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Sample records for violence hiv infection

  1. Association of Violence Victimization with Inconsistent Condom Use in HIV-Infected Persons

    Chuang, Cynthia H.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The association of violence victimization with current condom use in HIV-infected persons was examined in this cross-sectional study. The HIV—Alcohol Longitudinal Cohort (HIV-ALC) recruited HIV-infected participants with a history of alcohol problems. Interviews assessed violence histories and current sexual behaviors. Of the 349 participants (79% men), 38% reported inconsistent condom use and 80% reported a violence history. Lifetime sexual violence was reported by 40% and lifetime physical violence (without sexual violence) by 40%. Participants reporting lifetime sexual violence had greater odds of inconsistent condom use than participants without any history of violence. A history of childhood sexual violence was also associated with greater odds of inconsistent condom use than participants without a history of childhood sexual violence. A history of sexual violence may in part explain HIV-infected persons’ greater risk for transmitting HIV through high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:16609828

  2. Intimate partner violence among women with HIV infection in rural Uganda: critical implications for policy and practice

    Osinde Michael O; Kaye Dan K; Kakaire Othman

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interview...

  3. Intimate partner violence and risk of HIV infection in Pakistan

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    Globally, violence against women is increasing, and is currently recognized as a major public health problem with significant consequences to women’s health. The detrimental health effects such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder have been observed in abused women. Violence, like in other Asian countries, is a huge problem in Pakistan.

  4. Intimate partner violence and risk of HIV infection in Pakistan

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Globally, violence against women is increasing, and is currently recognized as a major public health problem with significant consequences to women’s health. The detrimental health effects such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder have been observed in abused women. Violence, like in other Asian countries, is a huge problem in Pakistan.

  5. Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Patassi, Akouda; Woronowski, Aurore; Karyiyare, Benjamin; Lawson-Evi, Annette K.; Leroy, Valériane; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-se...

  6. Civil war, sexual violence and HIV infections: Evidence from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Kalonda-Kanyama, Isaac

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of conflict and conflict-related vulnerability factors, namely sexual violence and economic vulnerability, on HIV prevalence rates. We find that HIV prevalence rates are higher in conflict-affected regions of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) than in non-conflict regions, and that sexual violence and economic vulnerability significantly affect HIV prevalence rates. Specifically we find that (i) HIV prevalence is 1.64 % higher in war-affected zones than...

  7. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Ying Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV and HIV infection among women. Methods: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ≥15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results: Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies, South Africa (four studies, East Africa (10 studies, India (three studies, Brazil (one study and multiple low-income countries (two studies] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.22 (1.01, 1.46] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.28 (1.00, 1.64] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.44 (1.10, 1.87]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 2.00 (1.24, 3.22 and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.41 (1.16, 1.73] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions: Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among

  8. Psychosocial correlates of gender-based violence among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in three US cities.

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Weber, Kathleen M; Schechter, Gabrielle E; Connors, Nina C; Gousse, Yolene; Young, Mary A; Cohen, Mardge H

    2014-05-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among women with and at risk for HIV, yet little is known about the GBV associated psychological factors that could be modifiable through behavioral interventions. The current study examined the associations between some of these psychological factors (i.e., hopelessness, consideration of future consequences, self esteem), mental health symptoms, substance abuse, and GBV among a sample of 736 HIV-infected and sociodemographically similar uninfected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Results indicated high rates of lifetime GBV among the sample (58%), as well as high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (22.2%). HIV-infected women were more likely to be hopeless and to experience lower consideration of future consequences as compared to uninfected women. Multivariable analysis indicated that current non-injection drug use and a history of injection drug use were the main correlates of GBV and CSA, even when other psychosocial variables were included in analytic models. Being born outside of the US reduced the likelihood of GBV and CSA. Future research directions and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24724987

  9. Intimate partner violence among women with HIV infection in rural Uganda: critical implications for policy and practice

    Osinde Michael O

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0

  10. Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection

    Juan Burgos-Soto

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive

  11. Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    Murray, Laura K; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...

  12. Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh

    Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymo...

  13. Impact of Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence on CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Decay in HIV Infected Women: Longitudinal Study

    Rachel Jewkes; Kristin Dunkle; Nwabisa Jama-Shai; Glenda Gray

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in many settings, but little is known about its impact on cellular immunity especially in HIV infected women, and if any impact differs according to the form of IPV. We tested hypotheses that exposure to IPV, non-partner rape, hunger, pregnancy, depression and substance abuse predicted change in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell count in a dataset of 103 HIV infected young women aged 15-26 enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled tria...

  14. Violence experiences among HIV-infected women and perceptions of male perpetrators' roles: a concurrent mixed method study.

    Njie-Carr, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500

  15. Gender based violence and women's vulnerability towards HIV/AIDS in 6 Indian Districts

    Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Malviya, Alankar

    2008-01-01

    Background: Violence against women is instrumental in determining a woman’s risk of HIV infection, and has been identified as a key driving factor behind the pandemic. Very little is known about the interplay between violence against women and HIV risks, even though a reduction in violence against women has been identified both nationally and internationally as a key strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS infection. India is relatively poorly researched in terms of the context of the HIV pand...

  16. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

    Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.

  17. Social factors related to risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections/HIV among Asian massage parlor workers in San Francisco.

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Wong, Serena; Le, Mai Nhung; Operario, Don

    2004-12-01

    Asian women who work at massage parlors in San Francisco have high levels of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and being victims of violence, which jeopardizes their health and wellbeing. On the basis of mapping, the targeted districts in San Francisco where massage parlors were located, 23 massage parlors were identified where commercial sex activity took place. Using snowball-sampling methods, 43 Asian female massage parlor workers were recruited for focus groups; 21 participants were Vietnamese and 22 were Thai. Qualitative analyses revealed frequent exposure to violence including verbal or physical abuse from customers and gang members, as well as persistent HIV risk behaviors associated with multiple daily sex partners, inconsistent condom use with customers, and forced sex. Social factors related to gender, immigration status, and socioeconomic status appeared to be closely tied to the health and wellbeing of Asian masseuses. Study findings suggest that individualized as well as community-level interventions are necessary to improve these women's health and decrease their prolonged exposure to risks for STIs and violence. PMID:15690120

  18. Impact of exposure to intimate partner violence on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell decay in HIV infected women: longitudinal study.

    Rachel Jewkes

    Full Text Available Intimate partner violence (IPV is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in many settings, but little is known about its impact on cellular immunity especially in HIV infected women, and if any impact differs according to the form of IPV. We tested hypotheses that exposure to IPV, non-partner rape, hunger, pregnancy, depression and substance abuse predicted change in CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell count in a dataset of 103 HIV infected young women aged 15-26 enrolled in a cluster randomised controlled trial. Multiple regression models were fitted to measure rate of change in CD4 and CD8 and including terms for age, person years of CD4+/CD8+ T-cell observation, HIV positivity at baseline, and stratum. Exposure variables included drug use, emotional, physical or sexual IPV exposure, non-partner rape, pregnancy and food insecurity. Mean CD4+ T cell count at baseline (or first HIV+ test was 567.6 (range 1121-114. Participants were followed for an average of 1.3 years. The magnitude of change in CD4 T-cells was significantly associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse from a current partner at baseline or first HIV+ test (Coeff -132.9 95% CI -196.4, -69.4 p<0.0001 and drug use (Coeff -129.9 95% CI -238.7, -21.2 p=0.02. It was not associated with other measures. The change in CD8 T-cells was associated with having ever experienced emotional abuse at baseline or prior to the first HIV+ test (Coeff -178.4 95%CI -330.2, -26.5 p=0.02. In young ART-naive HIV positive women gender-based violence exposure in the form of emotional abuse is associated with a faster rate of decline in markers of cellular immunity. This highlights the importance of attending to emotional abuse when studying the physiological impact of IPV experience and the mechanisms of its impact on women's health.

  19. Microbiome in HIV infection

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  20. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Ramesh Sowmya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19% reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p  Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.

  1. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors′ personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  2. Is Intimate Partner and Client Violence Associated with Condomless Anal Intercourse and HIV Among Male Sex Workers in Lima, Peru?

    George, Paul E; Bayer, Angela M; Garcia, Patricia J; Perez-Lu, Jose E; Burke, Jessica G; Coates, Thomas J; Gorbach, Pamina M

    2016-09-01

    Violence experience can increase HIV risk behaviors; however, literature is scarce on violence among male sex workers (MSWs) globally. In 2014, 210 Peruvian MSWs (median age 24.9) were interviewed about their experience of physical, emotional, and sexual violence and condom use with non-paying intimate partners and clients and were tested for HIV. Multivariable models examined relationships between violence in the past 6 months, condomless anal intercourse (CLAI) in the past 3 months and HIV infection. HIV infection (24 %), CLAI (43 %), being a violence victim (42 %) and perpetrator (39 %) were common. In separate multivariable models, being a violence victim [adjusted prevalence ratio aPR = 1.49 (95 % CI 1.09-2.03)] and perpetrator [aPR = 1.39 (1.03-1.87)] were associated with CLAI. Further, being a victim [aPR = 1.65 (1.04-2.62)] was associated with HIV infection. Violence, which was significantly associated with CLAI and HIV infection, is common among Peruvian MSWs, reinforcing the importance of violence awareness and prevention as HIV risk-reduction strategies. PMID:26880321

  3. Increased risk of HIV in women experiencing physical partner violence in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Fonck, Karoline; Leye, Els; Els, Leye; Kidula, Nancy; Ndinya-Achola, Jeconiah; Temmerman, Marleen

    2005-09-01

    As part of a study on etiology of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among 520 women presenting at the STI clinic in Nairobi, data on partner violence and its correlates were analyzed. Prevalence of lifetime physical violence was 26%, mainly by an intimate partner (74%). HIV seropositive women had an almost twofold increase in lifetime partner violence. Women with more risky sexual behavior such as early sexual debut, number of sex partners, history of condom use and of STI, experienced more partner violence. Parity and miscarriage were associated with a history of lifetime violence. We found an inverse association between schooling and level of violence. Six percent of the women had been raped. Gender-based violence screening and services should be integrated into voluntary counseling and testing programs as well as in reproductive health programs. Multi-sector approaches are needed to change prevailing attitudes towards violence against women. PMID:16133903

  4. Preventing HIV infection.

    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  5. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  6. ORAL CANDIDIASIS AND HIV INFECTION

    Prabhu, Rachana Vishnudas

    2013-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic, caused by infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dramatically illustrates the awesome transmission capabilities of disease. Oral manifestations of HIV have been important in identification of patients harboring the HIV virus and in predicting the decline in their immune system Oral candidiasis is one of the earliest premonitory signs of HIV infection and its diagnosis may have grave prognostic implications for the eventual dev...

  7. Women victims of sexual violence: adherence to chemoprevention of HIV.

    Diniz, Normélia Maria Freire; de Almeida, Lílian Conceição Guimarães; dos S Ribeiro, Bárbara Cristina; de Macêdo, Valéria Góes

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the adherence of women victims of sexual violence, to AIDS chemoprevention treatment. A quantitative study was carried out at a care service to victims of sexual violence in Salvador (Bahia, Brazil). Study participants were 172 women. Data were collected through interviews with forms and consultation of patient files. The results showed that 45.4% of the abused women were teenagers and 40.7% of the attended women were raped. Only 54% of the women were advised to use antiretrovirals to prevent HIV. Adherence to treatment occurred in 57.4% of cases and discontinuity corresponded to 42.6%. Non-adherence to treatment was attributed to psychological or emotional disorders and non-understanding of the established treatment. Therefore, it is important that professionals pay careful attention in order to perceive the conditions that might increase women's vulnerability to the infection. PMID:17375226

  8. Ocular manifestations of HIV infection.

    Jabs, D A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of ocular complications and the clinical outcomes of these complications in patients with various stages of HIV infection. METHODS: Retrospective review of all HIV-infected patients seen in an AIDS ophthalmology clinic from November 1983 through December 31, 1992. RESULTS: Eleven-hundred sixty-three patients were seen for ophthalmologic evaluation. Of these, 781 had the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), 226 had symptomatic HIV infection (AIDs-rel...

  9. Laboratory diagnostics for HIV infection

    Stefano Buttò

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection is fundamental for detecting and monitoring infection. Many diagnostic tools are available that are based on both detection of HIV-specific antibodies and virus antigen, or nucleic acid. As technology evolves, HIV testing assays are being improved providing better sensitivity and specificity. In this short review, we summarize the common and new methodologies that are being used in laboratories, from the HIV antibody-based assays to the new tests for the detection of HIV nucleic acids.

  10. 'That pregnancy can bring noise into the family': exploring intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy in the context of HIV in Zimbabwe

    Simukai Shamu; Naeemah Abrahams; Marleen Temmerman; Tamara Shefer; Christina Zarowsky

    2012-01-01

    Background: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods: This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate p...

  11. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; NIERI, TANYA; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention w...

  12. Morphine Enhances HIV Infection of Neonatal Macrophages

    Li, Yuan; MERRILL, JEFFREY D.; Mooney, Kathy; Song, Li; Wang, Xu; GUO, CHANG-JIANG; Savani, Rashmin C; Metzger, David S.; Douglas, Steven D.; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2003-01-01

    Perinatal transmission of HIV accounts for almost all new HIV infections in children. There is an increased risk of perinatal transmission of HIV with maternal illicit substance abuse. Little is known about neonatal immune system alteration and subsequent susceptibility to HIV infection after morphine exposure. We investigated the effects of morphine on HIV infection of neonatal monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Morphine significantly enhanced HIV infection of neonatal MDM. Morphine-induced...

  13. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future ...

  14. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  15. Sexual Safety Planning as an HIV Prevention Strategy for Survivors of Domestic Violence.

    Foster, Jill; Núñez, Ana; Spencer, Susan; Wolf, Judith; Robertson-James, Candace

    2016-06-01

    Victims of domestic violence (DV) are not only subject to physical and emotional abuse but may also be at increased risk for less recognized dangers from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted pathogens. Because of the close link between DV and sexual risk, women need to be educated about the consequences of acquiring a life-threatening sexually transmitted infection, risk reduction measures, and how to access appropriate HIV services for diagnosis and treatment. It is therefore critical for DV workers to receive sufficient training about the link between DV and HIV risk so that sexual safety planning can be incorporated into activities with their clients in the same way as physical safety plans. In this article, we discuss how the Many Hands Working Together project provides interactive training for workers in DV and DV-affiliated agencies to increase their knowledge about HIV and teach sexual safety planning skills to achieve HIV risk reduction. PMID:26595667

  16. Domestic Violence Shelters as Prevention Agents for HIV/AIDS?

    Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.

    2008-01-01

    The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…

  17. Stages of HIV Infection

    ... Hospitalization and Palliative Care Friends & Family Dating and Marriage Family Planning Mixed-Status Couples Discrimination Legal Issues ... National HIV/AIDS and Aging Awareness Day National Gay Men's HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Latino AIDS ...

  18. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  19. Associação entre violência por parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e infecção por HIV Asociación entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja íntima e infección por VIH Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection

    Claudia Barros

    2011-04-01

    "seropositivas para el VIH", con "sospecha de VIH" y aquellas que buscaron los servicios por otros motivos. La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima en la vida fue categorizada por gravedad y recurrencia de los episodios de violencia. La asociación con la infección fue evaluada por el modelo de Poisson con variancia robusta y ajustada por variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y reproductivas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia fue de 59,8%. Sufrir violencia reiterada y grave presentó mayor asociación de infección confirmada por el VIH (RP=1,91. La violencia independiente de la gravedad y de la recurrencia de los episodios presentó mayor asociación para la sospecha de infección por VIH (RP= 1,29. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima tiene papel relevante en las situaciones de sospecha y confirmación de la infección por el HIV, siendo esencial incluir su detección, control y prevención como parte de la atención integral a la salud de las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering

  20. Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277

  1. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    ... this page Get email updates Order publications Featured Research The Path to a Cure for Hepatitis C ... Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area Research on HIV Co-Infections HIV-infected people are ...

  2. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    ... fullstory_159344.html HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System But symptoms tend to subside once antiretroviral drugs ... mild, it is clear that HIV affects the nervous system within days of infection," she said in a ...

  3. Violence, dignity and HIV vulnerability: street sex work in Serbia.

    Simić, Milena; Rhodes, Tim

    2009-01-01

    Sex work can be contextualized by violence, social and material inequality, and HIV vulnerability. We undertook a qualitative study to explore female and transvestite sex workers' accounts (n = 31) of HIV risk environment in Belgrade and Pancevo, Serbia. Violence emerged as a key theme. Accounts emphasise the ubiquity of multiple forms of everyday violence - physical, emotional, social - in street sex work scenes, linked to police as much as clients. We highlight the salience of emotions in sex work risk management, in which the preservation of dignity is of prime importance. Accounts draw upon narratives of hygiene and responsibility which, we argue, seek to resist portrayals, normative to this setting, of sex workers as contaminated and irresponsible. Findings highlight how the ubiquity of the risk of violence in street sex work scenes reflects institutionalised social inequalities and injustices. Sex workers are inevitably participant in the cycle of symbolic violence they seek to resist. The challenges for HIV prevention are therefore considerable, and require interventions which not only seek to foster safer micro-environments of sex work but structural changes in the welfare, criminal justice and other social institutions which reproduce the cycle of violence faced by sex workers day to day. PMID:19144087

  4. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). PMID:25381267

  5. Intimate partner violence, consenting to HIV testing and HIV status among Zambian women.

    Nelson, Kara A; Ferrance, Jacquelyn L; Masho, Saba W

    2016-09-01

    Sub-Saharan African countries are heavily burdened with HIV, which disproportionately affects women of reproductive age. Extant literature is inconsistent regarding the link between intimate partner violence and HIV. Data from the 2007 Zambian Demographic Health Survey of women aged 15-49 (n = 5014) were analysed. The influence of abuse by a current or former husband on consent to HIV testing and HIV positivity were evaluated. The unadjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and consent to testing for HIV. Stratified analysis showed that there was a statistically significant association between intimate partner violence and HIV testing in rural areas but not in urban areas. However, the association lost its significance when adjusted for confounding factors. No statistically significant association was found between intimate partner violence and HIV-positive status. It is encouraging that women who experienced intimate partner were testing for HIV. Prevention efforts should continue addressing the needs of this population. PMID:26185042

  6. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    ... the roles of HIV, hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; 24(31):5005–5009. [PubMed Abstract] Massad LS, Seaberg EC, Wright RL, et al. Squamous cervical lesions in women with human immunodeficiency virus: long-term follow-up. ...

  7. Treatment of primary HIV infection

    M.L. Grijsen

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the treatment of PHI. Early cART transiently lowered the viral setpoint and deferred the need for restart of cART during chronic HIV infection, which was most likely caused by the effects of the CD4 gain during treatment and the transient lowering of the viral setpoint. Eve

  8. Federal Violence Against Women Act authorizes HIV testing.

    1998-01-23

    The 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a lower court ruling requiring a convicted kidnapper who sexually assaulted his victim to undergo HIV testing. The 1994 amendments to the Federal Violence Against Women Act empower Federal courts to order criminal defendants charged with sex offenses to be tested for HIV. The defendant, [name removed], argued that the judge did not have inherent authority to order an HIV test. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to kidnapping and repeatedly raping a woman over a three-day period. PMID:11364957

  9. Neurologic Complications in Treated HIV-1 Infection.

    Bhatia, Nisha S; Chow, Felicia C

    2016-07-01

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, with HIV-infected individuals living longer and reaching older age. Neurological disease remains common in treated HIV, however, due in part to ongoing inflammation and immune activation that persist in chronic infection. In this review, we highlight recent developments in our understanding of several clinically relevant neurologic complications that can occur in HIV infection despite treatment, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, symptomatic CSF escape, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27170369

  10. Toddler "Functionally Cured" of HIV Infection

    ... Mississippi Medical Center led a team of laboratory investigators who provided HIV antiretroviral therapy for 18 months to a baby ... The landmark discovery was made by two pediatric HIV experts, Deborah ... findings at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections ( ...

  11. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard;

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).......To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  12. Correlates of intimate partner violence among HIV-positive women in southwest Nigeria

    Ms. O Ezebuka, MSc; N Sam-Agudu, MD; S Erekaha, BSc; M Dairo, MSc

    2015-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of domestic violence among Nigerian women increased from 21% in 2011 to 30% in 2013, with an estimated two-thirds of these women experiencing violence from a male intimate partner. Previous studies have found a correlation between HIV-positive status and domestic violence in Nigerian women. In this study, we aimed to identify different forms of, and factors associated with, intimate partner violence (IPV) among women living with HIV in southwestern Nigeria. Metho...

  13. The Structural Violence of Patient Participation in Cambodian HIV Services.

    Bureau-Point, Eve; Phan, Sovannoty

    2016-07-01

    Participation of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) has become a new standard of good governance in HIV services worldwide, and most HIV organizations make reference to it. This standard has had a considerable impact in Cambodia, where hundreds of PLHA have been recruited by organizations to participate in the development of HIV services. However, participation is a vague concept with various interpretations and applications. Drawing on ethnographic research conducted between 2006 and 2008, this article first clarifies what promoters expect from patient participation in Cambodia and then examines its meanings and uses for one category of PLHA working in hospitals (hereafter "volunteers"). It shows that volunteers have played a valuable role in the scaling-up of access to care and treatment policy, and that although international organizations in Cambodia see patient participation as empowering PLHA, these volunteers face structural violence caused by inherent conflicts within Cambodia's strict health care hierarchy. PMID:25904677

  14. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida;

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  15. HIV, HCV & Leprosy co-infection.

    George, A; Kanish, B

    2014-01-01

    In the era where Hansen's disease has achieved elimination status in India, co-infection with HIV can possibly cause a resurgence of this disease. A young intravenous drug abuser was found to have triple affliction, where HIV and HCV infection were discovered on testing after the patient was clinically diagnosed to have Hansen's disease. To our knowledge, there has been no case reported where leprosy was seen with HIV and HCV infection. We are reporting a patient with lepromatous Hansen's disease in type 2 reaction in whom HIV and HCV was incidentally diagnosed. PMID:26118224

  16. Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.

    McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

  17. The natural history of HIV infection

    Sabin, C. A.; Lundgren, J D

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanis...

  18. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten; Rönsholt, Frederikke; Trøseid, Marius; Ullum, Henrik; Gerstoft, Jan; Johansson, Per I.; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  19. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    ... within 1–2 months after becoming infected, and signs may disappear within 1–4 weeks. HIV is often mistaken for other types of viral ... to consult with your doctor to confirm your diagnosis. Who's At Risk More than 950,000 Americans may be infected with HIV, and one fourth of them may not know ...

  20. Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs

  1. Coinfection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, JH

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.

  2. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  3. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients.

    Chan, Jasper F W; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  4. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  5. [Forensic and medical expertise of sexual transmission of venereal diseases and HIV infection].

    Dmitrieva, O A; Pigolkin, Iu I; Iutskovskiĭ, A D

    2003-01-01

    Although, there is a steady growth in the total number of sexually transmitted infections (STI), the forensic medical method is a rare expertise type as applicable to venereal and HIV infections. Since sexually abused persons are an STI risk category, they must be diagnosed as soon as possible. A micro-trauma of sexual violence, if detected, is an important finding because it is an open entry gate for STI. The specialist in skin and venereal diseases must examine all victims and all suspected of raping or of sexual violence to rule out the possibility of venereal disease infection. PMID:12939840

  6. Maraviroc in the treatment of HIV infection

    Ray, Neelanjana

    2009-01-01

    While a successful HIV vaccine will likely take several more years to become a reality, many anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs are currently available to treat HIV infection, and their efficacious use has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of millions of HIV-infected individuals. A recent addition to these ARVs is a new class of drug that targets the HIV entry process by interfering with the action of the CCR5 coreceptor. The first licensed member of this class is a drug called maravi...

  7. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  8. "That pregnancy can bring noise into the family": exploring intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy in the context of HIV in Zimbabwe.

    Simukai Shamu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. METHODS: This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. RESULTS: While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. CONCLUSIONS: Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.

  9. HIV infection and maternal and child health.

    Ramachandran, P

    1988-01-01

    Collaborative studies to determine the consequences of pregnancy in HIV infected women have been begun in the last 2 years. Both HIV and HIV antibodies pass through the placenta, and 30-50% of infants born to HIV infected mothers are infected in utero. In developed countries it is feasible to screen pregnant women in high risk groups for HIV positivity. In developing countries, where heterosexual transmission is the main route of infection, there are no high risk groups, and it is not feasible to screen all pregnant women. Some data have shown that HIV infection in pregnancy is associated with intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and high infant mortality. There is no evidence that cesarean section reduces infection in neonates, and it should not be performed on HIV infected women. By 1987 almost 1.5% of AIDS cases in the US were in vertically infected infants. In Africa also the main factor in HIV in infancy is vertical transmission. AIDS in infancy follows 1 of 2 distinct patterns: failure to thrive and death from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia within the 1st year or else apparent health during infancy but death from opportunistic infections by age 3. HIV infection in childhood is uncommon and can usually be traced to blood transfusions or unsterilized needles used for vaccinations. Neurological symptoms often develop early in children. Breast feeding probably does not infect any infants who have not already been infected in utero, and in developing counties breast feeding is still the best assurance of total nutrition. Pooled, unpasteurized milk banks, on the other hand, represent an unnecessary danger, and milk donors should be screened. Since there is no evidence that routine immunization accelerates the course of HIV infection, and since mass screening is not feasible in developing countries, the World Health Organization recommends that routine immunizations be continued. Since the best protection from in utero HIV infection is the use of

  10. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  11. Contraception for HIV-Infected Adolescents.

