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Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Infected Crack Cocaine Users  

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HIV-infected crack cocaine users are at high risk for HIV transmission and disease progression because they encounter difficulty practicing safe sex, entering and remaining in HIV care, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs frequently in this population and contributes to these shortcomings. From December 2006 to April 2010 inpatient HIV-infected crack users were recruited from Grady Memorial (Atlanta, GA) and Jackson Memorial Hospital...

2012-01-01

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Intimate partner violence among HIV-infected crack cocaine users.  

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HIV-infected crack cocaine users are at high risk for HIV transmission and disease progression because they encounter difficulty practicing safe sex, entering and remaining in HIV care, and taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). We hypothesized intimate partner violence (IPV) occurs frequently in this population and contributes to these shortcomings. From December 2006 to April 2010 inpatient HIV-infected crack users were recruited from Grady Memorial (Atlanta, GA) and Jackson Memorial Hospitals (Miami, FL). Participants were screened for IPV using a 5-item tool that was adapted from a previously validated instrument, the STaT. IPV survivors were questioned about support service utilization. Multivariable analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between IPV and unprotected sexual intercourse and sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis in the prior 6 months, use of outpatient HIV care in the past year, and current ART use. We enrolled 343 participants, the majority African Americans of low socioeconomic status. The estimated IPV prevalence was 56%, highest in women (68%) and gay, bisexual, and transgendered men (71%). In multivariable analysis, IPV was associated with diminished ART use (adjusted prevalence ratios [adjPRs] 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.80), unprotected sexual intercourse (adjPR 1.34; 95% CI 1.08-1.68) and STI diagnosis in the prior 6 months (adjPR 3.49; 95% CI 1.60-7.62). After experiencing abuse, IPV survivors most commonly turned to emergency services; however, 38% reported not using any supportive services. This study highlights that IPV occurs frequently among HIV-infected crack users and is associated with outcomes known to facilitate HIV transmission and disease progression. Reduced utilization of outpatient HIV care, ART nonadherence, and new STI diagnoses in this population should trigger IPV screening and support services referral. PMID:22364209

Kalokhe, Ameeta S; Paranjape, Anuradha; Bell, Christine E; Cardenas, Gabriel A; Kuper, Tamy; Metsch, Lisa R; del Rio, Carlos

2012-04-01

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Intimate partner violence among women with HIV infection in rural Uganda: critical implications for policy and practice  

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Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were...

2011-01-01

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Incidence of violence against HIV-infected and uninfected women: Findings from the HIV epidemiology research (HER) study  

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The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on the incidence of violence against women was addressed in a prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women. Participants were enrolled between 1993 and 1995 in four US cities and followed up semiannually through 1998. Among 1,087 women with a total accrual of 2,988 person-years (PY) of follow-up, there were 185 reports of abuse (incidence rate=6.19 per 100 PY). The rate of abuse among HIV-infected women with a CD4+count les...

Gruskin, Leslie; Gange, Stephen J.; Celentano, David; Schuman, Paula; Moore, Janet S.; Zierler, Sally; Vlahov, David

2002-01-01

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Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

2011-01-01

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Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: a systematic review and meta-analysis  

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Full Text Available Introduction: To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV and HIV infection among women. Methods: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ?15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results: Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies, South Africa (four studies, East Africa (10 studies, India (three studies, Brazil (one study and multiple low-income countries (two studies] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.22 (1.01, 1.46] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.28 (1.00, 1.64] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.44 (1.10, 1.87]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 2.00 (1.24, 3.22 and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.41 (1.16, 1.73] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions: Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among individuals of diverse racial/cultural backgrounds and varying levels of HIV risks.

Ying Li

2014-02-01

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Psychosocial Correlates of Gender-Based Violence Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women in Three US Cities.  

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Abstract Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among women with and at risk for HIV, yet little is known about the GBV associated psychological factors that could be modifiable through behavioral interventions. The current study examined the associations between some of these psychological factors (i.e., hopelessness, consideration of future consequences, self esteem), mental health symptoms, substance abuse, and GBV among a sample of 736 HIV-infected and sociodemographically similar uninfected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Results indicated high rates of lifetime GBV among the sample (58%), as well as high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (22.2%). HIV-infected women were more likely to be hopeless and to experience lower consideration of future consequences as compared to uninfected women. Multivariable analysis indicated that current non-injection drug use and a history of injection drug use were the main correlates of GBV and CSA, even when other psychosocial variables were included in analytic models. Being born outside of the US reduced the likelihood of GBV and CSA. Future research directions and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24724987

Schwartz, Rebecca M; Weber, Kathleen M; Schechter, Gabrielle E; Connors, Nina C; Gousse, Yolene; Young, Mary A; Cohen, Mardge H

2014-05-01

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Intimate partner violence among women with HIV infection in rural Uganda: critical implications for policy and practice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0.25-0.90, p-value = 0.018. Use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with increased prevalence of any type of violence (physical, sexual or psychological with ARR 3.04 (95%CI 1.15-8.45, p-value = 0.032. Conclusion Almost one in three women living with HIV had suffered intimate partner violence in the preceding 12 months. Nearly one in five HIV patients reported physical violence, and about one in every seven HIV patients reported sexual/psychological violence. Likewise, women who were taking antiretroviral drugs for HIV treatment were more likely to report any type of intimate partner violence (physical, sexual or psychological. The implication of these findings is that women living with HIV especially those on antiretroviral drugs should be routinely screened for intimate partner violence.

Osinde Michael O

2011-11-01

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Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive attitudes. Discussion and conclusions: The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed.

Juan Burgos-Soto

2014-05-01

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Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection.  

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Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively). Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive attitudes. Discussion and conclusions: The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed. PMID:24866864

Burgos-Soto, Juan; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Patassi, Akouda; Woronowski, Aurore; Kariyiare, Benjamin; Lawson-Evi, Annette K; Leroy, Valériane; Dabis, François; Ekouevi, Didier K; Becquet, Renaud

2014-01-01

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Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study  

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HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...

Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

2006-01-01

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Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia  

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HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa.

Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

2009-01-01

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Violence and abuse among HIV-infected women and their children in Zambia: a qualitative study.  

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HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16909070

Murray, Laura K; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A

2006-08-01

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Gender violence and HIV : reversing twin epidemics  

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The situation of women and girls in the context of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in many parts of the world and particularly sub-Saharan Africa continues to be a cause of major concern. With more than 30% of women in some countries reporting their first sexual encounter as forced, and the continued feminization of the HIV epidemic, violence remains both a cause and consequence of HIV infection. Once infected with HIV, women often face varied forms of violence, particularly driven by stigma and di...

Eghtessadi, R.

2008-01-01

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Crack Cocaine Use and its Relationship with Violence and Hiv  

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OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have b...

Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho; Sergio Dario Seibel

2009-01-01

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Sex trafficking and initiation-related violence, alcohol use, and HIV risk among HIV-infected female sex workers in Mumbai, India.  

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Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037

Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H

2011-12-01

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Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh  

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A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anony...

Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

2008-01-01

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Gender based violence and women's vulnerability towards HIV/AIDS in 6 Indian Districts  

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Background: Violence against women is instrumental in determining a woman’s risk of HIV infection, and has been identified as a key driving factor behind the pandemic. Very little is known about the interplay between violence against women and HIV risks, even though a reduction in violence against women has been identified both nationally and internationally as a key strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS infection. India is relatively poorly researched in terms of the context of the HIV pa...

Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Malviya, Alankar

2008-01-01

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Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.

Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho

2009-01-01

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MANIA IN HIV INFECTION  

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Mania in HIV infected individuals is an uncommon clinical presentation. It can, however, complicate any stage of the HIV infection. We herewith report a set of three case reports of patients with HIV infection who developed manic episodes. The cases highlight some aspects of the plausible relationship between HIV infection and mania. HIV infection could be revealed by manic episode, it could itself also be associated with increased cycling in bipolar patients. Mania could be secondary to HIV ...

Venugopal, D.; Patil, P. B.; Gupta, D.; Murali, N.; Kar, N.; Sharma, P. S. V. N.

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
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HIV Infection in Women  

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... Share this: Main Content Area HIV Infection in Women Overview The number of women with HIV and ... implement clinical trials. Transmission Transmission of HIV to Women In the United States, most women are infected ...

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Associação entre violência por parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e infecção por HIV Asociación entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja íntima e infección por VIH Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres e a infecção ou suspeita de infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionários aplicados face-a-face e de prontuários médicos de 2.780 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema único de saúde da Grande São Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usuárias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", com "suspeita de HIV" e aquelas que procuraram os serviços por outros motivos. A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres na vida foi categorizada por gravidade e recorrência dos episódios de violência. A associação com o desfecho foi testada pelo modelo de Poisson com variância robusta e ajustada por variáveis sociodemográficas, sexuais e reprodutivas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de violência foi de 59,8%. Sofrer violência reiterada e grave apresentou maior associação de infecção confirmada pelo HIV (RP = 1,91. A violência independente da gravidade e da recorrência dos episódios apresentou maior associação para a suspeita de infecção por HIV (RP = 1,29. CONCLUSÕES: A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres tem papel relevante nas situações de suspeita e confirmação da infecção pelo HIV, sendo essencial incluir sua detecção, controle e prevenção como parte da atenção integral à saúde das mulheres.OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre la violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima y la infección o sospecha de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con base en datos de cuestionarios aplicados cara-a cara y de prontuarios médicos de 2.780 mujeres de 15 a 49 años, atendidas en unidades del sistema único de salud de la Gran Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en 2001-2002. Las mujeres fueron categorizadas en: usuarias en tratamiento por ser "seropositivas para el VIH", con "sospecha de VIH" y aquellas que buscaron los servicios por otros motivos. La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima en la vida fue categorizada por gravedad y recurrencia de los episodios de violencia. La asociación con la infección fue evaluada por el modelo de Poisson con variancia robusta y ajustada por variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y reproductivas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia fue de 59,8%. Sufrir violencia reiterada y grave presentó mayor asociación de infección confirmada por el VIH (RP=1,91. La violencia independiente de la gravedad y de la recurrencia de los episodios presentó mayor asociación para la sospecha de infección por VIH (RP= 1,29. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima tiene papel relevante en las situaciones de sospecha y confirmación de la infección por el HIV, siendo esencial incluir su detección, control y prevención como parte de la atención integral a la salud de las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91.

Claudia Barros

2011-04-01

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Intimate Partner Violence: A Predictor of Worse HIV Outcomes and Engagement in Care  

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For HIV-infected patients, experiencing multiple traumas is associated with AIDS-related and all-cause mortality, increased opportunistic infections, progression to AIDS, and decreased adherence to therapy. The impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) on adherence and HIV outcomes is unknown. HIV-infected patients recruited from a public HIV clinic participated in this observational cohort study (n=251). Participants completed interviews evaluating IPV and covariates. CD4 count <200 (CD4<200...

Schafer, Katherine R.; Brant, Julia; Gupta, Shruti; Thorpe, John; Winstead-derlega, Christopher; Pinkerton, Relana; Laughon, Kathryn; Ingersoll, Karen; Dillingham, Rebecca

2012-01-01

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HIV transmission as a result of drug market violence: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract While unprotected sexual intercourse and the use of contaminated injection equipment account for the majority of HIV infections worldwide, other routes of HIV transmission have received less attention. We report on a case of HIV transmission attributable to illicit drug market violence involving a participant in a prospective cohort study of injection drug users. Data from a qualitative interview was used in addition to questionnaire data and nursing records to document an episode of violence which likely resulted in this individual acquiring HIV infection. The case report demonstrates that the dangers of drug market violence go beyond the immediate physical trauma associated with violent altercations to include the possibility for infectious disease transmission. The case highlights the need to consider antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis in cases of drug market violence presenting to the emergency room, as well strategies to reduce violence associated with street-based drug markets.

Kerr Thomas

2008-07-01

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[HIV infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

The skin can be an indicator of decreased immunocompetence. Dermatological markers include new and extensive seborrheic eczema, psoriasis without a family history, widespread herpes zoster in young adults, oral hairy leucoplakia and mollusca in adults. In these cases an HIV test should be offered. During the last 15 years the clinical picture of HIV has changed dramatically. Almost every year new drugs with better efficacy, lower pill burden and less side effects have been approved. Life expectancy is close to normal in western countries. In spite of better treatment options, prevention is the key to stop the worldwide epidemic. Awareness campaigns have to account for the synergies between HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. This poses a great challenge for dermatovenereology. PMID:22212157

Potthoff, A; Rasokat, H; Brockmeyer, N H

2012-01-01

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'That pregnancy can bring noise into the family': exploring intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy in the context of HIV in Zimbabwe  

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Background: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing.

Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

2012-01-01

27

Health promotion in the city: A structured review of the literature on interventions to prevent heart disease, substance abuse, violence and HIV infection in us metropolitan areas, 1980–1995  

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To achieve its national public health goals, the US must improve the health of low-income urban populations. To contribute to this process, this study reviewed published reports of health promotion interventions designed to prevent heart disease, HIV infection, substance abuse, and violence in US cities. The study's objectives were to describe the target populations, settings, and program characteristics of these interventions and to assess the extent to which these programs followed accepted...

Freudenberg, Nicholas; Silver, Diana; Carmona, Jenniferm M.; Kass, Daniel; Lancaster, Brick; Speers, Marjorie

2000-01-01

28

Relationship between mobility, violence and HIV/STI among female sex workers in Andhra Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence and mobility have been identified as critical factors contributing to the spread of HIV worldwide. This study aimed to assess the independent and combined associations of mobility and violence with sexual risk behaviors and HIV, STI prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs in India. Methods Data were drawn from a cross-sectional, bio-behavioral survey conducted among 2042 FSWs across five districts of southern India in 2005–06. Regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for sexual risk behaviors and HIV infection based on experience of violence and mobility after adjusting for socio-demographic and sex work related characteristics. Results One-fifth of FSWs (19% reported experiencing violence; 68% reported travelling outside their current place of residence at least once in the past year and practicing sex work during their visit. Mobile FSWs were more likely to report violence compared to their counterparts (23% vs. 10%, p? Conclusions The findings indicate that mobility and violence were independently associated with HIV infection. Notably, the combined effect of mobility and violence posed greater HIV risk than their independent effect. These results point to the need for the provision of an enabling environment and safe spaces for FSWs who are mobile, to augment existing efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Ramesh Sowmya

2012-09-01

29

Pediatric HIV Infection  

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Full Text Available HIV infection by maternal transmission is increasing in the world due to the increase in infected women who are not receiving appropriate antiretroviral therapy. Prognosis of HIV infection in children is poor because the newborn has an immature immune system. Early diagnosis and therapy are needed to avoid the development of AIDS. New therapies are becoming available but prevention of infection, through maternal therapy during pregnancy, is the most effective measure in avoiding this infection through this transmission route.

Pere Soler

2004-11-01

30

Paediatric HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Four cases of HIV infection in children between one to eight years of age are reported. Three were males and the other one female. One child was horn to known HIV infected mother. The female child was victim of sexual abuse and had disseminated tuberculosis with syphilis and gonorrhoea. Other two children were having systemic as well as dermatological disorders for which HIV test was done and found positive.

Sayal S

1997-01-01

31

In their own voices : a qualitative study of women's risk for intimate partner violence and HIV in South Africa  

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This study qualitatively examines the intersections of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV infection in South Africa. Eighteen women seeking services for relationship violence were asked semistructured questions regarding their abusive experiences and HIV risk. Participants had experienced myriad forms of abuse, which reinforced each other to create a climate that sustained abuse and multiplied HIV risk. Male partners having multiple concurrent sexual relationships, and poor rela...

Fox, Ashley M.; Jackson, S. S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Gasa, N.; Crewe, Mary; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

2007-01-01

32

Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention  

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Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-c...

Kaye, Dan K.

2004-01-01

33

HIV Infection and Cancer Risk  

Science.gov (United States)

... HIV? The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( HAART ) in the mid-1990s greatly reduced the incidence ... lymphoma among people infected with HIV ( 2 , 5 ). HAART lowers the amount of HIV circulating in the ...

34

77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...  

Science.gov (United States)

...organizations from the violence against women and girls...intersection of HIV/AIDS, violence against women and girls...increased HIV/AIDS risk, domestic violence, and gender-related...services with intimate partner violence...

2012-04-03

35

History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest  

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This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention w...

Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Nieri, Tanya; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

2009-01-01

36

Intimate Partner Violence and HIV Risks: A Longitudinal Study of Men on Methadone  

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Whereas research has suggested that drug-involved men are at disproportionately high risk of engaging in transmission risk behaviors for HIV and of perpetrating intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, only a few cross-sectional studies have examined the relationship between IPV and HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) transmission risks among heterosexual, drug-involved men. This study builds on previous cross-sectional research by using a longitudinal design to examine the tempora...

Gilbert, Louisa; El-bassel, Nabila; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway

2007-01-01

37

Forced sexual initiation, sexual intimate partner violence and HIV risk in women: A global review of the literature  

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Coerced or forced sexual initiation and sexual intimate partner violence (sexual IPV) contribute significantly to a woman’s risk for HIV infection. This review systematically examines global research (n=21 studies) published since 2000 on the role of coerced/forced sexual initiation and sexual IPV on HIV risk in women. In predominantly low- and middle-income countries, coerced/forced sexual initiation was associated with HIV/STIs, multiple and high-risk sex partners, and no condom use. Most...

Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.

2013-01-01

38

International travel and HIV infection.  

