumbar spine MRI showed contrast enhancement at the conus medullaris and cauda equine, and both CMV and HSV-2 CSF PCR were positive. Despite treatment, the patient died 20 days later. We review the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of herpes virus associated myeloradiculitis and discuss the approach in similar cases. PMID:21755241
Vânia de Carvalho
Full Text Available Patients with AIDS have a high incidence of skin problems due to the immunosuppression and malnourishment that are inherent to the progression of this disease. Clinical manifestation of these skin lesions and their severity are different in AIDS patients. We made a prospective study of five cases of measles in children with HIV infection during a community outbreak, and there were typical as well as atypical forms of the disease, including one case with negative serology. There were pulmonary complications, but none of the patients died. The anti-retroviral treatment may have contributed to the decrease in measles morbidity in these pediatric AIDS patients.
Full Text Available This study investigated the risk factors associated with recent and chronic HIV infections among individual attending a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT site in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, recent HIV infections were detected by the sensitive/less-sensitive test, using Serologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS strategy, and compared to chronic HIV infection and HIV negative individuals. Seroincidence was estimated and risk factors associated with recent and chronic infections were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Among the 7,379 individuals tested between June 2006 and April 2007, the overall prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were 7.5%; and 1.39/100 PY, respectively. In multivariate analysis, having a HIV positive steady partner was a risk factor for recent and for chronic HIV infection for MSM, heterosexual male and women. No differences in risk factors for recent and chronic infections were found between MSM and heterosexual males. Among women, chronic infected individuals were more likely than HIV negatives to be older. Recently HIV infected women were more likely than HIV negatives to be less educated; and more likely than HIV negatives and chronically infected to report having more partners. Routinely used risk-based assessment in testing centers in Brazil lack sensitivity to distinguish between recent and chronic infections, particularly among MSM and heterosexual males. Steady relationships and serosorting may be playing a key role in maintaining the HIV epidemics in Brazil.
Monica, Merçon; Suely H., Tuboi; Sônia Maria, Batista; Sandra Regina Barros, Telles; José Roberto, Grangeiro; Roberto, Zajdenverg; Regina Ferro do, Lago; Paulo Feijó, Barroso; Maria de Fátima, Melo; Mauro, Schechter.
Full Text Available This study investigated the risk factors associated with recent and chronic HIV infections among individual attending a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) site in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a cross-sectional study, recent HIV infections were detected by the sensitive/less-sensitive test, using S [...] erologic Testing Algorithm for Recent HIV Seroconversion (STARHS) strategy, and compared to chronic HIV infection and HIV negative individuals. Seroincidence was estimated and risk factors associated with recent and chronic infections were assessed using multinomial logistic regression. Among the 7,379 individuals tested between June 2006 and April 2007, the overall prevalence and incidence of HIV infection were 7.5%; and 1.39/100 PY, respectively. In multivariate analysis, having a HIV positive steady partner was a risk factor for recent and for chronic HIV infection for MSM, heterosexual male and women. No differences in risk factors for recent and chronic infections were found between MSM and heterosexual males. Among women, chronic infected individuals were more likely than HIV negatives to be older. Recently HIV infected women were more likely than HIV negatives to be less educated; and more likely than HIV negatives and chronically infected to report having more partners. Routinely used risk-based assessment in testing centers in Brazil lack sensitivity to distinguish between recent and chronic infections, particularly among MSM and heterosexual males. Steady relationships and serosorting may be playing a key role in maintaining the HIV epidemics in Brazil.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 induces neuronal dysfunction through host cellular factors and viral proteins including viral protein R (Vpr released from infected macrophages/microglia. Vpr is important for infection of terminally differentiated cells such as macrophages. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Vpr in the context of infectious virus particles on neuronal death through proinflammatory cytokines released from macrophages. Methods Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM were infected with either HIV-1 wild type (HIV-1wt, Vpr deleted mutant (HIV-1?Vpr or mock. Cell lysates and culture supernatants from MDMs were analyzed for the expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK were analyzed in activated MDMs by western blots. Further, the effect of Vpr on neuronal apoptosis was examined using primary neurons exposed to culture supernatants from HIV-1wt, HIV-1?Vpr or mock-infected MDMs by Annexin-V staining, MTT and Caspase - Glo® 3/7 assays. The role of interleukin (IL-1?, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-? on neuronal apoptosis was also evaluated in the presence or absence of neutralizing antibodies against these cytokines. Results HIV-1?Vpr-infected MDMs exhibited reduced infection over time and specifically a significant downregulation of IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-? at the transcriptional and/or protein levels compared to HIV-1wt-infected cultures. This downregulation was due to impaired activation of p38 and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK in HIV-1?Vpr-infected MDMs. The association of SAPK/JNK and p38 to IL-1? and IL-8 production was confirmed by blocking MAPKs that prevented the elevation of IL-1? and IL-8 in HIV-1wt more than in HIV-1?Vpr-infected cultures. Supernatants from HIV-1?Vpr-infected MDMs containing lower concentrations of IL-1?, IL-8 and TNF-? as well as viral proteins showed a reduced neurotoxicity compared to HIV-1wt-infected MDM supernatants. Reduction of neuronal death in the presence of anti-IL-1? and anti-IL-8 antibodies only in HIV-1wt-infected culture implies that the effect of Vpr on neuronal death is in part mediated through released proinflammatory factors. Conclusion Collectively, these results demonstrate the ability of HIV-1?Vpr to restrict neuronal apoptosis through dysregulation of multiple proinflammatory cytokines in the infected target cells either directly or indirectly by suppressing viral replication.