    Kourtis, Athena P; Mirza, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Access to high-quality reproductive health care is important for adolescents and young adults with HIV infection to prevent unintended pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections, and secondary transmission of HIV to partners and children. As perinatally HIV-infected children mature into adolescence and adulthood and new HIV infections among adolescents and young adults continue to occur in the United States, medical providers taking care of such individuals often face issues related to sexual and reproductive health. Challenges including drug interactions between several hormonal methods and antiretroviral agents make decisions regarding contraceptive options more complex for these adolescents. Dual protection, defined as the use of an effective contraceptive along with condoms, should be central to ongoing discussions with HIV-infected young women and couples wishing to avoid pregnancy. Last, reproductive health discussions need to be integrated with discussions on HIV care, because a reduction in plasma HIV viral load below the level of detection (an "undetectable viral load") is essential for the individual's health as well as for a reduction in HIV transmission to partners and children. PMID:27573084

  12. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  13. THE MANAGEMENT OF HIV INFECTION IN PREGNANCY

    Clara Marcaelia Valerian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is a RNA retrovirus which causes the clinical disease termed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. Mother-to-child transmission is the main source of spreading HIV infection to the child with frequency is as high as 25-30%. This may occurred because of the intrapartum maternal blood exposure, infected genital tract secretions and during breastfeeding. The right combination of ARV treatment and elective section caesarean delivery has been proved to reduce the mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection prevalence and preventing obstetric complications significantly. Consultation and follow up with specialists is highly recommended.

  14. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages

    Venkata Subba Rao Atluri; Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel; Gabriella Garcia; Rahul Dev Jayant; Vidya Sagar; Thangavel Samikkannu; Adriana Yndart; Madhavan Nair

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG ...

  15. NKT cells in HIV-1 infection

    2008-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell population that have important immunoregulatory functions and have been shown to be involved in host immunity against a range of microorganisms. It also emerges that they might play a role in HIV-1 infection, and therefore be selectively depleted during the early stages of infection. Recent studies are reviewed regarding the dynamics of NKT depletion during HIV-I infection and their recovery under highly active antiretrovirai treatment (HAART). Possible mechanisms for these changes are proposed based on the recent developments in HIV pathogenesis. Further discussions are focused on HIV's disruption of NKT activation by downregulating CDId expression on antigen presentation cells (APC). HIV-1 protein Nefis found to play the major role by interrupting the intraceilular trafficking of nascent and recycling CDId molecules.

  16. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  17. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in adults. Hence, over the past decade, tuberculosis incidence has increased in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. The association between tuberculosis ...

  18. Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients

    Seda Tural Önür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is an immune system disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The purpose of this review is to investigate the correlation between an immune system destroyed by HIV and the frequency of pneumonia. Observational studies show that respiratory diseases are among the most common infections observed in HIV-infected patients. In addition, pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. According to articles in literature, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the use of prophylaxis provides favorable results for the treatment of pneumonia. Here we conduct a systematic literature review to determine the pathogenesis and causative agents of bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, fungal pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, viral pneumonia and parasitic infections and the prophylaxis in addition to ART and HAART for treatment. Pneumococcus-based polysaccharide vaccine is recommended to avoid some type of specific bacterial pneumonia.

  19. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  20. HIV Infection Seems to Affect Nervous System

    ... is a clinical fellow in the department of neurology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). " ... early [HIV] infection." Valcour is a professor of neurology at UCSF. "Additionally, the ubiquity of symptoms in ...

  1. Brucella canis causing infection in an HIV-infected patient.

    Lucero, Nidia E; Maldonado, Patricia I; Kaufman, Sara; Escobar, Gabriela I; Boeri, Eduardo; Jacob, Néstor R

    2010-06-01

    From the blood culture of an HIV-positive patient with a febrile syndrome (CD4 count 385 cells/microL and viral load nondetectable), Brucella canis was isolated. The patient was presumptively infected from his dogs, which tested positive, and showed good outcome after the therapy with doxycycline-ciprofloxacin, and the HIV infection would seem not to have been influenced by brucellosis. To our knowledge, no other case of B. canis in the setting of HIV infection has been reported in the literature, and the emerging zoonotic potential of the disease in urban areas should be considered. PMID:19725766

  2. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for HIV to avail access to testing and risk-reduction counseling for female victims of sexual violence in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Rahill, Guitele J; Joshi, Manisha; Hernandez, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Haiti has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Before the 2010 earthquake, Haitian women bore a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS, had lower HIV knowledge, less capacity to negotiate for safer sex, and limited access to HIV testing and risk-reduction (RR) counseling. Since 2010, there has been an increase in sexual violence against women, characterized by deliberate vaginal injuries by non-intimate partners, increasing victims' risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Needed is an adaptation of evidence-based interventions for HIV that include HIV testing and counseling for this stigmatized population. We reviewed several features of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 103 evidence-based interventions for HIV (e.g., measures used, participant risk characteristics, theoretical framework, outcome variables, and evidence tier) in an attempt to seek a feasibly adaptable evidence-based intervention for HIV that could be used for victims of sexual violence (VOSV). RESPECT, one of the reviewed evidence-based HIV interventions, comprises of one-on-one, client-focused HIV prevention/RR counseling, and RAPID HIV testing. Adapting RESPECT can enhance access to testing for Haitian VOSV and can influence their perceptions of HIV risk, and establishment of RR goals for future consensual intimate relations. Adapting and implementing RESPECT can increase uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions among Haitians and positively affect a region with high HIV prevalence and increased rates of sexual violence. PMID:26278002

  3. Interventions Targeting HIV-Infected Risky Drinkers

    Samet, Jeffrey H.; Walley, Alexander Y.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use is common among people infected with HIV and may contribute to adverse consequences such as reduced adherence to treatment regimens and increased likelihood of risky sexual behaviors. Therefore, researchers and clinicians are looking for treatment approaches to reduce harmful alcohol consumption in this population. However, clinical trials of existing treatment models are scarce. A literature review identified only 11 studies that included HIV-infected patients with past or curren...

  4. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  5. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Manoharan G; Padmavathy B; Vasanthi S; Gopalte R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8&#x...

  6. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients.

    Manoharan, G; Padmavathy, B K; Vasanthi, S; Gopalte, R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8% PMID:17664823

  7. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    Margalho, R; Velez, J; D. Guzman; Oliveira, J.; A. Saraiva da Cunha; A. Meliço Silvestre

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of ps...

  8. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. PMID:27109270

  9. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  10. HIV INFECTION AND AIDS: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND PREVENTION

    Mustafa Alparslan BABAYIÐIT

    Full Text Available Human Immune-deficiency Virus (HIV was first discovered in 1981 in the United States of America and the day of December 1, was announced as ?World AIDS Day? by WHO (World Health Organization. In Turkey, the first announcement of the people living with HIV was made in 1985. HIV/AIDS has killed more than 20 millions people and more than 16,000 people become newly infected each day since the first cases were diagnosed in 1981. It is estimated that 39.4 million people would have been infected with HIV at the end of 2004, with 4.9 million new cases that year. Sub-Saharan Africa is the worst-hit region, with 70 percent of all people living with HIV. In Africa alone, 10,000 people become infected each day. This year?s main theme is ?Women, Girls, HIV and AIDS,? which reflects a focus on how the effects of HIV/AIDS have significantly increased among women. Women now make up half of all people living with HIV worldwide with the number of 17,6 million. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(11.000: 280-290

  11. Herpesvirus infection of eye and brain in HIV infected patients

    Miller, R.; Howard, M; Frith, P.; Perrons, C.; Pecorella, I.; Lucas, S.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives: To compare histological with genome detection methods for diagnosis of herpesvirus infection in eye and brain of HIV infected patients undergoing necropsy and to correlate these findings with both antemortem clinical findings and postmortem evidence of extraocular herpesvirus infection, especially in the CNS.

  12. The natural history of HIV infection

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of...

  13. Modeling the within-host dynamics of HIV infection

    Alan S Perelson; Ribeiro, Ruy M.

    2013-01-01

    The new field of viral dynamics, based on within-host modeling of viral infections, began with models of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but now includes many viral infections. Here we review developments in HIV modeling, emphasizing quantitative findings about HIV biology uncovered by studying acute infection, the response to drug therapy and the rate of generation of HIV variants that escape immune responses. We show how modeling has revealed many dynamical features of HIV infection and...

  14. Mechanisms of Partner Violence Reduction in a Group HIV-Risk Intervention for Hispanic Women.

    McCabe, Brian E; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M; Peragallo, Nilda P; Mitrani, Victoria B

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test whether partner communication about HIV and/or alcohol intoxication mediated reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) in SEPA (Salud [health], Educación [education], Promoción [promotion], y [and] Autocuidado [self-care]), a culturally specific, theoretically based group HIV-risk reduction intervention for Hispanic women. SEPA had five sessions covering sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV prevention, partner communication, condom negotiation and use, and IPV. SEPA reduced IPV and alcohol intoxication, and improved partner communication compared with controls in a randomized trial with adult U.S. Hispanic women (SEPA, n = 274; delayed intervention control, n = 274) who completed structured interviews at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months post-baseline. Parallel process latent growth curve models indicated that partner communication about HIV mediated the reduction in male-to-female IPV in SEPA, B = -0.78, SE = 0.14, p< .001, but alcohol intoxication did not, B = -0.15, SE = 0.19, p = .431. Male-to-female IPV mediated the intervention effect on female-to-male IPV, B = -1.21, SE = 0.24, p< .001. Skills building strategies originally designed to enhance women's communication with their partners about sexual risk behaviors also worked to reduce male-to-female IPV, which in turn reduced female-to-male IPV. These strategies could be integrated into other types of health promotion interventions. PMID:25805845

  15. Thymic function in HIV-infection.

    Kolte, Lilian

    2013-04-01

    This thesis is based on seven previously published articles. The work was performed during my employment at The Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, as a scholarship student from 2000-2001 and as a research assistant in the period 2004-2010. HIV-infection is characterized by CD4+ cell depletion. The differences between patients in the degree of CD4+ cell recovery upon treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may in part be due to differences in the supply of naïve CD4+ cells from the thymus. The thymus atrophies with increasing age for which reason the adult thymus was previously assumed to be without function. The aim of these investigations was to examine the role of the thymus in different aspects of HIV-infection: In adult HIV-infected patients, during HIV-positive pregnancy, and in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) children born to HIV-infected mothers. Thymic size and output were determined in 25 adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART and in 10 controls. Larger thymic size was associated with higher CD4 counts and higher thymic output. Furthermore, patients with abundant thymic tissue seemed to have broader immunological repertoires, compared with patients with minimal thymic tissue. The study supports the mounting evidence of a contribution by the adult thymus to immune reconstitution in HIV-infection. In a follow-up study conducted till 5 years of HAART, the importance of the thymus to the rate of cellular restoration was found to primarily lie within the first two years of HAART. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was then investigated in a randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled trial in 46 adult HIV-infected patients on HAART. Daily treatment with a low dose of rhGH of 0.7mg for 40 weeks stimulated thymopoiesis as expressed by thymic size, density, and output strongly supporting the assumption that rhGH possesses the potential to stimulate the ageing thymus, holding

  16. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  17. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A.; Middleton, Richard H.

    2013-01-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progress...

  18. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co-infection

  19. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women: Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    Shrinivas Darak; Inge Hutter; Sanjeevani Kulkarni; Vinay Kulkarni; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardiz...

  20. Interactive Effects of Morphine on HIV Infection: Role in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder

    Nair, Madhavan P.N.; Zainulabedin Saiyed; Saxena, Shailendra K; Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel; Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

    2012-01-01

    HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest th...

  1. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children (“parental HIV disclosure”), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5–16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication...

  2. Psychopathological and Behaviour Dimensions in HIV Infection

    R. Margalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV infection has been studied by various sciences, since it articulates biological, clinical and social realities. Since the time of its appearance to the present, advances in the treatment of HIV infection have been notorious and fascinating. Antiretroviral therapy promotes an improved quality of life for patients and increases life expectancy but has had difficulties with treatment associated behaviour, i.e., adherence to treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of psychopathological and behavioral determinants of HIV-positive patients. We have found that behavioral risk pattern exists in both genders and predominantely sexual in nature. Men are more compliant than women regarding treatment, but exhibit high levels in the hostility dimension. Indeed, in HIV infection, there's a limited perception of control over disease, which contributes to an adaptation guided by feelings of inadequacy. We underline the vulnerability in the female gender, since women had a behavioral pattern of significant risk.

  3. Microbiome alterations in HIV infection a review.

    Williams, Brett; Landay, Alan; Presti, Rachel M

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in molecular techniques have allowed researchers to identify previously uncultured organisms, which has propelled a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding our commensal microbiota. Interest in the microbiome specific to HIV grew from earlier findings suggesting that bacterial translocation from the intestines is the cause of persistent immune activation despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of SIV infected primates have demonstrated that Proteobacteria preferentially translocate and that mucosal immunity can be restored with probiotics. Pathogenic SIV infection results in a massive expansion of the virome, whereas non-pathogenic SIV infection does not. Human HIV infected cohorts have been shown to have microbiota distinctive from that of HIV negative controls and efforts to restore the intestinal microbiome via probiotics have often had positive results on host markers. The microbiota of the genital tract may play a significant role in acquisition and transmission of HIV. Modification of commensal microbial communities likely represents an important therapeutic adjunct to treatment of HIV. Here we review the literature regarding human microbiome in HIV infection. PMID:26945815

  4. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature.

    De Santis, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female (MTF) transgender women experience a host of psychosocial issues such as discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization. These challenges often limit economic opportunities, affect mental health, and may place members of this population at an increased risk for HIV infection. This report presents a review of the literature that focuses on risk factors for HIV infection specific to the MTF population. Factors including needle sharing and substance abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors, commercial sex work, health care access, lack of knowledge regarding HIV transmission, violence, stigma and discrimination, and mental health issues have been identified in the literature as risk factors for the acquisition of HIV infection by members of this population. Implications for care provided to MTF transgender persons are presented, and suggestions for future research are identified. PMID:19732695

  5. Mycobacterial Lung Disease Complicating HIV Infection.

    Haas, Michelle K; Daley, Charles L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial infections have caused enormous morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Of these, the most devastating has been tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among HIV-positive persons globally. TB has killed more people living with HIV than any other infection. Diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) is critical as treatment can prevent emergence of TB disease. Bacteriologic confirmation of TB disease should be sought whenever possible as well as drug susceptibility testing. When detected early, drug susceptible TB is curable. Similar to TB, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can also produce pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections including disseminated disease that can be fatal. Diagnosis through accurate identification of the pathogenic organism will greatly inform treatment. Depending on the NTM identified, treatment may not be curable. Ultimately, preventive strategies such as initiation of antiretroviral drugs and treatment of LTBI are interventions expected to have significant impacts on control of TB and NTM in the setting of HIV. This chapter will review the impact of pulmonary mycobacterial infections on HIV-positive individuals. PMID:26974300

  6. The link between HIV/AIDS and violence among young adults: A study in Udupi, Karnataka

    Nilesh Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health problem which affects the community and threatens the life of people. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and different forms of violence among HIV positive young adults taking antiretroviral therapy (ART in Udupi district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HIV positive young adults (18-35 years who were aware of their status. The participants were selected from ART Centre of Udupi district adopting convenience sampling. Data were collected from 200 young HIV positive young adults using a predesigned, pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of domestic violence was 14.5% and was found to be more among females (17.6% as compared to males (6.9%. This difference was statistically significant among gender with a P-value <0.05. Among the various forms of violence the prevalence of physical violence was found to be 14.5% with significant difference among gender. Among females who experienced physical violence, husband was perpetrator in 76% cases and among males, parents/relatives as the perpetrator in 75% cases. Around 8.5% of females had experienced sexual violence and husband was perpetrator in 50% of the cases followed by relatives and friend/acquaintance. Conclusion: Physical and sexual violence was found to be more in female HIV positive patients as compared to males. The presence of violence among HIV positive young adults especially among the females demands for the concerted efforts at combating underlying factors leading to violence among this vulnerable group of HIV positive young adults.

  7. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    Caitlin E Kennedy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. Conclusions: The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and

  8. HIV Risk Among Pregnant Teenagers With a History of Interpersonal Violence

    Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; Raker, Christina; Tzilos, Golfo; Phipps, Maureen G.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between interpersonal violence, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among pregnant teenagers. A sample of 116 pregnant teenagers was recruited in Rhode Island. Multivariate logistic regressions tested whether the relationship between history of interpersonal violence and HIV risk remained after controlling for age and education. Participants reported a young age of sexual debut and low rates of condom use. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate...

  9. Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India

    Ramesh Sowmya; Ganju Deepika; Mahapatra Bidhubhusan; Mishra Ram; Saggurti Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to est...

  10. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages.

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Garcia, Gabriella; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG and PYDC1 were significantly downregulated. Among various NOD like receptors, NOD2 was significantly upregulated in both HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated cells. In the downstream genes, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL7 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages. We have also observed significant ROS production (in HIV and/or cocaine treated cells) which is one of the indirect-activators of inflammasomes formation. Further, we have observed early apoptosis in HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages which may be resultant of inflammasome formation and cspase-1 activation. These results indicate that in case of HIV infected macrophages exposed to cocaine, increased ROS production and IL-1β transcription serve as an activators for the formation of NLRP3 and AIM2 mediated inflammasomes that leads to caspase 1 mediated apoptosis. PMID:27321752

  11. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no sig...

  12. Modeling the three stages in HIV infection.

    Hernandez-Vargas, Esteban A; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-03-01

    A typical HIV infection response consists of three stages: an initial acute infection, a long asymptomatic period and a final increase in viral load with simultaneous collapse in healthy CD4+T cell counts. The majority of existing mathematical models give a good representation of either the first two stages or the last stage of the infection. Using macrophages as a long-term active reservoir, a deterministic model is proposed to explain the three stages of the infection including the progression to AIDS. Simulation results illustrate how chronic infected macrophages can explain the progression to AIDS provoking viral explosion. Further simulation studies suggest that the proposed model retains its key properties even under moderately large parameter variations. This model provides important insights on how macrophages might play a crucial role in the long term behavior of HIV infection. PMID:23238280

  13. Women migrant workers' vulnerability to HIV infection in Hong Kong.

    Bandyopadhyay, M; Thomas, J

    2002-08-01

    Research on population mobility and HIV/AIDS risk among migrant populations is quite limited, and research on migrant women workers' vulnerability is further limited. Hong Kong, the Special Administrative Region of China, has currently about 200,000 women migrant workers working as domestic helps. This paper reports migrant women worker's access to AIDS-related health information and health care facilities, perceptions about vulnerability, and risk behaviour profile. Data was collected through a pre-tested questionnaire from a random sample of 2,010 women migrant workers. A majority of the migrant women workers (63.6%) have been living and working in Hong Kong for between 4-10 years. Fifty-four per cent of the respondents felt that being a female they were vulnerable to HIV infection. Overall, the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS and its route of transmission is inadequate amongst the migrant women workers in Hong Kong. It appears that AIDS-related information education and communication needs of women migrants workers are not met by the current HIV prevention and care activities in Hong Kong. The study indicates that migrant women workers who experienced sexual violence (9%) in Hong Kong perceive themselves to be 'at risk' of HIV infection. Seventy per cent of the respondents reported that they have felt discriminated against in Hong Kong, of which 42% felt discriminated against in Hong Kong hospitals. Addressing discrimination in health care settings is an essential element of AIDS prevention. The discussion urges researchers and policy makers to pay more attention to the vulnerability of migrant women workers. PMID:12204153

  14. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...... leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the......The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...

  15. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  16. Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda: implications for HIV prevention

    Tylleskar Thorkild

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms

  17. Autophagy in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV infections

    Espert, Lucile; Beaumelle, Bruno; Vergne, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) are among the most lethal human pathogens worldwide, each being responsible for around 1.5 million deaths annually. Moreover, synergy between acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) has turned HIV/M.tb co-infection into a major public health threat in developing countries. In the past decade, autophagy, a lysosomal catabolic process, has emerged as a major host immune defense mechanism against in...

  18. Current approaches to prevention of HIV infections.

    Roper, W L

    1991-01-01

    The HIV education and prevention strategy of the Centers for Disease Control has three principal components: (a) public information and education, (b) education for school-aged populations, and (c) risk reduction education and individual counseling and testing services for people at increased risk of HIV infection. The most visible components of the public information and education programs are the National Public Information Campaign ("America Responds to AIDS"), the National AIDS Hotline sy...

  19. Multiple Intracranial Aneurysms in HIV Infection.

    Dhawan, Sumeet R; Gupta, Anju; Gupta, Vivek; Singhi, Pratibha D

    2016-08-01

    Neurological findings in HIV are common and include cognitive impairment, microcephaly, nonspecific white matter lesions and seizures. Cerebral vasculopathy and stroke are uncommon and may be due to primary HIV vasculopathy or opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal meningitis. The authors describe a 7-y-old boy who presented with severe headache and was detected to have aneurysmal bleed due to intracranial aneurysm. PMID:27072660

  20. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  1. Cyclophilin B enhances HIV-1 infection.

    DeBoer, Jason; Madson, Christian J; Belshan, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Cyclophilin B (CypB) is a member of the immunophilin family and intracellular chaperone. It predominantly localizes to the ER, but also contains a nuclear localization signal and is secreted from cells. CypB has been shown to interact with the Gag protein of human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1). Several proteomic and genetic studies identified it as a potential factor involved in HIV replication. Herein, we show that over-expression of CypB enhances HIV infection by increasing nuclear import of viral DNA. This enhancement was unaffected by cyclosporine treatment and requires the N-terminus of the protein. The N-terminus contains an ER leader sequence, putative nuclear localization signal, and is required for secretion. Deletion of the N-terminus resulted in mislocalization from the ER and suppression of HIV infection. Passive transfer experiments showed that secreted CypB did not impact HIV infection. Combined, these experiments show that intracellular CypB modulates a pathway of HIV nuclear import. PMID:26774171

  2. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India.

    Ravi Prakash

    Full Text Available Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs. Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services.This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013-14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method.About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, p<0.05 and multiple STIs (8%, p<0.10 and reduction in treatment seeking (10%, p<0.05.This study demonstrates a significant effect of physical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services

  3. Insulin resistance and diabetes in HIV infection.

    Das, Satyajit

    2011-09-01

    Insulin resistance is an important and under recognized consequence of HIV treatment. Different studies have yielded widely varying estimates of the prevalence of impaired glucose metabolism in people on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The risk increases further with hepatitis C co infection. Although Protease inhibitors (PIs) are the main drug class implicated in insulin resistance, some studies have shown an association of increased risk of diabetes with cumulative exposure of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). The effect of switching to other antiretrovirals has not been fully determined and the long-term consequences of insulin resistance in this population are not known. Treatment of established diabetes mellitus should generally follow existing guidelines. It is therefore reasonable to recommend general measures to increase insulin sensitivity in all patients infected with HIV, such as regular aerobic exercise and weight reduction for overweight persons. The present review article has the information of some recent patents regarding the insulin resistance in HIV infection. PMID:21824074

  4. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4⁺ cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV......-infected patients do not achieve optimal immune reconstitution despite suppression of viral replication. These patients are referred to as immunological nonresponders (INRs). INRs present with severely altered immunological functions, including malfunction and diminished production of cells within lymphopoetic...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution...

  5. Bidirectional links between HIV and intimate partner violence in pregnancy: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    Abigail M Hatcher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT has the potential to eliminate new HIV infections among infants. Yet in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, PMTCT coverage remains low, leading to unacceptably high rates of morbidity among mothers and new infections among infants. Intimate partner violence (IPV may be a structural driver of poor PMTCT uptake, but has received little attention in the literature to date. Methods: We conducted qualitative research in three Johannesburg antenatal clinics to understand the links between IPV and HIV-related health of pregnant women. We held focus group discussions with pregnant women (n=13 alongside qualitative interviews with health care providers (n=10, district health managers (n=10 and pregnant abused women (n=5. Data were analysed in Nvivo10 using a team-based approach to thematic coding. Findings: We found qualitative evidence of strong bidirectional links between IPV and HIV among pregnant women. HIV diagnosis during pregnancy, and subsequent partner disclosure, were noted as a common trigger of IPV. Disclosure leads to violence because it causes relationship conflict, usually related to perceived infidelity and the notion that women are “bringing” the disease into the relationship. IPV worsened HIV-related health through poor PMTCT adherence, since taking medication or accessing health services might unintentionally alert male partners of the women's HIV status. IPV also impacted on HIV-related health via mental health, as women described feeling depressed and anxious due to the violence. IPV led to secondary HIV risk as women experienced forced sex, often with little power to negotiate condom use. Pregnant women described staying silent about condom negotiation in order to stay physically safe during pregnancy. Conclusions: IPV is a crucial issue in the lives of pregnant women and has bidirectional links with HIV-related health. IPV may worsen access to PMTCT and secondary

  6. The Incidence of Exudative Otitis Media in HIV Infected Children

    Nuriddin U. Narzullaev, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the ENT organs are among the commonly prevalent and dangerous pathologies of childhood, occurring as a complication of respiratory, bacterial diseases and HIV infection. One of the serious complications of HIV infection in children is the lesion of ENT organs. In HIV infected children, in addition to suppurative diseases occur middle ear diseases with nonsuppurative origin. A total of 79 HIV infected children aged 3-14 years with different pathologies of the nasal cavity, nasophar...

  7. Prevalence and Change in Psychiatric Disorders Among Perinatally HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Youth

    Mellins, Claude A.; Elkington, Katherine S.; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Santamaria, E. Karina; Dolezal, Curtis; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; McKay, Mary M.; Abrams, Elaine J

    2012-01-01

    As the pediatric HIV epidemic in resource-rich countries evolves into an adolescent epidemic, there is a substantive need for studies elucidating mental health needs of perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) youth as they transition through adolescence. This article examines the role of perinatal HIV infection in influencing mental health by comparing changes in psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders (SUD) in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) and perinatally HIV-exposed, but uninfected (P...

  8. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  9. Occurence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women : Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Direct

  10. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women : Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    S. Darak (Shrinivas); I. Hutter (Inge); S. Kulkarni (Sanjeevani); V. Kulkarni (Vinay); F. Janssen (Fanny)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were anal

  11. Occurrence of pregnancies among HIV infected Indian women: Does knowledge about HIV status make a difference?

    Darak, S.; Hutter, I.; Kulkarni, S.; Kulkarni, V.; Janssen, F.

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India , were analysed. Directly standa

  12. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  13. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann;

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  14. Feasibility of an HIV/STI Risk-Reduction Program for Incarcerated Women Who Have Experienced Interpersonal Violence.