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Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, its prevalence and pattern vary from country to country. Accordingly, the risk to international travellers of acquiring HIV infection also varies widely in different parts of the world, and depends principally on their behaviour. The risk of sexual acquisition of HIV infection can be virtually eliminated by avoiding penetrative sexual intercourse with intravenous drug users and persons who have had multiple sexual p...

Von Reyn, C. F.; Mann, J. M.; Chin, J.

1990-01-01

39

HIV infection in the elderly  

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Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review

Nancy Nguyen

2008-10-01

40

Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.  

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Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277

Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Selenium deficiency and HIV infection  

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Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected...

Stefano Di Bella; Elisabetta Grilli; Maria Adriana Cataldo; Nicola Petrosillo

2010-01-01

42

Selenium deficiency and HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection.

Nicola Petrosillo

2010-08-01

43

Perceptions fuelling gender-based violence and HIV  

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The community of the Mudzi district, Zimbabwe is still mired in negative cultural practices, while stigma around HIV is high and gender-based violence (GBV) is commonplace, especially between intimate partners. This article sketches the situation and gives recommendations on how to improve the situation.

Mandangu, G.

2011-01-01

44

Federal Violence Against Women Act authorizes HIV testing.  

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The 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a lower court ruling requiring a convicted kidnapper who sexually assaulted his victim to undergo HIV testing. The 1994 amendments to the Federal Violence Against Women Act empower Federal courts to order criminal defendants charged with sex offenses to be tested for HIV. The defendant, [name removed], argued that the judge did not have inherent authority to order an HIV test. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to kidnapping and repeatedly raping a woman over a three-day period. PMID:11364957

1998-01-23

45

Violence as a Barrier for HIV Prevention among Female Sex Workers in Argentina  

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Background Violence against female sex workers (FSWs) has been increasingly reported as an important determinant of HIV infection risk. This study explores the frequency of different violent experiences (sexual abuse, rejection, beating and imprisonment) among FSWs in Argentina and its association with condom use and HIV and T. pallidum prevalence. Methods A convenience sample of 1255 FSWs was included in a cross-sectional study conducted between October 2006 and November 2009. Results Sexual abuse was reported by 24.1% (219/907) of women. A total of 34.7% (42/1234) reported rejection experiences, 21.9% (267/1215) reported having been beaten and 45.4% (561/1236) stated having been arrested because of their sex work activity. There was a higher frequency of inconsistent condom use with clients among FSWs who had experienced sexual abuse, rejection, and police detention. A higher frequency of HIV and T. pallidum infection was detected among FSWs who reported having been arrested by the police. Conclusion The study shows for the first time the frequency of different violent situations among FSWs in Argentina. The association between violence against sex workers, condom use and STI prevalence demonstrated here calls for measures to reduce stigma and violence against FSWs. Such violent experiences may increase vulnerability to STI through coerced unprotected sex.

Pando, Maria A.; Coloccini, Romina S.; Reynaga, Elena; Rodriguez Fermepin, Marcelo; Gallo Vaulet, Lucia; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Montano, Silvia M.; Avila, Maria M.

2013-01-01

46

Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

2011-12-01

47

Intimate partner violence against women in eastern Uganda:implications for HIV prevention  

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Background: We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT...

Karamagi, Charles A. S.; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleska?r, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Kristian

2006-01-01

48

[HIV infection and "malignant" strongyloidiasis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Disseminated Strongyloides stercoralis infection occurs in immunocompromised patients. Despite the epidemiological overlap of HIV infection and strongyloidiasis observed in certain parts of the world, only six cases of dissemination have been reported in AIDS patients. The clinical presentation has no special features, except for the frequency of other opportunistic infections. The prognosis is poor. This lack of association between disseminated strongyloidiasis and HIV infection had led to the exclusion of extra-intestinal forms of this paraistosis from the revised classification of AIDS. PMID:2237218

Gachot, B; Bouvet, E; Buré, A; Decré, D; Wolff, M; Vachon, F

1990-10-11

49

Haematological changes in HIV infection.  

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HIV infection is associated with a wide range of hematological abnormalities. The peripheral blood findings and the morphological abnormalities in the bone marrow can simulate myelodysplastic syndrome, myeloproliferative disorders, and T cell lymphoma. We studied the peripheral blood smear and bone marrow findings of 42 patients with HIV infection over a 3-year period with the aim of recognising the morphological findings sufficiently characteristic of HV infection. The salient peripheral blood smear findilngs were anemia, bicytopenia and pancytopenia. The bone marrow revealed trilineage dysplasia, plasma cells and eosinophils, increased megakaryocytes, increased iron and reticulin fibrosis. In two cases the bone marrow revealed granulomata. PMID:15022904

Sitalakshmi, S; Srikrishna, Anuradha; Damodar, Prema

2003-04-01

50

Treatment of pediatric HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV-infected children require a peculiar management when compared to infected adults. Antiretroviral therapy has been quite well adapted to children, but new studies are needed to answer many unsolved questions, such as when to start therapy in asymptomatic infected children. Recently, several guidelines have been updated. In this review, we compare these recommendations together with the latest studies concerning the treatment of HIV in children. A triple-drug combination therapy based either on nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or protease inhibitors is the recommended initial therapy. After treatment failure, a second-line therapy should be based on switching between these two regimens. Antiretroviral therapy should be managed by an expert in pediatric and adolescent HIV infection. The importance of children's adherence to therapy is a crucial point, particularly in adolescents. PMID:17880854

d'Oulx, Elisa A; Chiappini, Elena; de Martino, Maurizio; Tovo, Pier-Angelo

2007-09-01

51

Vasculitides associated with HIV infection  

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The manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are protean and vasculitides are one of the less common but nonetheless important consequences. A wide range of vasculitides can be encountered, ranging from vasculitis resulting from specific infective agents to a non-specific vasculitis. Among the infective causes, cytomegalovirus and tuberculosis are probably the most common. A polyarteritis nodosa-like vasculitis with important differences to classic polyarteritis nodosa i...

Chetty, R.

2001-01-01

52

Candida onychomycosis in HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary nail invasion by Candida is uncommon and almost exclusively seen in patients with an impaired immune function. The appearance of Candida onychomycosis in an adult who is not under immunosuppressive treatment always requires a laboratory evaluation of the immunologic function including HIV assays. We report 2 cases of distal subungual onychomycosis due to Candida sp. in HIV. In one of our patients, the diagnosis of Candida onychomycosis preceded the diagnosis of advanced HIV infection. In both of our patients treatment with systemic antifungals produced complete cure of Candida onychomycosis and the 1 year follow-up did not reveal any relapse of the onychomycosis. PMID:9653014

Tosti, A; Piraccini, B M; Lorenzi, S; D'Antuono, A

1998-01-01

53

[Malignant melanoma and HIV infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 1000 patients with HIV infection consecutively examined at our dermatological department during the last 3 years, we diagnosed 4 cases of malignant melanoma. This figure is clearly higher than the statistical incidence of 4-13 cases per 100.000 people a year observed in West Germany. The mean age of our 4 patients and 3 additional cases reported in the literature is 10 years less than the average age found in melanoma patients without HIV infection. These findings indicate an increased risk of malignant melanoma in patients with HIV infection. In most of our patients, the cellular immunity was only marginally impaired, corresponding to the stages WR1 and WR2 (Walter Reed classification). Tumor formation, therefore, does apparently not depend on the severity of decompensation of the immunity. PMID:2528242

Rasokat, H; Steigleder, G K; Bendick, C; Müller, S; Meller, M

1989-07-15

54

Haematological complications of HIV infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english South Africa is in the midst of the world’s largest human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people infected. Haematological manifestations of HIV are common and diverse, occurring at all stages of infection. Haematological emergencies occurring in this setting incl [...] ude the high-grade lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), opportunistic infections and drug side-effects are also frequent causes of cytopenias. A bone marrow biopsy has a high diagnostic utility in HIV patients presenting with unexplained cytopenias and/or fevers. It is not widely realised that HIV is also a prothrombotic state with an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is now widely available in South Africa and is a crucial adjunct to therapy of haematological complications. Medical professionals across all disciplines need to be alert to the haematological complications of HIV infection.

Jessica, Opie.

55

Violence against Women Living with HIV: A Cross Sectional Study in Nepal  

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Full Text Available Background: Violence against Women (VAW and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 43 HIV positive women in three districts of Nepal, in the period of March-May 2008. Data was collected through semi-structured interview questionnaire. Results: The vast majority of the participants (93.02% had suffered from at least one form of the violence. The prevalence of violence rose up sharply after being diagnosed with HIV positive than before (93.02% vs.53.5%. Forty-five percent of the participants reported their husbands being main perpetrator of violence. Self-humiliation and health and treatment problem were the major consequences of violence as reported by 90% and 77.5% of the participants respectively. Conclusion: Violence was observed to be highly prevalent among women living with HIV in Nepal. Further larger and nationally representative researches are imperative to better understand the cross-section between VAW and HIV. Our finding recommends to prioritizing programs on social aspects of HIV such as violence.

Nirmal Aryal

2012-04-01

56

HIV infection in the elderly  

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Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that ...

Nancy Nguyen; Mark Holodniy

2008-01-01

57

HIV and gender-based violence among HIV-positive TASO clients  

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In 2011 The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) of The Netherlands launched a study to establish the gender-based violence prevalence in HIV-positive clients and its most common manifestations. This article reflects on some of the study findings and recommends how services can be better equipped to counsel clients with these problems.

Kizito Bennet, J.

2012-01-01

58

Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam regions to represent rural and urban settings respectively. Questionnaires were administered to 283 randomly selected survivors and 37 health providers while 28 in-depth interviews and 16 focus group discussions were conducted among various stakeholders. Quantitative data was analyzed in SPSS by comparing descriptive statistics while qualitative data was analyzed using thematic framework approach. Results Counseling and testing was the most common type of HIV prevention services received by GBV survivors (29%). Obstacles for HIV prevention among GBV survivors included: stigma, male dominance culture and fear of marital separation. Bribery in service delivery points, lack of confidentiality, inadequate GBV knowledge among health providers, and fear of being involved in legal matters were mentioned to be additional obstacles to service accessibility by survivors. Reported consequences of GBV included: psychological problems, physical trauma, chronic illness, HIV infection. Conclusion GBV related stigma and cultural norms are obstacles to HIV services accessibility. Initiation of friendly health services, integration of GBV into HIV services and community based interventions addressing GBV related stigma and cultural norms are recommended.

Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

2012-01-01

59

Correlates of HIV infection among patients with mental illness in Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

People living with mental illness are at increased risk for HIV. There are scarce data on correlates and prevalence of HIV infection, and none with a nationally representative sample. We report on correlates of HIV infection from a cross-sectional national sample of adults receiving care in 26 publicly funded mental health treatment settings throughout Brazil. Weighted prevalence rate ratios were obtained using multiple log-binomial regression modeling. History of homelessness, ever having an STD, early age of first sexual intercourse before 18 years old, having suffered sexual violence, previous HIV testing, self-perception of high risk of HIV infection and not knowing one's risk were statistically associated with HIV infection. Our study found an elevated HIV seroprevalence and correlates of infection were not found to include psychiatric diagnoses or hospitalizations but instead reflected marginalized living circumstances and HIV testing history. These adverse life circumstances (history of homelessness, having suffered sexual violence, reporting a sexually transmitted disease, and early sexual debut) may not be unique to people living with mental illness but nonetheless the mental health care system can serve as an important point of entry for HIV prevention in this population. PMID:23998905

Guimarães, Mark D C; McKinnon, Karen; Cournos, Francine; Machado, Carla J; Melo, Ana Paula S; Campos, Lorenza N; Wainberg, Milton L

2014-04-01

60

Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

Shobhana A

2004-03-01

 
 
 
 
61

Breast feeding and HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are considerable data suggesting that breast milk and colostrum transmit HIV. The European Collaborative Study shows the risk of transmission of HIV from breast milk to infant to be about 28%. A study in Rwanda indicates that transmission is more likely to take place during viremia which occurs during primary HIV infection and later with progression to AIDS. Postnatal transmission in this study stood at about 60%. Breast feeding protects against diarrhea and respiratory infections. A study in Brazil demonstrates that infants who were not breast fed were at 14.2 and 3.6 higher risk of death from diarrhea and respiratory infections, respectively, than breast-fed infants. These risks are especially great where poverty, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene predominate. A study in Malaysia shows that infants living in a household with no piped water and no toilet and were not breast-fed faced a 5-fold risk of death after 1 week of age than breast-fed infants living under the same conditions. This risk continued to be high (2.5) for non-breast-fed infants living in a household with piped water and a toilet. In developed countries, affordable formula, clean water, and adequate facilities for sterilizing bottles allows HIV positive mothers to bottle feed their infants which should reduce the vertical transmission rate. In developing countries, however, bottle feeding is expensive and hazardous. Governments often cannot provide potable water and sanitation services. In addition, mathematical models demonstrate that for HIV positive mothers, the risk of infant death is lower in infants who breast feed than in those who do not. Thus, in those areas of the world where infectious diseases and malnutrition are the leading causes of infant death, health workers should promote breast feeding regardless of HIV status of the mothers. PMID:1422355

Cutting, W A

1992-10-01

62

[HIV infection in the Stavropol' region].  

Science.gov (United States)

The data on the dynamics of HIV infection in the Stavropol Territory beginning with 1987 are given. The situation became aggravated after 1996, and its sharp deterioration occurred in 2000 when 138 cases of HIV infection were detected and the area of this infection increased. In most cases patients became infected beyond the borders of the territory. About a half of the new cases of HIV infection registered in 2000 were detected in Ingushetia and Chechnya. The leading factor in the spread of HIV infection was the use of drugs by injection. The main trends of the prophylactic work are presented. PMID:12718170

Filonenko, N G; Isaev, V P; Pelikh, N L

2001-01-01

63

Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection  

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Full Text Available HIV-1 is a retrovirus and belongs to the family of Lentiviruses. The life cycle of HIV-1 is divided into early and late phases. In the early phase; an HIV-1 virion binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine co-receptors on the human host cell surface, viral and host cell membranes fuse and the viral core is entered into host cell. Viral particle is uncoated. The viral genome is reverse transcribed and the viral preintegration complex (PIC forms. The PIC is transported through the nuclear pore into the nucleoplasm, and the viral reverse transcript is integrated into a host cell DNA. In the late phase, viral RNAs are transcribed from the integrated viral genome and processed to generate viral mRNAs and full-length viral genomic RNAs. The viral RNAs are exported through the nuclear pore into the cytosol. Viral mRNAs are translated and the resulting viral proteins are post-translationally processed, core particles containing viral genomic RNA and envelope proteins assemble at the host cell membrane. Immature viral particles are released by budding. The released particles mature to become infectious.There are three main ways HIV-1 incites cell death in CD4 +TH lymphocytes, namely through the budding process, infected cell-to-cell fusion and through tricking the immune system. The stimulation of CD8 +T lymphocytes and the formation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes depend on the presentation of a peptide together with MHC-I. Cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes are able to recognize and eliminate HIV-1 infected cells. Nef induce downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I molecules from the HIV-1-infected cells, which represent an escape mechanism for the virus to evade an attack mediated by cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes and to avoid recognition by CD4 +TH1 lymphocytes. The spectrum of vaccine strategies against HIV includes HIV-derived peptides or proteins, the use of viral or bacterial vectors, naked DNA, the use of live attenuated HIV strains.

Yusuf Özbal

2007-06-01

64

“That Pregnancy Can Bring Noise into the Family”: Exploring Intimate Partner Sexual Violence during Pregnancy in the Context of HIV in Zimbabwe  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate partner violence and HIV in pregnancy in Zimbabwe. Key informant interviews were conducted with health workers and focus group discussions were held with 64 pregnant or nursing mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care clinics in low-income neighbourhoods of Harare, covering the major thematic areas of validated sexual violence research instruments. Thematic content analysis of audio-recorded and transcribed data was conducted. Results While women reported some positive experiences of sex in pregnancy, most participants commonly experienced coercive sexual practices. They reported that men failed to understand, or refused to accept, pregnancy and its associated emotional changes, and often forced painful and degrading sexual acts on them, usually while the men were under the influence of alcohol or illicit drugs. Men often refused or delayed HIV testing, and participants reported accounts of HIV-positive men not disclosing their status to their partners and deliberately infecting or attempting to infect them. Women's passive acceptance of sexual violence was influenced by advice they received from other females to subordinate to their partners and to not deprive men of their conjugal sexual rights. Conclusions Cultural and societal factors, unequal gender norms and practices, women's economic vulnerability, and men's failure to understand pregnancy and emotional changes, influence men to perpetrate IPSV, leading to high risk of HIV infection.

Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

2012-01-01

65

HIV, Sexual Violence and Special Populations: Adolescence and Pregnancy  

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The risk of male to female transmission of HIV is impacted by baseline inflammation in the female genital tract, semen viral load and seminal plasma’s ability to induce specific patterns of cervical cytokine signalling and influx of immune cell populations. Disruption of the epithelial barrier during non-consensual intercourse may trigger further inflammation and initiation of cell-signalling pathways, thus facilitating transmission of HIV and expansion of local infection. Adolescent and pr...

Madan, Rebecca Pellett; Herold, Betsy C.

2013-01-01

66

Women living with HIV: Disclosure, violence, and social support  

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This paper describes the frequency of women's disclosure of their HIV status, examines the extent to which they experience adverse social and physical consequences when others learn they are infected, and analyzes correlates of these negative outcomes. There were 257 HIV-positive women between the ages of 18 and 44, recruited from HIV/AIDS primary care clinics and from community sites, who completed a face-to-face interview. Women in the sample were 33 years old on average; 92% were African-A...