Lama, E. de; Narvaez, J. A.; Roca, Y.; Pellicer, J. M. [Servicio de Radiodiagnostico y RM Ciutat Sanitaria i Universitaria de bellvitge. L' Hospitalet de Llobregar. Barcelona (Spain)
We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs.
Adewumi, Adediran; Titilope, Adeyemo; Akinsegun, Akinbami; Vincent, Osunkalu; Alani, Akanmu
Background: Cobalamin deficiency and peripheral neuropathy (PN) are commonly seen in HIV-infected adults. The level of urine methylmalonic acid (UMMA), a reliable indicator of tissue cobalamin status, was determined in HIV infected subjects with and without PN to establish this association.
Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer
Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…
Clevenbergh, P; Okome, M Nkoumou; Benoit, S; Bendini, J C; De Salvador, F; Elbeze, M; Cassuto, E; Marty, P; Dellamonica, P
We report the case of an HIV-infected patient who presented with acute renal failure due to visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Although renal failure is the leading cause of death in dogs, the natural reservoir of Leishmania infantum, renal involvement is usually absent in human VL. However, L. infantum can be considered a cause of renal failure in HIV-infected patients. PMID:12195888
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contributes substantially to the epidemic of anal cancer in men, but not women in the United States, according to new research from NCI. Chart shows overall incidence rates of anal cancers in general population with dashed line showing those with HIV infection.
Metabolic complications including diabetes mellitus have been increasingly recognised in HIV-infected individuals since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, particularly protease inhibitors (PIs). Pregnancy is also a risk factor for impaired glucose metabolism, and previous studies have given conflicting results regarding the contribution of PIs to impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in pregnant HIV-infected women.
Renoux, E; Matan, A Barreh; Sevre, J P; Mohamed Ali, I; Chami, D; Vincent, V
Based on analysis of data collected from the national tuberculosis prevention program in Djibouti between 1990 and 1996, the authors analyzed the relationship between HIV infection and tuberculosis. The study cohort comprised a total of 22,000 patients including 14,000 with documented HIV infection. Although HIV infection probably worsened the situation, it was neither the only nor the main factor involved in the resurgence of tuberculosis. Demographic growth, higher population density, and increasing poverty as well as the quality of the national tuberculosis prevention program must be taken into account. The incidence of smear-negative tuberculosis was not significantly higher in HIV-infected patients (incidence of smear positive cases, > 92%). Extrapulmonary tuberculosis especially of pleural involvement was more common (15% versus 9.4%). Treatment was effective in HIV-infected patients. If directly observed (DOT) therapy was used, there was no risk of emergence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strains. Drug side-effects associated with the protocols used in Djibouti were not greater in HIV-infected patients. Most additional mortality observed in HIV-infected tuberculosis patients (10.5% versus 2%) was due to progression of HIV infection. PMID:12192716
Distabile, Paula; Dubler, Nancy N.; Solomon, Liza; KLEIN, ROBERT S.
Women at risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are often poor and members of racial or ethnic minorities. In addition to legal concerns that might be common among persons with similar sociodemographic characteristics, HIV infection adds the potential of possible stigma and discrimination, as well as the prospect of illness and increased mortality. To determine women's perceptions of need for and access to legal services and whether such perceptions are affected by HIV infectio...