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Peabody, Marlanea E; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fernandes, Karen; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-11-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and interpersonal violence (IV; e.g., childhood abuse, partner violence, and rape) victimization are significant and interconnected public health problems facing incarcerated women. We adapted a best-evidence HIV-prevention intervention for women (the Women's CoOp) to address sexual safety among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence victimization. The standard Women's CoOp teaches safe sex, substance use harm reduction, and violence prevention information and skills needed to empower women to make more intentional decisions about their safety. We also incorporated strategies to increase affect management, social support, and access to community resources. This resulted in the first trauma-focused HIV-prevention intervention for women that directly addresses the sequelae of IV (such as affect dysregulation in sexual situations) within the context of HIV harm reduction. This manuscript describes the rationale, feasibility, acceptability, and pre-post outcomes of this intervention among 14 women nearing release from prison in two state prison systems. Assessments took place at baseline, prior to release, and at 2-, 5-, and 8 months after release. The intervention overall and each of its components were feasible and acceptable. Participants' number of unprotected sexual occasions, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depressive symptoms decreased significantly from baseline to post-release. Effectiveness in obtaining resources increased significantly from baseline to post-release. Because pre-post measurements of outcomes are confounded with incarceration and subsequent release in this preliminary study, a randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this tailored intervention. PMID:25395223

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    Walson, Judd L; Stewart, Barclay T; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole the...

  16. HIV among men who have sex with men in Malawi: elucidating HIV prevalence and correlates of infection to inform HIV prevention

    Andrea L Wirtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV

  17. Linking the Twin Pandemics: Gender Based Violence and HIV in Serengeti District, Mara, Tanzania

    Sikira, A.; J. K. Urassa

    2015-01-01

    Gender Based Violence (GBV) and HIV/AIDS are major health and social problems affecting women and men in African countries Tanzania included. While both men and women are victims of GBV and HIV/AIDS, women are more vulnerable than men. Socio-economic, biological and cultural factors are believed to exacerbate the problem. The current study explores the link between gender based violence and the spread of HIV/AIDS. Using Serengeti District as a study area, a cross-sectional descriptive survey ...

  18. Patterns of HIV infection among native and refugee Afghans.

    Ansari, Amna S; Khanani, Muhammad R; Abidi, Syed H; Shah, Farida; Shahid, Aniqa; Ali, Syed H

    2011-07-17

    The current study was conducted to explore the origins of the HIV epidemics among the Afghan refugees in Pakistan and the native Afghans in Afghanistan. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV gag gene from 40 samples showed diverse HIV variants, originating from a number of countries. Intermixing of diverse HIV variants among Afghans may give rise to seeding of infections with rare HIV strains which may pose serious challenges for the treatment and control of infection. PMID:21516026

  19. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A; Bruun, B

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... autopsies were also examined. The diagnostic methods used were a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for the detection of Legionella antigen, and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) media. All specimens were also examined for the presence of other bacterial lung pathogens, and all BAL...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  20. HIV Infection and Osteoarticular Tuberculosis: Strange Bedfellows

    B. Hodkinson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 47-year-old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis and HIV infection presenting with a 3-week history of a painful swollen knee, increased serum inflammatory markers, and a low CD4 lymphocyte count. The diagnosis of TB arthritis was made by synovial fluid culture, GeneXpert/PCR, and confirmed by histopathology of a synovial biopsy. A mini literature review suggests that although HIV infection is associated with extrapulmonary TB, osteoarticular TB is a relatively unusual presentation in an HIV positive patient. The diagnostic utility of the GeneXpert test is explored. We also describe the patient’s good response to an intra-articular corticosteroid injection in combination with standard anti-TB therapy.

  1. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    Coutinho, R A; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.; Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of anal HPV infection was lower among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative MSM. HIV infection was strongly associated with HPV infection, independent of sexual behavior and other possible confounder...

  2. Gender attitudes, sexual violence, and HIV/AIDS risks among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kaufman, Michelle; Cain, Demetria; Cherry, Chauncey; Jooste, Sean; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2005-11-01

    This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV. PMID:19827234

  3. Women and HIV Infection: The Makings of a Midlife Crisis

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present e...

  4. Neuroimaging studies of the aging HIV-1-infected brain

    Holt, John L.; Kraft-Terry, Stephanie D.; Chang, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals, and by 2015, at least half of all HIV-infected individuals will be over 50 years of age. Neurodegenerative processes associated with aging may be facilitated by HIV-1 infection, resulting in premature brain aging. This review will highlight brain abnormalities in HIV patients in the setting of aging, focusing on recent neuroimaging studies of the structural, physiological, functional and...

  5. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Schadé Annemiek; van Grootheest Gerard; Smit Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problem...

  6. HIV and gender-based violence: welcome policies and programmes, but is the research keeping up?

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Moore, Chelsea L; Steiner, Riley J; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-11-01

    The global HIV policy arena has seen a surge of interest in gender-related dimensions of vulnerability to HIV and violence. UNAIDS and other prominent actors have named gender-based violence a key priority, and there seems to be genuine understanding and commitment to addressing gender inequalities as they impact key populations in the AIDS response. In the quest for evidence-informed interventions, there is usually a strong connection between the research conducted and the policies and programmes that follow. Regarding gender, HIV and violence, is this the case? This discussion paper asks whether the relevant peer-reviewed literature is suitably representative of all affected populations--including heterosexual men, transgender men and women, women who have sex with women, and men who have sex with men--as well as whether the literature sufficiently considers gender norms and dynamics in how research is framed. Conclusions about violence in the context of heterosexual relationships, and with specific attention to heterosexual women, should not be presented as insights about gender-based violence more generally, with little attention to gender dynamics. Research framed by a more comprehensive understanding of what is meant by gender-based violence as it relates to all of the diverse populations affected by HIV would potentially guide policies and programmes more effectively. PMID:25555774

  7. HIV shedding from male circumcision wounds in HIV-infected men: a prospective cohort study.

    Tobian, Aaron A. R.; Godfrey Kigozi; Jordyn Manucci; Grabowski, Mary K.; David Serwadda; Richard Musoke; Redd, Andrew D.; Fred Nalugoda; Steven J Reynolds; Nehemiah Kighoma; Oliver Laeyendecker; Justin Lessler; Gray, Ronald H.; Thomas C Quinn; Wawer, Maria J.

    2015-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 35 million people are currently infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS by destroying immune system cells, and every year, 2 million more people become HIV-positive. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can keep HIV in check, but there is no cure for AIDS. Consequently, prevention of HIV acquisition and transmission is an important component of efforts to control the AIDS epidemic. Because HIV is most often spread through unprotected sex with an infected partne...

  8. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  9. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  10. 77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    2012-04-03

    ..., Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Memorandum for the Heads of.... However, gender-based violence and gender-related health disparities cannot be ignored when addressing the... proper health care can present obstacles to addressing HIV/ AIDS. Gender-based violence continues to...

  11. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  12. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...

  13. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Megha Antwal; Rohan Gurjar; Shweta Chidrawar; Jyoti Pawar; Sunil Gaikwad; Narayan Panchal; Varsha Kale; Madhuri Thakar; Arun Risbud; Srikanth Tripathy

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has infected several million individuals in India. Various interventions have been implemented for early detection and prevention of transmission of HIV infection. This has progressively changed the clinical profile of HIV infected individuals and this study documents the clinical presentation of individuals positive for HIV in 2010, in Pune, Maharashtra, India. Methods: This cross-sectional study included subjects who had come ...

  14. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    Fayaz Ahmad; Lateef Ahmad; Javid; Roohi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor...

  15. Neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected individuals with previous syphilis

    Marra, CM; Deutsch, R; Collier, AC; Morgello, S.; Letendre, S; Clifford, D; Gelman, B.; McArthur, J.; McCutchan, JA; Simpson, DM; Duarte, NA; Heaton, RK; Grant, I.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common in HIV-infected individuals, as is syphilis. Treponema pallidum, the bacterium that causes syphilis, invades the central nervous system early in disease. We hypothesized that HIV-infected patients with a history of syphilis or neurosyphilis would have more cognitive impairment than HIV-infected individuals without these infections. Eighty-two of 1574 enrollees in CHARTER, a prospective, observational study, had reactive serum rapid plasma reagin (RPR) tests. The...

  16. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Brittany E Goldberg

    Full Text Available The oral microbial community (microbiota plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are

  17. The Oral Bacterial Communities of Children with Well-Controlled HIV Infection and without HIV Infection.

    Goldberg, Brittany E; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Jones, Cheron E; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi's sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better

  18. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Sa...

  19. HIV infection surveillance in Mogadishu, Somalia.

    Burans, J P; Fox, E; Omar, M A; Farah, A H; Abbass, S; Yusef, S; Guled, A; Mansour, M; Abu-Elyazeed, R; Woody, J N

    1990-07-01

    A group of 89 prostitutes and 45 patients attending sexually transmitted disease clinics in Mogadishu, Somalia were examined for evidence of HIV infection. Both groups reported more than 1 sexual partner routinely and had sexual contacts with prostitutes. There was a significant amount of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in these two groups, with 11.2% and 6.7% respectively being culture positive for N. gonorrhoea. Among the prostitutes, 28.1% were positive for antibodies to T. pallidum while only 4.4% of the STD patients were positive. One isolate of N. gonorrhoea was resistant to penicillin. All study participants were negative for antibodies to HIV suggesting an extremely low prevalence of HIV in high risk behaviour groups in the capital city of Somalia. PMID:2226225

  20. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the...... predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult...... seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11...

  1. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  2. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Medical Complications and Comorbidities.

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis. Specific prophylaxis regimens exist for several opportunistic infections, and effective antiretroviral therapy reduces the risk of most others. Other AIDS-defining conditions include wasting syndrome and HIV encephalopathy. AIDS-defining malignancies include Kaposi sarcoma, systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma, primary central nervous system lymphoma, and invasive cervical cancer. Although not an AIDS-defining condition, anal cancer is common in patients with HIV infection. Other HIV-related conditions include thrombocytopenia, recurrent bacterial respiratory infections, HIV-associated nephropathy, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder. PMID:27092563

  3. The macrophage: the intersection between HIV infection and atherosclerosis

    Crowe, Suzanne M.; Westhorpe, Clare L. V.; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Jaworowski, Anthony; Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with underlying mechanisms including chronic immune activation and inflammation secondary to HIV-induced microbial translocation and low-grade endotoxemia; direct effects of HIV and viral proteins on macrophage cholesterol metabolism; and dyslipidemia related to HIV infection and specific antiretroviral therapies. Monocytes are the precursors of the lipid-laden foam cells within the atherosclerotic plaque and prod...

  4. Aging of the Human Innate Immune System in HIV Infection

    Zapata, Heidi J; Shaw, Albert C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a chronic inflammatory state arising from multiple factors, including innate immune recognition of HIV, increased microbial translocation, and release of endogenous ligands from damaged cells (such as CD4 T cells). In many respects, this heightened pro-inflammatory environment resembles that associated with aging in the absence of HIV infection, and evidence of dysregulated innate immune responses can be found in not only older HIV-negative a...

  5. Oxidative stress and the HIV-infected brain proteome

    Uzasci, Lerna; Nath, Avindra; Cotter, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is capable of infiltrating the brain and infecting brain cells. In the years following HIV infection, patients show signs of various levels of neurocognitive problems termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Although the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has reduced the incidence of HIV-dementia, which is the most severe form of HAND, the milder forms have become more prevalent today due to the increased life expectan...

  6. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    CRAFT, SHONDA M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

  7. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Anousheh Safarcherati; Masoumeh Amin-Esmaeili; Behrang Shadloo; Minoo Mohraz; Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that ther...

  8. Progress in drug therapies for HIV infection.

    Broder, S; Fauci, A S

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of effective therapies for HIV requires a fundamental knowledge of retroviral infections. Research by the Public Health Service and collaborating organizations on oncogenic viruses, including retroviruses, has provided much of the basic understanding of retroviruses in general and anti-retroviral therapeutic strategies in particular. Early work by the Viral Cancer and Developmental Therapeutic Programs of the National Cancer Institute and the Intramural Research Program of the N...

  9. The role of statins in the setting of HIV infection.

    Eckard, Allison Ross; McComsey, Grace A

    2015-09-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and other HIV-related co-morbidities. This is due in part to dyslipidemia associated with antiretroviral therapy and increased inflammation and immune activation from chronic HIV infection. Statins not only have potent lipid-lowering properties but are also anti-inflammatory and immunomodulators. Studies suggest that statin therapy in the HIV-infected population may decrease the risk of CVD and other non-AIDS-defining co-morbidities. This review summarizes the recent literature on statin use in the HIV setting. PMID:26126687

  10. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan;

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected indi...

  11. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    Vreeman, Rachel C.; Michael L Scanlon; Megan S McHenry; Winstone M Nyandiko

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the e...

  12. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  13. Women’s expectation of partner’s violence on HIV disclosure for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in North West Ethiopia

    2013-01-01

    Background All violence against women has serious consequences for their mental, physical wellbeing, reproductive and sexual health including HIV infection and no study was conducted in this regard in Ethiopia and particularly in the present study area. Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gondar town from 22 July–18 August 2011. Of the 400 pregnant women who actively participated in this study, 314 (78.50%) expected a negative reaction for HIV positive test result from their partners. A positive reaction from the partner was associated with women having their own income (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) =2.18 (1.21, 3.92)), residing in the urban areas (AOR (95% CI) =2.26 (1.21, 4.22)), having education level of secondary level and above (AOR (95% CI) = 6.05 (3.12, 11.72)), not having a stigmatizing attitude towards people living with HIV (AOR (95% CI) = 2.15 (1.24, 3.73)), having a positive attitude towards counselors (AOR (95% CI) = 2.46 (1.42, 4.25)) and being able to access health facilities (AOR (95% CI) = 2.35(1.22, 4.50)). Conclusion Most of the participants in this study expected their partner to react negatively towards a positive HIV test result. Since women’s having their own income is strongly associated with a positive partner’s reaction on HIV test disclosure for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV services, emphasis should be given for education and economic empowerment of women. A well functioning and accessible health facility with prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV service is important, especially in rural areas. PMID:23497642

  14. A mathematical approach to HIV infection dynamics

    Ida, A.; Oharu, S.; Oharu, Y.

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive form of mathematical models describing nonlinear phenomena such as HIV infection process and AIDS disease progression, it is efficient to introduce a general class of time-dependent evolution equations in such a way that the associated nonlinear operator is decomposed into the sum of a differential operator and a perturbation which is nonlinear in general and also satisfies no global continuity condition. An attempt is then made to combine the implicit approach (usually adapted for convective diffusion operators) and explicit approach (more suited to treat continuous-type operators representing various physiological interactions), resulting in a semi-implicit product formula. Decomposing the operators in this way and considering their individual properties, it is seen that approximation-solvability of the original model is verified under suitable conditions. Once appropriate terms are formulated to describe treatment by antiretroviral therapy, the time-dependence of the reaction terms appears, and such product formula is useful for generating approximate numerical solutions to the governing equations. With this knowledge, a continuous model for HIV disease progression is formulated and physiological interpretations are provided. The abstract theory is then applied to show existence of unique solutions to the continuous model describing the behavior of the HIV virus in the human body and its reaction to treatment by antiretroviral therapy. The product formula suggests appropriate discrete models describing the dynamics of host pathogen interactions with HIV1 and is applied to perform numerical simulations based on the model of the HIV infection process and disease progression. Finally, the results of our numerical simulations are visualized and it is observed that our results agree with medical and physiological aspects.

  15. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 Infection and Inflammation

    Swartz, Talia H.; Dubyak, George R.; Chen, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 30 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent antiretroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV-1 have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV-1 pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are ...

  16. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    Zahra Abdi-Liae; Pardis Moradnejad; Neda Alijani; Hamide Khazraiyan; Sedigeh Mansoori; Naseh Mohammadi

    2013-01-01

    Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of the...

  17. Probability of HIV Transmission During Acute Infection in Rakai, Uganda

    Pinkerton, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the probability of HIV transmission during various stages of infection are needed to inform epidemiological models. Very limited information is available about the probability of transmission during acute HIV infection. We conducted a secondary analysis of published data from the Rakai, Uganda seroconversion study. Mathematical and computer-based models were used to quantify the per-act and per-partnership transmission probabilities during acute and chronic HIV infection...

  18. Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men

    Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

  19. Hematological Manifestation in HIV Infected Children

    Objective: To determine the common hematological abnormalities in HIV infected children and any association of these abnormalities with HIV disease severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Regional Pediatric ART centre, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from November 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: Children up to 12 years with confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection were clinically examined and tested for complete hemogram and CD4 count. Bone marrow study was done in selected patient depending on hemogram report. Children were divided in different stages according to WHO clinical staging. Each of the hematological parameters was assessed for any association with progression of disease. Fisher's Exact Test was used for determining the association between WHO clinical staging and abnormal blood parameters. P-value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Sixty nine percent of the study population was anemic; 47.37% (18/38), 66.67% (8/12), 71.43% (15/21) and 93.10% (27/29) of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were anemic in the study population (p=0.001). Leucopenia was present in 34% (34/100) children. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was present in 19% (19/100) and 22% (22/100) children. Lymphopenia was present in 7.89% (3/38), 16.67% (2/12), 19.05% (4/21) and 44.83% (13/29) of patient with stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively (p=0.020). Eosinophilia was present in 17% (17/100) and thrombocytopenia in 11% (11/100) children. 2 patients with stage 4 disease were with hypoplastic bone marrow. Conclusion: Anemia was the most common hematological abnormality in HIV infected children. Anemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with the stage of the disease. (author)

  20. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    C. Wejse; C.B. Patsche; Kühle, A.; F.J.V. Bamba; Mendes, M. S.; G. Lemvik; V.F. Gomes; F. Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. Methods: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection ...

  1. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-2-Infected Patients Is Less Affected by Antiretroviral Treatment-sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 Dually Infected Patients.

    Hønge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; Møller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during follow-up without antiretroviral therapy (ART). At follow-up on ART, median sCD163 levels were decreased for HIV-1-infected patients (P < 0.001), but not among HIV-2 (P = 0.093) or HIV-1/2 dually infected patients (P = 0.145). The larger decrease in sCD163 levels among HIV-1-infected patients during ART may indicate an HIV type-dependent differential effect of ART on macrophage activation during HIV infection. PMID:26825178

  2. Differences between the course of the drug addict's HIV infection and that of other HIV-infected patients.

    Gölz, J

    1993-11-01

    Drug addicts have, in general, a less complicated course of HIV infection than homosexual HIV patients. They show fewer opportunistic infections and tumors. But this advantage is lost by unnecessary complications due to their psychic disorders. Their non-compliance and concealment of signs of disease lead to worse outcomes of infections, which could be well-treated or prevented. PMID:8300042

  3. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis

  4. Emerging Microsporidian Infections in Russian HIV-Infected Patients▿

    Sokolova, Olga I.; Demyanov, Anton V.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Didier, Elizabeth S.; Yakovlev, Alexei V.; Skarlato, Sergei O.; Sokolova, Yuliya Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem w...

  5. Virulence of Candida albicans isolated from HIV infected and non infected individuals

    Wibawa, Tri; Praseno,; Aman, Abu Tholib

    2015-01-01

    Candida sp contributes 33.1 % of fungal infections among HIV patients. Among the species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated from HIV patients. This study aimed to analyze putative virulence factors of C. albicans isolated from oral cavities of HIV infected patients and healthy individuals. Twenty isolates from HIV infected patients and fourteen from healthy individuals were analyzed for phenotypic switching, cell growth rate, hyphae formation, hemolytic act...

  6. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care. PMID:27092564

  7. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  8. Human defensins 5 and 6 enhance HIV-1 infectivity through promoting HIV attachment

    Lu Wuyuan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs increase the likelihood of HIV transmission. The levels of defensins are frequently elevated in genital fluids from individuals with STIs. We have previously shown that human defensins 5 and 6 (HD5 and HD6 promote HIV entry and contribute to Neisseria gonorrhoeae-mediated enhancement of HIV infectivity in vitro. In this study, we dissect the molecular mechanism of the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. Results HD5 and HD6 primarily acted on the virion to promote HIV infection. Both HD5 and HD6 antagonized the anti-HIV activities of inhibitors of HIV entry (TAK 779 and fusion (T-20 when the inhibitors were present only during viral attachment; however, when these inhibitors were added back during viral infection they overrode the HIV enhancing effect of defensins. HD5 and HD6 enhanced HIV infectivity by promoting HIV attachment to target cells. Studies using fluorescent HIV containing Vpr-GFP indicated that these defensins enhanced HIV attachment by concentrating virus particles on the target cells. HD5 and HD6 blocked anti-HIV activities of soluble glycosaminoglycans including heparin, chondroitin sulfate, and dextran sulfate. However, heparin, at a high concentration, diminished the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6. Additionally, the degree of the HIV enhancing effect of HD5, but not HD6, was increased in heparinase-treated cells. These results suggest that HD5 and haparin/heparan sulfate compete for binding to HIV. Conclusions HD5 and HD6 increased HIV infectivity by concentrating virus on the target cells. These defensins may have a negative effect on the efficacy of microbicides, especially in the setting of STIs.

  9. Purinergic Receptors: Key Mediators of HIV-1 infection and inflammation

    Talia H Swartz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1 causes a chronic infection that afflicts more than 38 million individuals worldwide. While the infection can be suppressed with potent anti-retroviral therapies, individuals infected with HIV have elevated levels of inflammation as indicated by increased T cell activation, soluble biomarkers, and associated morbidity and mortality. A single mechanism linking HIV pathogenesis to this inflammation has yet to be identified. Purinergic receptors are known to mediate inflammation and have been shown to be required for HIV-1 infection at the level of HIV-1 membrane fusion. Here we review the literature on the role of purinergic receptors in HIV-1 infection and associated inflammation and describe a role for these receptors as potential therapeutic targets.

  10. Characteristics, Immunological Response & Treatment Outcomes of HIV-2 Compared with HIV-1 & Dual Infections (HIV 1/2) in Mumbai

    Chiara, Montaldo; Rony, Zachariah; Homa, Mansoor; Bhanumati, Varghese; Ladomirska, Joanna; Manzi, M.; Wilson, N; Alaka, Deshpande; Harries, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information available on HIV-2 and dual infection (HIV-1/2) is limited. This study was carried out among HIV positive individuals in an urban referral clinic in Khar, Mumbai, India, to report on relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 and baseline characteristics, response to and outcomes on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Retrospective analysis of programme data (May 2006-May 2009) at Khar HIV/AIDS clinic at Mumbai, India was done. Three test algori...

  11. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STD Risk among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…

  12. Increasing rates of obesity among HIV-infected persons during the HIV epidemic.

    Nancy Crum-Cianflone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected persons are unknown. METHODS: We evaluated prospective data from a U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study (1985-2004 consisting of early diagnosed patients. Statistics included multivariate linear regression and longitudinal linear mixed effects models. RESULTS: Of 1682 patients, 2% were underweight, 37% were overweight, and 9% were obese at HIV diagnosis. Multivariate predictors of a higher body mass index (BMI at diagnosis included more recent year of HIV diagnosis, older age, African American race, and earlier HIV stage (all p<0.05. The majority of patients (62% gained weight during HIV infection. Multivariate factors associated with a greater increase in BMI during HIV infection included more recent year of diagnosis, lower BMI at diagnosis, higher CD4 count, lower HIV RNA level, lack of AIDS diagnosis, and longer HIV duration (all p<0.05. Nucleoside agents were associated with less weight gain; other drug classes had no significant impact on weight change in the HAART era. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-infected patients are increasingly overweight/obese at diagnosis and during HIV infection. Weight gain appears to reflect improved health status and mirror trends in the general population. Weight management programs may be important components of HIV care.

  13. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    SH Afrasiabian; K Hajibageri; V Esmaeil Nasab; N Esmaeil Nasab; SH Sayfi

    2007-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS ...

  14. Peripheral neuropathy in primary HIV infection associates with systemic and central nervous system immune activation

    Wang, SXY; Ho, EL; Grill, M.; Lee, E.; Peterson, J.; Robertson, K; Fuchs, D.; Sinclair, E.; Price, RW; Spudich, S

    2014-01-01

    Copyright © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Background: Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is a frequent complication of chronic HIV infection. We prospectively studied individuals with primary HIV infection (

  15. Structural violence and the state: HIV and labour migration from Pakistan to the Persian Gulf.

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities. PMID:23978158

  16. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)

  17. Infected Cell Killing by HIV-1 Protease Promotes NF-κB Dependent HIV-1 Replication

    Bren, Gary D.; Joe Whitman; Nathan Cummins; Brett Shepard; Rizza, Stacey A; Trushin, Sergey A.; Badley, Andrew D

    2008-01-01

    Acute HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells often results in apoptotic death of infected cells, yet it is unclear what evolutionary advantage this offers to HIV-1. Given the independent observations that acute T cell HIV-1 infection results in (1) NF-kappaB activation, (2) caspase 8 dependent apoptosis, and that (3) caspase 8 directly activates NF-kappaB, we questioned whether these three events might be interrelated. We first show that HIV-1 infected T cell apoptosis, NF-kappaB activation, and casp...

  18. Management of BU-HIV co-infection

    O'Brien, D P; Ford, N.; Vitoria, M; Christinet, V; Comte, E; Calmy, A; Stienstra, Y; Eholie, S.; Asiedu, K

    2014-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer (BU)-HIV co-infection is an important emerging management challenge for BU disease. Limited by paucity of scientific studies, guidance for management of this co-infection has been lacking.

  19. Violence.

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  20. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages

    Roth, William W.; Ming Bo Huang; Kateena Addae Konadu; Powell, Michael D.; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 Ba...

  1. Dengue in HIV infected patients:clinical profiles

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is an important tropical viral infection. It can present with acute febrile illness with possible hemorrhagic complication. Since it is a common infection in the tropical world, concomitance with other diseases can be expected. An important consideration is the co-presentation of dengue with HIV infection. In this specific report, the authors summarize the clinical profiles of dengue patients with HIV infection. Based on the present study, it can be seen that clinical profiles of dengue in any group of HIV infection is not different.

  2. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children

    Venturini, E.; Turkova, A.; E Chiappini; Galli, L.; Martino, M; Thorne, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood,...