2000-01-01

67

Correlates of HIV infection among incarcerated women: Implications for improving detection of HIV infection  

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The prevalence of HIV infection in correctional settings is several-fold higher than found in community settings. New approaches to identifying HIV infection among prisoners are urgently needed. In order to determine the HIV seroprevalence and to identify the correlates of HIV infection among female prisoners, an anonymous, but linked HIV serosurvey was conducted at Connecticut’s sole correctional facility for women (census=1,100). After removing all individual identifiers for inmates’ st...

Altice, Frederick L.; Marinovich, Adrian; Khoshnood, Kaveh; Blankenship, Kim M.; Springer, Sandra A.; Selwyn, Peter A.

2005-01-01

68

Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients with HIV Infection  

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Most of the patients with AIDS are homosexual men or intravenous drug users. HIV infected individuals are subject to the full Tange of psychiatric syndromes including adjusment disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, alcohol-substance related disorders, delirium, dementia and psychosec. HIV, opportunistic infections, anti-HIV medications, and the psychosocial stress of HIV illness cause substantial psychiatric morbidity ov...

2005-01-01

69

[Free radicals and HIV infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

In HIV infected patients, the increase of the concentration of free radicals is related to: a depletion of protective system (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, vitamin E, selenium ...), and an increased production of free radicals (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxil radical) consecutive to the activation of lymphocytes and phagocyting cells, the chronic inflammation, the increased polyinsatured fatty acids concentration and lipoperoxidation, and direct or indirect effect of several pathologic agents including Mycoplasma sp. This free radical excess could impair cell membranes and generate apoptosis, the main cause of lymphocytes CD4+ depletion. After a brief review of the free radicals synthesis pathway, their potential deleterious effects and the protective systems, the role of free radicals in the pathogenesis of HIV infection are discussed in regard to data reported in the literature. PMID:9499916

Rabaud, C; Tronel, H; Fremont, S; May, T; Canton, P; Nicolas, J P

1997-01-01

70

Vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected patients  

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Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an increasing concern for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We investigated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), pulse wave velocity (PWV) and the augmentation index (AIx), evaluated as indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected patients compared to uninfected subjects. We enrolled 80 HIV-infected patients, 68 of whom treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 12 therap...

Falasca, K.; Ucciferri, C.; Tatasciore, A.; Tommasi, R.; Caterina, R.; Pizzigallo, E.; Vecchiet, J.

2012-01-01

71

Male reproduction and HIV-1 infection  

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From its initial presentation in the early nineteen eighties until 1996, HIV-1 infection almost inevitably led to AIDS, which was a death sentence. Because of the short life expectancy, patients were advised against pregnancy. The improved prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Western society has lead to an increased desire of couples of which either or both partners are HIV infected to parent a child. This thesis a...

Leeuwen, E.

2009-01-01

72

Trauma and cultural safety: providing quality care to HIV-infected women of aboriginal descent.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Canada, the Aboriginal community is most at risk for HIV infection. Aboriginal peoples have disproportionately high rates of violence, drug use, and challenging socioeconomic circumstances. All of this is related to a history of colonization that has left Aboriginal people vulnerable to HIV infection through unsafe sex, needle sharing, and lack of access to health promotion and education. Aboriginal women are at particular risk for HIV infection. They experience a disproportionate degree of trauma, which is associated with colonization, high rates of childhood sexual abuse, and illicit drug use. A history of trauma impacts on access to health care, uptake of antiretroviral therapy, and mortality and morbidity in people with HIV. We describe the case of a 52-year-old, HIV-infected Aboriginal woman. We review the current evidence related to her case, including colonization, intersectionality, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, revictimization, and substance use. PMID:24012166

McCall, Jane; Lauridsen-Hoegh, Patricia

2014-01-01

73

[Forensic and medical expertise of sexual transmission of venereal diseases and HIV infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Although, there is a steady growth in the total number of sexually transmitted infections (STI), the forensic medical method is a rare expertise type as applicable to venereal and HIV infections. Since sexually abused persons are an STI risk category, they must be diagnosed as soon as possible. A micro-trauma of sexual violence, if detected, is an important finding because it is an open entry gate for STI. The specialist in skin and venereal diseases must examine all victims and all suspected of raping or of sexual violence to rule out the possibility of venereal disease infection. PMID:12939840

Dmitrieva, O A; Pigolkin, Iu I; Iutskovski?, A D

2003-01-01

74

How to turn the tide on gender-based violence, HIV and culture  

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Following presentations, discussions and debates, participants at the SAfAIDS Regional Summit: Turning the Tide on Gender-based Violence, HIV and Culture in Southern Africa, drafted recommendations, which they endorsed. This articled presents those recommendations.

Wangulu, E. F.

2011-01-01

75

Intimate Partner Violence among HIV Positive Persons in an Urban Clinic  

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While the intersection of HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence (IPV) has gained increased attention, little focus has been given to the relationship among minority men and men who have sex with men (MSM). This pilot study, conducted at an urban clinic, explores the IPV experiences of HIV positive persons involved in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. Fifty-six HIV positive individuals were interviewed to assess for verbal, physical, and sexual IPV, and for HIV-related abuse and...

Ramachandran, Shruti; Yonas, Michael A.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Burke, Jessica G.

2010-01-01

76

Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients with HIV Infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Most of the patients with AIDS are homosexual men or intravenous drug users. HIV infected individuals are subject to the full Tange of psychiatric syndromes including adjusment disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, alcohol-substance related disorders, delirium, dementia and psychosec. HIV, opportunistic infections, anti-HIV medications, and the psychosocial stress of HIV illness cause substantial psychiatric morbidity over the course of illness. Dementia or milder forms of cognitive impairment are important manifestations of HIV infection with important consequences. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent progression. Fatigue and depressive Symptoms are common in HIV-infection. Depression has a significant impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV and is associated with HIV disease progression and mortality, either poor adherence with antiretroviral regiments or risk for suicide. Personality disorder is also common in the HIV- positive population. Symptoms of anxiety are very common in this patient population under substantial stress, while major anxiety disorders appear to occur with the same frequency as in the general population. Alcohol and substance abuse disorders are common in individuals across HIV risk factors. Psychiatric disorders often predate and are independent problems that interact with HIV infection and treatment. Patients with AIDS have an elevated rate of suicide. This suicidal patients require the same psychological and social Support as other persons at risk for suicide.

Bahad?r Bak?m

2005-01-01

77

Working memory in individuals with HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The central executive component (CE) of Baddeley's working memory model (Baddeley, 1992) was evaluated in 26 asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIV+) and 23 HIV-control subjects using a dual-task working memory paradigm. The HIV+ and HIV- groups showed an equivalent reduction in performance on both the primary task (visual vigilance) and the secondary task (letter span) when they were performed concurrently relative to when either task was performed alone. This result suggested normal CE functioning in these HIV+ subjects. In contrast, the HIV+ subjects had significantly longer response latencies on reaction time measures relative to the HIV- control group. These findings indicated that slowed processing in early stage HIV-infected individuals is not associated with a working memory deficit. PMID:8021304

Law, W A; Martin, A; Mapou, R L; Roller, T L; Salazar, A M; Temoshok, L R; Rundell, J R

1994-04-01

78

Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs

2001-01-01

79

New Antiretroviral Therapies for Pediatric HIV Infection  

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome affect millions of children worldwide. The development of antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Currently, 4 classes of antiretroviral agents exist: nucleoside / nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. A total of 21 single-entity antir...

Morris, Jennifer L.; Kraus, Donna M.

2005-01-01

80

How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
81

Domestic violence among women living with HIV/AIDS in Kano, Northern Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the increased risk of domestic violence among women living with HIV/AIDS, its burden has not been adequately explored in many developing countries including Nigeria. Using interviewer administered questionnaires we assessed the prevalence and risk factors for domestic violence among 300 HIV seropositive women attending a teaching hospital in northern Nigeria. Participants have been diagnosed HIV positive for an average of 6.7 years; 66.3% were seroconcordant with their intimate partners while 16.3% were serodiscordant, the rest 17.4% did not know the partner's status; 67.1% had disclosed their status to their partners; and 64(22.1%) [95% CI (17.5% to 27.4%)] had experienced domestic violence following HIV diagnosis. Specifically, 30.0% (n = 19) experienced physical violence (slapping, kicking and punching), 59.3% (n = 38) reported verbal violence (insults, threats) and 10.7% (n = 7) endured emotional violence. None was sexually assaulted. Predictors of domestic violence were the woman's age, marital status, disclosure and partner's educational status. This calls for urgent steps and strategies for prevention, protection and post-test counseling on disclosure to avert this human right infringement. PMID:22574491

Iliyasu, Zubairu; Abubakar, Isa S; Babashani, Musa; Galadanci, Hadiza S

2011-09-01

82

Diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infection  

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The latest statistics indicate that the number of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) worldwide is 40.3 million, 25.8 million of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2004, 29.5% of South African women attending antenatal clinics were infected. The virus infects people of all ages and social classes. A diagnosis of HIV has serious physical, emotional and social implications for the patient. HIV-infected patients are susceptible to numerous opportunistic and other in...

Glass, Allison J.

2006-01-01

83

Macrophage signaling in HIV-1 infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 is a member of the lentivirus genus. The virus does not rely exclusively on the host cell machinery, but also on viral proteins that act as molecular switches during the viral life cycle which play significant functions in viral pathogenesis, notably by modulating cell signaling. The role of HIV-1 proteins (Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120 in modulating macrophage signaling has been recently unveiled. Accessory, regulatory, and structural HIV-1 proteins interact with signaling pathways in infected macrophages. In addition, exogenous Nef, Tat, Vpr, and gp120 proteins have been detected in the serum of HIV-1 infected patients. Possibly, these proteins are released by infected/apoptotic cells. Exogenous accessory regulatory HIV-1 proteins are able to enter macrophages and modulate cellular machineries including those that affect viral transcription. Furthermore HIV-1 proteins, e.g., gp120, may exert their effects by interacting with cell surface membrane receptors, especially chemokine co-receptors. By activating the signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB, MAP kinase (MAPK and JAK/STAT, HIV-1 proteins promote viral replication by stimulating transcription from the long terminal repeat (LTR in infected macrophages; they are also involved in macrophage-mediated bystander T cell apoptosis. The role of HIV-1 proteins in the modulation of macrophage signaling will be discussed in regard to the formation of viral reservoirs and macrophage-mediated T cell apoptosis during HIV-1 infection.

Abbas Wasim

2010-04-01

84

Cryptic Leishmania infantum infection in Italian HIV infected patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a protozoan diseases caused in Europe by Leishmania (L. infantum. Asymptomatic Leishmania infection is more frequent than clinically apparent disease. Among HIV infected patients the risk of clinical VL is increased due to immunosuppression, which can reactivate a latent infection. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic L. infantum infection in HIV infected patients and to study a possible correlation between Leishmania parasitemia and HIV infection markers. Methods One hundred and forty-five HIV infected patients were screened for the presence of anti-Leishmania antibodies and L. infantum DNA in peripheral blood. Statistical analysis was carried out by using a univariate regression analysis. Results Antibodies to L. infantum were detected in 1.4% of patients. L. infantum DNA was detected in 16.5% of patients. Significant association for PCR-Leishmania levels with plasma viral load was documented (p = 0.0001. Conclusion In our area a considerable proportion of HIV infected patients are asymptomatic carriers of L. infantum infection. A relationship between high HIV viral load and high parasitemic burden, possibly related to a higher risk of developing symptomatic disease, is suggested. PCR could be used for periodic screening of HIV patients to individuate those with higher risk of reactivation of L. infantum infection.

Rubino Raffaella

2009-12-01

85

[HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].  

Science.gov (United States)

On June 4, 1981, MMWR published a report about Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles. This was the first published report. A years later, this disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the following year, Montangier et al in France discovered the causative agent, which they called lymphadenopathy virus (LAV), now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1985, solid-phase enzymeimmunoassay for the detection of the antibody to HIV was developed. Since then, other new techniques for the identification of HIV infection have been become available. These include more sensitive methods (for example; polymerase chain reaction techniques). Although these techniques facilitate early and definite diagnosis of infection, these tests may fail to detect the antibody in sera during window period of infection or overdiagnose infection in sera contaminated with genes not related to HIV. Although preventing blood exposure is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate post-exposure management is an important element of workplace safety. Information suggesting that zidovudine (ZDV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) may reduce the risk for HIV transmission after occupational exposure to HIV infected blood prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group, with expert consultation, and recommendations on PEP and management of occupational exposure to HIV in relation to these findings were discussed. PMID:9170967

Takamatsu, J

1997-05-01

86

Maraviroc in the treatment of HIV infection  

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While a successful HIV vaccine will likely take several more years to become a reality, many anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs are currently available to treat HIV infection, and their efficacious use has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of millions of HIV-infected individuals. A recent addition to these ARVs is a new class of drug that targets the HIV entry process by interfering with the action of the CCR5 coreceptor. The first licensed member of this class is a drug called maravi...

Ray, Neelanjana

2009-01-01

87

Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

1993-01-01

88

HIV infection among internally displaced women and women residing in river populations along the Congo River, Democratic Republic of Congo.  

Science.gov (United States)

We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15-49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and syphilis testing and were referred to HIV counseling and testing services established for this study to learn their HIV status. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among women in the IDP population compared to women in the river population. Sexually transmitted infection symptoms in the past 12 months and a history of sexual violence during the conflict were associated with HIV infection the river and IDP population, respectively. Targeted prevention, care, and treatment services are urgently needed for the IDP population and surrounding host communities during displacement and resettlement. PMID:19319674

Kim, Andrea A; Malele, Faustin; Kaiser, Reinhard; Mama, Nicaise; Kinkela, Timothée; Mantshumba, Jean-Caurent; Hynes, Michelle; De Jesus, Stacy; Musema, Godefoid; Kayembe, Patrick K; Hawkins Reed, Karen; Diaz, Theresa

2009-10-01

89

Discrimination of HIV-2 infection from HIV-1 infection by western blot and radioimmunoprecipitation analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum and plasma samples were collected from blood donors who were confirmed positive for antibodies to HIV-1 in the United States, and from blood donors and individuals in West Africa and Portugal who were positive for antibodies to HIV-1, HIV-2, or both. Western blots and sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) radioimmunoprecipitation assays (RIPA) utilizing native HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteins were performed on these specimens to determine the ability of these procedures to discriminate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. Extensive serologic cross reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 p24 was found in both populations. Antibody reactivity to the envelope protein gp120 was able to discriminate 20 of 20 (100%) U.S. specimens as HIV-1 infections. In specimens from West Africa and Portugal, Western blot and RIPA were in complete agreement on 33 of 42 samples (78.6%). Among these 33 specimens, 10 were found to be reactive for antibodies to HIV-1 only, 10 were reactive to HIV-2 only, and 13 were considered to be dually reactive, having antibodies reactive with both HIV-1 gp120 and HIV-2 gp120. Nine of the 42 specimens were discordant by Western blot and RIPA classification, being dually reactive by one procedure and reactive with only one viral gp120 by the other technique. Because of the serological cross reactivities between HIV-1 and HIV-2, in certain populations it is difficult to ascertain whether an individual is infected with HIV-1, HIV-2, a new viral type, or whether the individual is infected simultaneously with multiple viruses. More specific tests such as viral isolation or molecular probes may be necessary to distinguish between infections with these viruses in certain populations. PMID:2111161

Holzer, T J; Allen, R G; Heynen, C A; Kennedy, M M; Knigge, M F; Paul, D A; Dawson, G J

1990-04-01

90

Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive  

Science.gov (United States)

This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

2005-01-01

91

Women at greater risk of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many people believe that mainly men get infected with HIV/AIDS, women are actually getting infected at a faster rate than men, especially in developing countries, and suffer more from the adverse impact of AIDS. As of mid-1996, the Joint UN Program on AIDS estimated that more than 10 million of the 25 million adults infected with HIV since the beginning of the epidemic are women. The proportion of HIV-positive women is growing, with almost half of the 7500 new infections daily occurring among women. 90% of HIV-positive women live in a developing country. In Asia-Pacific, 1.4 million women have been infected with HIV out of an estimated total 3.08 million adults from the late 1970s until late 1994. Biologically, women are more vulnerable than men to infection because of the greater mucus area exposed to HIV during penile penetration. Women under age 17 years are at even greater risk because they have an underdeveloped cervix and low vaginal mucus production. Concurrent sexually transmitted diseases increase the risk of HIV transmission. Women's risk is also related to their exposure to gender inequalities in society. The social and economic pressures of poverty exacerbate women's risk. Prevention programs are discussed. PMID:12292992

Mahathir, M

1997-04-01

92

Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection  

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Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...

Robinson-papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.

2009-01-01

93

Guidelines for antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection  

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OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for health care providers and their HIV-positive patients on the clinical use of antiretroviral agents for HIV infection. OPTIONS: Recommendations published in 1996 by an international panel. OUTCOMES: Improvement in clinical outcomes or in surrogate markers of disease activity. EVIDENCE AND VALUES: The Canadian HIV Trials Network held a workshop on Oct. 19-20, 1996, to develop Canadian guidelines that incorporate information from recent basic and clinical res...