Marlow, Elizabeth; White, Mary C.; Tulsky, Jacqueline P.; Estes, Milton; Menendez, Enrique
Recidivism is a pervasive problem facing the incarcerated. Incarcerated persons who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected often have multiple risk factors associated with initial incarceration and recidivism, in particular, injection drug use. Yet, some jails provide case management for HIV-infected inmates to provide continuity of health care, which might have positive effects on reentry into the community. We sought to measure recidivism and factors related to recidivism in an HIV...
CHAMIE, Gabriel; Luetkemeyer, Annie; Charlebois, Edwin; Havlir, Diane V.
An enhanced, refocused research agenda is critical to reducing the burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in developing countries. TB threatens HIV-infected patients before and after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, is difficult to diagnose, is rapidly fatal when it is drug resistant, and is being spread in clinics and hospitals. Research priorities include improved and point-of-care TB diagnostics; TB treatment and prevention during HIV infection,...
Badiee, Jayraan; Riggs, Patricia K; Rooney, Alexandra S.; Vaida, Florin; GRANT, Igor; Atkinson, J.Hampton; MOORE, David J.
Assessing medication adherence in already difficult-to-treat HIV-infected subpopulations presents a unique challenge. The objective of this study was to compare different approaches to assessing medication adherence: (1) electronic medication monitoring, (2) standardized self-report questionnaire, and (3) self-report visual analogue scale, and to determine whether antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence measures differed for HIV-infected persons with bipolar disorder (HIV+?/BD+) as compared to...
Kirkham, C. M.; Lobb, D J
OBJECTIVE: To describe the health, social environment, medical care received and satisfaction with medical care of HIV-infected women in British Columbia. DESIGN: Self-administered 75-item questionnaire distributed by mail or in person between March 1994 and February 1996 through community AIDS organizations and physicians' offices. SETTING: British Columbia. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 110 HIV-positive women. OUTCOME MEASURES: Sociodemographic data, risk factors for HIV infection, details about...
Parczewski, Milosz; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, Magdalena; Bander, Dorota; Urba?ska, Anna; Sta?czak, Grzegorz; Boro?-Kaczmarska, Anna
Abstract The number non-B subtype HIV-1 infections in Europe have been increasing even though major regional differences have been observed. This trend was investigated in northwestern Poland using sequence and epidemiological data from a cohort of 102 HIV-1-infected patients from Szczecin, Poland. HIV-1 subtypes were defined by phylogenetic analysis of viral reverse transcriptase- and protease-partial coding regions and results were compared with online subtyping by Standford and ...
Sango, Kaori; JOSEPH, Aviva; Patel, Mahesh; Osiecki, Kristin; Dutta, Monica; GOLDSTEIN, Harris
Humanized Rag2-/-?c-/- mice (Hu-DKO mice) become populated with functional human T cells, B cells, and dendritic cells following transplantation with human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and represent an improved model for studying HIV infection in vivo. In the current study we demonstrated that intrasplenic inoculation of hu-DKO mice with HIV-1 initiated a higher level of HIV infection than intravenous or intraperitoneal inoculation, associated with a reciprocal decrease in peripheral CD4+ T...
Desalegn Dejene; Tesfaye Markos; HaileMichael Yohannes; Deribew Amare; Wogi Ajeme; Daba Shallo
Abstract Background The synergy between tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection on perceived stigma is not well studied. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of TB/HIV co-infection on perceived stigma in selected hospitals of Oromiya region, Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from February to April, 2009 in Adama, Nekemet and Jimma Specialized hospitals. Data were collected by trained HIV counselors. A structured questionnaire which c...
Chi Dola; Sean Kim; Jennifer Sackrison; Jason Cesario; Jocelyn Wertz
Combination testing with anti-HIV Elisa and Western blot is both sensitive and specific for diagnosis of established HIV-1 infection but could not detect acute HIV infection (AHI). AHI is a time of extremely high viral load, which may correlate to increased risk of horizontal or vertical transmission. Thus, early identification of AHI could allow for interventions to decrease transmission. However, recognition of AHI can be challenging as symptoms could be absent or nonspecific, therefore, AH...