  3. Pregnancy care in two adolescents perinatally infected with HIV.

    Meloni, Alessandra; Tuveri, Milena; Floridia, Marco; Zucca, Francesca; Borghero, Grazia; Gariel, Donatella; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...

  4. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with

  5. Somatic Symptoms and the Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Depression in HIV-infected Patients

    Yoon, Jeanie C.; Crane, Paul K; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...

  6. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  7. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices. PMID:12288834

  8. The virus stops with me: HIV-infected Ugandans' motivations in preventing HIV transmission.

    King, Rachel; Lifshay, Julie; Nakayiwa, Sylvia; Katuntu, David; Lindkvist, Pille; Bunnell, Rebecca

    2009-02-01

    Few Positive Prevention interventions have been implemented in Africa; however, greater attention is now being paid to interventions that include messages of personal responsibility or altruism that may motivate HIV-infected individuals towards HIV prevention behaviors in Africa. We conducted 47 in-depth interviews in 2004 with HIV-infected men and women purposefully sampled to represent a range of sexual activities among clients of an AIDS support organization in Uganda. Qualitative interviews were selected from a cross-sectional survey of 1092 HIV-infected men and women. Clients were interviewed about their concerns around sexual HIV transmission, feelings of responsibility and reasons for these feelings, as well as about the challenges and consequences of actions to prevent HIV transmission. The reasons they provided for their sense of prevention responsibility revolved around ethical and practical themes. Responsibility toward sexual partners was linked to the belief that conscious transmission of HIV equals murder, would cause physical and emotional harm, and would leave children orphaned. The primary reason specific to preventing HIV transmission to unborn children was the perception that they are 'innocent'. Most participants felt that HIV-infected individuals held a greater responsibility for preventing HIV transmission than did HIV-uninfected individuals. Respondents reported that their sense of responsibility lead them to reduce HIV transmission risk, encourage partner testing, disclose HIV test results, and assume an HIV/AIDS educator role. Challenges to HIV preventive behavior and altruistic intentions included: sexual desire; inconsistent condom use, especially in long term relationships; myths around condom use; fear of disclosure; gender-power dynamics; and social and financial pressure. Our finding that altruism played an important role in motivating preventive behaviors among HIV-infected persons in Uganda supports the inclusion of altruistic

  9. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich; Michail Borisovich Bryzgin; Elena Nikolaevna Efremova

    2016-01-01

    By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015). Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are ...

  10. Coping and perception of women with HIV infection

    Renesto, Helana Maria Ferreira; Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Souza, Edvaldo; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze women’s perceptions and coping regarding the discovery of an HIV infection. METHODS A qualitative study in an HIV/AIDS Specialist Helpdesk in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, from January to September 2010, involving eight women living with asymptomatic HIV aged between 27 and 37 years, without criteria for diagnosis of AIDS infected through intercourse and monitored by the service for at least one year. Forms were used to characterize the clinical situation and semi-stru...

  11. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma revealing clinically unsuspected HIV infection.

    Marques, Silvio Alencar; Abbade, Luciana P Fernandes; Guiotoku, Marcelo Massaki; Marques, Mariangela Esther Alencar

    2016-01-01

    Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma more frequently diagnosed in immunosuppressed patients, mainly HIV-infected. Primary cutaneous plasmablastic lymphoma is extremely rare, and in this patient it was the first clinical manifestation of unsuspected HIV-infection. PMID:27579749

  12. Varicella vaccination in HIV-1-infected children after immune reconstitution

    V. Bekker; G.H.A. Westerlaken; H. Scherpbier; S. Alders; H. Zaaijer; D. van Baarle; T. Kuijper

    2006-01-01

    Background: HIV-1-infected children have an increased risk of severe chickenpox. However, vaccination is not recommended in severely immunocompromised children. Objective: Can the live-attenuated varicella zoster virus (VZV) Oka strain be safely and effectively given to HIV-1-infected children despi

  13. An Update on Cryptococcosis Among HIV-Infected Persons

    Warkentien, Tyler; Nancy F Crum-Cianflone

    2010-01-01

    Cryptococcus remains an important opportunistic infection in HIV patients despite considerable declines in prevalence during the HAART era. This is particularly apparent in sub-Saharan Africa, where Cryptococcus continues to cause significant mortality and morbidity. This review discusses the microbiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical presentation of cryptococcal infections in HIV patients. Additionally, a detailed approach to the management of cryptococcosis is provided.

  14. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  15. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    Tara S Beattie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods: As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA surveys (four districts (2005 to 2011 and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS (16 districts (2007 to 2011 were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1 changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2 associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results: 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, p<0.001, being arrested in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.57 (0.35, 0.93, p=0.025] and being beaten in the past six months by a non-partner (clients, police, pimps, strangers, rowdies [AOR 0.69 (0.49, 0.95, p=0.024] (IBBA. The proportion drinking alcohol (during the past week also fell significantly (32.5% in 2005, 24.9% in 2008, 16.8% in 2011; p<0.001. Violence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15, p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12, p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53, p<0.001; AOR 2.79 (1.93, 4.04, p<0.001, respectively], reduced condom self-efficacy with clients [AOR 0.36 (0.27, 0.47, p<0.001; AOR 0.62 (0.39, 0.98, p=0.039, respectively], symptomatic STI (during the past year

  16. Short Communication: Circulating Plasma HIV-1 Viral Protein R in Dual HIV-1/Tuberculosis Infection

    Toossi, Zahra; Liu, Shigou; Wu, Mianda; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Hirsch, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating free HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr) is found in up to one third of subjects with HIV-1 infection. Free Vpr presumably shares some of the immunopathogenic effects of cell-associated Vpr. Here we assessed Vpr in plasma and pleural fluid from HIV/tuberculosis (TB) dually infected subjects with pleural TB and from plasma of patients with pulmonary HIV/TB. Vpr was assessed by western blot analysis. In plasma from HIV/TB subjects with pulmonary TB free Vpr could be detected in 47%. Only on...

  17. Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique

    Devon D Brewer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.

  18. Hepatitis E virus infection in the HIV-positive patient.

    Debes, Jose D; Pisano, Maria Belen; Lotto, Martin; Re, Viviana

    2016-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus that can cause hepatitis. In immunocompetent individuals, infection with HEV usually leads to asymptomatic seroconversion. However, in immunosuppressed patients, such as transplant recipients, HEV can develop into a chronic infection. Studies regarding the seroprevalence and clinical implications of HEV in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are conflicting. Levels of CD4 count in blood seem to be the most widely associated risk factor, while other factors such as meat consumption or proximity to animals are less clearly associated with HEV infection. Progression to chronicity, as well as extrahepatic manifestations of HEV seem rare in HIV, and the implications of HEV in liver disease progression are poorly understood in the HIV-infected. In this review we describe the epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical implications of HEV infection in individuals infected with HIV. PMID:27243210

  19. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected and non-infected patients in a low HIV prevalence region, West-Cameroon.

    Céline Nguefeu Nkenfou

    Full Text Available The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control group were screened respectively for intestinal parasites and for HIV antibodies. Intestinal parasites were identified using direct microscopy, formalin-ether concentration and Ziehl Neelsen methods. Out of 396 participants recruited among patients consulting at hospital, 42 (10.6% were HIV positive, thirty of them treatment naïve. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 14.64%. Out of 42 HIV/AIDS patients, 59.5% (25/42 were infected with intestinal parasites, while only 9.32% (33/354 of the HIV negative patients were infected with intestinal parasites. The parasites detected in our study population included Crystosporidium parvum (2.53%, Entamoeba histolytica (7.52%, Entamoeba coli (4.04%, Giardia lamblia (0.25%, Trichuris trichura (0.25%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25%. In the HIV infected group, Crystosporidium parvum (19.04%, Entamoeba histolytica (19.04%, Entamoeba coli (21.42%, Giardia lamblia (2.38%, Strongyloides stercoralis (0.25% and Taenia spp. (0.25% were found. Crystosporidium parvum was found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the HIV status and the quality of water were the major risk factors for intestinal parasitosis. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV patients by contributing in reducing morbidity and improving the efficiency of antiretroviral treatment. Even after the introduction

  20. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an aetiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  1. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL......-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before...... infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P <0.001). TNF-alpha levels showed no significant change from before to during syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg...

  2. Changing Gender Norms and Reducing HIV and Violence Risk Among Workers and Students in China.

    Pulerwitz, Julie; Hui, Wang; Arney, Jennifer; Scott, Lisa Mueller

    2015-08-01

    Global evidence demonstrates that inequitable gender norms negatively influence key health outcomes (e.g., violence, HIV/STI), and the importance of male involvement in prevention efforts. The China Family Planning Association and PATH partnered to develop and evaluate a gender-focused behavior change communication intervention for HIV and violence prevention. Eight participatory education sessions-adapted for the Chinese setting-were implemented in factories and schools. Baseline and endline surveys with participants (219 male factory workers and 496 male vocational students) were conducted. Support for (in)equitable norms was measured by the Gender Equitable Men Scale, as well as partner violence and communication. Focus groups with male and female workers/students, teachers, and factory managers were used to corroborate findings. At baseline, many workers and students supported inequitable gender norms, with workers generally being more inequitable. At endline, significant positive changes in gender-related views (e.g., reduction from 42% to 18% of workers agreeing that "a woman should tolerate violence in order to keep her family together") and behaviors (e.g., reduction from 15% to 7% of students reporting partner violence over the past 3 months) were reported. Results suggest that a relatively low intensity intervention can influence important gender norms and related behaviors. PMID:25950187

  3. Mental Health in Youth Infected with and Affected by HIV: The Role of Caregiver HIV

    Elkington, Katherine S.; Robbins, Reuben N.; Bauermeister, José A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; McKay, Mary; Mellins, Claude A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of youth and caregiver HIV status, and other contextual and social regulation factors with youth mental health. Method Data were from two longitudinal studies of urban youth perinatally infected, affected, and unaffected by HIV (N = 545; 36% PHIV+ youth; 45.7% HIV+ caregivers). Youth mental health was measured using the Child Behavior Checklist, the Child Depression Inventory, and the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Results HIV+ youth reported ...

  4. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  5. Postgraduate Educational Research on Violence, Gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around Schools (1995-2004)

    Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.

    2011-01-01

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…

  6. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for

  7. Densitometric disorders in children infected with HIV

    M Marczyñska

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to assess the prevalence of densitometric disorders and deficiencies of vitamin D3 in children vertically HIV-infected, treated with cART. In 34 children vertically HIV-infected aged 10–16 years (mean 13 years, receiving cART≥5, bone densitometry and the titer of 25-OHD3 was done. We analyzed at the time of diagnosis of HIV infection and at the time of the study: age, clinical and immunological classification, the length, effectiveness of cART, the lowest immunological classification. 15/34 (44% children had abnormal dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry examination (DEXA of the lumbar aged-matched mean Z-score −2.1 (range −1.2 to −3.5, of which 8 also had abnormal DEXA whole spine aged-matched mean Z-score −1.6 (range −1.1 to−2.2. Level of 25-OHD3 was abnormal (<20 ng/ml in 29/34 (85%, in 7 of them the level was very low (<4.0 ng /ml. 4/5 children with normal values of 25-OHD3 parallel had correct densitometry; 1/5 with a normal value of 25-OHD3 had significant abnormalities of bone density, visible in radiographs of the hand. Clinical classification at diagnosis was: N/A in 17, B in 12, C in 5 and immunological classification: 1 in 11, 2 in 9, 3 in 13 cases. The lowest classification was AIDS in 9 children, 15 had moderate signs of infection, and 10 mild signs; deep immune deficiency occurred in 17 children, 15 had moderate and 2 have never had immunodeficiency. The regimens based on PI received 9 children, NNTRI −6, all 3 classes received 19. At the time of the study 31 children were successfully treated, 32 had no immunodeficiency, two had moderate deficiency. 32 children were qualified to N/A group, one was in the classification of B and one in C. All children unsuccessfully treated (3 had low levels of 25-OHD3. In a significant percentage of older children receiving antiretroviral treatment≥5 years, had abnormal results of densytometry examination. There was no correlation between age, duration of the c

  8. Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment and lipid levels in the Women’s Interagency HIV study (WIHS) of HIV-infected and un-infected women in the US

    Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L.; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M.

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±ART) were investigated with Women’s Interagency HIV Study data (n=1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. 63 % had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-OH vitamin D was highest in HIV-infected +ART-treated women (17 ng/mL, p

  9. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Marya eGwadz; Cleland, Charles M.; Alexandra eKutnick; Noelle Regina Leonard; Amanda Spring Ritchie; Laura eLynch; Angela eBanfield; Talaya eMcCright-Gill; Montserrat edel Olmo; Belkis eMartinez

    2016-01-01

    Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%), but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and ...

  10. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Gwadz, Marya; Cleland, Charles M.; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R.; Ritchie, Amanda S.; Lynch, Laura; Banfield, Angela; McCright-Gill, Talaya; Del Olmo, Montserrat; Martinez, Belkis

    2016-01-01

    Background The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends persons at high risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%) but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines i...

  11. Differences in Clinical Manifestations of Acute and Early HIV-1 Infection between HIV-1 Subtypes in African Women

    Lemonovich, Tracy L.; Watkins, Richard R.; Morrison, Charles S.; Kwok, Cynthia; Chipato, Tsungai; Musoke, Robert; Arts, Eric J; Nankya, Immaculate; Salata, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the differences in clinical manifestations between women with various HIV-1 subtypes during acute (AI) and early (EI) HIV infection. In a longitudinal cohort study, clinical signs and symptoms among Uganda and Zimbabwe women with AI and EI were compared with HIV-negative controls; symptoms were assessed quarterly for 15 to 24 months. Early HIV infection was defined as the first visit during which a woman tested HIV antibody positive. Women who were HIV negative serologic...

  12. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  13. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688

  14. Men at risk; a qualitative study on HIV risk, gender identity and violence among men who have sex with men who report high risk behavior in Kampala, Uganda.

    Rachel King

    Full Text Available In Uganda, men who have sex with men (MSM are at high risk for HIV. Between May 2008 and February 2009 in Kampala, Uganda, we used respondent driven sampling (RDS to recruit 295 MSM≥18 years who reported having had sex with another man in the preceding three months. The parent study conducted HIV and STI testing and collected demographic and HIV-related behavioral data through audio computer-assisted self-administered interviews. We conducted a nested qualitative sub-study with 16 men purposively sampled from among the survey participants based on responses to behavioral variables indicating higher risk for HIV infection. Sub-study participants were interviewed face-to-face. Domains of inquiry included sexual orientation, gender identity, condom use, stigma, discrimination, violence and health seeking behavior. Emergent themes included a description of sexual orientation/gender identity categories. All groups of men described conflicting feelings related to their sexual orientation and contextual issues that do not accept same-sex identities or behaviors and non-normative gender presentation. The emerging domains for facilitating condom use included: lack of trust in partner and fear of HIV infection. We discuss themes in the context of social and policy issues surrounding homosexuality and HIV prevention in Uganda that directly affect men's lives, risk and health-promoting behaviors.

  15. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  16. Quality of Life of HIV-Infected Persons in Croatia

    Belak Kovačević, Sanja; Vurušić, Tomislav; Duvančić, Kristina; Maček, Maja

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine health-related quality of life among Croatian HIV infected individuals, and to assess the impact of socio-demographic and disease-related variables on health-related quality of life. This was a crosssectional study of 111 HIV-infected adults who received care at the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, Croatia. The World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for HIV brief version (WHOQOL-HIV BREF) was used to asses...

  17. HIV and Bone Disease: A Perspective of the Role of microRNAs in Bone Biology upon HIV Infection

    Del Carpio-Cano, Fabiola E.; DeLa Cadena, Raul A.; Sawaya, Bassel E.

    2013-01-01

    Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection...

  18. Impaired production of cytokines is an independent predictor of mortality in HIV-1-infected patients

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Gerstoft, Jan; Pedersen, Bente K;

    2003-01-01

    With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients.......With regard to the natural history of HIV-1 infection this study investigated whether whole-blood culture cytokine production was associated with mortality in HIV-1-infected patients....

  19. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Calderon, Veronica E.; Huante, Matthew B.; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L.; Hunter, Robert L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J.

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination. PMID:26908312

  20. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  1. Occult hepatitis B virus infection: A major concern in HIV-infected patients

    Ramezani, Amitis; Banifazl, Mohammad; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Aghakhani, Arezoo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected patients are at risk of acquiring viral hepatitis, due to common routes of transmission. As the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections and improved survival, viral hepatitis emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected cases. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by presence of HBV infection without detectable hepatitis B surface ...

  2. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Luisa Orza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH and human rights (HR, and the implications for policymakers. Methods: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results: In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings. Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations, and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions: Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to

  3. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Orza, Luisa; Bewley, Susan; Chung, Cecilia; Crone, E Tyler; Nagadya, Hajjarah; Vazquez, Marijo; Welbourn, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and human rights (HR), and the implications for policymakers. Methods A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings). Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations), and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end

  4. Utility of Pooled HIV RNA RT-PCR Assay in Diagnosing Acute HIV Infections

    张麒; 蒋岩; 刘全忠

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: The P24 antigen test, HIV RNA PCR test,HIV isolation/culture and fourth-generation HIV uniform Ag/Ab assay are being utilized in diagnosing acute HIV infection in different labs. Many factors limit the use of screening for acute HIV in high-risk populations, in blood donors and during voluntary HIV testing, including, cost, technique, sensitivity and specificity. In this review we explore a new NAAT method which involves HIV RNA RT-PCR on pooled samples. This technique is able to screen for acute infections in a large testing volume and may he used as a screening method in high-risk populations and blood donors.

  5. The Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Children.

    Abdollahi, Alireza; Saffar, Hana

    2016-01-01

    It is estimated that the number of HIV infected children globally has increased from 1.6 million in 2001 to 3.3 million in 2012. The number of children below 15 years of age living with HIV has increased worldwide. Published data from recent studies confirmed dramatic survival benefit for infants started anti-retroviral therapy (ART) as early as possible after diagnosis of HI. Early confirmation of HIV diagnosis is required in order to identify infants who need immediate ART. WHO has designed recommendations to improve programs for both early diagnoses of HIV infection and considering ART whenever indicated? It is strongly recommended that HIV virologocal assays for diagnosis of HIV have sensitivity of at least 95% and ideally greater than 98% and specificity of 98% or more under standardized and validated conditions. Timing of virological testing is also important. Infants infected at or around delivery may take short time to have detectable virus. Therefore, sensitivity of virological tests is lower at birth. In utero HIV infection, HIV DNA or RNA can be detected within 48 h of birth and in infants with peripartum acquisition it needs one to two weeks. Finally it is emphasized that all laboratories performing HIV tests should follow available services provided by WHO or CDC for quality assurance programs. Both clinicians and staffs providing laboratory services need regular communications, well-defined SOPs and nationally validated algorithms for optimal use of laboratory tests. Every country should use assays that have been validated by national reference laboratory. PMID:27499768

  6. Experiences of gender-based violence among HIV-positive Rwandan women beyond the period of disclosure and implications for HIV programming

    Johnson, Jessica Blythe

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV has gained prominence in the field of public health. In the context of Rwanda, poverty and the lasting affects of the 1994 Rwandan Genocide further complicate this relationship. In partnership with Women’s Equity in Access to Care and Treatment, an HIV treatment centre in Kigali, Rwanda, this study uses qualitative research methods to capture the experiences of GBV among HIV-positive Rwandan women. Participants spoke to the variety ...

  7. HIV infection of choroid plexus in AIDS and asymptomatic HIV-infected patients suggests that the choroid plexus may be a reservoir of productive infection.

    Petito, C K; Chen, H; Mastri, A R; Torres-Munoz, J; Roberts, B; Wood, C

    1999-12-01

    The choroid plexus (CPx) may be an important site of viral dissemination since monocytes and dendritic cells in its stroma are infected with HIV in AIDS patients and since the ratio of CPx to brain infection is more than 2 : 1. In order to see if CPx infection also develops in asymptomatic (ASY) HIV-infected patients, we examined archival formalin-fixed brain and CPx from 14 AIDS and seven ASY cases, using routine histology, immunohistochemistry for HIV gp41, and DNA extraction and gene amplification for HIV DNA. Eight of 14 AIDS (57%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx and four (29%) had HIV encephalitis. Two of seven ASY cases (29%) had HIV-positive cells in the CPx but none had HIV encephalitis. Extracted DNA from brain, CPx and systemic organs of five ASY cases was amplified by nested PCR with or without Southern blotting for HIV env gene. It was positive in systemic organs in five cases; in CPx in four cases; and in brain in one case. This study shows that the CPx is a site of HIV infection in ASY patients and that the frequency of CPx infection is higher than seen in brain in both AIDS and ASY cases. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the CPx may be a site for hematogeneous spread and a reservoir for HIV infection during the period of clinical latency. PMID:10602407

  8. HIV Testing Behavior among Pacific Islanders in Southern California: Exploring the Importance of Race/Ethnicity, Knowledge, and Domestic Violence

    Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…

  9. [HIV infection, gonorrhea and syphilis from Thailand to Norway].

    Aavitsland, P; Nilsen, O

    1999-10-30

    Thailand, a popular tourist destination for Norwegians, is experiencing an increasing epidemic of HIV infection. We used the Norwegian surveillance system for communicable diseases to assess the connections between the Norwegian and Thai epidemics. Before 1999, 1,869 cases of HIV-infection had been reported in Norway. From 1993 to 1998, 1,334 cases of gonorrhoea and 62 cases of syphilis were reported. We studied cases with a Thai patient or source partner and cases acquired in Thailand. 56 (3%) of HIV-infection cases, 64 (5%) of gonorrhoea cases and two (3%) of syphilis cases were connected to Thailand. All the Norwegians who acquired HIV in Thailand were males, with a median age of 39. Eight of them were diagnosed in 1998 as compared to 16 during the previous ten-year period. 21 Thai women and seven males were diagnosed with HIV infection in Norway, eight in 1998 and 20 in the previous ten-year period. The Norwegian HIV epidemic is influenced by the Thai epidemic. Norwegian men are infected in Thailand during holidays. Thai women come with their Norwegian partner to Norway and later discover their HIV status. We recommend raising the awareness of the Thai epidemic among Norwegian tourists. Immigrants to Norway from highly endemic countries should be offered HIV counselling and testing. PMID:10592752

  10. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    Charlotte Watts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion: Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions: There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.

  11. HIV Infection and TLR Signalling in the Liver

    Megan Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART, liver disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-infected individuals, specifically, in the presence of viral hepatitis coinfection. HIV, a single stranded RNA virus, can bind to and activate both Toll-like receptor (TLR7 and TLR8 in circulating blood mononuclear cells, but little is known about the effect of HIV on TLRs expressed in the liver. HIV can directly infect cells of the liver and HIV-mediated depletion of CD4+ T-cells in the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract results in increased circulating lipopolysaccharide (LPS, both of which may impact on TLR signaling in the liver and subsequent liver disease progression. The potential direct and indirect effects of HIV on TLR signaling in the liver will be explored in this paper.

  12. Psychological characteristics of HIV-infected patients

    N. N. Muryvanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: the study of individual psychological characteristics of HIV-infected people. Materials and methods: we used the hospital anxiety scale and depression HADS, depression scale Beck and Zung. The results of the study: According to the scale HADS subclinical forms of anxiety are more common in women (31,5±2,65% than men (12,5±1,48 %, and, at the age of 20-29 years. Clinically evident anxiety occurs more often in women (19±1,34% than men (14,5±2,1 % in the age – men – 20–29 years, while for women 20–24. Subclinical (18±1,34% and clinical (9±0,68% forms of depression have also been noted in the female population in the age 3,8±0,32% of men and 14,1±1,21% in women. On a scale of Beck expressed signs of depression found in 34,8±2,4% of men aged 25–29 years and 43±2,83% of women aged 20–24. Conclusion: 1. Our studies showed the presence of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a significant number of the surveyed HIVinfected. 2. In the analysis of different age and sex groups of HIVinfected patients, found that anxiety and depression more likely in women in the age group 20-29 years. 3. The obtained results can be used to develop methods of prevention of mental disorders. 

  13. Determinants of Smoking and Quitting in HIV-Infected Individuals.

    Susan Regan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking is widespread among HIV-infected patients, who confront increased risk of smoking-related co-morbidities. The effects of HIV infection and HIV-related variables on smoking and smoking cessation are incompletely understood. We investigated the correlates of smoking and quitting in an HIV-infected cohort using a validated natural language processor to determine smoking status.We developed and validated an algorithm using natural language processing (NLP to ascertain smoking status from electronic health record data. The algorithm was applied to records for a cohort of 3487 HIV-infected from a large health care system in Boston, USA, and 9446 uninfected control patients matched 3:1 on age, gender, race and clinical encounters. NLP was used to identify and classify smoking-related portions of free-text notes. These classifications were combined into patient-year smoking status and used to classify patients as ever versus never smokers and current smokers versus non-smokers. Generalized linear models were used to assess associations of HIV with 3 outcomes, ever smoking, current smoking, and current smoking in analyses limited to ever smokers (persistent smoking, while adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, and psychiatric illness. Analyses were repeated within the HIV cohort, with the addition of CD4 cell count and HIV viral load to assess associations of these HIV-related factors with the smoking outcomes.Using the natural language processing algorithm to assign annual smoking status yielded sensitivity of 92.4, specificity of 86.2, and AUC of 0.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.91. Ever and current smoking were more common in HIV-infected patients than controls (54% vs. 44% and 42% vs. 30%, respectively, both P<0.001. In multivariate models HIV was independently associated with ever smoking (adjusted rate ratio [ARR] 1.18, 95% CI 1.13-1.24, P <0.001, current smoking (ARR 1.33, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, P<0.001, and

  14. Women and HIV infection: the makings of a midlife crisis.

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-11-20

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present even prior to the menopausal transition. All of these risks, present at midlife, augur poorly for future health and describe a substantially increased burden of disease likely to accrue to HIV-infected women as they enter older age groups. Further compounding the adversity faced by the HIV infected, the demographics of women most vulnerable to this disease include adverse social and economic influences, both of which worsen their long-term prognosis. For example, drug use and poverty are related to more severe menopausal symptoms and chronic stress is related to worse psychological and cardiovascular risk. An understanding of how menopause interacts with HIV infection is therefore most important to alert the clinician to perform surveillance for common health problems in postmenopausal women, and to address directly and appropriately symptomatology during the menopausal transition. PMID:19783389

  15. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review.