1998-01-01

94

QEEG in hemophiliacs with HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional visual analysis of the EEG was performed on 320 hemophiliacs infected with HIV, who spanned the range of the Walter Reed (WR) system for classifying clinical stage of HIV infection, and on 50 HIV seronegative hemophiliac controls. Intermittent or paroxysmal slowing was the conventional EEG abnormality most commonly seen in early stages of HIV infection (stages WR1 and 2), with increased focal epileptiform activity and generalized slowing appearing in patients with the full clinical syndrome of AIDS (WR6). Slowing of the manually measured alpha rhythm was noted in stages WR2 and above. Quantitative EEG (qEEG) was obtained in a subset of 103 male HIV seropositive male hemophiliacs and 35 male HIV seronegative hemophiliac controls. The principal findings were a progressive relative increase in theta power with a tendency towards an anterior topographic distribution, and a progressive decline of spectral power in fast alpha relative to slow alpha with increasing severity of HIV disease. Significant qEEG differences from controls were apparent in WR2 subjects (seropositive with lymphadenopathy and without other constitutional symptoms), and were relatively greater in WR3-6 subjects. These results suggest sensitivity of qEEG to early CNS involvement with HIV infection. PMID:7781195

Riedel, R R; Alper, K; Bülau, P; Brackmann, H H; Niese, D; Schieck, U; Günther, W

1995-04-01

95

Gender attitudes, sexual violence, and HIV/AIDS risks among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined gender attitudes and sexual violence-supportive beliefs (rape myths) in a sample of South African men and women at risk for HIV transmission. Over 40% of women and 16% of men had been sexually assaulted, and more than one in five men openly admitted to having perpetrated sexual assault. Traditional attitudes toward women's social and gender roles, as well as rape myths, were endorsed by a significant minority of both men and women. Multivariate analyses showed that for men, sexual assault history and rape myth acceptance, along with alcohol and other drug use history, were significantly related to cumulative risks for HIV infection. In contrast, although we found that women were at substantial risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI), including HIV, women's risks were only related to lower levels of education and alcohol use history. We speculate that women's risks for STI/HIV are the product of partner characteristics and male-dominated relationships, suggesting the critical importance of intervening with men to reduce women's risks for sexual assault and STI/HIV. PMID:19827234

Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Kaufman, Michelle; Cain, Demetria; Cherry, Chauncey; Jooste, Sean; Mathiti, Vuyisile

2005-11-01

96

Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Self-directed Violence in Mothers  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

CONTEXT Two studies based on clinical samples have found an association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and history of suicide attempt. To our knowledge, these findings have never been replicated in a prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether T gondii-infected mothers have an increased risk of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide and whether the risk depends on the level of T gondii IgG antibodies. DESIGN Register-based prospective cohort study. Women were followed up from the date of delivery, 1992 to 1995 until 2006. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS A cohort of 45 788 women born in Denmark whose level of Toxoplasma-specific IgG antibodies was measured in connection with child birth between 1992 and 1995. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Incidence rates of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide in relation to T gondii seropositivity and serointensity. RESULTS T gondii-infected mothers had a relative risk of self-directed violence of 1.53 (95% CI, 1.27-1.85) compared with noninfected mothers, and the risk seemed to increase with increasing IgG antibody level. For violent suicide attempts, the relative risk was 1.81 (95% CI, 1.13-2.84) and for suicide, 2.05 (95% CI, 0.78-5.20). A similar association was found for repetition of self-directed violence, with a relative risk of 1.54 (95% CI, 0.98-2.39). CONCLUSION Women with a T gondii infection have an increased risk of self-directed violence.

Pedersen, Marianne G; Mortensen, Preben Bo

2012-01-01

97

HIV-1 Infection and Central Monoamine Neurotransmitters  

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after infection and gets localized in different brain regions, leading to various types of neuropathological problems. It has been hypothesized that HIV-1 infection mediated neuropathogenesis may also adversely affect the activity of the central monoamine neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), resulting in neurocognitive deficits and mental he...

Kumar, Adarsh M.; Fernandez, J. B.; Irina Borodowsky; Louis Gonzalez; Mahendra Kumar

2007-01-01

98

Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive  

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This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

2005-01-01

99

Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV  

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Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicul...

Gonzalez-guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

2011-01-01

100

The natural history of HIV infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted ongoing research efforts will hopefully identify host factors that are causally related to these phenotypes, thus providing opportunities for the development of novel treatment or preventive strategies. Although there is increasing evidence that initiation of ART during primary infection may prevent the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV infection has the potential to identify novel targets for intervention to prevent and treat HIV-infected persons. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.

Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Dyslipidemia in HIV-infected individuals  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Metabolic complications continue to play a major role in the management of HIV infection. Dyslipidemia associated with HIV infection and with the use of combined antiretroviral therapy includes elevations in triglycerides, reduced high-density cholesterol, and variable increases in low-density and t [...] otal cholesterol. The association between dyslipidemia and specific antiretroviral agents has been underscored. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which HIV and antiretroviral agents lead to dyslipidemia have been hypothesized, but they are still controversial. The potential clinical and pathological consequences of HIV-associated hyperlipidemia are not completely known, but several studies reported an increased risk of coronary artery disease in HIV-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected persons who have hyperlipidemia should be managed similarly to those without HIV infection in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program. Life style changes are the primary target. Statins and fibrates and/or modification in antiretroviral therapy are possible approaches to this problem.

Sprinz, Eduardo; Lazzaretti, Rosmeri Kuhmmer; Kuhmmer, Regina; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto.

102

Dendritic cells are less susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection than to HIV-1 infection  

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process become infected, thereby providing a mechanism through which HIV-1-specific CD4+T cells could become preferentially infected in vivo. HIV-2 disease is attenuated with respect to HIV-1 disease, and host immune re...

2007-01-01

103

Dendritic Cells Are Less Susceptible to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2 (HIV-2) Infection than to HIV-1 Infection?  

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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of dendritic cells (DCs) has been documented in vivo and may be an important contributor to HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis. HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells respond to HIV antigens presented by HIV-1-infected DCs and in this process become infected, thereby providing a mechanism through which HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells could become preferentially infected in vivo. HIV-2 disease is attenuated with respect to HIV-1 disease, and host immune ...

2007-01-01

104

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

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Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data ...

2011-01-01

105

Pulmonary infections in HIV-positive children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)

2009-06-01

106

Pulmonary infections in HIV-positive children  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)

George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Theron, Salomine; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, Tamboerskloof (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

2009-06-15

107

Vascular dysfunction in HIV-infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an increasing concern for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. We investigated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, flow-mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and the augmentation index (AIx, evaluated as indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected patients compared to uninfected subjects. We enrolled 80 HIV-infected patients, 68 of whom treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART and 12 therapy-naïve, matched with 82 healthy subjects for age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We investigated IMT, FMD, PWV, AIx, viro-immunological parameters, inflammatory markers, microalbuminuria and other biochemical parameters. Compared with uninfected subjects, HIV-infected subjects had higher IMT, PWV and AIx values (all P=0.0001; and lower FMD (P=0.001. In the HIV+ group, naïve patients had statistically lower levels of IMT (P=0.02, and AIx (P=0.042 and higher FMD (P=0.032 compared with cART-treated patients. In the HIV+group, IMT values was significantly related to the number of CD4+ (r=?0.31, P=0.008 and CD8+ cells (r=0.261, P=0.025, interleukin-6 (r=0.284, P=0.015 and endothelin-1 (r=0.302, P=0.009. Vascular dysfunction evaluated as IMT, FMD and arterial stiffness is increased in HIV-infected subjects than in healthy subjects. Furthermore, cART-treated patients showed higher IMT and AIx and lower FMD values than naïve patients. Our data support the hypothesis that both HIV infection and cART treatment are risk factors for accelerated arteriosclerosis.

J Vecchiet

2012-11-01

108

Can we reduce the spread of HIV infection by suppressing herpes simplex virus type 2 infection?  

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Overwhelming evidence from observational epidemiological studies indicates that herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection enhances the risk of acquiring HIV infection. Studies of genital shedding of HIV have suggested that HSV-2 infection also increases the onward transmission of HIV-1 by HIV/HSV-2 co-infected patients. Several randomized controlled trials were initiated to assess the impact of HSV-2 suppressive therapy on the acquisition of HIV infection by HSV-2 infected men and women, ...

Buve?, A.

2010-01-01

109

Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women  

Science.gov (United States)

... depression on HIV disease markers and adherence to HAART in people living with HIV. AIDS and Behavior ... stress disorder and comorbid depression on adherence to HAART and CD4+ counts in people living with HIV. ...

110

Modeling TB and HIV co-infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study of the joint dynamics of HIV and TB present formidable mathematical challenges due to the fact that the models of transmission are quite distinct. Furthermore, although there is overlap in the populations at risk of HIV and TB infections, the magnitude of the proportion of individuals at risk for both diseases is not known. Here, we consider a highly simplified deterministic model that incorporates the joint dynamics of TB and HIV, a model that is quite hard to analyze. We compute independent reproductive numbers for TB (R1) and HIV (R2) and the overall reproductive number for the system, R=max{R1, R2}. The focus is naturally (given the highly simplified nature of the framework) on the qualitative analysis of this model. We find that if R TB-only equilibrium ET is locally asymptotically stable if R1 1, does not necessarily guarantee the stability of the HIV-only equilibrium EH, and it is possible that TB can coexist with HIV when R2 > 1. In other words, in the case when R1 1 (or when R1 > 1 and R2 > 1), we are able to find a stable HIV/TB coexistence equilibrium. Moreover, we show that the prevalence level of TB increases with R2 > 1 under certain conditions. Through simulations, we find that i) the increased progression rate from latent to active TB in co-infected individuals may play a significant role in the rising prevalence of TB; and ii) the increased progression rates from HIV to AIDS have not only increased the prevalence level of HIV while decreasing TB prevalence, but also generated damped oscillations in the system. PMID:19835430

Roeger, Lih-Ing W; Feng, Zhilan; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos

2009-10-01

111

Intimate partner violence perpetration, risky sexual behavior, and STI/HIV diagnosis among heterosexual African American men.  

Science.gov (United States)

Evidence indicates that abusive male partners pose increased risk for sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV among females. However, research with males on this issue is limited. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected sex, and sex trade involvement among heterosexual African American men. In this cross-sectional study, heterosexual African American males aged 18 to 65 years who reported two or more sex partners in the past year were recruited from urban health clinics to complete a computerized survey assessing sociodemographic characteristics, IPV perpetration history, risky sexual behaviors, and substance use. Multivariate logistic regression analyses assessed associations between IPV perpetration and STI/HIV risk. More than half of participants in this sample (61%) were unemployed; 28.2% had less than a high school education and 23.1% were homeless. One-fifth of the sample (21.2%) reported IPV perpetration in their current relationship. IPV perpetration was significantly associated with recent STI/HIV diagnosis, unprotected anal sex, and buying sex. IPV perpetration is pervasive among heterosexually at-risk African American men presenting for clinical care, and those perpetrating IPV are at heightened risk for STI/HIV. PMID:19477792

Raj, Anita; Reed, Elizabeth; Welles, Seth L; Santana, Maria Christina; Silverman, Jay G

2008-09-01

112

Mental Health Pathways from Interpersonal Violence to Health-Related Outcomes in HIV-Positive Sexual Minority Men  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective: We examined mental health pathways between interpersonal violence (IPV) and health-related outcomes in HIV-positive sexual minority men engaged with medical care. Method: HIV-positive gay and bisexual men (N = 178) were recruited for this cross-sectional study from 2 public HIV primary care clinics that treated outpatients in an urban…

Pantalone, David W.; Hessler, Danielle M.; Simoni, Jane M.

2010-01-01

113

HIV-Infected Adolescent: A Case Report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report the case of a Nigerian adolescent recently arrived to Spain, who presented at the emergency room with severe respiratory distress. She had been previously diagnosed of HIV-1 discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, what was hidden by the family. This case illustrates the difficulties in management and stigma in HIV-infected adolescents, particularly immigrants and the need to collect all the information available before starting antiretroviral therapy.

Apezteguia Fernández Carolina

2011-12-01

114

Genetic correlates influencing immunopathogenesis of HIV infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Variability to HIV infection, its progression as well as responsiveness to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is observed among individuals including viraemia controllers or exposed uninfected, rapid versus slow progressors and ART responders compared to non responders. This differential responsiveness/vulnerability to HIV-1 is governed by multiple host genetic factors that include HLA, cytokines, chemokines, their receptors and others. This review highlights the influence of these genetic factors ...

Sharma, Gaurav; Kaur, Gurvinder; Mehra, Narinder

2011-01-01

115

The laboratory diagnosis of HIV infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV diagnostic testing has come a long way since its inception in the early 1980s. Current enzyme immunoassays are sensitive enough to detect antibody as early as one to two weeks after infection. A variety of other assays are essential to confirm positive antibody screens (Western blot, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), provide an adjunct to antibody testing (p24 antigen, PCR), or provide additional information for the clinician treating HIV-positive patients (qualitative and quantitative PC...

Fearon, Margaret

2005-01-01

116

HIV-Infected Adolescent: A Case Report  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the case of a Nigerian adolescent recently arrived to Spain, who presented at the emergency room with severe respiratory distress. She had been previously diagnosed of HIV-1 discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, what was hidden by the family. This case illustrates the difficulties in management and stigma in HIV-infected adolescents, particularly immigrants and the need to collect all the information available before starting antiretroviral therapy.

Apezteguia Fernández Carolina; Hernández Muniesa Belén; Vicente Sánchez María del Pilar; Álvarez García Ana; Ruiz Jiménez Marta; Ramos Amador José Tomás

2011-01-01

117

Preventing Opportunistic Infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)  

Science.gov (United States)

... HIV/AIDS Opportunistic infection Patient information Patient information: Preventing opportunistic infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics) Author ... an antibiotic. Preventive treatment is very effective in preventing this type of pneumonia, and it is strongly ...

118

Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among p...

Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.

2010-01-01

119

Characteristics of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has a substantial mortality even with anti-tuberculous treatment, in HIV-non-infected patients. Purpose of the study. The objectives were to describe clinical and laboratory differences of TBM in HIV-infected versus HIV non-infected patients and to assess risk factors of death in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to four infectious diseases hospitals in Romania, between 2001 and 2011, with TBM. Patients were ...

Hristea, A.; Manciuc, C.; Zaharia-kezdi, E.; Dorobat, C.; Arbune, M.; Olaru, I.; Jipa, R.; Niculescu, I.; Streinu-cercel, A.

2012-01-01

120

Hepatitis B in HIV-infected patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is common in HIV-positive individuals. Although HBV vaccination is mandatory for HIV-positive individuals with negative-HBV markers, lower rates of protection are achieved. HIV infection accelerates the course of liver disease caused by chronic HBV infection, leading to end-stage hepatic illness and increasing the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Anti-HBV active agents, especially tenofovir, improve outcomes. Lamivudine alone should be limited to patients with low serum HBV-DNA levels, since selection of drug resistance often compromises long-term benefits, leads to cross-resistance with other antivirals, and favors the potential emergence of HBV-vaccine escape mutants. PMID:23905818

Soriano, Vincent; Poveda, Eva; Vispo, Eugenia; Barreiro, Pablo

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
121

Immune Responses to HIV Vaccines and Potential Impact on Control of Acute HIV-1 Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Unanticipated results from two recent candidate HIV-1 vaccine regimens in large-scale international trials highlight the importance of understanding the optimal earliest immune defense against HIV-1 infection. Presented here are key findings in these vaccine studies that have relevance to the development of future HIV-1 vaccines that can control acute HIV-1 infection.

Mcelrath, M. Juliana

2010-01-01

122

HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (

Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary

2010-01-01

123

Tuberculosis-HIV Co-infection in Kiev City, Ukraine  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In 2004, we tested all patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) for HIV in Kiev City. The results were compared to information from medical records of 2002, when co-infection prevalence was 6.3%. Of 968 TB patients, 98 (10.1%) were HIV infected. TB-HIV co-infection is increasing, especially in injecting drug users.

Werf, Marieke J.; Yegorova, Olga B.; Chentsova, Nelly; Chechulin, Yuriy; Hasker, Epco; Petrenko, Vasyl I.; Veen, Jaap; Turchenko, Leonid V.

2006-01-01

124

Management of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients: Clinical review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nearly one fourth of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the US and Western Europe. With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the consequent reduction in opportunistic infections, resulting in the prolongation of the life span of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection has emerged as a significant factor influencing the survival of HIV patients. Patients with HIV/HCV co-infection have a faster rate of ...

Singal, Ashwani K.; Anand, Bhupinderjit S.

2009-01-01

125

Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from autopsies were also examined. The diagnostic methods used were a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for the detection of Legionella antigen, and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) media. All specimens were also examined for the presence of other bacterial lung pathogens, and all BAL specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P. carinii occurred in two patients. Clinical data of the six patients are presented, and currently used methods for diagnosing legionellosis are discussed.

Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N

1990-01-01

126

Herpes zoster in patients with HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Five hundred twenty seven HIV seropositive male cases were observed for herpes zoster for a period of five years. Overall incidence of herpes zoster in HIV infection was found to be 11.8%. Herpes zoster was presenting symptom in 50% cases. It developed in first year of follow up in 38.8% cases, in second and third year of follow up in 4.8% cases each and in fourth year in 1.6% case. Majority of cases (89% were in age group of 20 - 40 years. Thoracic dermatome (68% was commonest to get involved followed by cervical (14.5%, trigeminal (9.7% and lumbosacral (8%. Among other associations of HIV seropositive herpes zoster cases 24.2% cases had tuberculosis and 4.8% cases had hepatitis B virus infection. The skin lesions of herpes zoster in majority of cases were bullous, haemorrhagic and necrotic.