Molina, Patricia E.; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve
Alcohol abuse is the most common and costly form of drug abuse in the United States. It is well known that alcohol abuse contributes to risky behaviors associated with greater incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. As HIV has become a more chronic disease since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, it is expected that alcohol use disorders will have an adverse effect on the health of HIV-infected patients. The biomedical consequences of acute and chronic alcohol abu...
Emonet Stephane; Dettwiler Sarah; Der Hagopian Isabelle; Yerly Sabine; Haustein Thomas; Strasser Susannah; Hirschel Bernard
Abstract Introduction Timely diagnosis of primary HIV infection is important to prevent further transmission of HIV. Primary HIV infection may take place without symptoms or may be associated with fever, pharyngitis or headache. Sometimes, the clinical presentation includes aseptic meningitis or cutaneous lesions. Intestinal ulceration due to opportunistic pathogens (cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, Toxoplasma gondii) has been described in patients with AIDS. However, although invasion of...
Gerome Escota; Nur Önen
Tobacco use is inextricably linked to a number of health risks both in the general and HIV-infected populations. There is, however, a dearth of research on effective tobacco control programs among people living with HIV, and especially among adolescents, young adults and pregnant women, groups with heightened or increased vulnerability secondary to tobacco use. Adolescents and young adults constitute a growing population of persons living with HIV infection. Early and continued tobacco use in...
Korzeniewska-Kosela, M.; Fitzgerald, J. M.; Vedal, S.; Allen, E. A.; Schechter, M.T.; Lawson, L; Phillips, P.; Black, W; Montaner, J S.
OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical features, treatment and outcome of all known cases of tuberculosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in British Columbia between 1984 and 1990. DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Provincial tuberculosis registry and university-affiliated HIV clinic. PATIENTS: All people with HIV infection in whom active tuberculosis was diagnosed during the study period. RESULTS: All 40 patients identified were men; their mean age was 38 y...
Fenner, Lukas; Egger, Matthias; Bodmer, Thomas; Furrer, Hansjakob; Ballif, Marie; Battegay, Manuel; Helbling, Peter; Fehr, Jan; GSPONER, Thomas; Rieder, Hans L.; Zwahlen, Marcel; Hoffmann, Matthias; Bernasconi, Enos; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra
The phylogeographic population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests local adaptation to sympatric human populations. We hypothesized that HIV infection, which induces immunodeficiency, will alter the sympatric relationship between M. tuberculosis and its human host. To test this hypothesis, we performed a nine-year nation-wide molecular-epidemiological study of HIV-infected and HIV-negative patients with tuberculosis (TB) between 2000 and 2008 in Switzerland. We analyzed 518 TB pa...
Sendi, P.; Günthard, H.F.; Simcock, M; Ledergerber, B.; Schüpbach, J; Battegay, M.
BACKGROUND: Genotypic antiretroviral resistance testing (GRT) in HIV infection with drug resistant virus is recommended to optimize antiretroviral therapy, in particular in patients with virological failure. We estimated the clinical effect, cost and cost-effectiveness of using GRT as compared to expert opinion in patients with antiretroviral treatment failure. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of HIV disease to describe disease progression in HIV-infected patients with treatment fai...
Flynn, Neil M.; Pollet, Stephen M.; Van Horne, James R.; Elvebakk, Ranveig; Harper, Scott D.; Carlson, James R.
Dental professionals have relatively frequent skin contact with saliva and small amounts of blood of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this exposure, none of 255 dentists, hygienists and chairside assistants had the antibody to HIV following an estimated 189 or more exposures. These data provide further evidence that casual contact with the saliva of HIV-infected persons, such as may occur in households, the workplace or in public places, is unlikely to re...
Phillips, Usha K.; Rosenberg, Michael G; Dobroszycki, Joanna; Katz, Mindy; Sansary, Jorge; Golatt, Mindy A.; Wiznia, Andrew A; Abadi, Jacobo
This is a retrospective comparison of pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV-infection (PAH) with a cohort of pregnant women with behaviorally acquired HIV-infection (BAH). PAH cases (11 women) included all pregnant adolescents followed at our HIV clinic from January 2000 to January 2009. BAH cases (27 women) were randomly selected from all deliveries within the study period at the same institution. Demographics, mode of delivery, CD4+ counts, and viral loads (VLs) before, during, and s...
Renata A. OTERO
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2, varicella zoster virus (VZV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, and cytomegalovirus (CMV by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4% HIV-infected children and 13 (27% control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%, followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%. The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104 or healthy control children (p = 0.251, or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447. Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001. These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.