    Larke, Natasha

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  16. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    Rachel C Vreeman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+ infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion: Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological

  17. Combination effect on HIV infection in vitro of soluble CD4 and HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    Hansen, J E; Sørensen, A M; Olofsson, S; Osinaga, E; Roseto, A

    In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism.......In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism....

  18. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    V. B. Musatov; Yakovlev, A. A.; S. G. Andreeva; M. V. Ivanova

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunist...

  19. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men. PMID:26786739

  20. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine...

  1. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Bauer, J; Poulsen, S;

    1999-01-01

    Denmark is an area of low incidence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The number of newly reported cases of HIV has been stable during the 1990s, whereas the number of TB cases has doubled in Denmark in the past decade, mainly due to immigration. However, among native Danes the incidence of TB has...... increased in the younger age groups, indicating more newly infected persons. This study was performed in order to assess the impact of the HIV epidemic and immigration on TB incidence among native Danes. The study was also designed to reveal transmission patterns of TB among HIV-positive patients. Data from...... HIV-TB co-infected patients identified in the national registers of TB and AIDS from 1992-95 were collected retrospectively from medical records. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of TB isolates from co-infected patients were compared with all patterns registered in the...

  2. Relationship Power and Sexual Violence Among HIV-Positive Women in Rural Uganda.

    Conroy, Amy A; Tsai, Alexander C; Clark, Gina M; Boum, Yap; Hatcher, Abigail M; Kawuma, Annet; Hunt, Peter W; Martin, Jeffrey N; Bangsberg, David R; Weiser, Sheri D

    2016-09-01

    Gender-based power imbalances place women at significant risk for sexual violence, however, little research has examined this association among women living with HIV/AIDS. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of relationship power and sexual violence among HIV-positive women on anti-retroviral therapy in rural Uganda. Relationship power was measured using the Sexual Relationship Power Scale (SRPS), a validated measure consisting of two subscales: relationship control (RC) and decision-making dominance. We used multivariable logistic regression to test for associations between the SRPS and two dependent variables: recent forced sex and transactional sex. Higher relationship power (full SRPS) was associated with reduced odds of forced sex (AOR = 0.24; 95 % CI 0.07-0.80; p = 0.020). The association between higher relationship power and transactional sex was strong and in the expected direction, but not statistically significant (AOR = 0.47; 95 % CI 0.18-1.22; p = 0.119). Higher RC was associated with reduced odds of both forced sex (AOR = 0.18; 95 % CI 0.06-0.59; p Violence prevention interventions with HIV-positive women should consider approaches that increase women's power in their relationships. PMID:27052844

  3. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p self-esteem (β = -0.17, p self-esteem (β = -0.18, p children (β = 0.24, p self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  4. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  5. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Samir Lakhashe; Madhuri Thakar; Sheela Godbole; Srikanth Tripathy; Ramesh Paranjape

    2008-11-01

    The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naïve patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection. However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.

  6. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-1-discordant couples.

    Brandon L Guthrie

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. METHODS: HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2-seropositive were tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis, and HIV-1-uninfected partners were tested for HSV-2. We assessed sociodemographic, behavioral, and biological correlates of a current STI. RESULTS: Of 416 couples enrolled, 16% were affected by a treatable STI, and among these both partners were infected in 17% of couples. A treatable STI was found in 46 (11% females and 30 (7% males. The most prevalent infections were trichomoniasis (5.9% and syphilis (2.6%. Participants were 5.9-fold more likely to have an STI if their partner had an STI (P<0.01, and STIs were more common among those reporting any unprotected sex (OR = 2.43; P<0.01 and those with low education (OR = 3.00; P<0.01. Among HIV-1-uninfected participants with an HSV-2-seropositive partner, females were significantly more likely to be HSV-2-seropositive than males (78% versus 50%, P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: Treatable STIs were common among HIV-1-discordant couples and the majority of couples affected by an STI were discordant for the STI, with relatively high HSV-2 discordance. Awareness of STI correlates and treatment of both partners may reduce HIV-1 transmission. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00194519.

  7. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 can superinfect HIV-2-infected cells: pseudotype virions produced with expanded cellular host range.

    Le Guern, M; Levy, J A

    1992-01-01

    In studies on viral interference, cloned T-cell lines chronically infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 or HIV-2 were inoculated with several strains of these two AIDS retrovirus subtypes. HIV-2UC1-infected cells, which still express the CD4 receptor, could be superinfected with a variety of HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains. This event was accompanied by cytopathic effects in the cells and production of pseudotype virions with an expanded cellular host range. HIV-1- or HIV-2-infected...

  8. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  9. HIV infection is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

    Copur, A Sinan; Smith, Peter R; Gomez, Victor; Bergman, Michael; Homel, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ranged from 0.25 to 0.96% in clinical studies, but up to 17% at autopsy. A preliminary analysis at our hospital suggested that the frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals might be higher than previously reported. To further evaluate this issue, we performed a retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of VTE and/or HIV infection discharged from our hospital between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999. A total of 13,496 patients were discharged during the year of the study. There were 244 patients with VTE and 362 who were HIV-positive. Ten of the 244 patients with VTE were HIV-positive (4.1%). The frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals was 10/362 (2.8%) compared to 234/13134 (1.8%) in the non-HIV-positive group, but the difference is not statistically significant. However, in patients under age 50, the frequencies were significantly different: 10/302 (3.31%) versus 35/6594 (0.53%), respectively (p < 0.0001). The frequency of VTE in HIV-positive patients less than 50 years old (3.31%) was greater than in HIV-positive patients over 50 years of age (0/60), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, in the non-HIV-positive group, VTE was significantly more frequent in those 50 and older compared to younger patients (3.04% versus 0.53%, p = 0.0001). Statistical analysis indicated that the direction of association between age and diagnosis of VTE differed for HIV-positive patients versus non-HIV-positive patients. Our results suggest that HIV-positive patients under age 50 are at increased risk for VTE compared with non-HIV-positive individuals. PMID:12055028

  10. The role of enacted stigma in parental HIV disclosure among HIV-infected parents in China.

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu; Stanton, Bonita

    2015-01-01

    Existing studies have delineated that HIV-infected parents face numerous challenges in disclosing their HIV infection to the children ("parental HIV disclosure"), and practices of parental HIV disclosure vary with individual characteristics, family contexts, and social environment. Using cross-sectional data from 1254 HIV-infected parents who had children aged 5-16 years in southwest China, the current study examined the association of parental HIV disclosure with mental health and medication adherence among parents and explored the possible effect of enacted stigma on such association. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that parents who had experienced disclosure to children reported higher level enacted stigma, worse mental health conditions, and poorer medication adherence. Enacted stigma partially mediated the associations between disclosure and both mental health and medication adherence after controlling basic background characteristics. Our findings highlight the importance of providing appropriate disclosure-related training and counseling service among HIV-infected parents. In a social setting where HIV-related stigma is still persistent, disclosure intervention should address and reduce stigma and discrimination in the practice of parental HIV disclosure. PMID:26616123

  11. Global human genetics of HIV-1 infection and China

    Tuo Fu ZHU; Tie Jian FENG; Xin XIAO; Hui WANG; Bo Ping ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in human genes can influence the risk for HIV-1 infection and disease progression, although the reported effects of these alleles have been inconsistent. This review highlights the recent discoveries on global and Chinese genetic polymorphisms and their association with HIV-1 transmission and disease progression.

  12. Confidentiality and Public Policy Regarding Children with HIV Infection.

    Harvey, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between law and policy, examining significant gains in establishing legal precedents for protecting the educational rights of children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in confronting HIV-related discrimination. The article looks at legal principles of confidentiality, disclosure, negligence and potential…

  13. SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV INFECTED VICTIMS OF VINDHYA REGION

    Hamendra Kumar Verma; Devendra N. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    In the research report we have studied the relationships between socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence in Rewa and Mauganj of Rewa district of Vindhya region of Madhya Pradesh using district level data and also analyzed the drivers of the epidemic and found out what socio-economic and other factors make people susceptible to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

  14. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...

  15. HIV-1 RNA quantification in CRF02_AG HIV-1 infection: too easy to make mistakes.

    Tatarelli, Paola; Taramasso, Lucia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Sticchi, Laura; Nigro, Nicola; Barresi, Renata; Viscoli, Claudio; Bruzzone, Bianca

    2016-04-01

    The number of patients newly infected by HIV-1 non-B subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) is increasing worldwide, including in the western countries. We report on a primary HIV-1 infection in a Caucasian patient. A routine quantitative assay (Nuclisens EasyQ HIV-1 2.0, BioMérieux SA) showed 6,700 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. A combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) consistent with low baseline HIV-1 RNA was started. Few days later, the analysis performed with REGA HIV-1 Subtyping Tool - Version 3.0 attributed the HIV-1 sequence to the CRF02_AG recombinant form. Therefore, a second real-time PCR assay was performed, using the Versant HIV-1 RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) (Siemens HealthCare Diagnostics) which revealed a HIV-1 RNA of 230,000 copies/ml. Consequently, the ongoing cART was potentiated. This case suggests that the wide genetic variability of HIV-1 subtypes may affect the capability of the commonly used assays to detect and accurately quantify HIV-1 RNA in non-B subtypes and CRFs. In presence of CRFs different commercial HIV-1 RNA tests should be performed to find the most reliable for viral load quantification at the diagnosis, because it influences the choice of cART, and during the follow-up. Indeed, international guidelines for HIV-1 infection management suggest to monitor patient' HIV-RNA with the same assay over the course of treatment. As different commercial tests can be performed in the same laboratory with considerable difficulty, the laboratory should select an assay that is suitable not only for the more prevalent strain, but also for less frequent ones that, nevertheless, can occur. Then, knowing and investigating the spread of non-B strains has essential clinical and laboratory implications. PMID:27196556

  16. T-lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk HIV-uninfected adolescents - Retention of naive T lymphocytes in HIV-infected adolescents

    Douglas, SD; Rudy, B; Muenz, L; Starr, SE; Campbell, DE; Wilson, C; Holland, C; Crowley-Nowick, P; Vermund, SH

    2000-01-01

    Background: The capacity of the immune system of adolescents to generate and repopulate naive and memory cell populations under conditions of normal homeostasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is largely unknown. Objective: To assess lymphocyte subsets in HIV-infected and high-risk

  17. Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM.

  18. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  19. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with advanced HIV infection

    A. Krishna Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV patients has prolonged survival and reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections (OI. However, following starting of antiretroviral therapy (ART, some patients experience a paradoxical worsening of clinical condition termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS an entity, characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to a preexisting antigen or pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the important pathogens that can cause an IRIS, in patients with low CD 4 cell counts in HIV patients. It is important to consider the possibility of cryptococcal infection in patients with advanced HIV infection, look for cryptococcal antigen in serum and cerebrospinal fluid along with blood culture. Blood cultures should be kept for further incubation for slow growing organisms by as demonstrated in the present case. We herewith report a case of IRIS due to cryptococcal meningitis in a patient with HIV1 infection with very low CD4 counts.

  20. Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women

    Gretchen S. Stuart

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.

  1. [HIV infection and parenteral virus hepatitis in the Krasnodar territory].

    Larin, F I; Lebedev, V V; Red'ko, A N

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of the morbidity dynamics of HIV infection, hepatitis B and C in the Krasnodar territory for 1996-2003 is presented. The tendency of strengthening direct correlation between age-dependent rates in these groups of diseases has been established. The correlation coefficient (rxy) is at present +0.851 (HIV infection-virus hepatitis B) and +0.892 (HIV infection-virus hepatitis C). The highest levels of primary morbidity are registered in persons aged 20-39 years. The established epidemiological parallels between HIV infection and parenteral hepatitis require the development of the unified strategy of the prophylaxis of these diseases on the federal and regional levels. PMID:16028521

  2. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  3. "When the skies fight": HIV, violence and pathways of precarity in South Africa.

    Mills, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Based on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork in South Africa, this article explores the skies that fight, the proverbial lightning strikes that bring HIV into women's lives and bodies. Departing from earlier studies on ARV programmes in and beyond South Africa, and broadening out to explore the chronic struggle for life in a context of entrenched socio-economic inequality, this article presents findings on women's embodiment of and strategic resistance to structural and interpersonal violence. These linked forms of violence are discussed in light of the concept of precarity. Across two sections, the findings trace the pathways through which precarity entered women's lives, drawing on verbal, visual and written accounts collected through participant observation, participatory photography and film, and journey mapping. In doing so, the ethnography articulates the intersection of structural and interpersonal violence in women's lives. It also reveals the extent to which women exert a 'constrained agency', on the one hand, to resist structural violence and reconfigure their political relationship with the state through health activism; and, on the other hand, to shift the gender dynamics that fuel interpersonal violence through a careful navigation of intimacy and independence. PMID:27578342

  4. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients

  5. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  6. Violence

    Muhlestein, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Throughout time, Egyptian sources display divergent attitudes towards violence expressing the belief that some situations of violence were positive and to be encouraged, while others were to be avoided. Sanctioned violence could be employed for a variety of reasons—the severity of which ranged from inflicting blows to gruesome death. Violence was part of the preternatural realm, notably as Egyptians attempted to thwart potential violence in the afterlife. While the average Egyptian was suppos...

  7. Acute pancreatitis: Manifestation of acute HIV infection in an adolescent

    Bitar, Anas; Altaf, Muhammad; Sferra, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background: Pancreatitis in the pediatric age group is not as common as in adults. Etiologies are various and differ from those in adults. Although infectious etiology accounts for a significant number of cases of pancreatitis, acute infection with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) was rarely reported as a possible etiology for acute pancreatitis in adults. Acute pancreatitis has never been reported as a presenting manifestation of acute HIV infection in children. Case Report: We des...

  8. Analysis of Michigan Medicaid costs to treat HIV infection.

    Solomon, D J; Hogan, A. J.; Bouknight, R R; Solomon, C T

    1989-01-01

    To obtain better understanding of the nature and cost of health care related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, medical payment records were analyzed for 204 men, women, and children older than 60 months who had indications of HIV infection. The records were those of Michigan Medicaid, the General Assistance Medical Program, and the Resident County Hospitalization Program, with service dates on or after January 1, 1984, and which were processed by November 30, 1987. Patient paym...

  9. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    Strazza L.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.

  10. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis

    Huson, Michaëla A M; Scicluna, Brendon P; van Vught, Lonneke A; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M; Schultz, Marcus J; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection

  11. Premature aging and immune senescence in HIV-infected children

    Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630

  12. Alternative HIV testing methods among populations at high risk for HIV infection.

    Greensides, Dawn R.; Berkelman, Ruth; Lansky, Amy; Sullivan, Patrick S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the levels of awareness and use of alternative HIV tests (home collection kit, oral mucosal transudate collection kit, and rapid tests) among people at high risk for HIV infection. METHODS: Data were collected as part of an anonymous, cross-sectional interview study--the HIV Testing Survey (HITS)--conducted in seven states from September 2000 to February 2001. Three high-risk populations were recruited: men who have sex with men, injection...

  13. Cerebrovascular disease in children with HIV-1 infection.

    Hammond, Charles K; Eley, Brian; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Ndondo, Alvin; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Children with HIV infection have increased risk of cerebrovascular disease from multiple aetiologies including HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic vasculitis, cardioembolism or coagulopathy, all of which may be secondary to the infection. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children is underestimated because of limited neuroimaging in low and middle income countries, silent events without overt motor manifestations, and mislabeling as HIV encephalopathy for non-motor manifestations such as behavioural and cognitive difficulties. No management guidelines for cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children exist but common practices target risk factors for stroke in low and middle income countries. Where capacity permits, screening for opportunistic infections, vasculitis, coagulopathy and cardioembolism is important. Optimising virological suppression, correction of anaemia, control of seizures and aspirin prophylaxis are management priorities. Neurosurgical interventions may have a role. PMID:26890389

  14. [Secrecy in children with HIV infection].

    Champion, M; Lefebvre Des Noëttes, A; Taboulet, P; Lemerle, S

    1999-10-01

    The secrecy surrounding the disease of parents and children infected with HIV leads to psychic and affective isolation and difficulties of communication within the family. Psychological management may possibly help to resolve the problem of secrecy between parents and children. We analyzed the organization and dynamics of the secret surrounding children contaminated by their mothers. The analysis was prospective and was based on semi-directive interviews and drawings. We followed up, over a period of two years, ten children (mean age: 4 years, range: 4 months to 12 years) with different ethnic and socio economic backgrounds. In each family, the child was the target of the secret, the pediatrician the guardian, and the mother (or her substitute) the keeper. The organization of the secret around the other potential guardians varied from one family to another. Two modes of intra-family communication were observed: the secret (reserved for the youngest children) and the tacit. One child suffered from a disorder related to the secret, the others had depressive and reactional symptoms. At the end of the study, the manner of approaching, and especially dealing with, the question of the secret had changed appreciably in each family: disclosure to the family circle (three cases), passage of the child from the secret to the tacit (two cases), and easier questioning of the pediatrician in all of the cases. Nonetheless, in no case had the secret been completely lifted for the child. Four children asked to continue psychological management. The changes in the dynamics of the secret and the appeasement observed in the families suggest that psychotherapeutic aid should be offered to families where a child has been contaminated with HIV by the mother. PMID:10544788

  15. Incidence and Risk Factors for Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-infected and non-HIV infected Individuals Before and After the Introduction of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Larsen, Mette Vang; Ladelund, Steen;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is an important cause of morbidity among HIV-infected individuals. We described incidence and risk factors for IPD in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. METHODS:  Nationwide population-based cohort study of HIV-infected adults treated at all...

  16. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond

  17. Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection

    Gupta V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

  18. Sexual violence from police and HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive women who inject drugs in St. Petersburg, Russia – a mixed methods study

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Quinn, Emily K; Lunze, Fatima I; Liebschutz, Jane M; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Blokhina, Elena; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Police violence against people who inject drugs (PWID) is common in Russia and associated with HIV risk behaviours. Sexual violence from police against women who use drugs has been reported anecdotally in Russia. This mixed-methods study aimed to evaluate sexual violence from police against women who inject drugs via quantitative assessment of its prevalence and HIV risk correlates, and through qualitative interviews with police, substance users and their providers in St. Petersburg, Russia. Methods Cross-sectional analyses with HIV-positive women who inject drugs (N=228) assessed the associations between sexual violence from police (i.e. having been forced to have sex with a police officer) and the following behaviours: current drug use, needle sharing and injection frequency using multiple regression models. We also conducted in-depth interviews with 23 key informants, including PWID, police, civil society organization workers, and other stakeholders, to explore qualitatively the phenomenon of sexual violence from police in Russia and strategies to address it. We analyzed qualitative data using content analysis. Results Approximately one in four women in our quantitative study (24.1%; 95% CI, 18.6%, 29.7%) reported sexual violence perpetrated by police. Affected women reported more transactional sex for drugs or money than those who were not; however, the majority of those reporting sexual violence from police were not involved in these forms of transactional sex. Sexual violence from police was not significantly associated with current drug use or needle sharing but with more frequent drug injections (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.43, 95% CI 1.04, 1.95). Qualitative data suggested that sexual violence and coercion by police appear to be entrenched as a norm and are perceived insurmountable because of the seemingly absolute power of police. They systematically add to the risk environment of women who use drugs in Russia. Conclusions Sexual violence

  19. Case series of syphilis and HIV co-infections

    Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati

    2013-01-01

    Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...

  20. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author)

  1. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we...... identified 3251 HIV-infected individuals and 13 004 population controls matched on age and gender. Data on MI were obtained from the National Hospital Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death. We calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for risk of MI and population......-attributable fractions (PAF) of MI associated with smoking. RESULTS: In never smokers, HIV was not associated with an increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], .41-2.54). In previous and current smokers, HIV was associated with a substantially increased risk of MI (aIRR, 1.78; 95% CI, .75-4.24 and...

  2. HIV virology and pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: a brief overview

    Emanuele Fanales-Belasio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.

  3. N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression

    Tirumuru, Nagaraja; Zhao, Boxuan Simen; Lu, Wuxun; Lu, Zhike; He, Chuan; Wu, Li

    2016-01-01

    The internal N6-methyladenosine (m6A) methylation of eukaryotic nuclear RNA controls post-transcriptional gene expression, which is regulated by methyltransferases (writers), demethylases (erasers), and m6A-binding proteins (readers) in cells. The YTH domain family proteins (YTHDF1–3) bind to m6A-modified cellular RNAs and affect RNA metabolism and processing. Here, we show that YTHDF1–3 proteins recognize m6A-modified HIV-1 RNA and inhibit HIV-1 infection in cell lines and primary CD4+ T-cells. We further mapped the YTHDF1–3 binding sites in HIV-1 RNA from infected cells. We found that the overexpression of YTHDF proteins in cells inhibited HIV-1 infection mainly by decreasing HIV-1 reverse transcription, while knockdown of YTHDF1–3 in cells had the opposite effects. Moreover, silencing the m6A writers decreased HIV-1 Gag protein expression in virus-producing cells, while silencing the m6A erasers increased Gag expression. Our findings suggest an important role of m6A modification of HIV-1 RNA in viral infection and HIV-1 protein synthesis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15528.001 PMID:27371828

  4. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  5. Mortality attributable to smoking among HIV-1-infected individuals

    Helleberg, Marie; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2013-01-01

    population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking was 61.5% among HIV patients and 34.2% among controls.Conclusions. In a setting where HIV care is well organized and antiretroviral therapy is free of charge, HIV-infected smokers lose more life-years to smoking than to HIV. The excess mortality......Background. We assessed mortality attributable to smoking among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Methods. We estimated mortality rates (MRs), mortality rate ratios (MRRs), life expectancies, life-years lost, and population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking and with...... of smokers is tripled and the population-attributable risk of death associated with smoking is doubled among HIV patients compared to the background population....

  6. HIV INFECTION STAGE, ANTIRETROVIRAL THERAPY SCHEME AND PATIENT IMMUNE STATUS INFLUENCE ON HIV/TB CO-INFECTION OUTCOME

    A. V. Mordyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective research of 381 clinical records is conducted to study HIV infection influence on stationary stage of tuberculosis treatment outcome in HIV-TB co-infected patients. All cases were divided depending on a hospitalization outcome on favorable and adverse. At most of patients tuberculosis of respiratory organs met. Immunological researches were conducted, the stage of HIV infection was registered and the issue of purpose of anti-retroviral therapy was resolved. Besides, as indirect signs of an immunodeficiency at the patients with a combination of tuberculosis and HIV infection who were on hospitalization the indicators received when carrying out clinical laboratory trials were analyzed: absolute and relative quantity of lymphocytes according to the general blood test, the contents the globulin fractions and circulating immune complexes concentration according to the clinical chemistry blood test. At an assessment of results in both groups of research more than at a half of patients existence of HIV infection at late stages that speaks about late identification and neglect of an immunodeficiency was revealed. At patients with tuberculosis of lungs in combination with HIV infection at a failure statistically significant decrease in an immunoregulatory index is revealed. It is interesting that the level of CD4 lymphocytes and a stage of HIV infection had no impact on the co-infection’s outcome. However, existence of virus loa ding more than 100 000 copies/ml reduced probability favorable an outcome of treatment of tuberculosis at the patient with HIV infection. Timely purpose of anti-retroviral therapy at patients with co-infection increased chances of treatment of tuberculosis at patients with an immunodeficiency. Frequency of adverse side effect of antiviral therapy met equally often at patients in both groups. Thus, patients at any stages of HIV infection with any forms of tuberculosis, including generalized, had a

  7. Baseline characteristics of HIV & hepatitis B virus (HIV/HBV) co-infected patients from Kolkata, India

    Sarkar, Jayeeta; Saha, Debraj; Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati; Saha, Bibhuti; Kedia, Deepika; Guha Mazumder, D.N.; Chakravarty, Runu; Guha, Subhasish Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV co-infection has variable prevalence worldwide. In comparison to HBV mono-infection, the course of chronic HBV infection is accelerated in HIV/HBV co-infected patients. The present study was carried out to analyse the baseline characteristics (clinical, biochemical, serological and virological) of treatment naïve HIV/HBV co-infected and HIV mono-infected patients. Methods: Between July 2011 and January 2013, a total number of 1331 HIV-seropositive treatment naïve individuals, enrolled in the ART Centre of Calcutta School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, India, were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). A total of 1253 HIV mono-infected and 78 HIV/HBV co-infected patients were characterized. The co-infected patients were evaluated for HBeAg and anti-HBe antibody by ELISA. HIV RNA was quantified for all co-infected patients. HBV DNA was detected and quantified by real time-PCR amplification followed by HBV genotype determination. Results: HIV/HBV co-infected patients had proportionately more advanced HIV disease (WHO clinical stage 3 and 4) than HIV mono-infected individuals (37.1 vs. 19.9%). The co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase and ALT/platelet ratio index (APRI). CD4 count was non-significantly lower in co-infected patients. Majority (61.5%) were HBeAg positive with higher HIV RNA (PHIV/HBV co-infected patients had significantly higher serum bilirubin, ALT, alkaline phosphatase and lower platelet count. HBeAg positive co-infected patients had higher HIV RNA and HBV DNA compared to HBeAg negative co-infected patients. Prior to initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART) all patients should be screened for HBsAg to initiate appropriate ART regimen. PMID:27488008

  8. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  9. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  10. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated. PMID:26559405

  11. Differential effects of sex in a West African cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Esbjörnsson, Joakim;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Several studies have reported conflicting effects of sex on HIV-1 infection. We describe differences in baseline characteristics and assess the impact of sex on HIV progression among patients at a clinic with many HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. METHODS: This study utilised...... visit until initiation of ART, death or loss to follow-up using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: A total of 5694 patients were included in the study, 3702 women (65%) and 1992 men (35%). Women were more likely than men to be infected with HIV-2 (19% vs. 15%, P < 0.01) or dually infected with HIV...

  12. Leukocyte telomere length in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected children: shorter telomeres with uncontrolled HIV viremia.