Das A

1997-01-01

127

Seroreactivity clarification and viral load quantitation in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

In Ghana, West Africa, the prevalence of dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections remains to be clarified, and HIV viral load measurement is yet to be established. Conventional assays for HIV-1 RNA measurements have been limited specifically to HIV-1 subtype B, preventing their utilization for Ghana where HIV-1 subtypes A, D and G are prevalent. Therefore, we set out to distinguish the types of HIV infection existing in Ghana so as to determine the extent of actual dual infections, and to measure plasma HIV-1 RNA. Blood samples were collected from 563 sick and healthy Ghanaians who visited hospitals in 1996 and 1997. After T cells were counted, HIV antibody was screened and confirmed by six different commercial assays and one in-house test. Nested PCR was then used to verify HIV-1 and HIV-2 presence by type-specific primers. Plasma HIV-1 RNA was measured by an improved commercial RT-PCR assay, sensitive to all HIV-1 group M subtypes. HIV-1 alone (89%) clearly dominated over HIV-2 alone (2%), and HIV-1 and HIV-2 dual infections were found in 9%. Valid viral load measurements were obtained on test plasma representing the main HIV-1 subtype (A) prevailing in Ghana. A high amount of HIV-1 RNA (5.9 mean log10 RNA copies/ml) was observed in the typical stages of HIV infection represented by groups of CD44 cell counts. We have clarified the seroprevalence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 amongst HIV seropositives, and the high viral load of HIV-1 reflects its influence on AIDS in Ghana. PMID:12160214

Ampofo, W K; Koyanagi, Y; Brandful, J; Ishikawa, K; Yamamoto, N

1999-03-01

128

[Syphilis in an HIV-infected patient].  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 28-year-old female prostitute, intravenous drug user, seropositive for human immunodeficiency virus and with unusual manifestations of lues infection. The presence of plantar keratoderma, alopecia of the scalp, total loss of hair eyebrows and eyelashes with bilateral chorioretinitis is emphasised. Non-treponemal and treponemal tests for syphilis showed reactivity, but with abnormal serologic expression. The possible relationship between H.I.V. infection and the natural course of syphilis is discussed. PMID:9341045

Cunha, H M; Pacheco, M H; Rodrigues, A; Cardoso, J; Ferreira, F P; Malhado, J A

1997-01-01

129

Women and HIV Infection: The Makings of a Midlife Crisis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present e...

Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, Batsheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

2009-01-01

130

A clinical and mycological study of onychomycosis in HIV infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Onychomycosis is one of the early manifestations of HIV infection with a prevalence of 15-40%. Multiple nail involvement, isolation of both common and rare species, and resistance to treatment are the characteristics of onychomycosis in HIV. Aim: To study the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of onychomycosis in HIV-infected individuals and to identify the various causative fungi microbiologically. Methods: A total of 250 HIV infected patients,...

Surjushe Amar; Kamath Ratnakar; Oberai Chetan; Saple Dattatray; Thakre Minal; Dharmshale Sujata; Gohil Aruna

2007-01-01

131

Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient's HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of...

2010-01-01

132

Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient?s HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of comple...

2010-01-01

133

Eradication Therapies for HIV Infection: Time to Begin Again  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in decreasing mortality for HIV-1-infected patients, ART has not cured the disease. A persistent viral reservoir in the T cells of HIV patients receiving potent ART is a significant barrier preventing eradication of HIV infection. We will briefly review what is known about the mechanisms that establish and maintain persistent HIV infection despite ART, to create a framework in which to consider approaches to the clearance or eradication of i...

2011-01-01

134

Prevention of HIV-1 infection 2013: glimmers of hope  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficiency of transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of those exposed. Infectiousness is dictated by the concentration of HIV-1 in relevant fluids (regardless of route of transmission) and the viral genotype and phenotype. People newly infected with HIV-1 (i.e. acute infection) and those with STI co-infections excrete such a large concentration of virus as to be “hyperinfectious.” The actual transmission of HIV likely occur...

Cohen M

2012-01-01

135

Response of HIV-associated proteinuria to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

HIV-associated nephropathy has been found in children with HIV-1 infection as a late manifestation of this disease; it is associated with nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia with microcystic tubular dilatation. This is quite rare in children and no cases have been reported from India. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized for the HIV-induced renal damage. We report on two HIV-infected children with HIV-associated proteinuria and dramatic...

Ira Shah

2006-01-01

136

Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objective was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of lung cancer (LC) in HIV patients and compare them with LC patients from the general population. All HIV patients diagnosed at three hospitals in Malaga (southern Spain) who developed LC during January 1989-June 2012 were reviewed. They were compared with a sample of patients with LC taken from the Pneumology and Oncology Department of the Hospital Virgen de le Victoria (Malaga) during the same period. Of the 4721 HIV patients (83% men) followed-up during the study period, 61 (1.29%) developed LC: 82% were men, mean age 48 years, all except two were smokers, 47.5% had a prior lung infection, and the median CD4 count was 237 cells/mm(3). Forty (65.5%) patients were on antiretroviral therapy at LC diagnosis (70% had an undetectable viral load). The HIV-negative group was older at diagnosis, contained fewer active smokers, had a greater frequency of the squamous cell carcinoma histological subtype and fewer cases of adenocarcinoma. Presentation was advanced in both groups and the median survival of HIV patients was three months. LC is a common tumour in HIV patients. It affects men and women equally, with a history of smoking and often a prior opportunistic lung disease. Affected patients are often immunosuppressed and have had an AIDS-related diagnosis. PMID:23970654

Palacios, Rosario; Pascual, Javier; Cabrera, Eva; Lebrón, Jose M; Guerrero-León, Miguel A; del Arco, Alfonso; Colmenero, Juan D; Santos, Jesús

2014-03-01

137

Anolunula in Fingernails among Patients Infected with HIV  

Science.gov (United States)

Lunula is the white, half-moon shaped area seen in proximal ends of some nails. Though a few studies have described the nail changes that can occur in association with HIV infection, none of these paid much attention to lunula. Aims and Objectives. To study the lunula in fingernails among HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods. An observational, cross-sectional study to record presence of lunula in 168 HIV-positive patients and compare it with age and sex matched 168 healthy HIV-negative control. Anolunula (absence of lunula) in HIV-positive patients was correlated with CD4 counts, stages of HIV infection, time since patient was diagnosed as HIV-positive, and status of antiretroviral therapy. Results. Anolunula was present in significantly more fingernails in HIV-positive patients compared to HIV-negative controls. There was a highly significant difference for total anolunula (anolunula in all fingernails) in study and control group. Incidence of total anolunula was directly proportional to the stage of HIV infection, increasing progressively as the HIV infection advances from stage 1 to stage 4. Conclusion. Absence of lunula is related to not only HIV infection per se but also the stages of HIV infection.

Mishra, Nitin; Chauhan, Sandhya; Ali, Mir Mubashir; Rastogi, Madhur Kant; Thakur, Richa

2014-01-01

138

Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

2010-09-23

139

Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to ...

Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

2012-01-01

140

The Presence of Psychiatric Disorders in HIV-Infected Women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many women of low socioeconomic status who have contracted HIV qualify for individual, dual, and multiple psychiatric diagnoses that predate their knowledge of their HIV infection. Earlier intervention addressing these problems might have prevented the onset of psychiatric disorders as well as high-risk behaviors that lead to HIV infection. (FC)

Taylor, Elizabeth R.; And Others

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Diabetes, Insulin Resistance, and Dementia Among HIV-1–Infected Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objectives: Metabolic complications have been associated with HIV-1 infection and with long-term use of antiretroviral (ARV) medications. In some studies, such complications have been linked to cardiovascular events, yet limited data exist concerning metabolic complications and dementia. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and diabetes among patients with HIV-1 infection.

2005-01-01

142

Human papillomavirus infections in nonsexually active perinatally HIV infected children.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (pNSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy. PMID:24460009

Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei

2014-02-01

143

Herpes zoster in patients with HIV infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Five hundred twenty seven HIV seropositive male cases were observed for herpes zoster for a period of five years. Overall incidence of herpes zoster in HIV infection was found to be 11.8%. Herpes zoster was presenting symptom in 50% cases. It developed in first year of follow up in 38.8% cases, in second and third year of follow up in 4.8% cases each and in fourth year in 1.6% case. Majority of cases (89%) were in age group of 20 - 40 years. Thoracic ...

Das A; Sayal S; Gupta C; Chatterjee M

1997-01-01

144

Clinical profile of HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

Khopkar Uday

1992-01-01

145

Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

Cotter, A

2009-10-01

146

Cryptosporidium muris Infection in an HIV-Infected Adult, Kenya  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We describe a case of Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult with diarrhea in Kenya. Sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with C. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a C. muris “calf” isolate, 95.5% with C. serpentis, but only 87.8% with C. parvum “human” type.

2002-01-01

147

Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult, Kenya.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a case of Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult with diarrhea in Kenya. Sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with C. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a C. muris "calf" isolate, 95.5% with C. serpentis, but only 87.8% with C. parvum "human" type. PMID:11897075

Gatei, Wangeci; Ashford, Richard W; Beeching, Nicholas J; Kamwati, S Kang'ethe; Greensill, Julie; Hart, C Anthony

2002-02-01

148

Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective ?To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods ?Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford...

2013-01-01

149

Clinical management of tuberculosis and HIV-1 co-infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In many parts of the world the commonest serious opportunistic infection that occurs in HIV-1 infected persons is tuberculosis (TB). HIV-1 co-infection modifies the natural history and clinical presentation, and adversely affects the outcome of TB. Severe disseminated disease is well-recognised but it is increasingly appreciated that early disease characterised by very few or no symptoms is also common. Immunodiagnostic methods to ascertain latent TB in HIV-1 infected persons are compromised ...

Schutz, C.; Meintjes, G.; Almajid, F.; Wilkinson, R. J.; Pozniak, A.

2010-01-01

150

HIV/HCV Co-Infection—A Dual Neurocognitive Problem  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Presence of the hepatitis C virus in HIV infected patients has an additional neurotoxic influence on the Central Nervous System. It has been described that HCV co-infection leads to neuropsychological impairment whose severity is greater than in mono-HIV infected subjects. In the present study we assessed the neuropsychological status of 46 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals from the Warsaw Hospital for Infectious Diseases. For the purpose of cognitive assessment, neurops...

Kalwa Agnieszka; Szymanska Bogna; Cholewinska Grazyna; Siwy-Hudowska Anna

2012-01-01

151

Sensitivity of United States HIV antibody tests for detection of HIV-1 group O infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Infections by highly divergent strains of HIV-1, first detected in central Africa and grouped provisionally as group O, have not been reliably detected by certain European HIV screening tests. Serum specimens from eight probable group O infections from Cameroon were tested by ten HIV assays licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration. All assays based on synthetic peptides or recombinant antigens failed to detect at least one of the infections; assays based on whole-virus lysates performed better. Divergent HIV strains may be undetected by current HIV tests. Thus active surveillance for and characterisation of HIV variants to evaluate and, when necessary, modify current tests is urgently needed. PMID:7968029

Schable, C; Zekeng, L; Pau, C P; Hu, D; Kaptue, L; Gurtler, L; Dondero, T; Tsague, J M; Schochetman, G; Jaffe, H

1994-11-12

152

HIV Testing Behavior among Pacific Islanders in Southern California: Exploring the Importance of Race/Ethnicity, Knowledge, and Domestic Violence  

Science.gov (United States)

This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…

Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise

2011-01-01

153

Autoimmune Overload May Damage HIV-Infected Brain  

Science.gov (United States)

... Autoimmune Overload May Damage HIV-Infected Brain White blood cells may be cause of dementia in ... blood cells swarming to attack HIV in the brain. Credit and Larger Version September 27, 2005 ...

154

Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were re...

2011-01-01

155

Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively teste...

2011-01-01

156

Healthcare Associated Infections in Intensive Care Units HIV Positive Patients  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Healthcare Associated Infections (HAI) are frequent and important complications, most commonly affecting hospitalized patients in intensive care units. Hospital average length of stay is usually 5-10 days higher in these patients. In HIV positive/Aids patients HAI vary from 8,7 and 15% in prevalence. The aims of this study was to compare HAI data from HIV positive (HIV+) and HIV negative (HIV-) patients admitted to the adult Intensive Care Unit (I...

Damasceno, Lisandra S.; Girao, Evelyne S.; Queiroz, Rafael F. D.; Perdigao, Renato L. D.; Damasceno, Alessandra S.; Tavora, Lara G. F.

2011-01-01

157

The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in sel...

2013-01-01

158

Euthanasia: from the perspective of HIV infected persons in Europe  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: In the debate about legalization of euthanasia very little attention has so far been given to the opinion of the patient. OBJECTIVE: To assess the opinion of persons with HIV infection in Europe. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of persons with HIV infection attending HIV/AIDS treatment centres or HIV support organizations in 11 European Union Member States was performed. A total of 2751 anonymous patient self-administered questionnaires were distributed between August 1996 and S...

2001-01-01

159

HIV associated high-risk HPV infection among Nigerian women  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+ women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears different comparing HIV+ to HIV- women. Little is known about HIV and HPV co-infection in Africa. Methods: We enrolled women presenting at our cervical cancer screening program in Abuja, Nigeria between April and August 2012, and collected information on demographic character...

Akarolo-anthony, Sally N.; Al-mujtaba, Maryam; Famooto, Ayotunde O.; Dareng, Eileen O.; Olaniyan, Olayinka B.; Offiong, Richard; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Adebamowo, Clement A.

2013-01-01

160

HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.  

Science.gov (United States)

Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

2014-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

Dendritic cells in progression and pathology of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the major targets of HIV infection are CD4? T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) represent a crucial subset in HIV infection because they influence viral transmission and target cell infection and presentation of HIV antigens. DCs are potent antigen-presenting cells that can modulate antiviral immune responses. Through secretion of inflammatory cytokines and interferons (IFNs), DCs also alter T cell proliferation and differentiation, participating in the immune dysregulation characteristic of chronic HIV infection. Their wide distribution in close proximity with the mucosal epithelia makes them one of the first cell types to encounter HIV during sexual transmission. We discuss here the multiple roles that DCs play at different stages of HIV infection, emphasizing their relevance to HIV pathology and progression. PMID:24246474

Manches, Olivier; Frleta, Davor; Bhardwaj, Nina

2014-03-01

162

Nanotechnology and the Treatment of HIV Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Suboptimal adherence, toxicity, drug resistance and viral reservoirs make the lifelong treatment of HIV infection challenging. The emerging field of nanotechnology may play an important role in addressing these challenges by creating drugs that possess pharmacological advantages arising out of unique phenomena that occur at the “nano” scale. At these dimensions, particles have physicochemical properties that are distinct from those of bulk materials or single molecules or atoms. In this r...

Parboosing, Raveen; Maguire, Glenn E. M.; Govender, Patrick; Kruger, Hendrik G.

2012-01-01

163

HIV/Aids e violência: da opressão que cala à participação que acolhe e potencializa / HIV/AIDS and violence: from the oppression that silences to the participation that welcomes and empowers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA) no decorrer de suas vidas, destac [...] ando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA). Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania. Abstract in english This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. [...] We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.

Josicleide Maciel da, Silva; Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva.

164

Profile of Candidiasis in HIV Infected Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Objective: Candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients. The spectrum of Candida infection is diverse, starting from asymptomatic colonization to pathogenicforms. The low absolute CD4+ T-lymphocyte count has traditionally been cited as the greatest risk factor for the development of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis and current guidelines suggest increased risk once CD4+ T lymphocyte counts fall below 200 cells/?L. Gradual emergence of non-albicans Candida species as a cause of refractory mucosal and invasive Candidiasis, particularly in patients with advanced immunosuppression and problem of resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern.Materials and Methods: A prospective study was carried out over a period of 2 years (2010-2011 on patients suffering from AIDS for the presence of Candida infection. After thorough clinical examination relevant specimens were collected and processed specifically to ascertain Candida infection. Speciation of Candida isolates and antifungal sensitivity testing was also done. The CD4 cell counts of all the patients were estimated and correlated with the presence (or absence of candidiasis.Results: Out of a total of 165 HIV positive patients, a definitive diagnosis of candidiasis was made in 80 patients. Candida albicans was the most common yeast isolated. Patients with candidiasis had CD4 counts less than 200 cells/mm3. Maximum resistance was seen with fluconazole while no resistance was seen with voriconazole.Conclusion: The most common opportunistic fungal infection in HIV positive patients is candidiasis, affecting the mucocutaneous system mainly but the invasive form is also common. Resistance to azoles and other antifungal agents in the Candida species is a point of concern.