Otero, Renata A; Nascimento, Flávia N N; Souza, Ivete P R; Silva, Raquel C; Lima, Rodrigo S; Robaina, Tatiana F; Câmara, Fernando P; Santos, Norma; Castro, Gloria F
The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis. PMID:26200962
Jespersen, Sanne; Tolstrup, Martin
BACKGROUND: With the widespread use of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Africa, the risk of drug resistance has increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate levels of HIV-1 resistance among patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 dual infections, treated with ART, at a large HIV clinic in Guinea-Bissau. FINDINGS: Patients were selected from the Bissau HIV cohort. All patients had HIV-1 or HIV-1/2 dual infection, a CD4 cell count performed before and 3-12 months after starting ART, and a corresponding available plasma sample. We measured viral load in patients with HIV-1 (n?=?63) and HIV-1/2 dual (n?=?16) infections a median of 184 days after starting ART (IQR: 126-235 days). In patients with virological failure (defined as viral load >1000 copies/ml) and with sufficient plasma available, we performed an HIV-1 genotypic resistance test. Thirty-six patients (46%) had virological failure. The CD4 cell count did not predict treatment failure. Of the 36 patients with virological failure, we performed a resistance test in 15 patients (42%), and nine patients (9/15; 60%) had resistance mutations. The most common mutation was K103N, which confers high-level resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI). No major mutations against protease inhibitors (PI) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed that patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 dual infections in Guinea-Bissau had a high rate of virological failure and rapid development of NNRTI resistance. It remains to be determined whether a more robust, PI-based treatment regimen might benefit this population more than NNRTIs.
Full Text Available The development of vaccines to treat and prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection has been hampered by an incomplete understanding of “protective” immune responses against HIV. Natural control of HIV-1 infection is associated with T-cell responses against HIV-1 Gag proteins, particularly CD8+ T-cell responses restricted by “protective” HLA-B alleles, but other immune responses also contribute to immune control. These immune responses appear to include IgG antibodies to HIV-1 Gag proteins, interferon-a-dependant natural killer (NK cell responses and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (pDC responses. Here, it is proposed that isotype diversification of IgG antibodies against HIV-1 Gag proteins, to include IgG2, as well as IgG3 and IgG1 antibodies, will broaden the function of the antibody response and facilitate accessory cell responses against HIV-1 by NK cells and pDCs. We suggest that this should be investigated as a vaccination strategy for HIV-1 infection.
We recently showed that both replicating and resting cells cultivated with ganciclovir (GCV) were killed when challenged with vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped HIV-1-based virus-like particles (VLPs) carrying the Nef7 (i.e., an HIV-1 Nef mutant incorporating in virions at high levels)/herpes simplex virus-1 thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) fusion product. On this basis, a novel anti-HIV therapeutic approach based on Nef7/TK VLPs expressing X4 or R5 HIV cell receptor complexes has been attempted. We here report that (CD4-CXCR4) and (CD4-CCR5) Nef7-based VLPs efficiently enter cells infected by X4- or R5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. Importantly, the delivery of the VLP-associated Nef7/TK led to cell death upon GCV treatment. Of interest, VLPs were effective also against non-replicating, HIV-1-infected primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV-targeted VLPs represent a promising candidate for the treatment of persistently HIV-1-infected cells that are part of virus reservoirs resistant to HAART therapies
Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie
To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…
Paula W. Hruz
Full Text Available A complete understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to HIV-associated insulin resistance remains elusive. Complex interrelationships between genetic predisposition, disease-related body changes and multidrug therapy all contribute to alterations in glucose homeostasis. These abnormalities can be differentiated between acute and reversible changes directly induced by HAART medications and more chronic and less reversible changes due to the development of lipodystrophy and hyperlipidemia. Implicated pathways include changes in adipokine secretion, insulin signaling, lipid homeostasis and disease-related increases in inflammatory mediators. The insulin responsive facilitative glucose transporter GLUT4 is the first molecule to have been identified as a direct target of HIV protease inhibitors. Efforts to elucidate the mechanisms directly responsible for the evolution of insulin resistance during HIV infection and therapy will be greatly assisted by the further identification and characterization of direct molecular targets amenable to pharmacologic therapy and/or the development of newer antiretroviral agents that do not adversely affect these target proteins.