    Hélène C F Côté

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging. METHODS: In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV-1-infected (HIV(+ children (n = 94, HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART perinatally (n = 177, and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV(- control children (n = 104 aged 0-19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a all subjects, b HIV(+/HEU children only, and c HIV(+ children only. RESULTS: After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV(+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007. CONCLUSIONS: In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV(+, HEU and HIV(- children. No associations between children's LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition.

  13. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  14. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  15. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  16. HIV-TB co-infection in children: associated factors and access to HIV services in Lagos, Nigeria

    Daniel, O. J.; Adejumo, O. A.; Gidado, M.; Abdur-Razzaq, H. A.; Jaiyesimi, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the leading causes of death from infectious disease worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of HIV among children with TB in moderate to high prevalence countries ranges between 10% and 60%. This study aimed to determine the access to HIV services of HIV-TB co-infected children.

  17. Major depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in HIV-2 infection, an attenuated form of HIV disease.

    Rita Cavaleiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC provide an important link between innate and acquired immunity, mediating their action mainly through IFN-alpha production. pDC suppress HIV-1 replication, but there is increasing evidence suggesting they may also contribute to the increased levels of cell apoptosis and pan-immune activation associated with disease progression. Although having the same clinical spectrum, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a strikingly lower viremia and a much slower rate of CD4 decline and AIDS progression than HIV-1, irrespective of disease stage. We report here a similar marked reduction in circulating pDC levels in untreated HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in association with CD4 depletion and T cell activation, in spite of the undetectable viremia found in the majority of HIV-2 patients. Moreover, the same overexpression of CD86 and PD-L1 on circulating pDC was found in both infections irrespective of disease stage or viremia status. Our observation that pDC depletion occurs in HIV-2 infected patients with undetectable viremia indicates that mechanisms other than direct viral infection determine the pDC depletion during persistent infections. However, viremia was associated with an impairment of IFN-alpha production on a per pDC basis upon TLR9 stimulation. These data support the possibility that diminished function in vitro may relate to prior activation by HIV virions in vivo, in agreement with our finding of higher expression levels of the IFN-alpha inducible gene, MxA, in HIV-1 than in HIV-2 individuals. Importantly, serum IFN-alpha levels were not elevated in HIV-2 infected individuals. In conclusion, our data in this unique natural model of "attenuated" HIV immunodeficiency contribute to the understanding of pDC biology in HIV/AIDS pathogenesis, showing that in the absence of detectable viremia a major depletion of circulating pDC in association with a relatively preserved IFN-alpha production does occur.

  18. Development of Human Dendritic Cells and their Role in HIV Infection: Antiviral Immunity vs HIV Transmission

    YasukoTsunetsugu-Yokota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although dendritc cells (DC represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing AIDS vaccines. However, HIV not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC-T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC-T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology and discuss what needs to be known in order to successfully manipulate DC for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future.

  19. Care of HIV-infected patients in China

    Yun Zhen CAO; Hong Zhou LU

    2005-01-01

    Compared with high infection areas of the world, the total HIV infection rate in China is relatively low. Nonetheless,because of China's vast territory and large population, the potential infection risk must be taken seriously. In the next few years, needle sharing among injection drug users will remain the most common route of transmission for the HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Unprotected sex is gradually becoming a major route of transmission. China began to implement HAART in 1999 according to international standards. Prior to 2003, there were only about 150 HIV/AIDS patients were treated with HAART in some clinical trials and about 100 HIV/AIDS patients were treated by private sources.Results of those treatments are the scientific basis for development of the therapeutic strategies in China. In March of 2003, the Chinese government initiated China CARES program. In November of 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health announced a national policy of free ARV treatment to all HIV+ Chinese citizens who were in poverty and required ARV therapy. There are total of 19,456 HIV/AIDS patients received free ARV drugs to date in 159 regions and 441 towns.Current challenges are how to follow-up and evaluate those patients in the clinical settings. The longer the therapy is postponed, the more side effects and the higher probability of drug resistance are going to occur. It remains unclear,therefore, when HAART regimen should be started in the HIV/AIDS population in China.

  20. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients with...... chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection were analysed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF......-α), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and IFN-γ-inducible protein 10 kDa (IP-10). RESULTS: Undetectable HCV RNA at the time of early latent syphilis infection was observed in 2 patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. After treatment of the syphilis infection, HCV RNA levels increased again in patient 1, whereas...

  1. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  2. Gender inequality and HIV transmission: a global analysis

    Eugene T Richardson; Collins, Sean E.; Tiffany Kung; Jones, James H; Khai Hoan Tram; Victoria L Boggiano; Linda-Gail Bekker; Zolopa, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to thera...

  3. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Durvasula, Ramani S; Hinkin, Charles H.

    2006-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall...

  4. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of pu...

  5. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2007-01-01

    -infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family...

  6. Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of previously unknown HIV infection

    We present a case of primary Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of HIV infection. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of musculoskeletal nocardiosis are nonspecific and resemble those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia osteomyelitis have been reported in the radiology literature. (orig.)

  7. A Discrete Model for HIV Infection with Distributed Delay

    Brahim EL Boukari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a consistent discretization of a continuous model of HIV infection, with distributed time delays to express the lag between the times when the virus enters a cell and when the cell becomes infected. The global stability of the steady states of the model is determined and numerical simulations are presented to illustrate our theoretical results.

  8. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  9. Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

    Yurko Е.М.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Evaluate the indicators of mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patients, patients with chronic hepatitis С and co-infection HIV/HCV. Material and Methods: The content of microelements (zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe in serum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study involved 99 patients: with chronic hepatitis С — 32 patients, with HIV infection — 34 and co-infection of HIV/HCV — 33 patients. Results: Microelements and metal-dependent proteins metabolic disorders as a reduction of the zinc, haptoglobin contents, and an increase of copper, iron, and ceruloplasmin contents were identified in patients with chronic hepatitis С In HIV-infected patients and patients with co-infection HIV/HCV were identified reducing zinc, copper, iron, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin. in patients with co-infection HIV/HCV compared HIV-infected patients lower zinc, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin contents (p<0,001 were detected. In patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, as compared with a group of chronic hepatitis С were set lower values of all parameters (p<0,001. Conclusion: Integrated assessment of the degree of deviation from the control of the trace element content and activity metal-dependent enzymes showed that its highest significance was typical for patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, which is higher than that of HIV-infected patients in the 1,2-fold and 2,2-fold in patients with chronic hepatitis С

  10. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    S.H. Mooij

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of

  11. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing access to antiretroviral therapy, there appears to be little benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, making prevention of infection a priority. New prevention options that are being introduced in many African countries include male circumcision and HPV vaccination. However, more data are needed on the burden of HPV disease in men before boys are included in HPV vaccination programmes.

  12. Penicillium keratitis in a HIV-infected patient.

    Anutarapongpan, Orapin; Thanathanee, Onsiri; Suwan-Apichon, Olan

    2016-01-01

    A 36-year-old HIV-positive man presented with symptoms of redness, blurred vision and foreign body sensation in his right eye for 3 months. The slit lamp examination revealed deep stromal infiltration with a feathery margin in an otherwise minimal anterior chamber reaction. A corneal scraping was negative. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an abnormal large hyper-reflective oval shape in the corneal stroma. Corneal infiltration did not show improvement after topical, intrastromal and intracameral antifungal treatment. Therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty was performed to eradicate the infection. Corneal button culture and histopathological results confirmed the diagnosis of Penicillium marneffei keratitis. No recurrent infection occurred after corneal transplantation. This appears to be the first report of P. marneffei keratitis in an HIV-infected patient. Although it is an uncommon condition, it should be one of the differential diagnoses in an HIV-infected patient presenting with keratitis. PMID:27535731

  13. The risks of partner violence following HIV status disclosure, and health service responses: narratives of women attending reproductive health services in Kenya.

    Manuela Colombini; Courtney James; Charity Ndwiga; Integra team; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: For many women living with HIV (WLWH), the disclosure of positive status can lead to either an extension of former violence or new conflict specifically associated with HIV status disclosure. This study aims to explore the following about WLWH: 1. the women's experiences of intimate partner violence (IPV) risks following disclosure to their partners; 2. an analysis of the women's views on the role of health providers in preventing and addressing IPV, especially following HIV dis...

  14. The rationale for third trimester testing of vertical HIV transmission in neonates with CMV infection.

    Boos, Vinzenz; Feiterna-Sperling, Cornelia; Sarpong, Akosua; Garten, Lars; Cremer, Malte; von Weizsäcker, Katharina; Bührer, Christoph; Dame, Christof

    2016-08-01

    We report on a late-preterm neonate with severe congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, refractory to antiviral therapy with ganciclovir. Subsequent immune diagnostics led to the finding of HIV infection at day 69, even though the mother tested negative for HIV in early pregnancy. Thus, in congenital CMV infection, HIV testing should be performed to elucidate maternal HIV seroconversion during late pregnancy. Our case strongly supports third trimester screening of HIV infection acquired during pregnancy, yet recommended only for women with traditional risk factors for HIV or living in an area of high HIV prevalence. PMID:26830786

  15. Relationship between HIV protease inhibitors and QTc interval duration in HIV-infected patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Charbit, Beny; Rosier, Arnaud; Bollens, Diane; Boccara, Franck; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; Koubaa, Afef; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Funck-Brentano, Christian

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: QTc interval prolongation and torsades de pointes have been reported in HIV-infected patients. Protease inhibitors (PIs) are suspected to contribute to this adverse reaction. However, many factors can prolong QTc interval. We examined factors influencing QTc duration in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Unselected HIV-infected patients (n = 978) were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre cross-sectional study. Variables related to infection and treatments were collected. A digital e...

  16. The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda

    Ocama, P.; Katwere, M.; Piloya, T.; Feld, J.; Opio, K. C.; Kambugu, A.; Katabira, E; D. Thomas; Colebunders, R; Ronald, A

    2008-01-01

    Background: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections. Objective: To describe the spectrum of liver diseases in HIV-infected patients attending an HIV clinic in Kampala, Uganda. Method: Consecutive patients presenting with jaundice, right upper quadrant pain with fever or malaise, ascites and/or tender hepatomegaly were recruited and ...

  17. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

    Piller Sabine C

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be assessed. Results: Two cell culture models were used: HIV-1-infected CEM T-cells and HEK293T cells transfected with a proviral DNA plasmid. In both models, AdOx treatment of cells increased the levels of virion in culture supernatant. However, these viruses had increased levels of unprocessed or partially processed Gag-Pol, significantly increased diameter, and displayed reduced infectivity in a MAGI X4 assay. AdOx reduced infectivity equally in both dividing and non-dividing cells. However, infectivity was further reduced if Vpr was deleted suggesting virion proteins, other than Vpr, were affected by protein methylation. Endogenous reverse transcription was not inhibited in AdOx-treated HIV-1, and infectivity could be restored by pseudotyping HIV with VSV-G envelope protein. These experiments suggest that AdOx affects an early event between receptor binding and uncoating, but not reverse transcription. Conclusion: Overall, we have shown for the first time that protein methylation contributes towards maximal virus infectivity. Furthermore, our results also indicate that protein methylation regulates HIV-1 infectivity in a complex manner most likely involving the methylation of multiple viral or cellular proteins and/or multiple steps of replication.

  18. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the

  19. Small alveolar macrophages are infected preferentially by HIV and exhibit impaired phagocytic function

    Jambo, K C; Banda, D H; Kankwatira, A M; Sukumar, N.; Allain, T J; Heyderman, R. S.; Russell, D. G.; Mwandumba, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-infected persons are at higher risk of lower respiratory tract infections than HIV-1-uninfected individuals. This suggests strongly that HIV-infected persons have specific impairment of pulmonary immune responses, but current understanding of how HIV alters pulmonary immunity is incomplete. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), comprising small and large macrophages, are major effectors of innate immunity in the lung. We postulated that HIV-1 impairs pulmonary innate immunity through impairment o...

  20. Trends in HIV infection in the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin, China

    Xu, Hua-Feng; Zhou, Hai-Zhou; Jiang, Li-Xin; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Xuan; Guan, Xiu-Ru

    2014-01-01

    Background Major hospitals in most Chinese cities have the capability to perform HIV testing. However, it is not a routine test for all patients and, as a result, many patients are not aware of their HIV status. To understand the rate of HIV infection and the factors associated with infection, we tested serum to determine HIV status and analyzed factors associated with HIV infection. Methods We collected blood samples from 348,151 patients who visited the First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin M...

  1. [Vaccination of children born from HIV-infected mothers against Haemophilus influenzae type b infection].

    Kostinov, M P; Pakhomov, D V; Snegova, N F; Nikitina, T N; Zinkina, T N

    2008-01-01

    Course of postvaccinal period after injection of vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b administered simultaneously with vaccines of Russian national immunization schedule was studied in children born from HIV-infected mothers. Good tolerability of the vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and inactivated polio vaccines (Imovax Polio), which is comparable with tolerability in healthy children, was demonstrated. Prevaccination titers of antibodies and their dynamics during immunization process were described. Increase of levels of antibodies was detected both in the group of children with perinatal contact with HIV infection and in the group of HIV-infected children. PMID:18822498

  2. STD Clinic Patients' Awareness of Non-AIDS Complications of HIV Infection

    Castro, José Guillermo; Granovsky, Inna; Jones, Deborah; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Participants were recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic in Florida and were assessed regarding the knowledge and awareness of non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Questionnaires were administered before and after a brief information session on non-AIDS conditions associated with HIV infection. Participants included men (n = 46) and women (n = 51). Prior to the information session, at baseline, only 34% of the participants were worried about HIV infection. Most participants (82%) agreed that HIV could be treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART), while only 38% were aware that HIV-associated conditions cannot be easily treated with ART. After the information session, almost all participants reported they were concerned regarding the risk of HIV infection. High-risk patients may have limited knowledge about the consequences of HIV infection beyond the traditional AIDS-associated conditions. Increased awareness of these less known consequences of HIV infection may decrease the potential for complacency regarding acquiring HIV infection. PMID:25331221

  3. Governmental policies on HIV infection in China

    Jie SHEN; Dong Bao YU

    2005-01-01

    This article is a general review of the evolvement of HIV/AIDS-related public policies in China since 1980's. It tracks the important laws, regulations and other governmental documents in regard to HIV/AIDS prevention mainly at central level.

  4. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus;

    2010-01-01

    leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the...

  5. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of

  6. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  7. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  8. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS:: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS:: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122...... patients with ESRD 96 were on dialysis and 26 had received a RT. Median age was 47 years, 73% were males and 43% were black. Median duration of HIV infection was 11 years. Thirty-three percent had prior AIDS; 91% were receiving antiretrovirals; and 88% had undetectable viral load. Median CD4T-cell count...... was 341 cells per cubic millimetre; 20.5% had hepatitis C coinfection. Most frequent causes of ESRD were HIV-associated nephropathy (46%) and other glomerulonephritis (28%). Hemodialysis (93%) was the most common dialysis modality; 34% of patients were on the RT waiting list. A poor HIV control...

  9. One Man Can: Politicizing masculinities, gender-based violence and HIV

    Remme, Anette

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on men, in a search for the root causes of gender inequality, gender based violence and HIV in South Africa. I argue that it is time to move beyond the victimization of women and start politicizing masculinities. In addition to the focus on women s power and agency, we must understand the relations between women, men and structures of economy, politics, culture and so on. Masculinities have increasingly become a research focus in attempting to help men to understand and co...

  10. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  11. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  12. HIV testing practices as reported by HIV-infected patients in four European countries.

    Deblonde, Jessika; Hamers, Françoise F; Callens, Steven; Lucas, Raquel; Barros, Henrique; Rüütel, Kristi; Hemminki, Elina; Temmerman, Marleen

    2014-04-01

    HIV testing constitutes an important strategy to control the HIV epidemic, which therefore merits an observation of HIV testing practices to help improve testing effectiveness. In 2008, a cross-sectional survey among recently diagnosed (≤ 3 years) HIV-infected patients was conducted in Belgium, Estonia, Finland and Portugal. Participants were questioned about reasons for HIV testing, testing place and testing conditions. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Out of 1460 eligible participants, 629 (43%) were included. Forty-one per cent were diagnosed late and 55% had never undergone a previous HIV test with perceived low risk being the primary reason for not having been tested earlier. Heterogeneity in HIV testing practices was observed across countries. Overall, tests were most frequently conducted in primary care (38%) and specialised clinics (21%), primarily on the initiative of the health care provider (65%). Sixty-one per cent were tested with informed consent, 31% received pretest counselling, 78% received post-test counselling, 71% were involved in partner notification and 92% were in care three months after diagnosis. The results showed that HIV testing is done in a variety of settings suggesting that multiple pathways to HIV testing are provided. HIV testing practice is being normalised, with less focus on pretest counselling, yet with emphasis on post-test follow-up. Major barriers to testing are centred on the denial of risk. Efforts are needed to concurrently promote public awareness about HIV risk and benefits of HIV testing and train clinicians to be more proactive in offering HIV testing. PMID:24090396

  13. Progress and Prospects in Therapeutics against HIV Infection

    Manisha Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous advances have occurred in recent decades in the development of safe and effective medications for the treatment of viral diseases. Currently there are more than 20 HIV drugs approved for use in humans. Combined chemotherapy has been found useful for a number of viral infections comprising drugs with different mechanism of action. HIV treatment guidelines recommend the use of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NsRTIs) plus a third antiretroviral drug for treatment-naiv...

  14. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    Pérez-Losada Marcos; Orsega Susan; Metcalf Julia A; Hirschfeld Steven; Imamichi Hiromi; Tazi Loubna; Posada David; Lane H Clifford; Crandall Keith A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from ...

  15. Protein methylation is required to maintain optimal HIV-1 infectivity

    Piller Sabine C; Warrilow David; Apolloni Ann; Bodetti Tracey J; Hitchen Eleanor M; Willemsen Nicole M; Harrich David

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx) was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be asses...

  16. Impact of HIV infection and alcohol on cognition: a review

    Selnes, Ola

    2010-01-01

    Ola A SelnesDepartment of Neurology, Division of Cognitive Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Both alcohol and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) can affect the structure and function of the central nervous system. What they have in common is that the white matter of the brain is principally affected, and the direct neuronal injury does not appear to be a consequence of either HIV infection or alcohol use. There is evidence that the cognitiv...

  17. Psychosocial aspects of HIV infection: I Love You (2005)

    Meštrović, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Since the discovery of HIV and AIDS, considerable progress has been made in understanding biology of the virus and disease, and also in developing effective treatments. Never the less, this infection still has very profound effects on psychological, social, and economic level. Some important examples of stigma and psychosocial aspects of the disease are depicted in this movie. Common bias where HIV is associated exclusively with the gay community and deviant behaviour is emph...

  18. Syphilis serology and HIV infection in Harare, Zimbabwe

    Gwanzura, L; A. Latif; Bassett, M.; Machekano, R; Katzenstein, D A; Mason, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the reliability of serological tests in detecting syphilis in a factory worker cohort and examine the impact of concurrent HIV infection on serological tests for syphilis. METHOD: Reactions to non-treponemal and treponemal antigens were tested using sera from a cohort of 3401 factory workers in Harare, Zimbabwe. The participants consented to regular testing for syphilis, by VDRL, and HIV using two ELISAs. All sera from men who were VDRL positive, and a random sam...

  19. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K; Haissman, Judith M; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2014-01-01

    crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...... translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk....

  20. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  1. Human Herpesviruses as Copathogens of HIV Infection, Their Role in HIV Transmission, and Disease Progression.

    Munawwar, Arshi; Singh, Sarman

    2016-01-01

    Of eight human herpesviruses (HHVs), often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. However, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has only very recently been recognized. Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections may offer slowing of HIV infection, disease progression, and its transmission. Beside HSV-1 and HSV-2, HHV-3 a causative agent of herpes zoster remained one of the first manifestations of HIV disease before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HHV-5 also known as human Cytomegalovirus infection remains a significant risk factor for HIV-associated mortality and morbidity even in HAART era. It is proposed that Cytomegalovirus viremia could be a better predictor of HIV disease progression than CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. The role of HHV-4 or Epstein-Burr virus and HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 is still being investigated in HIV disease progression. This review provides insight into the current understanding about these 8 HHVs, their co-pathogenesis, and role in HIV/AIDS disease progression. The review also covers recent literature in favor and against administering anti-HHV treatment along with HAART for slower AIDS progression and interrupted sexual transmission. PMID:27013807

  2. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only

  3. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies

  4. Activism to Counter Gender-based Violence and HIV and AIDS: Overcoming obstacles to movement building in Papua New Guinea

    Lina Abirafeh

    2009-01-01

    Based on the experiences shared by the Papua New Guinean delegation at the AWID Forum, on the HIV and gender-based violence (GBV) landscape in Papua New Guinea (PNG), Lina Abirafeh discusses how the progress towards gender equality is impeded by the increased spread of HIV and AIDS and GBV in PNG. A PNG delegation of six women representing various sectors – donor, government, civil society, community – journeyed to AWID to present their experiences in exercising agency to build movements that...

  5. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  6. Tubuloreticular inclusions in skin biopsies from patients with HIV infection

    Pedersen, C; Horn, T; Junge, Jette;

    1989-01-01

    Skin biopsies obtained from apparently normal skin from 15 HIV infected patients and 6 anti-HIV negative patients were examined by electron microscopy. Tubuloreticular inclusions (TRI) were detected within the cytoplasm of capillary endothelial cells in 5/5 AIDS patients and in 2/5 patients with...... AIDS related conditions. Biopsies from 5 asymptomatic HIV positive patients and the 6 control subjects were without ultrastructural alterations. The occurrence of TRI was related to low numbers of CD 4+ lymphocytes. 5/7 patients with TRI had elevated serum interferon activity, and in all of the...

  7. The vulnerability of Brazilian female prisoners to HIV infection

    L. Strazza; Azevedo, R. S.; H.B. Carvalho; E Massad

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated for variables related to HIV posit...

  8. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to ...

  9. Heterosexually Acquired HIV Infection in a Chinese Population in Malaysia-HIV/AIDS control policy recommendations

    王京

    2001-01-01

    @@ Introduction HIV infection and AIDS has emerged as a major public health problem all over the world. In the1980s,the infection was first found to be transmitted through homosexual activity and blood product transfusion. Now it is spreading among heterosexuals and injection drug users, and can be transmitted from mothers to infants.

  10. [Incidence and etiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients].

    Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D

    1995-05-01

    There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818

  11. HIV/TB Co-infection in Nigerian children

    Ebele F Ugochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The burden of childhood disease is not as well documented as that of adult disease, partly because of the difficulty of confirming the diagnosis. In Africa children have been estimated to account for 20-40% of TB case load. Children infected with M. tuberculosis have a high risk of progression to disease, the younger children being at highest risk. Infected children represent a reservoir of future adult disease. The incidence of childhood TB has increased in developing countries. This resurgence is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, which is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria ranking third highest prevalence. The pattern of childhood HIV and TB infection mirror these epidemics in the adult population. The number of children co-infected with HIV and TB is rising, and so is the incidence of congenital and neonatal TB. In addition the emergence of multi-drug resistance TB and extensively drug-resistant TB has occurred within the context of a high prevalence of HIV and TB. The diagnosis of TB has always been difficult in children and is compounded by HIV co-infection. The clinical symptoms in both diseases are similar, and the radiological changes may be non-specific. Treatment of both conditions in children is a challenge due to drug interactions and problems with adherence. There are few stable syrup formulations of antituberculous and antiretroviral drugs in children, and hence division of tablets gives rise to unpredictable dosing and emergence of resistance. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV, existing childhood TB programs must be strengthened, and antiretroviral drug therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs scaled up. HIV prevalence in the adult population must also be reduced. An increased emphasis on childhood TB, with early diagnosis and treatment, must be a

  12. HIV's Syndemic Links With Mental Health, Substance Use, and Violence in an Environment of Stigma and Disparities in Japan.

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2016-06-01

    A syndemics orientation has become a valuable lens through which to understand the complex system dynamics of HIV, HIV's links to other social and health problems, and the design of effective, comprehensive interventions. Using data from a broader ethnographic study of HIV epidemics in the Kansai Region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area of Japan, I found that HIV was synergistically linked with poor mental health, substance use, and violence, suggesting the existence of at least three syndemics. These occurred in an environment of stigma and social and health disparities, particularly for men who have sex with men, transgender persons, immigrants, and people living with HIV. Integrated interventions, led by Japan's HIV nongovernmental organizations and supported by the government, should more aggressively target stigma, which underlies most of the syndemic connections. Quantitative research should build upon the ethnographically derived associations shown here and test whether there are additive syndemic effects. PMID:26848082

  13. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2.

    Furuya, Andrea Kinga Marias; Sharifi, Hamayun J; Jellinger, Robert M; Cristofano, Paul; Shi, Binshan; de Noronha, Carlos M C

    2016-04-01

    Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN), produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition. PMID:27093399

  14. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D;

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... able to implement this definition (either on its own or alongside their own preferred definition) when reporting surveillance or research data relating to late presentation of HIV infection.......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of...

  15. Psychological distress, drug use, sexual risks and medication adherence among young HIV-positive Black men who have sex with men: exposure to community violence matters.

    Quinn, Katherine; Voisin, Dexter R; Bouris, Alida; Schneider, John

    2016-07-01

    In the USA, Black males are disproportionately affected by community violence and HIV. The aim of this study was to assess whether exposures to community violence are related to psychological distress, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, and medication adherence among a sample of HIV-positive young Black men who had sex with men (YBMSM). Data are from 98 YBMSM ages 18-29 years recruited from Chicago who completed measures on demographics, exposures to community violence, psychological distress, drug use, condomless anal intercourse, and medication adherence. Rates of exposure to community violence were high and youth reported victimization and witnessing numerous types of violence in their lifetime. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, models indicate that YBMSM reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence had significantly higher rates of condomless anal intercourse in the previous 6 months (AOR: 5.33, 95%CI: 1.38-20.55). Additionally, exposure to community violence was positively associated with psychological distress, hard drug use, and use of marijuana as a sex drug. Adherence to HIV antiretroviral medication was negatively associated with community violence (AOR: 0.36, 95%CI: 0.13-0.97). Rates of exposure to community violence are especially high in urban communities. Overall findings suggest that treatment, intervention, and programmatic approaches that include initiatives to address exposure to community violence might correlate with better health-related outcomes for HIV-positive YBMSM. PMID:26917328

  16. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China.