Parvaz Anwar Khan

2012-12-01

165

Experience of violence and adverse reproductive health outcomes, HIV risks among mobile female sex workers in India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data are drawn from a cross-sectional behavioural survey conducted in 22 districts from four high HIV prevalence states (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu in India between September 2007 and July 2008. The survey sample included 5,498 FSWs who had moved to at least two different places for sex work in the past two years, and are classified as mobile FSWs in the current study. Analyses calculated the prevalence of past year experiences of violence; and adjusted logistic regression models examined the association between violence and reproductive health and HIV risks after controlling for background characteristics and program exposure. Results Approximately one-third of the total mobile FSWs (30.5%, n = 1,676 reported experiencing violence at least once in the past year; 11% reported experiencing physical violence, and 19.5% reported experiencing sexual violence. Results indicate that FSWs who had experienced any violence (physical or sexual were significantly more likely to be vulnerable to both reproductive health and HIV risks. For example, FSWs who experienced violence were more likely than those who did not experience violence to have experienced a higher number of pregnancies (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6, ever experienced pregnancy loss (adjusted OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2-1.6, ever experienced forced termination of pregnancy (adjusted OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 2.0-2.7, experienced multiple forced termination of pregnancies (adjusted OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.7-2.8, and practice inconsistent condom use currently (adjusted OR = 1.97, 95% CI: 1.4-2.0. Among FSWs who experienced violence, those who experienced sexual violence were more likely than those who had experienced physical violence to report inconsistent condom use (adjusted OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4-2.3, and experience STI symptoms (adjusted OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.7. Conclusion The pervasiveness of violence and its association with reproductive health and HIV risk highlights that the abuse in general is an important determinant for reproductive health risks; and sexual violence is significantly associated with HIV risks among those who experienced violence. Existing community mobilization programs that have primarily focused on empowering FSWs should broaden their efforts to promote reproductive health in addition to the prevention of HIV among all FSWs, with particular emphasis on FSWs who experienced violence.

Verma Ravi K

2011-05-01

166

Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

2009-01-01

167

Assessment of recent HIV-1 infection by a line immunoassay for HIV-1/2 confirmation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the number of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance. Over the past decade approaches have been developed to estimate this number by testing HIV-seropositive specimens with assays that discriminate the lower concentration and avidity of HIV antibodies in early infection. We have investigated whether this "recency" information can also be gained from an HIV confirmatory assay. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The ability of a line immunoassay (I...

Schu?pbach, J.; Gebhardt, M. D.; Tomasik, Z.; Niederhauser, C.; Yerly, S.; Bu?rgisser, P.; Matter, L.; Gorgievski, M.; Dubs, R.; Schultze, D.; Steffen, I.; Andreutti, C.; Martinetti, G.; Gu?ntert, B.; Staub, R.

2007-01-01

168

Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigati...

2009-01-01

169

Mitochondrial functionalism in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is widely known that HIV and ARV drugs trigger mitochondrial impairment in adults. However, their effects in perinatally-infected children have been poorly explored. For this reason, the main hypothesis of the present Thesis was to demonstrate that mitochondrial abnormalities are present in HIV-infected pediatric patients treated with ARV. It is expected to find mitochondrial alterations in asymptomatic perinatally HIV-infected children. This mitochondrial lesion, manifested in a deple...

More?n Nu?n?ez, Constanza

2012-01-01

170

New insights into complications and treatment of HIV-1 infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this thesis the complications and treatment of HIV-1 infection in the current era was studied. Life expectancy of HIV-infected patients has increased enormously with the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). In line with this observation, we found that the outcome of HIV-infected patients with critical illnesses admitted to the intensive care unit has improved accordingly. However, in a nationwide cohort study we found that in 27.5% percent of patients who were treate...

Lelyveld, S. F. L.

2013-01-01

171

Thyroid Function and Depression in HIV-1 Infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thyroid abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV infection, although data have been inconsistent with respect to its frequency and association with specific medications. The purpose of this study was to explore thyroid system response to thyroid releasing hormone stimulation in persons with and without HIV infection and determine the extent to which their response was associated with depression. As part of a larger study of neuroendocrine response persons with HIV-1 infection, con...

Ownby, Raymond L.; Drenna Waldrop-Valverde; Adarsh Kumar; Mahendra Kumar

2012-01-01

172

Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

2009-06-01

173

Psychological Well-being among HIV Positive Patients and HIV TB co-infected patients  

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Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to examine the Psychological Well-being among HIV+ve and HIV TB coinfectedsamples selected from Gulbarga. The Sample consists of 80, 40 HIV +ve samples ( 20 male+ 20 femaleand 40 HIV TB co-infected ( 20 male+ 20 female. The sample was administered with Psychological Well-beingscale. And the data were subjected the t-test. The results revealed that there is a significant difference inPsychological well-being between HIV positive and HIV TB co-infected samples. The sample is matched forgender and diseases.

Vanisri

2013-07-01

174

Effect of HIV infection on the course of syphilis.  

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Syphilis has been a public health problem for centuries. Syphilis and HIV form a dangerous combination: syphilis significantly increases the risk of contracting HIV infection, and HIV can alter the natural course of syphilis. Despite a better understanding of the interaction between these two diseases, many controversies persist. The incidence of syphilis has increased among HIV-infected patients both in Europe and in the USA, and especially in the homosexual/bisexual transmission group. We discuss the interaction between HIV/AIDS and syphilis in a review of the most recent literature, focusing particularly on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of HIV-infected patients with syphilis. Early diagnosis of syphilis in HIV-infected patients requires awareness among both patients and clinicians. Early treatment of syphilis is crucial as it reduces the risk of transmission. PMID:18615119

Pialoux, Gilles; Vimont, Sophie; Moulignier, Antoine; Buteux, Marion; Abraham, Bruno; Bonnard, Philippe

2008-01-01

175

Neurodevelopment in Children Born to HIV-Infected Mothers by Infection and Treatment Status  

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BACKGROUND: We reviewed the impact of HIV, HIV exposure, and antiretroviral therapy/prophylaxis on neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected and HIV-exposed-uninfected infants and children. METHODS: A literature search of Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Web of Science, PubMed, and conference Web sites (1990-March 2011) using the search terms, infant, child, HIV, neurodevelopment, cognition, language, and antiretroviral therapy, identified 31 studies of HIV/antiretroviral exposure using standard...

Le Doare, Kirsty; Bland, Ruth; Newell, Marie-louise

2012-01-01

176

Thyroid Function and Depression in HIV-1 Infection  

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Full Text Available Thyroid abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV infection, although data have been inconsistent with respect to its frequency and association with specific medications. The purpose of this study was to explore thyroid system response to thyroid releasing hormone stimulation in persons with and without HIV infection and determine the extent to which their response was associated with depression. As part of a larger study of neuroendocrine response persons with HIV-1 infection, control and HIV-1 infected individuals were evaluated. Participants' response to TRH stimulation was evaluated via TSH, total T3, and T4 levels at baseline and 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after TRH stimulation. Participants with HIV infection had a more robust response to TRH stimulation as measured by higher levels of TSH, lower levels of T4 and modestly higher levels of T3. Depressed persons had a reduced TSH response to stimulation and lower levels of both T4 and T3, although the effect of depression on T4 was not statistically significant. These results suggest that TSH response to TRH-stimulation may be exaggerated in individuals with HIV infection but reduced in those with depression. They also suggest that the effects of depression and HIV infection may interact, and may provide a partial explanation for observed thyroid abnormalities in HIV-infected individuals. Results thus provide a partial explanation for findings on thyroid and depression in those affected by HIV infection.

Raymond L. Ownby

2012-12-01

177

Prevalence of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O infections among new HIV diagnoses in France: 2003-2006.  

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French national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses included the collection of dried serum spots to identify HIV serotypes. Between January 2003 and June 2006, 10,184 new diagnoses were reported. The proportions of HIV-2 and HIV-1 group O infections were 1.8 and 0.1%, respectively. Most of these cases occurred in patients infected through heterosexual contact and originated from the corresponding endemic areas. Three cases of HIV-2 infections were reported in non-African men having sex with men. PMID:18090288

Barin, Francis; Cazein, Françoise; Lot, Florence; Pillonel, Josiane; Brunet, Sylvie; Thierry, Damien; Damond, Florence; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Semaille, Caroline

2007-11-12

178

Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals  

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Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group include...

Anuradha K; Singh H; Kvt, Gopal; Rama Rao G; Ramani T; Padmaja Jyothi

2008-01-01

179

Prevalence and Incidence of Sexually Transmitted Infections among South Indians at Increased Risk of HIV Infection  

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Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have been identified as cofactors of HIV transmission. Greater understanding of local STI burdens can assist in the development of more effective STI and HIV prevention strategies. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and incidence of STIs among South Indian men and women identified to be at increased risk for HIV infection. Individuals at increased risk for HIV infection were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal study in Chennai, India...

Kumarasamy, N.; Balakrishnan, P.; Venkatesh, K. K.; Srikrishnan, A. K.; Cecelia, A. J.; Thamburaj, E.; Solomon, S.; Mayer, K. H.

2008-01-01

180

Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection.  

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During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from autopsies were also examined. The diagnostic methods used were a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for the detection of Legionella antigen, and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) media. All specimens were also examined for the presence of other bacterial lung pathogens, and all BAL specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P. carinii occurred in two patients. Clinical data of the six patients are presented, and currently used methods for diagnosing legionellosis are discussed. PMID:2076906

Bangsborg, J M; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A; Bruun, B

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) related knowledge among HIV infected people  

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Background: The current adult prevalence of HIV in India is 0.34%. HIV infected persons should have adequate knowledge about the modes of transmission of infection. This is essential for reducing the risk of secondary infection, preventing coinfection from other viruses such as hepatitis B and for protecting the uninfected. Identification of the correlates of poor knowledge among HIV positive subjects will aid in planning effective measures to improve their health knowledge abou...

Mahalakshmy T; Premarajan K; Abdoul Hamide

2011-01-01

182

Occult hepatitis B virus infection: A major concern in HIV-infected patients: Occult HBV in HIV  

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)- infected patients are at risk of acquiring viral hepatitis, due to common routes of transmission. As the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduced the frequency of opportunistic infections and improved survival, viral hepatitis emerged as an important cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected cases. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by presence of HBV infection without detectable hepatitis B surface ...

Ramezani, Amitis; Banifazl, Mohammad; Mohraz, Minoo; Rasoolinejad, Mehrnaz; Aghakhani, Arezoo

2011-01-01

183

Clinical profile of hospitalized HIV-infected children in Bangladesh, a low-HIV-prevalence country.  

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Background: Bangladesh has a low HIV prevalence and data on the risk factors and clinical presentation of HIV-infected children are lacking. Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of hospitalized HIV-infected children in Bangladesh and determine the factors associated with a low CD4 count. Methods: An anonymous, retrospective review was undertaken of the medical records of all patients admitted to the HIV unit of the iccdr,b Dhaka Hospital between February 2009 and July 2012. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data were extracted from the electronic medical record system. HIV-infected children with a low absolute CD4 count (Dhaka acquired HIV through vertical transmission, and most of the parents had a history of external migration. Further studies are needed to determine the optimal strategy for preventing mother-to-child transmission and for early identification and treatment of HIV-infected children in this low-prevalence country. PMID:24164974

Shahrin, Lubaba; Leung, Daniel T; Matin, Nashaba; Kawser, Chowdhury Ali; Pervez, Mohammed Moshtaq; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer

2014-05-01

184

HIV infection and older Americans: the public health perspective.  

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HIV disease is often perceived as a condition affecting young adults. However, approximately 11% of new infections occur in adults aged 50 years or older. Among persons living with HIV disease, it is estimated that more than half will be aged 50 years or older in the near future. In this review, we highlight issues related to HIV prevention and treatment for HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected older Americans, and outline unique considerations and emerging challenges for public health and patient management in these 2 populations. PMID:22698038

Brooks, John T; Buchacz, Kate; Gebo, Kelly A; Mermin, Jonathan

2012-08-01

185

Teens who may become infected with hiv and adolescents who have sida: narrative review  

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Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the brazilian nursing scientific production on HIV and AIDS during teenage hood. Methodology: this is about a bibliographic review study performed with articles from database MEDLINE, LILACS, BDENF and through the gateways SCIELO and CAPES using the words “HIV”, “AIDS”, “adolescence” and “teenage hood” from 1999 to 2009. Population from 27 articles, 18 of them full article and submitted to content analysis. Results: two thematic categories stood among the others: knowledge and behavior of the teenager that might get infected with HIV; life experiences of the teenager with AIDS. It was easily noticed the trend to prevention, in which the articles try to understand acting, behavior, feelings, relations and information on the teenagers that might get infected with HIV. It brings up the argument on vulnerability, especially about sexuality, dug addiction and violence. Conclusion: however, studies in which the teenagers with HIV show the need to continue developing the investigation already going, with treatment compliance and revealing of the diagnosis.

Aline Cammarano Ribeiro, Stela Maris de Mello Padoin, Cristiane Cardoso de Paula, Érika Éberlline Pacheco dos Santos

2010-05-01

186

[Occupationally-induced risk of HIV infection in medical personnel].  

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Since hepatitis-B immune prophylaxis is possible, HIV infection could become the most important risk of infection facing medical personnel. Today, it must be assumed that HIV infection almost always leads to the fatal disease AIDS. The principal source of infection for medical personnel is patients' blood. The disease is usually transmitted parenterally, as a result of inoculation by a needle prick or similar injury. Blood contact with non-intact skin or mucosae can also lead to infection. In prospective studies, HIV infection was found in approximately 0.5% of cases following needle-prick injuries with anti-HIV-positive blood. The HIV infection risk for medical personnel thus ultimately depends on the frequency of needle prick-type injuries and the number of anti-HIV-positive patients. Assuming that there are 50,000-100,000 anti-HIV-positive persons in the Federal Republic of Germany (Federal Health Authority estimate) the occupational risk to the life of a surgeon sustaining 40 injuries per year could be over 1%. In densely-populated areas with above average contamination of patients a higher HIV infection risk must be expected. An increase in contamination in the next few years would also lead to an increased risk of infection. PMID:2683455

Frösner, G G

1989-01-01

187

Incident Hepatitis C Virus Infection among US HIV-Infected Men Enrolled in Clinical Trials  

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HCV incidence from 1996-2008 among HIV-infected men in U.S. HIV therapeutic trials was 0.51 per 100 person-years. Incident HCV occurred primarily through non-parenteral means; 75% of seroconverters reported no drug injection. At-risk HIV-infected persons should have access to HCV surveillance

Taylor, Lynn E.; Holubar, Marisa; Wu, Kunling; Bosch, Ronald J.; Wyles, David L.; Davis, John A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Sherman, Kenneth E.; Tashima, Karen T.

2011-01-01

188

Response to influenza immunisation in asymptomatic HIV infected men.  

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OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to determine if patients with HIV infection can develop a significant antibody response to influenza immunisation, and whether such immunisation is detrimental to the progression of their HIV illness. DESIGN--Prospective, non-randomised study. METHODS--The titres of antibody response to influenza immunisation were determined in 44 asymptomatic HIV positive men and compared with 16 HIV presumed seronegative controls. The magnitude of response were correlated with pa...

Huengsberg, M.; Chakraverty, M. P.; Cooper, G.; Shahmanesh, M.

1995-01-01

189

Novel agents for the treatment of HIV-2 infection  

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Many of the antiretrovirals used against HIV-1 are either ineffective or less effective in HIV-2 infection. There is in vitro evidence of the potency of maraviroc and several investigational agents against HIV-2. We conclude that, whilst specific boosted protease inhibitors combined with nucleoside analogues should still be considered the mainstays of HIV-2 treatment, maraviroc, T-1249, TAK-779 and AMD3100, as well as raltegravir, could contribute to regimens for treatment-experienced individ...

2012-01-01

190

Semen-derived amyloid fibrils drastically enhance HIV infection.  

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Sexual intercourse is the major route of HIV transmission. To identify endogenous factors that affect the efficiency of sexual viral transmission, we screened a complex peptide/protein library derived from human semen. We show that naturally occurring fragments of the abundant semen marker prostatic acidic phosphatase (PAP) form amyloid fibrils. These fibrils, termed Semen-derived Enhancer of Virus Infection (SEVI), capture HIV virions and promote their attachment to target cells, thereby enhancing the infectious virus titer by several orders of magnitude. Physiological concentrations of SEVI amplified HIV infection of T cells, macrophages, ex vivo human tonsillar tissues, and transgenic rats in vivo, as well as trans-HIV infection of T cells by dendritic or epithelial cells. Amyloidogenic PAP fragments are abundant in seminal fluid and boost semen-mediated enhancement of HIV infection. Thus, they may play an important role in sexual transmission of HIV and could represent new targets for its prevention. PMID:18083097

Münch, Jan; Rücker, Elke; Ständker, Ludger; Adermann, Knut; Goffinet, Christine; Schindler, Michael; Wildum, Steffen; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Rajan, Devi; Specht, Anke; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo; Sánchez, Pedro Cuevas; Fowler, Douglas M; Koulov, Atanas; Kelly, Jeffery W; Mothes, Walther; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Margolis, Leonid; Keppler, Oliver T; Forssmann, Wolf-Georg; Kirchhoff, Frank

2007-12-14

191

Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease  

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A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD) during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3%) were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8%) to 1996 (27.8%) was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV ...

Sayal S; Gupta C; Sanghi S

1999-01-01

192

Disseminated human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in SCID- hu mice after peripheral inoculation with HIV-1  

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A small animal model that could be infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) after peripheral inoculation would greatly facilitate the study of the pathophysiology of acute HIV-1 infection. The utility of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (SCID-hu mice) for studying peripheral HIV-1 infection in vivo has been hampered by the requirement for direct intraimplant injection of HIV-1 and the continued restriction of the resultant HIV-1 infection to the human thymus a...

1994-01-01

193

HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.  

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This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families. PMID:23991005

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R S; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

194

HIV Testing and Tolerance to Gender Based Violence: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zambia  

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This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64%) and 268 women (56%) had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR?=?2.48 95% CI?=?1.00–6.19); tolerance to gender-based violence (OR?=?2.10 95% CI?=?1.05–4.32) and fear of social rejection (OR?=?1.48 95% CI?=?1.23–1.80). In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

Gari, Sara; Malungo, Jacob R. S.; Martin-Hilber, Adriane; Musheke, Maurice; Schindler, Christian; Merten, Sonja

2013-01-01

195

HIV: primary and secondary prophylaxis for opportunistic infections  

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Opportunistic infections can occur in up to 40% of people with HIV infection and a CD4 count less than 250/mm3, although the risks are much lower with use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). HAART has reduced the rate of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmosis, and other opportunistic infections, so the absolute benefits of prophylactic regimens for opportunistic infections are probably smaller in people with HIV who are also taking HAART, and even smaller for ...