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-03-01

    HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  17. Predictors of impaired HDL function in HIV-1 infected compared to uninfected individuals

    Kelesidis, Theodoros

    2016-01-01

    Objective: HDL function rather than absolute level may be a more accurate indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD) but it is unclear what drives HDL dysfunction in HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study is to identify factors that may contribute to HDL dysfunction in chronic HIV-1 infection. Design: Retrospective study of HIV-1 infected males with low overall CVD risk and healthy males with no known CVD risk matched by race to the HIV-1 infected participants. Methods: We related para...

  18. AMYLOID BETA ACCUMULATION IN HIV-1-INFECTED BRAIN: THE ROLE OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER

    András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2012-01-01

    In recent years we face an increase in the aging of the HIV-1-infected population, which is not only due to effective antiretroviral therapy but also to new infections among older people. Even with the use of the antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders represent an increasing problem as the HIV-1-infected population ages. Increased amyloid beta (Aβ) deposition is characteristic of HIV-1-infected brains, and it has been hypothesized that brain vascular dysfunction contr...

  19. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of enterobacteriaceae isolated from HIV-infected patients in Kinshasa

    Iyamba, Jean-Marie Liesse; Wambale, José Mulwahali; Takaisi-Kikuni, Ntondo za Balega

    2014-01-01

    Introduction People infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are susceptible to develop severe bacterial infections. We set out to determine the frequency and the sensitivity to antibiotics of enterobaceriaceae isolated from urine and feces of HIV-infected persons. Methods Urine and feces samples were collected from HIV-infected patients of the Centre de Traitement Ambulatoire de Kabinda (CTA/Kabinda, Kinshasa) and analyzed at the Reference National Laboratory for HIV/AIDS and Sexually ...

  20. Increased longevity in HIV: caring for older HIV-infected adults.

    Ball, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The demographics of the HIV-infected population in the United States have shifted in a way that few would have predicted 30 years ago when the tide of sick and dying patients largely consisted of young men. Effective ART has allowed those infected to live long, productive lives and to grow old with their disease. With the increase in life expectancy afforded by HIV treatment, the cause of death among HIV-infected individuals is far more likely to be from an HIV-associated non-AIDS condition. Nonetheless, HIV seems to accelerate the aging process, and care providers involved in the treatment of older patients with HIV need to be aware that their patients are at increased risk of developing various common disorders, compared to uninfected same-age patients. Clinicians need to remain vigilant to the possibility of a new diagnosis of HIV among their older patients. Awareness of current or distant risk, frank discussions of sexual practices, and willingness to offer routine testing are crucial to making this diagnosis, with the recognition that longevity for patients with HIV is directly linked to how soon they enter care. HIV infection adds another challenge to the management of older patients; geriatricians and HIV specialists need to coordinate their efforts to provide patients with comprehensive multidisciplinary care. Older patients with HIV also have social and psychological needs that extend beyond the medical office. Maintaining independence, acknowledging limitations, reducing risk of adverse events such as falls or medication errors, and supporting self-acceptance and awareness are only a few of the many areas where care providers outside the medical office can be important for patients' ongoing well-being. Accessing family support, community outreach, church affiliation, or other outpatient support networks can be useful for patients. The remarkable change in prognosis brought about by effective ART in the mid-1990s has meant that HIV is now, for many, a

  1. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    Pérez-Losada Marcos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.

  2. Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection

    P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)

  3. Skeletal muscle cellular metabolism in older HIV-infected men.

    Ortmeyer, Heidi K; Ryan, Alice S; Hafer-Macko, Charlene; Oursler, KrisAnn K

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction may contribute to low aerobic capacity. We previously reported 40% lower aerobic capacity in HIV-infected men compared to noninfected age-matched men. The objective of this study was to compare skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities in HIV-infected men on antiretroviral therapy (55 ± 1 years of age, n = 10 African American men) with age-matched controls (55 ± 1 years of age, n = 8 Caucasian men), and determine their relationship with aerobic capacity. Activity assays for mitochondrial function including enzymes involved in fatty acid activation and oxidation, and oxidative phosphorylation, were performed in homogenates prepared from vastus lateralis muscle. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), cardiolipin, and oxidized cardiolipin were also measured. β-hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) (38%) and citrate synthase (77%) activities were significantly lower, and H2O2 (1.4-fold) and oxidized cardiolipin (1.8-fold) were significantly higher in HIV-infected men. VO2peak (mL/kg FFM/min) was 33% lower in HIV-infected men and was directly related to β-HAD and citrate synthase activity and inversely related to H2O2 and oxidized cardiolipin. Older HIV-infected men have reduced oxidative enzyme activity and increased oxidative stress compared to age-matched controls. Further research is crucial to determine whether an increase in aerobic capacity by exercise training will be sufficient to restore mitochondrial function in older HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27166139

  4. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  5. Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV co-infection in Anambra state, Nigeria

    C.C. Onyenekwe

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective.Methods: Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45; and (ii HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57. Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations.Results: The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in ‘Malaria–HIV co-infection group’ compared with ‘HIV infection group’ (p <0.05 and p <0.05. A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p <0.05 while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = – 0.388; p <0.05 and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = – 0.362; p<0.05 in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.

  6. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production,and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV...

  7. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells...... from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV...... expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production, and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV...

  8. Immune pathogenesis of pediatric HIV-1 infection

    Tiemessen, Caroline T.; Kuhn, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Vertical exposure to HIV occurs at a time when functional capacity of the infant’s immune system is attenuated through immaturity. Immune response capability is rooted in host genetic makeup, and the broad and fine specificity of innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively, shape the outcomes of HIV encounter in some instances and imprint viral changes through selective immune pressure in others. Findings from recent studies have profound implications for understanding immune pathogene...

  9. Fertility among HIV-infected Indian women Indian women : the biological effect and its implications

    Darak, Shrinivas; Janssen, Fanny; Hutter, Inge

    2011-01-01

    In India, nearly one million women of childbearing age are infected with HIV. This study sought to examine the biological effect of HIV on the fertility of HIV-infected Indian women. This is relevant for the provision of pregnancy-related counselling and care to the infected women, and for estimatin

  10. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  11. DMPD: Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan... KA. Trends Immunol. 2008 Feb;29(2):61-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven diseas...e? PubmedID 18178131 Title Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease

  12. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in HIV-infected children.

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The complete caries removal of deep/extensive dentin carious lesions with conventional procedures (high- and low-speed bur) may increase the risk of pulp exposure. In children with systemic diseases, such as HIV-infected children, the dental treatment proposed for the primary dentition with pulp involvement is tooth extraction once endodontic therapies cannot be guaranteed successfully. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe 3 cases of alternative techniques for caries removal in extensive and/or deep dentin carious lesions in the primary dentition of HIV-infected children: (1) atraumatic restorative treatment (ART); (2) Carisolv; and (3) Papacarie. PMID:18505652

  13. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination. PMID:25853184

  14. Quality of HIV Care and Mortality Rates in HIV-Infected Patients

    Korthuis, PT; McGinnis, KA; Kraemer, KL; Gordon, AJ; Skanderson, M; Justice, AC; Crystal, S; Goetz, MB; Gibert, CL; Rimland, D.; Fiellin, LE; Gaither, JR; Wang, K; Asch, SM; McInnes, DK

    2016-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act encourages healthcare systems to track quality-of-care measures; little is known about their impact on mortality rates. The objective of this study was to assess associations between HIV quality of care and mortality rates.A longitudinal survival analysis of the Veterans Aging Cohort Study included 3038 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients enrolled between June 2002 and July 2008. The independent variable was receipt of ≥80% of 9 ...

  15. Comparison of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Admission to Hospital in HIV-and Non-HIV-Infected Patients

    Touchie, Claire; Marrie, Thomas J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in hospitalized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with that in hospitalized non-HIV-infected patients by assessing presenting characteristics, etiology and outcomes.DESIGN: Retrospective chart review.SETTING: A tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia.POPULATION STUDIED: Thirty-two HIV-infected patients requiring hospitalization for treatment of CAP were identified from September 1991 to October 1993 and compared ...

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and the Association with HIV Risk Behaviors among Young Men in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

    Maman, Suzanne; Yamanis, Thespina; Kouyoumdjian, Fiona; Watt, Melissa; Mbwambo, Jessie

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence of the association between gender-based violence and HIV from the perspective and experiences of women. The purpose of this study is to examine these associations from the perspective of young men living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A community-based sample of 951 men were interviewed, of whom 360 had sex in the past 6…

  17. Clinical presentation and opportunistic infections in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients in Guinea-Bissau

    Sørensen, Allan; Jespersen, Sanne; Katzenstein, Terese L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Better understanding of HIV-2 infection is likely to affect the patient care in areas where HIV-2 is prevalent. In this study, we aimed to characterize the clinical presentations among HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, newly...... diagnosed HIV patients attending the HIV outpatient clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes in Guinea-Bissau were enrolled. Demographical and clinical data were collected and compared between HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dual seropositive patients. RESULTS: A total of 169 patients (76% HIV-1, 17% HIV-2 and 6......% HIV 1/2) were included in the study between 21 March 2012 and 14 December 2012. HIV-1 seropositive patients were younger than HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 seropositive patients, but no difference in sex was observed. Patients with HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 had a lower baseline CD4 cell count than HIV-2 seropositive...

  18. Systemic Cytokine and Interferon Responsiveness Patterns in HIV and HCV Mono and Co-Infections

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Joshi-Barve, Swati; Ghare, Smita; Barve, Shirish; Young, Mary; Plankey, Michael; Bordon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The role of host response-related factors in the fast progression of liver disease in individuals co-infected with HIV and HCV viruses remains poorly understood. This study compared patterns of cytokines, caspase-1 activation, endotoxin exposure in plasma as well as interferon signaling in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV/HCV co-infected (HIV+/HCV+), HCV mono-infected (HIV−/HCV+), HIV mono-infected (HIV+/HCV−) female patients and HIV- and HCV-uninfected women (HIV−/HCV−) who had en...

  19. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Aditi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  20. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV......-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not...

  1. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male: A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    Okeoma Mmeje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2-mediated inhibition of HIV type 1: a new approach to gene therapy of HIV-infection.

    Arya, S K; Gallo, R C

    1996-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was show...

  3. A Decline in New HIV Infections in South Africa: Estimating HIV Incidence from Three National HIV Surveys in 2002, 2005 and 2008

    Rehle, Thomas M.; Timothy B Hallett; Olive Shisana; Victoria Pillay-van Wyk; Khangelani Zuma; Henri Carrara; Sean Jooste

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 200...

  4. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection

    Vogel Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

  5. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years′ duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ′flail arm-like syndrome.′ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  6. Flail arm–like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Nalini, A.; Desai, Anita; Mahato, Simendra Kumar

    2009-01-01

    During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years' duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ‘flail arm–like syndrome.’ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART) stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen. PMID:20142861

  7. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  8. Correlation between Demographics, Clinical and Risk Factor for HIV infection with HIV/TB coinfected in Amertha Clinic Kerti Praja Foundation Denpasar

    Yuneti Octavianus Nyoko

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: HIV infection increases the risk of developing tuberculosis (TB), as TB infection increases the progression of HIV. In Bali, HIV/TB coinfected patients have increased from 26% in 2012 to 30% in 2013. Study on factors related with the occurrence of HIV/TB coinfection is limited in Indonesia. This study aims to determine the correlation between demographics, clinical and risk factor for HIV infected with HIV/TB coinfected in Amertha Clinic Kerti Praja Foundation Bali.Met...

  9. Tuberculous abdominal abscess in an HIV-infected man: Neither infection previously diagnosed

    Kuo-Yao Kao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man had a 1-week history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain; the initial impression was that he had diverticulitis of the ascending colon with an intra-abdominal abscess. Signs of peritonitis mandated an immediate right hemicolectomy. The unusual location of the abscess and the patient’s unusual postoperative course suggested that he might also have a systemic disease. Testing for HIV infection was positive. After 2 weeks in hospital, he was treated as an outpatient for both tuberculosis and HIV with a favourable outcome. In Taiwan a pre-operative HIV test is not performed routinely, and the HIV seroprevalence in surgical patient populations is unknown. Surgeons should keep the possibility of HIV infection in mind in a patient with an unusual clinical course.

  10. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  11. Direct Evidence of Lower Viral Replication Rates In Vivo in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Infection than in HIV-1 Infection

    MacNeil, Adam; Sarr, A. D.; Sankalé, J.-L.; Meloni, S.; Mboup, S.; Kanki, Phyllis Jean

    2007-01-01

    Studies have shown that human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) is less pathogenic than HIV-1, with a lower rate of disease progression. Similarly, plasma viral loads are lower in HIV-2 infection, suggesting that HIV-2 replication is restricted in vivo in comparison to that of HIV-1. However, to date, in vivo studies characterizing replication intermediates in the viral life cycle of HIV-2 have been limited. In order to test the hypothesis that HIV-2 has a lower replication rate in vivo t...

  12. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  13. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759

  14. Fertility intentions among HIV-infected, sero-concordant Kenyan couples in Nyanza Province, Kenya

    Withers, Mellissa; Dworkin, Shari; Harrington, Elizabeth; Kwena, Zachary; Onono, Maricianah; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R.; Grossma, Daniel; Newmann, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Research in sub-Saharan Africa has shown significant diversity in how HIV influences infected couples’ fertility intentions. Supporting HIV-infected, sero-concordant couples in sub-Saharan Africa to make informed choices about their fertility options has not received sufficient attention. In-depth interviews were conducted among 23 HIV-positive, sero-concordant married couples in Kenya, to better understand how HIV impacted fertility intentions. HIV compelled many to reconsider fertility plan...

  15. Role of darunavir in the management of HIV infection

    R Monica Lascar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available R Monica Lascar, Paul BennThe Mortimer Market Centre, Camden PCT, London WC1E 6JBAbstract: There is an ongoing need for potent antiretroviral therapies to deal with the increasing pool of treatment-experienced patients with multiple drug resistance. The last few years have seen the arrival of 2 new and very potent protease inhibitors – darunavir and tipranavir – alongside 2 whole new classes of anti-HIV agents – the integrase inhibitors and chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists. This review focuses on the role of darunavir in managing HIV infection, with an emphasis on darunavir’s exceptional resistance profile and related clinical effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and toxicity data. Darunavir in combination with the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir has proved to be very effective in the treatment of highly treatmentexperienced HIV patients with multiple drug resistance. The favorable tolerability and toxicity profile alongside the drug’s high genetic barrier to the development of resistance prompted approval of darunavir for HIV-treatment naïve patients. Furthermore, the paradigm of treating HIV with a combination of anti-HIV agents is currently being challenged by ongoing darunavir monotherapy trials and these preliminary data will be discussed.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, darunavir

  16. Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Jensen, B L;

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the impact of the clinical course of the primary HIV infection on the subsequent course of the infection. DESIGN--Prospective documenting of seroconversion, follow up at six month intervals, and analysis of disease progression by life tables. PATIENTS--86 Men in whom...... who had no symptoms or mild illness (75% v 42% and 55% v 14%, respectively). CONCLUSION--The course of primary infection may determine the subsequent course of the infection....

  17. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  18. Ankle-brachial index in HIV infection

    Martos Francisco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prognosis for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Evidence over recent years suggests that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in HIV patients. The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a cheap and easy test that has been validated in the general population. Abnormal ABI values are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. To date, six series of ABI values in persons with HIV have been published, but none was a prospective study. No agreement exists concerning the risk factors for an abnormal ABI, though its prevalence is clearly higher in these patients than in the general population. Whether this higher prevalence of an abnormal ABI is associated with a higher incidence of vascular events remains to be determined.

  19. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    NathalieDauphinMckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  20. The epidemiology of HIV seropositive malaria infected pregnant women in Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    Ajibade Kwashie Ako-Nai; Blessing I Ebhodaghe; Patrick O. Osho; Ebun A Adejuyigbe; Folasade M Adeyemi; Adeniran A. Ikuomola; KASSIM, OLAKUNLE O.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV increases the risks of malaria in pregnant women, while maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load also facilitates perinatal transmission to neonates. Malaria and HIV coinfection has been shown to exacerbate adverse pregnancy complications. Our study was designed to determine the HIV prevalence of pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Akure in southwestern Nigeria, investigate the relationship between dual HIV and malaria infection and HIV viral load and CD4+ T...

  1. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO.......01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue......). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients [18 LIPO and 18 without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) receiving antiretroviral drugs, and seven patients naïve to antiretroviral drugs (NAIVE)] were examined. Insulin precursors were measured during fasting, during an intravenous glucose...

  2. Cytokine therapies in HIV-1 infection: present and future.

    Pett, Sarah L; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-related deaths have declined dramatically in the developed world. However, HAART is neither able to eradicate the virus nor are its immunomodulatory effects sufficient to effect complete control of the virus. In addition, the long-term use of HAART is complicated by drug-related toxicities and compliance issues, both of which impact upon the development of viral resistance. The failure of structured treatment interruption strategies in those with chronic HIV-infection combined with the above limitations, has prompted renewed interest in immunotherapy. Cytokines and therapeutic vaccination have been proposed as HAART-adjunctive and HAART-sparing treatments in HIV-infection, and the current and future role of cytokine therapy in this disease will be the subject of this review. PMID:15482104

  3. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  4. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    V. B. Musatov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunistic and HIV-related disease was diagnosed in 29 patients. The most frequent pathology of the nervous system (12 cases is a diffuse HIV-associated brain damage occurring in 7 patients in the form of aseptic non purulent meningitis and in 5 patients in the form of encephalitis. The average value of the absolute and relative count of CD4-lymphocytes in patients amounted 147,0 cells/μl (40,0; 408,75 and 10.0% (4,00; 18,50. Pathological changes in cellular composition and protein concentration of cerebrospinal fluid detected in 19 cases. Replication of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid are detected in 31 of 32 patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy, including 17 patients with normal values of cerebrospinal fluid. The average HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid was 15 133,0 copies/ml (2501,0; 30624,0 or 4,18 (3,35; 4,48 lg HIV RNA, average HIV viral load in serum – 62 784,0 copies/ml (6027,5; 173869,0 or 4,80 4,80 (3,7; 5,2 lg HIV RNA. The concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly lower than in serum (4,18 and 4,80 lg HIV RNA, p=0.027. 4 patients with severe, multietiology damage of the central nervous system viral, microbial and fungal etiology, there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and in serum, the concentrations of HIV was higher in the cerebrospinal fluid.Conclusion: Among the majority of HIV-infected patients with signs of the central

  5. Factors Associated with Recent HIV Testing among Heterosexuals at High-Risk for HIV Infection in New York City

    Marya eGwadz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The CDC recommends persons at high-risk for HIV infection in the United States receive annual HIV testing to foster early HIV diagnosis and timely linkage to health care. Heterosexuals make up a significant proportion of incident HIV infections (>25%, but test for HIV less frequently than those in other risk categories. Yet factors that promote or impede annual HIV testing among heterosexuals are poorly understood. The present study examines individual/attitudinal-, social-, and structural-level factors associated with past-year HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV. Methods. Participants were African American/Black and Hispanic heterosexual adults (N=2307 residing in an urban area with both high poverty and HIV prevalence rates. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling (RDS in 2012-2015 and completed a computerized structured assessment battery covering background factors, multi-level putative facilitators of HIV testing, and HIV testing history. Separate logistic regression analysis for males and females identified factors associated with past-year HIV testing.Results. Participants were mostly male (58%, African American/Black (75%, and 39 years old on average (SD = 12.06 years. Lifetime homelessness (54% and incarceration (62% were common. Half reported past-year HIV testing (50% and 37% engaged in regular, annual HIV testing. Facilitators of HIV testing common to both genders included sexually transmitted infection (STI testing or STI diagnosis, peer norms supporting HIV testing, and HIV testing access. Among women, access to general medical care and extreme poverty further predicted HIV testing, while recent drug use reduced the odds of past-year HIV testing. Among men, past-year HIV testing was also associated with lifetime incarceration and substance use treatment.Conclusions. The present study identified gaps in rates of HIV testing among heterosexuals at high-risk for HIV, and both common and

  6. Lues maligna in an HIV-infected patient

    Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.

  7. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...

  8. Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population

    Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS: In.......7-2.1). The PAFs of cancer associated with smoking and with being HIV-infected were 27 and 49%, respectively. For cancers not strongly related to smoking or viral infections, the PAFs associated with being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency were 0%. CONCLUSION: The risk of cancer is increased in HIV...

  9. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    Koenig, Serena P; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Warren D. Johnson; Pape, Jean W; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since 1981, and about 33 million people (most of them living in low- and middle-income countries) are now infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV destroys immune system cells (including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte), leaving infected individuals susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-infected people died within 10 years of infection. Then, in 1996, highly active antiretroviral ...

  10. The Achilles Heel of the Trojan Horse Model of HIV-1 trans-Infection

    Marielle Cavrois; Jason Neidleman; Greene, Warner C.

    2008-01-01

    To ensure their survival, microbial pathogens have evolved diverse strategies to subvert host immune defenses. The human retrovirus HIV-1 has been proposed to hijack the natural endocytic function of dendritic cells (DCs) to infect interacting CD4 T cells in a process termed trans-infection. Although DCs can be directly infected by certain strains of HIV-1, productive infection of DCs is not required during trans-infection; instead, DCs capture and internalize infectious HIV-1 virions in vesi...

  11. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3 had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV

  12. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  13. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    P. Monteiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  14. Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan;

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to pres...

  15. Disseminated cryptococcosis in a patient with advanced HIV infection

    A. Krishna Prasad; M.V.S. Subbalaxmi; P. Umabala; T. Roshni Paul; Mallikarjun Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients has prolonged survival and reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections (OI). However, following starting of antiretroviral therapy (ART), some patients experience a paradoxical worsening of clinical condition termed as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) an entity, characterized by an excessive inflammatory response to a preexisting antigen or pathogen. Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the important pa...

  16. Adherence to Tobacco Dependence Treatment Among HIV-Infected Smokers.

    Browning, Kristine K; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy K; Diaz, Philip; Koletar, Susan L; Reynolds, Nancy R

    2016-03-01

    High prevalence of tobacco use and low success in quitting remain significant problems for reducing disease burden among HIV-infected persons. This study's purpose was to examine participant responsiveness and tobacco dependence treatment adherence and their influences on tobacco abstinence among HIV-infected patients. This non-randomized study included HIV-infected smokers 18 years of age or older, who smoked at least 5 cigarettes per day, and had an interest in quitting smoking in the next 30 days. HIV-infected smokers (n = 247) received a 12-week tobacco dependence treatment intervention that included pharmacotherapy and telephone counseling. Younger age and non-White race were associated with lower adherence to pharmacotherapy. Younger age, non-White race, and increased monthly binge drinking were associated with lower adherence to telephone counseling. High participant responsiveness was associated with adherence to pharmacotherapy, counseling, and abstinence. Development and testing of interventions to improve adherence to evidence-based tobacco dependence treatment is warranted. PMID:25855045

  17. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  18. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.;

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy ...

  19. Coccidioides Thyroiditis in an HIV-Infected Patient

    Jinno, Sadao; Chang, Shelley; Jacobs, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of Coccidioides thyroiditis in an HIV-infected patient with a history of recent Coccidioides pneumonia but with negative Coccidioides serology determined by enzyme immunoassay at presentation. Diagnosis of Coccidioides thyroiditis was made based on histopathologic examination and culture of thyroid abscess material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

  20. Mycobacterium avium complex enteritis in HIV-infected patient

    Masahiro Ishikane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC infection is an important AIDS-defining opportunistic infection. The introduction of antimicrobial prophylaxis and antiretroviral therapy (ART markedly reduced the incidence of disseminated MAC infection and improved the survival of affected individuals. However, it seems that patients with new or recurrent MAC infection are still encountered in clinical practice. Our images captured the characteristic endoscopic findings of MAC duodenitis. The gastrointestinal (GI tract appears to be a common port of entry for MAC infection in patients with AIDS. Early recognition of GI MAC infection by endoscopy in HIV-infected patients and initiation of anti-MAC therapy and ART may reduce morbidity and mortality.

  1. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  2. Mode of Delivery among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Philadelphia, 2005-2013

    Thompson, Dana R.; Momplaisir, Florence M.; Adams, Joëlla W.; Yehia, Baligh R.; Anderson, Emily A.; Alleyne, Gregg; Brady, Kathleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Current guidelines call for HIV-infected women to deliver via scheduled Caesarean when the maternal HIV viral load (VL) is >1,000 copies/ml. We describe the mode of delivery among HIV-infected women and evaluate adherence to relevant recommendations. Study Design We performed a population-based surveillance analysis of HIV-infected pregnant women in Philadelphia from 2005 to 2013, comparing mode of delivery (vaginal, scheduled Caesarean, or emergent Caesarean) by VL during pregnancy...

  3. Additive effects of aging and HIV infection on category verbal fluency : an analysis of component processes

    Iudicello, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the management of HIV infection have resulted in a growing population of older adults living with HIV. Both aging and HIV infection have been independently associated with central nervous system changes and corresponding declines in neurocognitive functioning. Poorer semantic verbal fluency output is also common in both HIV infection and healthy older adults, although, the possible additive effects of these risk factors are unknown. The present study aimed to examine the combined ...

  4. Regulatory T Cells Prevent Liver Fibrosis During HIV Type 1 Infection in a Humanized Mouse Model

    Nunoya, Jun-ichi; Washburn, Michael L.; Kovalev, Grigoriy I; Su, Lishan

    2013-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease is associated with aberrant immune activation, and coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) exacerbates hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, the role of HIV-1 infection or host immune modulation in liver pathogenesis is not clearly defined. Here, we report that regulatory T (Treg) cells prevent liver immunopathogenesis during HIV-1 infection in a humanized mouse model. In the absence of Treg cells, HIV-1 infection induced liver fibros...

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: The Role of Substance Use

    Korthuis, P. Todd; ZEPHYRIN, Laurie C.; Fleishman, John A.; Saha, Somnath; Josephs, Joshua S.; McGrath, Moriah M.; Hellinger, James; Gebo, Kelly A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV infection and substance use disorders are chronic diseases with complex contributions to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network sites in 2003 to estimate associations between HRQOL and specific substance use among HIV-infected patients. HRQOL was assessed by multi-item measures of physical and role functioning, general health, pain, energy, positive affect, anxiety, and depression. ...

  6. Pain and sensory function in HIV-infection : with and without antiretroviral therapy

    Martin, Claes

    2000-01-01

    Pain is a common symptom throughout the course of HIV-1 infection, with a prevalence ranging between 30-80%, varying with study methodology and patient selection. Neurogenic pain may appear as a consequence of distal predominantly sensory neuropathy (DSP), a common HIV-1 related neurological complication of late HIV-1 infection, usually during the AIDS-stage of the disease. This study set out to analyse pain and sensory function in HIV-1 infected patients with and without hi...

  7. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  8. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

    Yang, Yu; Li, Xiangwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs we...

  9. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  10. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole;

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...... CD4 and that post binding events may be common to the infection of lymphocytes. Anti HIV-1 sera showed neutralizing activity against heterologous and even autologous escape virus. This finding, together with the observation that monocytes and M phi s are infected in vivo, suggests that protection...

  11. Natural History of Anal vs Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women

    Beachler, Daniel C.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated anal than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of anal vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown.

  12. Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    Edgardo G. Bottaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority

  13. Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part I: Epidemiology and pathogenesis of HIV infection

    Goede, A.L. de; Vulto, A.G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Gruters, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4+ T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is frust

  14. 'I think my future will be better than my past': examining support group influence on the mental health of HIV-infected Rwandan women.

    Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H

    2013-01-01

    Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728

  15. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Tomonori Hoshi

    Full Text Available HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years, adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055 HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047 in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed.

  16. Persistent productive infection of human glial cells by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and by infectious molecular clones of HIV.

    Dewhurst, S; Sakai, K.; de Bresser, J.; Stevenson, M.; Evinger-Hodges, M J; Volsky, D J

    1987-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and human cells of astrocytic origin was studied in vitro with cultured glial cells and intact HIV or infectious molecular clones of the virus. Infection of glial cells with intact HIV was characterized by low-level expression of viral transcripts as detected by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization (less than 10 copies of HIV RNA per cell), transient virus replication, absence of viral antigens detectable by immun...

  17. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention.

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15-19 years), adults aged 30-34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  18. [Role of line immunoassay in the diagnosis of early HIV infection: a diagnostic case].

    Soylar, Muhammed; Altuğlu, Imre; Sertöz, Rüçhan; Gökengin, Deniz

    2013-07-01

    Combined p24 antigen-HIV antibody fourth-generation assays that identify most of the early HIV infections have been used extensively worldwide for several years. This poses challenges for the traditional algorithm of line immunoassay (LIA) confirmation. LIA tests are useful methods with their high specificity and their ability to differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2, but they are reactive days after the fourth generation enzyme immunoassays. With acute HIV infection, high levels of infectious virus are detectable in serum and genital secretions. The rate of transmission during acute HIV infection is higher than the established HIV infection, for this reason, new HIV testing strategies need to focus on sensitivity, especially for this highly contagious phase immediately after infection. Serum sample of a patient sent to Ege University Hospital Clinical Virology Laboratory was repeatedly reactive with low signal/cutoff ratios with two different commercial fourth generation enzyme immunoassays (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Reagent Kit, Abbott, Germany and Vidas HIV Duo Quick, Biomerieux, France). The sample was non-reactive with the LIA (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics, Belgium) and HIV RNA (RealTime HIV-I Amplification Reagent Kit, Abbott, USA) result was positive (4.1 x 10(5) copies/ml). With the presentation of this case, the role of LIA in the diagnosis of early HIV infection and its place in test algorithms were questioned. PMID:23971936

  19. Response to Hepatitis B Vaccine in HIV-Infected Patients

    SH Afrasiabian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The risk of developing chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV is 5% in general population but can reach up to 20% in HIV patients. The response rate to HBV vaccine in HIV infected patients is 23.8-56 percent. The aim of this study was to evaluate response of HIV-infected patients to 20 µg dose of recombinant HBV vaccine. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental study, 51 subjects, sampled through census, were HIV patients who had HBsAg negative test in HIV/AIDS counseling and care center. Patients were vaccinated with 20 µg of recombinant HBV vaccine, IM at intervals of 0, 1 and 6 months. Response to the vaccine was checked 2 months after the last injection. Data were analyzed with SPSS software, using descriptive statistics and nonparametric tests. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.68±8.37 years. Two patients were female (3.9% and 49 patients were male (96.1%. Mean of hepatitis B antibody level was 47.55±71.58 mIU/ml. The levels of antibody in different patients were as follow: 31 patients (60.8% 10 mIU/ml. There was no significant correlation between antibody levels and CD4+ cell count (correlation coefficient = -0.191. Conclusion: Response to hepatitis B vaccination is low in HIV infected patients. Conventional dose of HBV vaccine is not enough to get protective immunity. Therefore, two-fold dose of vaccine dose, repeat of conventional dose or increasing of interval administration of hepatitis B vaccine should be considered in future studies.

  20. Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan

    Mukhlid Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.

  1. Challenges and opportunities for HIV prevention and care: insights from focus groups of HIV-infected African American men.

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; McManus, Patricia; Addison, Reverend Jim; Morgan, Sarah; Millon-Underwood, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the inordinate burden of HIV illness borne by African American men, investigations of HIV prevention and care in this population are urgently needed. In this qualitative study, a sample of 20 HIV-infected African American men participated in two focus groups in which they exchanged experiences and ideas about living with HIV. They shared details about how they were personally impacted by HIV, and together they constructed a perspective on the larger societal context in which the HIV infection rate among African American men continues unabated. The men focused on growing complacency about HIV/AIDS in the United States, underfunding of supports and services, stigmas operative in African American communities, and differential care based on race, gender, and diagnosis. They saw opportunity in personal strategies that help individual men infected with HIV to take a more empowered stance to deal with the disease and improve their health but looked for changes undertaken by African Americans at the community level to make a real difference in the epidemic. Their vision included enhanced support for HIV prevention and care from influential community institutions like Black churches, more open dialogue about drugs and sexual behavior, and capacity-building for families whose members are HIV-infected or at risk for HIV. PMID:16849084

  2. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  3. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  4. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF HIV INFECTION WITHOUT TREATMENT

    Ogban G. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the mathematical and numerical modeling of the immune system of the course of HIV infection without treatment. Presently a significant number of scientific papers are devoted to the study of this problem. However, HIV infection is highly volatile and there is no effective drug, in that HIV has the ability to mutate and reproduce itself in the presence of chemical substances that are meant to inhibit or destroy it. The mathematical models used in this paper are conceptual and exploratory in nature. The proposed mathematical model allow us to obtain a complete description of the dynamics of HIV infection, and also an understanding of the progression to AIDS. Thus, the results of the numerical solution of differential equations in this work show that: the disease develops, and at low concentration of the virus, a certain level of stability does not depend on the initial concentration of infestation. In the absence of treatment, for interesting competition between virus and the loss of virus caused by immune response should be strictly greater than the rate of multiplication of the virus in the blood; the reproduction rate of the uninfected cells should be stricly greater than the mortality rate of the uninfected cells

  5. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  6. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION OF HIV, TB AND THEIR CO-INFECTION STATUS ANALYSIS IN RAJASTHAN STATE IN THE YEAR 2012

    Dhamija Jas; Mittal,, M.; Bhatheja; Sharma; Garg; Akash; Maheshwari

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sparse published data are available in indexed journals regarding burden of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in Tuberculosis (TB) cases in Rajasthan. OBJECTIVE: HIV infection is a global pandemic which may trigger the occurrence of opportunistic infections, Tuberculosis (TB) being very common. There is strong association between HIV, TB co-infection and a high mortality among HIV-infected TB patients. Therefore this study is undertaken to evaluate status of HIV, TB and...

  7. Outcome and reinfection after Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in individuals with and without HIV-1 infection: a case–control study

    Stammler Jaliff, Bianca; Dahl-Knudsen, Jenny; Petersen, Andreas; Skov, Robert; Benfield, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Individuals infected with HIV-1 are at an increased risk of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB). The aim of this study was to investigate mortality rate and risk of reinfection associated with SAB in HIV-1-infected individuals compared to individuals without HIV-1 infection. Setting University hospital treating a third of the estimated 5000 individuals with HIV infection in Denmark. Participants HIV-1-infected (n=82) and sex-matched and age-matched uninfected (n=163) individual...

  8. Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection.

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues its spread at a rate of over 15,000 new infections every day. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is the dominant mode of this pandemic spread. For the first time since the disease emerged in the early 1980s, about half the 42 million people now living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women. Worldwide, more than 90 percent of all adolescent and adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse. The "feminization" of the pandemic largely driven by the social, economic, and biological factors warrants urgent attention particularly for the adolescent female population. In the absence of an effective prophylactic anti-HIV therapy or vaccine, current efforts are aimed at developing intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents or microbicides to curb the mucosal and perinatal HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing HIV from attaching, entering or replicating in susceptible target cells as well as dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells that line the vaginal/rectal wall. Thus, ideally, anti-HIV microbicides should be capable of attacking HIV from different angles. In addition, a contraceptive microbicide could help prevent unintended pregnancies worldwide. To be a microbicide, these agents must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms following long-term repeated usage. A safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, 18 of which have advanced to clinical testing. Targeting HIV entry has been a favored approach because it is the first step in the process of infection and several readily available anionic polymeric products seem to variably interfere with these processes are the primary candidates for potential microbicides. Formulations of

  9. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate whether the insulin precursors, intact (IP) and 32-33 split proinsulin (SP), which are elevated in states of insulin resistance and predict type 2 diabetes, would be elevated in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with lipodystrophy (LIPO.......01), but did not differ between study groups. CONCLUSIONS: Proinsulin appeared to be increased in HIV-lipodystrophy, but no more than caused by the increased ISR. Nevertheless, the inverse correlations between SP/insulin ratio versus Si(RD) and incremental total proinsulin/insulin ratio versus DI may argue...

  10. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  11. Food Insecurity-A Risk Factor for HIV Infection

    Sheri D Weiser; Leiter, Karen; Bangsberg, David R.; Lisa M Butler; Percy-de Korte, Fiona; Hlanze, Zakhe; Phaladze, Nthabiseng; Iacopino, Vincent; Heisler, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. For people in sub-Saharan Africa, insufficient food for their daily needs and infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS) are inextricably linked and major causes of illness and death. By reducing the number of healthy adults in the region, HIV/AIDS has decreased food production so fewer people have secure access to sufficient food for a healthy life—many are subject to “food insecurity.” Because g...

  12. Interactive effects of cocaine on HIV infection: implication in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder and neuroAIDS

    Dahal, Santosh; Chitti, Sai V. P.; Madhavan P N Nair; Saxena, Shailendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nerv...

  13. Interactive Effects of Cocaine on HIV Infection: Implication in HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder and NeuroAIDS

    Santosh eDahal; Sai V.P. eChitti; Madhavan P.N. eNair; Shailendra K eSaxena

    2015-01-01

    Substantial epidemiological studies suggest that not only, being one of the reasons for the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but drug abuse also serves its role in determining the disease progression and severity among the HIV infected population. This article focuses on the drug cocaine, and its role in facilitating entry of HIV into the CNS and mechanisms of development of neurologic complications in infected individuals. Cocaine is a powerfully addictive central nerv...

  14. Impact of Adherence Counseling Dose on Antiretroviral Adherence and HIV Viral Load among HIV-Infected Methadone Maintained Drug Users

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Heo, Moonseong; Berg, Karina M.; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence counseling can improve antiretroviral adherence and related health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about how much counseling is necessary to achieve clinically significant effects. We investigated antiretroviral adherence and HIV viral load relative to the number of hours of adherence counseling received by 60 HIV-infected drug users participating in a trial of directly observed antiretroviral therapy delivered in methadone clinics. Our adherence couns...

  15. Discrimination against HIV-infected people and the spread of HIV: some evidence from France.

    Patrick Peretti-Watel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA suffer from stigma and discrimination. There is an ongoing debate, however, about whether stigma, fear and discrimination actually fuel the persisting spread of HIV, or slow it down by reducing contacts between the whole population and high-risk minorities. To contribute to this debate, we analysed the relationship between perceived discrimination and unsafe sex in a large sample of French PLWHAs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2003, we conducted a national cross-sectional survey among a random sample of HIV-infected patients. The analysis was restricted to sexually active respondents (N = 2,136. Unsafe sex was defined as sexual intercourse without a condom with a seronegative/unknown serostatus partner during the prior 12 months. Separate analyses were performed for each transmission group (injecting drug use (IDU, homosexual contact, heterosexual contact. Overall, 24% of respondents reported experiences of discrimination in their close social environment (relatives, friends and colleagues and 18% reported unsafe sex during the previous 12 months. Both prevalences were higher in the IDU group (32% for perceived discrimination, 23% for unsafe sex. In multivariate analyses, experience of discrimination in the close social environment was associated with an increase in unsafe sex for both PLWHAs infected through IDU and heterosexual contact (OR = 1.65 and 1.80 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our study clearly confirms a relationship between discrimination and unsafe sex among PLWHAs infected through either IDU or heterosexual contact. This relationship was especially strong in the heterosexual group that has become the main vector of HIV transmission in France, and who is the more likely of sexual mixing with the general population. These results seriously question the hypothesis that HIV-stigma has no effect or could even reduce the infection spread of HIV.

  16. Understanding HIV infection for the design of a therapeutic vaccine. Part II: Vaccination strategies for HIV

    Goede, A.L. de; Vulto, A.G.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Gruters, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    HIV infection leads to a gradual loss CD4+ T lymphocytes comprising immune competence and progression to AIDS. Effective treatment with combined antiretroviral drugs (cART) decreases viral load below detectable levels but is not able to eliminate the virus from the body. The success of cART is frust

  17. Temporal Dynamics of CD8+ T Cell Effector Responses during Primary HIV Infection

    Demers, Korey R.; Makedonas, George; Buggert, Marcus; Eller, Michael A.; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Goonetilleke, Nilu; Li, Chris K.; Eller, Leigh Anne; Rono, Kathleen; Maganga, Lucas; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kibuuka, Hannah; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Slifka, Mark K.; Haynes, Barton F.; Bernard, Nicole F.; Robb, Merlin L.; Betts, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The loss of HIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic function is a primary factor underlying progressive HIV infection, but whether HIV-specific CD8+ T cells initially possess cytolytic effector capacity, and when and why this may be lost during infection, is unclear. Here, we assessed CD8+ T cell functional evolution from primary to chronic HIV infection. We observed a profound expansion of perforin+ CD8+ T cells immediately following HIV infection that quickly waned after acute viremia resolution. Selective expression of the effector-associated transcription factors T-bet and eomesodermin in cytokine-producing HIV-specific CD8+ T cells differentiated HIV-specific from bulk memory CD8+ T cell effector expansion. As infection progressed expression of perforin was maintained in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells with high levels of T-bet, but not necessarily in the population of T-betLo HIV-specific CD8+ T cells that expand as infection progresses. Together, these data demonstrate that while HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in acute HIV infection initially possess cytolytic potential, progressive transcriptional dysregulation leads to the reduced CD8+ T cell perforin expression characteristic of chronic HIV infection. PMID:27486665

  18. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C;

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found ...

  19. Depression and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among HIV-Infected Gambians on Antiretroviral Therapy

    Peterson, Kevin; Togun, Toyin; Klis, Sandor; Menten, Joris; Colebunders, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Mood disorders are more frequent among people with HIV infection than among non-HIV-infected individuals of the same age, socioeconomic status, and HIV risks. They have been associated with worse adherence and clinical outcomes, yet remain underdiagnosed and undertreated in sub-Saharan Africa. We ex

  20. Complement-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 infection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Nielsen, S D; Sørensen, A M; Schønning, Kristian; Lund, O; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    We investigated if complement-mediated enhancement of HIV infection occurs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In 7 experiments, we evaluated the effect of human complement on HIVIIIB infection in vitro. We measured HIV antigen production on day 4 and found that pre-incubation of HIV with...

  1. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity.

    Utay, Netanya S; Roque, Annelys; Timmer, J Katherina; Morcock, David R; DeLeage, Claire; Somasunderam, Anoma; Weintrob, Amy C; Agan, Brian K; Estes, Jacob D; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Douek, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV-infected people. PMID

  2. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregn...

  3. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    Emil Ivan; Nigel J Crowther; Eugene Mutimura; Lawrence Obado Osuwat; Saskia Janssen; Grobusch, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Pre...

  4. Complexities of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in the Context of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Li, S X; Armstrong, Ajs; Neff, C P; Shaffer, M; Lozupone, C A; Palmer, B E

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an altered gut microbiome that is not consistently restored with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interpretation of the specific microbiome changes observed during HIV infection is complicated by factors like population, sample type, and ART-each of which may have dramatic effects on gut bacteria. Understanding how these factors shape the microbiome during HIV infection (which we refer to as the HIV-associated microbiome) is critical for defining its role in HIV disease, and for developing therapies that restore gut health during infection. PMID:26940481

  5. Tuberculosis and HIV infection among pulmonary tuberculosis suspects in a predominantly pastoralist area, Northeast Ethiopia

    2015-01-01

    Background: TB-HIV co-infection is one of the biggest public health challenges in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there is a wealth of information on TB-HIV co-infection among settled populations in Africa and elsewhere, to our knowledge, there are no published reports on TB-HIV co-infection from pastoral communities. In this study, we report the prevalence of TB, HIV and TB-HIV co-infection among pulmonary TB suspects in the Afar Regional State of Ethiopia. Design: In a cross-sectional study...

  6. HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, is a strong risk factor for anorectal condyloma in Asian population: A prospective colonoscopy screening study

    Takeshi Nishijima

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, was identified as a strong risk for anorectal condyloma. Anal HPV 16/18 was highly prevalent in patients with HIV-1 infection, especially in those with condyloma.

  7. [Coping and perception of women with HIV infection].

    Renesto, Helana Maria Ferreira; Falbo, Ana Rodrigues; Souza, Edvaldo; Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete

    2014-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze women's perceptions and coping regarding the discovery of an HIV infection. METHODS A qualitative study in an HIV/AIDS Specialist Helpdesk in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, from January to September 2010, involving eight women living with asymptomatic HIV aged between 27 and 37 years, without criteria for diagnosis of AIDS infected through intercourse and monitored by the service for at least one year. Forms were used to characterize the clinical situation and semi-structured interviews to understand perceptions and feelings related to personal trajectory after diagnosis and different ways of facing the diagnosis in family and social life. Content analysis was performed as suggested by Bardin. RESULTS The thematic category that emerged was stigma and discrimination. The women had life trajectories marked by stigma, which was perceived as discrimination after the diagnosis and in the experiences of everyday life. The revelation of the infection was perceived as limiting to a normal life, leading to the need to conceal the diagnosis. The discriminatory attitudes of some health care professionals, non-specialist in HIV/AIDS, had a negative impact on future experiences in other health services. Besides the effects of institutional stigma, the perception of women was that the service did not include dedicated space for the expression of other needs beyond the disease, which could help in fighting the infection. CONCLUSIONS Living with HIV was strongly linked to stigma. The results show the importance of strengthening educational approaches and emotional support at the time of diagnosis in order to facilitate coping with the condition of seropositivity. PMID:24789635

  8. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study

    Nitya Hullur 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non–communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS in rural north–east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality.

  9. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Silvana Pasetto

    Full Text Available HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic, H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic, and the dual tropic (X4R5 HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ≥90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research.

  10. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques.

    Devadas, Krishnakumar; Biswas, Santanu; Haleyurgirisetty, Mohan; Ragupathy, Viswanath; Wang, Xue; Lee, Sherwin; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s) for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR) arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death. PMID:27144577

  11. Identification of Host Micro RNAs That Differentiate HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infection Using Genome Expression Profiling Techniques

    Krishnakumar Devadas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 share many similar traits, major differences in pathogenesis and clinical outcomes exist between the two viruses. The differential expression of host factors like microRNAs (miRNAs in response to HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections are thought to influence the clinical outcomes presented by the two viruses. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules which function in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. MiRNAs play a critical role in many key biological processes and could serve as putative biomarker(s for infection. Identification of miRNAs that modulate viral life cycle, disease progression, and cellular responses to infection with HIV-1 and HIV-2 could reveal important insights into viral pathogenesis and provide new tools that could serve as prognostic markers and targets for therapeutic intervention. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential expression profiles of host miRNAs in cells infected with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in order to identify potential differences in virus-host interactions between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Differential expression of host miRNA expression profiles was analyzed using the miRNA profiling polymerase chain reaction (PCR arrays. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified and their putative functional targets identified. The results indicate that hsa-miR 541-3p, hsa-miR 518f-3p, and hsa-miR 195-3p were consistently up-regulated only in HIV-1 infected cells. The expression of hsa-miR 1225-5p, hsa-miR 18a* and hsa-miR 335 were down modulated in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected cells. Putative functional targets of these miRNAs include genes involved in signal transduction, metabolism, development and cell death.

  12. High rate of missed HIV infections in individuals with indeterminate or negative HIV western blots based on current HIV testing algorithm in China.

    Liu, Man-Qing; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Kong, Wen-Hua; Tang, Li; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Xu, Jun; Schilling, Robert F; Cai, Thomas; Zhou, Wang

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear if China's current HIV antibody testing algorithm misses a substantial number of HIV infected individuals. Of 196 specimens with indeterminate or negative results on HIV western blot (WB) retrospectively examined by HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT), 67.57% (75/111) of indeterminate WB samples, and 16.47% (14/85) of negative WB samples were identified as NAT positive. HIV-1 loads in negative WB samples were significantly higher than those in indeterminate WB samples. Notably, 86.67% (13/15) of samples with negative WB and double positive immunoassay results were NAT positive. The rate of HIV-1 infections missed by China's current HIV testing algorithm is unacceptably high. Thus, China should consider using NAT or integrating fourth generation ELISA into current only antibodies-based HIV confirmation. J. Med. Virol. 88:1462-1466, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856240

  13. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious

  14. Comparison of Heterologous Neutralizing Antibody Responses of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1)- and HIV-2-Infected Senegalese Patients: Distinct Patterns of Breadth and Magnitude Distinguish HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infections▿

    Rodriguez, Shaun; Sarr, A. D.; MacNeil, A; Thakore-Meloni, S.; Gueye-Ndiaye, A.; Traore, I.; Dia, M. C.; Mboup, S.; Kanki, Phyllis Jean

    2007-01-01

    Neutralizing antibody responses against heterologous isolates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 infections were compared, and their relationships with established clinical markers of progression were examined. Neutralizing responses against 7 heterologous primary isolates and 1 laboratory strain were compared between 32 untreated HIV-1-infected subjects and 35 untreated HIV-2-infected subjects using a pseudotyped reporter virus assay. The breadth of the neutralizing res...

  15. [Pathogenesis of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndromes associated with HIV infection].

    Muñoz-Sanz, Agustín; Rodríguez-Vidigal, Francisco F; Domingo, Pere

    2006-09-30

    Lipodystrophy, and the metabolic alterations (dislipemia, insulin-resistance) associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is a multifactorial syndrome due to the interaction of host related factors (cellular immune status, diet, gene mutations), viral factors (cytokine synthesis, polyunsaturated fatty acid or PUFA depletion), and pharmacological effects (mitochondrial DNA-polymerase inhibition, lipolysis inhibition, adiponectin synthesis reduction). HIV probably modifies the adipocyte differentiation and the lipid metabolism. This retroviral effect is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor) and the participation of other factors (drugs, diet), all in the context of a particular host genetic setting. The adipocyte (and several cellular receptors, fatty acids, membrane proteins, and cytokines) plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HIV-associated lipodystrophy. PMID:17040633

  16. [The atypical course of syphilis in HIV infection].

    Mahrle, G; Rasokat, H; Kurz, K; Steigleder, G K

    1989-05-15

    We report on 3 HIV patients showing atypical courses of syphilis. Both the history and serology of the first patient proved a recent re-infection with T. pallidum, whereas the histopathological findings corresponded to an advanced stage of the disease (S II-III). The second patient showed the clinical picture of syphilis maligna with slowly converting and slightly positive serological reactions. The third patient had a refractory syphilis and an early relapse. Our observations suggest that syphilis might take an unusual course in HIV patients. Considering our total HIV clientèle (800 patients greater than or equal to WR 2) the frequency of these atypical cases must be rated very low (0.38%). PMID:2741530

  17. CROI 2015: Complications of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Havlir, Diane V; Currier, Judith S

    2015-01-01

    Noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renal and bone disease, and malignancies are an ongoing concern during the course of treated HIV disease. Research in this area continues to focus on the epidemiology and risk factors associated with these conditions, identifying the contributions of HIV-related immunopathology to specific and collective end-organ diseases, and evaluating interventions to prevent or reduce the morbidity associated with these conditions. Infectious complications of HIV, such as tuberculosis and cryptococcal disease, also continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality; diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these is an area of focus. The 2015 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections provided new insights into all of these areas. PMID:25965312

  18. Evaluation of Sequence Ambiguities of the HIV-1 pol gene as a Method to Identify Recent HIV-1 Infection in Transmitted Drug Resistance Surveys

    Andersson, Emmi; Shao, Wei; Bontell, Irene; Cham, Fatim; Cuong, Do Duy; Wondwossen, Amogne; Morris, Lynn; Hunt, Gillian; Sönnerborg, Anders; Bertagnolio, Silvia; Maldarelli, Frank; Jordan, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of recent HIV infection within populations is a public health priority for accurate estimation of HIV incidence rates and transmitted drug resistance. Determining HIV incidence rates by prospective follow-up of HIV-uninfected individuals is challenging and serological assays have important limitations. HIV diversity within an infected host increases with duration of infection. In this analysis, we explore a simple bioinformatics approach to assess viral diversity by determining...

  19. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A.; Cornman, Deborah H.; Christie, Sarah; Macdonald, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  20. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.