Aberg, Judith; Powderly, William

2010-01-01

196

Choice-Disability and HIV Infection: A Cross Sectional Study of HIV Status in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland  

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Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15–29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use...

2012-01-01

197

The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection  

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Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the ...

2009-01-01

198

Somatic Symptoms and the Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Depression in HIV-infected Patients  

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Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...

Yoon, Jeanie C.; Crane, Paul K.; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.

2011-01-01

199

Home Testing for HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings  

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Among an estimated 33 million individuals who are infected with HIV worldwide, only 10% are aware of their status. HIV testing is the cornerstone to preventing further transmission and to caring for those infected, particularly as access to treatment improves in resource-limited settings. However, efforts to expand testing through facilities-based testing have not achieved adequate testing coverage, prompting efforts to reach more individuals through strategies such as home-based HIV testing....

Ganguli, Ishani; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Dong, Krista L.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

2009-01-01

200

Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection  

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We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfec...

Khammissa, R. A. G.; Wood, N. H.; Meyerov, R.; Lemmer, J.; Raubenheimer, E. J.; Feller, Liviu

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Primary Oral Tuberculosis as an Indicator of HIV Infection.  

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We present a case of primary oral tuberculosis that led to the diagnosis of HIV infection. Our patient had clinically nonspecific ulcers on the labial mucosa and on the ventral surface of the tongue which were diagnosed as being tuberculous only on histological examination. This raised the suspicion of HIV infection that was subsequently confirmed by blood tests. The oral lesions resolved after 4 weeks of antituberculosis treatment. Some aspects of the pathogenesis of HIV-tuberculosis coinfection are discussed. PMID:21209722

Khammissa, R A G; Wood, N H; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J; Raubenheimer, E J; Feller, Liviu

2010-01-01

202

Impaired distensibility of ascending aorta in patients with HIV infection  

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Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD) of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT) in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Methods One hundred and five HIV-infected patients (86 males [82%], mean age 41?±?0.92 years), and 124 age and sex matched HIV-1 uninfected controls (104 males [84%], mean age 39.2?±?1.03 years) were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography to de...

2012-01-01

203

Recurrent thrombosis in an HIV-1 infected child  

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Though thromboembolic complications in HIV infected patients have been described in literature, recurrent thrombosis is very rare. We present a six-year-old HIV infected boy who presented with recurrent thrombosis. He initially had renal artery thrombosis, then middle cerebral artery thrombosis and finally hepatic vein thrombosis that was fatal.

Shah, Ira

2012-01-01

204

Q Fever Endocarditis in HIV-Infected Patient  

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We describe a case of Q fever endocarditis in an HIV-infected patient. The case was treated successfully with valvular replacement and a combination of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine. We review the current literature on Q fever endocarditis, with an emphasis on the co-infection of HIV and Coxiella burnetii.

Madariaga, Miguel G.; Pulvirenti, Joseph; Sekosan, Marin; Paddock, Christopher D.; Zaki, Sherif R.

2004-01-01

205

Recurrent herpes zoster duplex symmetricus in HIV infection  

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A HIV infected patirent with recurrent herpes zoster has been presented.Recurrence of herpes zoster contralaterally on the same dermatome and concomitant occurrence of three viral infections, viz. HIV, HPV and VZV in the same patient were the unusual and interesting observations in the present case report.

Rajashekar T; Singh Gurcharan; Shivakumar V; Okade Rajendra

2008-01-01

206

RECURRENT HERPES ZOSTER DUPLEX SYMMETRICUS IN HIV INFECTION  

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A HIV infected patirent with recurrent herpes zoster has been presented. Recurrence of herpes zoster contralaterally on the same dermatome and concomitant occurrence of three viral infections, viz. HIV, HPV and VZV in the same patient were the unusual and interesting observations in the present case report.

Rajashekar, T. S.; Singh, Gurcharan; Shivakumar, V.; Okade, Rajendra

2008-01-01

207

Recurrent herpes zoster duplex symmetricus in HIV infection  

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Full Text Available A HIV infected patirent with recurrent herpes zoster has been presented.Recurrence of herpes zoster contralaterally on the same dermatome and concomitant occurrence of three viral infections, viz. HIV, HPV and VZV in the same patient were the unusual and interesting observations in the present case report.

Rajashekar T

2008-01-01

208

Stroke in a Patient with Tuberculous Meningitis and HIV Infection  

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Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.

Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Floridi, Piero; Cecchini, Enisia; Baldelli, Franco

2013-01-01

209

A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial  

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Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the ...

2012-01-01

210

Providing HIV care in the aftermath of Kenya's post-election violence Medecins Sans Frontieres' lessons learned January – March 2008  

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Full Text Available Abstract Kenya's post-election violence in early 2008 created considerable problems for health services, and in particular, those providing HIV care. It was feared that the disruptions in services would lead to widespread treatment interruption. MSF had been working in the Kibera slum for 10 years and was providing antiretroviral therapy to 1800 patients when the violence broke out. MSF responded to the crisis in a number of ways and managed to keep HIV services going. Treatment interruption was less than expected, and MSF profited from a number of "lessons learned" that could be applied to similar contexts where a stable situation suddenly deteriorates.

Telfer Barbara

2008-12-01

211

Screening and Assessing Violence and Mental Health Disorders in a Cohort of Inner City HIV-Positive Youth between 1998–2006  

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The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998–2006 (n?=?174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnai...

Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.; Carleton, Russell A.

2009-01-01

212

Characteristics of HIV-infected childbearing women in Barbados  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group of HIV-negative childbearing women. Routine information recorded during antenatal care was obtained from the women's case records. Additional data were collected from interviews with the women. RESULTS: There were 182 HIV-infected women who delivered during the study period, and a group of 202 childbearing women served as controls. In comparison to the control group, the HIV-infected women were younger, more often multiparous, and more likely to have been unemployed at the time of their pregnancy. The HIV-infected women also had had an earlier onset of sexual activity, had had more sexual partners during their lifetime, and were more likely to be involved with an older sexual partner. At the time of giving birth most of the HIV-infected women were asymptomatic for AIDS and were living with either their parents (mother or father or both or the baby's father. In addition, at the time of their six-weeks-postnatal visit, the large majority of the HIV-infected women were involved in caring for their children. The proportion of HIV-infected women who were diagnosed prior to childbirth increased significantly over the study period, rising from 25% during 1986-1990 to 82% during 1996-2000. Slightly over one-fifth of the HIV-infected women had had one or more subsequent pregnancies after they had learned that they were infected. CONCLUSIONS: The early age of sexual activity as well as repeated pregnancies, especially from different and older partners, may have contributed significantly to both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in Barbados. Future studies of HIV incidence and its trend among childbearing women could be important for monitoring the HIV epidemic in this country. Many of the HIV-infected childbearing women in our study were unemployed, sick, and had multiple children. Therefore, to help them to plan for and cope with the disease and also the care of their children beyond the perinatal period, there is a need to provide the women with repeated counseling with continued follow-up and, where necessary, additional economic, social, and medical support.

Kumar Alok

2003-01-01

213

Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique  

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Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.

Devon D Brewer

2012-07-01

214

Barriers preventing liver transplantation in Canadians with HIV infection – Perceptions of HIV specialists  

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Liver transplantation is a life-saving procedure with demonstrated utility. There are accumulating data indicating that this procedure is helpful in HIV-infected patients as well. Liver transplantation is currently largely unavailable to those living with HIV in Canada. Understanding the obstacles to this procedure is the first step to increasing access. Between August 2005 and November 2005, HIV physicians, one from each Canadian HIV Trials Network site, were asked to complete a quantitative...

2007-01-01

215

T-Cell Signaling in HIV-1 Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV exploits the T-cell signaling network to gain access to downstream cellular components, which serves as effective tools to break the cellular barriers. Multiple host factors and their interaction with viral proteins contribute to the complexity of HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression. HIV-1 proteins gp120, Nef, Tat and Vpr alter the T-cell signaling pathways by activating multiple transcription factors including NF-?B, Sp1 and AP-1. HIV-1 evades the immune system by developing a multi-pronged strategy. Additionally, HIV-1 encoded proteins influence the apoptosis in the host cell favoring or blocking T-cell apoptosis. Thus, T-cell signaling hijacked by viral proteins accounts for both viral persistence and immune suppression during HIV-1 infection. Here, we summarize past and present studies on HIV-1 T-cell signaling with special focus on the possible role of T cells in facilitating viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:23986795

Abbas, Wasim; Herbein, Georges

2013-01-01

216

Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P <0.001). TNF-alpha levels showed no significant change from before to during syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg/mL (IQR, 3.3-9.6) and 9.0 pg/mL (IQR, 5.4-12.6), respectively (P = 0.31); however, treatment of syphilis was associated with a significant decrease in TNF-alpha to a median of 4.2 pg/mL (IQR, 2.7-6.8) (P <0.001). No significant changes in cytokine levels were observed in coinfected with latent stage syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P <0.001, respectively) and correlated inversely with CD4 T cell counts (-0.35, P = 0.036 and r = -0.34, P = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: HIV-1 and early stage syphilis coinfection were associated with an increase in IL-10. IL-10 and TNF-alpha both decreased after treatment of syphilis. TNF-alpha and IL-10 correlated with low CD4 T cell counts and high plasma HIV RNA values.

Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas

2009-01-01

217

Impact Of Hepatitis C Co-Infection On CD4 Cell Count In HIV Infected Subjects  

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Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and Hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection is reported to be common among HIV infected subjects due to share routes of transmission. The fact that HCV infection may act as cofactor for HIV disease progression has been suggested.Objective: To determine if HCV and HIV co-infection affect the immunocompetence (CD4 of the infected subjects and response to Highly Active Anti Retroviral therapy.Subjects and methods: Fifty HIV/HCV co-infected and fifty HIV monoinfected adults were retrospectively studied. Their baseline CD4 cell counts were done using Dynal beads technique before commencement of HAART and repeated after six months.Results: The CD4 cell counts of co-infected subjects were lower than the mono-infected subjects. Sixty eight percent of the co-infected subjects had CD4 cell count less than 200cells/uL, and they responded poorly to HAART therapy than the mono-infected subjects (P<0.05. Those with CD4 cell count greater than 200cells/uL responded better to treatment than those with CD4 cell count less than 200cells/uL (P<0.001Conclusion: HCV/HIV co-infection affects the immunocompetence of the patients and HCV may acts as cofactor for HIV disease progression. It is needful to screen all HIV positive subjects for HCV antibody as this will improve their clinical management and outcome.

Emokpae MA

2008-07-01

218

Fuzzy modeling and control of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed. PMID:22536298

Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

219

Fuzzy Modeling and Control of HIV Infection  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients with weak, moderate, and strong immune systems are analyzed and compared. Moreover, the approximate explicit solutions of the proposed model are derived using a fitting-based method. In particular, a fuzzy control function indicating the drug dosage is incorporated into the proposed model and a fuzzy optimal control problem (FOCP) minimizing both the viral load and the drug costs is constructed. An optimality condition is achieved as a fuzzy boundary value problem (FBVP). In addition, the optimal fuzzy control function is completely characterized and a numerical solution for the optimality system is computed.

Zarei, Hassan; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Heydari, Ali Akbar

2012-01-01

220

Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV Infection (P2C2)  

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome; Lung Diseases; Cardiovascular Diseases; Heart Diseases; Heart Failure; HIV Infections; Cytomegalovirus Infections; Pneumocystis Carinii Infections; Ebstein-Barr Virus Infections

2005-10-26

 
 
 
 
221

Matrix metalloproteinase dysregulation in HIV infection: implications for therapeutic strategies.  

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The emerging role of immune activation and inflammation in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease has stimulated the search for new approaches for managing HIV infection. Recent evidence suggests that an imbalance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and endogenous tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) might contribute to HIV-associated pathology by inducing remodelling of the extracellular matrix. Here, we discuss the evidence and the potential mechanisms for altered MMP or TIMP function in HIV infection and disease. Furthermore, we outline the possible medical implications for the use of compounds that target MMP activity, and we propose that antiretroviral drugs, particularly HIV protease inhibitors (PIs), and compounds with anti-inflammatory properties, such as statins, natural omega-3 fatty acids and tetracyclines, which inhibit MMP function, might represent useful therapeutic approaches to mitigate potential MMP-related damage during HIV infection. PMID:18029231

Mastroianni, Claudio M; Liuzzi, Grazia M

2007-11-01

222

Association of Schistosomiasis and HIV infection in Tanzania.  

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Animal and human studies suggest that Schistosoma mansoni infection may increase risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Therefore, we tested 345 reproductive age women in rural Tanzanian villages near Lake Victoria, where S. mansoni is hyperendemic, for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and schistosomiasis by circulating anodic antigen (CAA) serum assay. Over one-half (54%) had an active schistosome infection; 6% were HIV-seropositive. By univariate analysis, only schistosome infection predicted HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = [1.3-12.0], P = 0.015) and remained significant using multivariate analysis to control for age, STIs, and distance from the lake (OR = 6.2 [1.7-22.9], P = 0.006). HIV prevalence was higher among women with more intense schistosome infections (P = 0.005), and the median schistosome intensity was higher in HIV-infected than -uninfected women (400 versus 15 pg CAA/mL, P = 0.01). This finding suggests that S. mansoni infection may be a modifiable HIV risk factor that places millions of people worldwide at increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:23033399

Downs, Jennifer A; van Dam, Govert J; Changalucha, John M; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Peck, Robert N; de Dood, Claudia J; Bang, Heejung; Andreasen, Aura; Kalluvya, Samuel E; van Lieshout, Lisette; Johnson, Warren D; Fitzgerald, Daniel W

2012-11-01

223

Biomarkers and Bacterial Pneumonia Risk in Patients with Treated HIV Infection: A Case-Control Study  

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Background: Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist.

Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M.

2013-01-01

224

Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection: a case-control study  

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Background: Despite advances in HIV treatment, bacterial pneumonia continues to cause considerable morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Studies of biomarker associations with bacterial pneumonia risk in treated HIV-infected patients do not currently exist.

Bjerk, Sonja M.; Baker, Jason V.; Emery, Sean; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Angus, Brian; Gordin, Fred M.; Pett, Sarah L.; Stephan, Christoph; Kunisaki, Ken M.

2013-01-01

225

Assessment of Recent HIV-1 Infection by a Line Immunoassay for HIV-1/2 Confirmation  

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Background Knowledge of the number of recent HIV infections is important for epidemiologic surveillance. Over the past decade approaches have been developed to estimate this number by testing HIV-seropositive specimens with assays that discriminate the lower concentration and avidity of HIV antibodies in early infection. We have investigated whether this “recency” information can also be gained from an HIV confirmatory assay. Methods and Findings The ability of a line immunoassay (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics) to distinguish recent from older HIV-1 infection was evaluated in comparison with the Calypte HIV-1 BED Incidence enzyme immunoassay (BED-EIA). Both tests were conducted prospectively in all HIV infections newly diagnosed in Switzerland from July 2005 to June 2006. Clinical and laboratory information indicative of recent or older infection was obtained from physicians at the time of HIV diagnosis and used as the reference standard. BED-EIA and various recency algorithms utilizing the antibody reaction to INNO-LIA's five HIV-1 antigen bands were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. A total of 765 HIV-1 infections, 748 (97.8%) with complete test results, were newly diagnosed during the study. A negative or indeterminate HIV antibody assay at diagnosis, symptoms of primary HIV infection, or a negative HIV test during the past 12 mo classified 195 infections (26.1%) as recent (? 12 mo). Symptoms of CDC stages B or C classified 161 infections as older (21.5%), and 392 patients with no symptoms remained unclassified. BED-EIA ruled 65% of the 195 recent infections as recent and 80% of the 161 older infections as older. Two INNO-LIA algorithms showed 50% and 40% sensitivity combined with 95% and 99% specificity, respectively. Estimation of recent infection in the entire study population, based on actual results of the three tests and adjusted for a test's sensitivity and specificity, yielded 37% for BED-EIA compared to 35% and 33% for the two INNO-LIA algorithms. Window-based estimation with BED-EIA yielded 41% (95% confidence interval 36%–46%). Conclusions Recency information can be extracted from INNO-LIA-based confirmatory testing at no additional costs. This method should improve epidemiologic surveillance in countries that routinely use INNO-LIA for HIV confirmation.

Schupbach, Jorg; Gebhardt, Martin D; Tomasik, Zuzana; Niederhauser, Christoph; Yerly, Sabine; Burgisser, Philippe; Matter, Lukas; Gorgievski, Meri; Dubs, Rolf; Schultze, Detlev; Steffen, Ingrid; Andreutti, Corinne; Martinetti, Gladys; Guntert, Bruno; Staub, Roger; Daneel, Synove; Vernazza, Pietro

2007-01-01

226

Integrated gender-based violence and HIV Risk reduction intervention for South African men: results of a quasi-experimental field trial.  

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South Africa is in the midst of one of the world's most devastating HIV/AIDS epidemics and there is a well-documented association between violence against women and HIV transmission. Interventions that target men and integrate HIV prevention with gender-based violence prevention may demonstrate synergistic effects. A quasi-experimental field intervention trial was conducted with two communities randomly assigned to receive either: (a) a five session integrated intervention designed to simultaneously reduce gender-based violence (GBV) and HIV risk behaviors (N = 242) or (b) a single 3-hour alcohol and HIV risk reduction session (N = 233). Men were followed for 1-, 3-, and 6-months post intervention with 90% retention. Results indicated that the GBV/HIV intervention reduced negative attitudes toward women in the short term and reduced violence against women in the longer term. Men in the GBV/HIV intervention also increased their talking with sex partners about condoms and were more likely to have been tested for HIV at the follow-ups. There were few differences between conditions on any HIV transmission risk reduction behavioral outcomes. Further research is needed to examine the potential synergistic effects of alcohol use, gender violence, and HIV prevention interventions. PMID:19353267

Kalichman, Seth C; Simbayi, Leickness C; Cloete, Allanise; Clayford, Mario; Arnolds, Warda; Mxoli, Mpumi; Smith, Gino; Cherry, Chauncey; Shefer, Tammy; Crawford, Mary; Kalichman, Moira O

2009-09-01

227

Gender-transformative interventions to reduce HIV risks and violence with heterosexually-active men: a review of the global evidence.  

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Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention. PMID:23934267

Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A

2013-11-01

228

Eradication Therapies for HIV Infection: Time to Begin Again  

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Abstract Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in decreasing mortality for HIV-1-infected patients, ART has not cured the disease. A persistent viral reservoir in the T cells of HIV patients receiving potent ART is a significant barrier preventing eradication of HIV infection. We will briefly review what is known about the mechanisms that establish and maintain persistent HIV infection despite ART, to create a framework in which to consider approaches to the clearance or eradication of infection (“cure”), or to allow clinical stability in the absence of ART (“functional cure”). With regard to eradication therapies, it could be said that as a field our position is analogous to that of ART early in the HIV pandemic. As then we must now simultaneously develop and optimize platforms and paradigms for the discovery and testing of eradication therapies, and begin to advance candidate therapies toward human testing.

2011-01-01

229

Relationship of Vitamin D, HIV, HIV Treatment, and Lipid Levels in the Women's Interagency HIV Study of HIV-Infected and Uninfected Women in the United States.  

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Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±antiretroviral therapy [ART]) were investigated with Women's Interagency HIV Study data (n = 1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. Sixty-three percent of women had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vitamin D) was highest in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (17 ng/mL; P < .001) and was the same in HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected women without ART (14 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were lower if efavirenz (EFV) was included in ART (15 versus 19 ng/mL; P < .001). The most common lipid abnormality was high triglycerides (?200 mg/dL) in HIV-infected + ART-treated women (13% versus 7% of HIV-infected without ART and 5% of HIV-uninfected; P < .001), with a positive relationship between 25-OH vitamin D and triglycerides (95% confidence interval 0.32-1.69; P < .01). No relationships between 25-OH vitamin D and cholesterol were detected. Vitamin D deficiency is common irrespective of HIV status but influenced by HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART-treated HIV-infected women and unrelated to cholesterol. PMID:24668135

Schwartz, Janice B; Moore, Kelly L; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T; Tien, Phyllis C; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M

2014-05-01

230

Clinical course of primary HIV infection: consequences for subsequent course of infection.  

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OBJECTIVE--To investigate the impact of the clinical course of the primary HIV infection on the subsequent course of the infection. DESIGN--Prospective documenting of seroconversion, follow up at six month intervals, and analysis of disease progression by life tables. PATIENTS--86 Men in whom seroconversion occurred within 12 months. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE--Progression of HIV infection, defined as CD4 lymphocyte count less than 0.5 X 10(9)/l, recurrence of HIV antigenaemia, or progression to...

Pedersen, C.; Lindhardt, B. O.; Jensen, B. L.; Lauritzen, E.; Gerstoft, J.; Dickmeiss, E.; Gaub, J.; Scheibel, E.; Karlsmark, T.

1989-01-01

231

Intermuscular adipose tissue and metabolic associations in HIV infection.  

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Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) is associated with metabolic abnormalities similar to those associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Increased IMAT has been found in obese human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women. We hypothesized that IMAT, like VAT, would be similar or increased in HIV-infected persons compared with healthy controls, despite decreases in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) found in HIV infection. In the second FRAM (Study of Fat Redistribution and Metabolic Change in HIV infection) exam, we studied 425 HIV-infected subjects and 211 controls (from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study) who had regional AT and skeletal muscle (SM) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multivariable linear regression identified factors associated with IMAT and its association with metabolites. Total IMAT was 51% lower in HIV-infected participants compared with controls (P = 0.003). The HIV effect was attenuated after multivariable adjustment (to -28%, P < 0.0001 in men and -3.6%, P = 0.70 in women). Higher quantities of leg SAT, upper-trunk SAT, and VAT were associated with higher IMAT in HIV-infected participants, with weaker associations in controls. Stavudine use was associated with lower IMAT and SAT, but showed little relationship with VAT. In multivariable analyses, regional IMAT was associated with insulin resistance and triglycerides (TGs). Contrary to expectation, IMAT is not increased in HIV infection; after controlling for demographics, lifestyle, VAT, SAT, and SM, HIV(+) men have lower IMAT compared with controls, whereas values for women are similar. Stavudine exposure is associated with both decreased IMAT and SAT, suggesting that IMAT shares cellular origins with SAT. PMID:20539305

Scherzer, Rebecca; Shen, Wei; Heymsfield, Steven B; Lewis, Cora E; Kotler, Donald P; Punyanitya, Mark; Bacchetti, Peter; Shlipak, Michael G; Grunfeld, Carl

2011-02-01

232

Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual) and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. Method This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.

Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R

2014-01-01

233

Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

2012-01-01

234

Spectrum of motor neuron diseases with HIV-1 infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The cause of sporadic motor neuron disease (MND or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is unknown. During the last 20 years, at least 23 cases of MND have been reported in HIV-1 (HIV seropositive individuals. Objective: To describe two patients with HIV infection and MND and to review the literature regarding HIV-associated MND. Setting: A multidisciplinary ALS center and Neuro-AIDS clinic at tertiary care university hospitals. Patients/Design: We prospectively studied two HIV-infected patients with motor neuron disease. A detailed review of the literature employing the PubMed search strategy revealed 23 additional cases of MND in HIV-infected persons. These were reviewed for comparison and contrast with the characteristics of sporadic classical MND. Results: The clinical features of MND in our two cases, mirrored that of the sporadic MND (upper and lower motor neuron disorder and primary lateral sclerosis (PLS, isolated upper motor neuron disorder. The review of 23 previously reported patients with MND and HIV infection revealed that they could be categorized into clinically definite MND (6 cases or clinically probable or possible MND (17 cases. MND commenced at different stages of the HIV; in 9 patients HIV infection was discovered contemporaneously with the diagnosis of MND. As in our one patient, 14 of 18 patients with HIV-associated MND syndrome receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, demonstrated at least partial recovery of their motor deficit. Conclusions: A clinical picture similar to MND or PLS may occur in association with HIV infection. An aggressive HAART regimen to reduce viral load should be pursued in all such cases.

Verma Ashok

2006-01-01

235

Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand  

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Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug use by the woman was the factor most strongly associated with HCV seropositivity. Among 48 infants tested for HCV who were born to HIV/HCV coinfected women, two infants were HCV infected for an HCV transmission rate of 4.2% (95% 0.51–14.25%. Conclusions. HCV seroprevalence and perinatal transmission rates were low among this Thai cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women.

Nathan Shaffer

2009-01-01

236

Interplay between HIV-1 infection and host microRNAs  

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Using microRNA array analyses of in vitro HIV-1-infected CD4+ cells, we find that several host microRNAs are significantly up- or downregulated around the time HIV-1 infection peaks in vitro. While microRNA-223 levels were significantly enriched in HIV-1-infected CD4+CD8? PBMCs, microRNA-29a/b, microRNA-155 and microRNA-21 levels were significantly reduced. Based on the potential for microRNA binding sites in a conserved sequence of the Nef-3?-LTR, several host microRNAs potentially could...

Sun, Guihua; Li, Haitang; Wu, Xiwei; Covarrubias, Maricela; Scherer, Lisa; Meinking, Keith; Luk, Brian; Chomchan, Pritsana; Alluin, Jessica; Gombart, Adrian F.; Rossi, John J.

2012-01-01

237

Seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus infection in children born to HIV-1 infected women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequent opportunistic infectious agent in children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). It has been implicated as a factor in the progression of HIV-1 disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of CMV infection in Thai children born to HIV-1 infected women. The prevalence of CMV infection was 13, 89 and 84% in HIV-infected children and 9, 61 and 75% in HIV uninfected at age ranges of 0-12, 13-36 and 37-79 months, respectively. The prevalence of CMV infection was significantly different between HIV infected children (89%) and HIV uninfected (61%) at the age of 13-36 months (p < 0.05). The presence of CMV IgM in some children of age < 1 year suggested that CMV infection could occur early in life. Early co-infection may be important as they remain a risk factor for reactivation of latent CMV infection throughout the course of the HIV diseases. Clinical monitoring and appropriate work up may be of benefit in the early diagnosis and treatment of CMV disease. PMID:14629131

Likitnukul, Sasithorn; Bhattarakosol, Parvapan; Poovorawan, Yong

2003-06-01

238

Increased Aldosterone Among HIV-Infected Women with Visceral Fat Accumulation  

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Increased aldosterone has been associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome in non HIV-infected patients, but aldosterone has not been investigated among HIV-infected patients with increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT). 24-hour urine aldosterone was assessed among age and BMI-matched HIV-infected women with increased VAT, HIV-infected women without increased VAT and healthy controls. 24-hour urine aldosterone was higher in HIV-infected women with increased VAT and was associated with ...

Lo, Janet; Looby, Sara E. Dolan; Wei, Jeffrey; Adler, Gail K.; Grinspoon, Steven K.

2009-01-01

239

Women and HIV infection: the makings of a midlife crisis.  

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With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present even prior to the menopausal transition. All of these risks, present at midlife, augur poorly for future health and describe a substantially increased burden of disease likely to accrue to HIV-infected women as they enter older age groups. Further compounding the adversity faced by the HIV infected, the demographics of women most vulnerable to this disease include adverse social and economic influences, both of which worsen their long-term prognosis. For example, drug use and poverty are related to more severe menopausal symptoms and chronic stress is related to worse psychological and cardiovascular risk. An understanding of how menopause interacts with HIV infection is therefore most important to alert the clinician to perform surveillance for common health problems in postmenopausal women, and to address directly and appropriately symptomatology during the menopausal transition. PMID:19783389

Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

2009-11-20

240

Clinical Evaluation of Shilajatu Rasayana in patients with HIV Infection  

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AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy....

Gupta, G. D.; Sujatha, N.; Dhanik, Ajay; Rai, N. P.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Chlamydia trachomatis Infection in HIV-Infected Women: Need for Screening by a Sensitive and Specific Test  

Science.gov (United States)

Reproductive tract infection (RTIs)/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are recognized as a major public health problem, particularly due to their relationship with HIV infection. Early detection and treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis infection (CTI) among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women may impact heterosexual HIV transmission. A total of 120 participants were enrolled: 30 HIV seropositive women with symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seropositive women without symptoms of RTIs, 30 HIV seronegative women with symptoms of RTIs, and 30 HIV seronegative women without symptoms of RTIs. One endocervical swab was collected from all participants and CTI was detected by real-time PCR (COBAS TaqMan CT Test, v2.0). CTI was detected in 4 (6.67%) HIV-infected women and in 1 (1.67%) HIV-uninfected woman (OR 4.214; 95% CI 0.457–38.865). Vaginal discharge was present in almost half of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women; lower abdominal pain was present in 11 (18.3%) of HIV-infected and in 9 (15%) of HIV-uninfected women. This study showed that CTI is more prevalent among HIV-infected females as compared to HIV-uninfected females. As the use of real-time PCR is not feasible in most hospitals, efforts should be made to develop a simple, sensitive, and specific test to identify women with CTI for prevention of sequelae and HIV transmission.

Bhattar, Sonali; Chadha, Sanjim; Tripathi, Reva; Kaur, Ravinder; Sardana, Kabir

2013-01-01

242

[Sensitivity of HIV infection screening assays in 2001].  

Science.gov (United States)

Early detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is critical for clinical diagnosis and treatment of patients, as well as for ensuring the safety of blood products. Recently, fourth-generation HIV screening assays have been developed with the objective to offer an increased sensitivity by combining detection of anti-HIV antibodies (Ab) with detection of the p24 viral antigen (Ag). Eight different HIV assays commercially available in France (five fourth-generation HIV screening assays and three third-generation HIV Ab-only assays) were compared in a broad number of seroconversion panels (n = 27). This extensive analysis highlights: 1) the importance of p24 Ag detection for early diagnosis; 2) the improved sensitivity of fourth-generation assays over Ab-only tests. In conclusion, these results emphasize the detection limitations of the different assays and suggest improvements for future HIV screening assays. PMID:12050047

Laperche, S; Ly, T D

2002-01-01

243

Comparison of viro-immunological marker changes between HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients in France.  

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BACKGROUND: HIV-2 is known to be less pathogenic than HIV-1, although the underlying mechanisms are still debated. We compared the changes over time in viro-immunological markers in HIV-1 and HIV-2-infected patients living in France during natural history and after initiation of the first combination antiretroviral therapy (CART). METHOD: Patients were included in the ANRS CO3 HIV-1 cohort (N = 6707) or the ANRS CO5 HIV-2 cohort (N = 572). HIV-1-infected patients were matched to HIV-2 patient...

2008-01-01

244

Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion  

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Full Text Available Objective ?To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods ?Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results ?Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion ?The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

Xin-li LU

2013-03-01

245

Correlates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV related knowledge among HIV infected people  

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Full Text Available Background: The current adult prevalence of HIV in India is 0.34%. HIV infected persons should have adequate knowledge about the modes of transmission of infection. This is essential for reducing the risk of secondary infection, preventing coinfection from other viruses such as hepatitis B and for protecting the uninfected. Identification of the correlates of poor knowledge among HIV positive subjects will aid in planning effective measures to improve their health knowledge about HIV. Aims: To explore HIV related knowledge among HIV positive subjects and to determine the correlates of their knowledge. Methods: The study was conducted between November 2005 and May 2007. Two hundred HIV positive subjects attending a tertiary care hospital and three non-governmental organizations in Puducherry, South India, were recruited for the study. They were interviewed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire regarding their knowledge about HIV and were divided into those with HIV knowledge score >90% and those with score ?90%. The data were analyzed using Chi-square test and logistic regression. Odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals were also calculated. Results: The median knowledge score was 90%. Knowledge on the modes of HIV transmission was better than that on the modes by which it does not spread. Subjects who had received counseling (OR: 16.78, studied above class 10 (OR: 4.13, and those with duration of more than 1 year since diagnosis (OR: 3.12 had better HIV knowledge score (>90%. Persons counseled by HIV positive peers had a better knowledge. Conclusion: This study revealed the importance of counseling in improving the HIV related knowledge among HIV positive individuals. It also highlights the beneficial effect of peer counseling.

Mahalakshmy T

2011-01-01

246

Invasive bacterial and fungal infections among hospitalized HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and infants in northern Tanzania  

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Summary OBJECTIVE To describe the contribution of paediatric HIV and of HIV co-infections to admissions to a hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, using contemporary laboratory methods. METHODS During 1 year, we enrolled consecutively admitted patients aged ?2 months and <13 years with current or recent fever. All patients underwent standardized clinical history taking, a physical examination and HIV antibody testing; standard aerobic blood cultures and malaria film were also done, and hospital outcome was recorded. Early infant HIV diagnosis by HIV-1 RNA PCR was performed on those aged <18 months. HIV-infected patients also received serum cryptococcal antigen testing and had their CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count and percent determined. RESULTS A total of 467 patients were enrolled whose median age was 2 years (range 2 months–13 years); Of those patients, 57.2% were female and 12.2% were HIV-infected. Admission clinical diagnosis of HIV disease was made in 10.7% and of malaria in 60.4%. Of blood cultures, 5.8% grew pathogens; of these 25.9% were Salmonella enterica (including 6 Salmonella Typhi) and 22.2% Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmodium falciparum was identified on blood film of 1.3%. HIV infection was associated with S. pneumoniae (odds ratio 25.7, 95% CI 2.8, 234.0) bloodstream infection (BSI), but there was no evidence of an association with Escherichia coli or P. falciparum; Salmonella Typhi BSI occurred only among HIV-uninfected participants. The sensitivity and specificity of an admission clinical diagnosis of malaria were 100% and 40.3%; and for an admission diagnosis of bloodstream infection, they were 9.1% and 86.4%, respectively. CONCLUSION Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of bloodstream infection among paediatric admissions in Tanzania and is closely associated with HIV infection. Malaria was over-diagnosed clinically, whereas invasive bacterial disease was underestimated. HIV and HIV co-infections contribute to a substantial proportion of paediatric febrile admissions, underscoring the value of routine HIV testing.

Crump, John A.; Ramadhani, Habib O.; Morrissey, Anne B.; Msuya, Levina J.; Yang, Lan-Yan; Chow, Shein-Chung; Morpeth, Susan C.; Reyburn, Hugh; Njau, Boniface N.; Shaw, Andrea V.; Diefenthal, Helmut C.; Bartlett, John A.; Shao, John F.; Schimana, Werner; Cunningham, Coleen K.; Kinabo, Grace D.

2011-01-01

247

Distribution of HIV-1 resistant polymorphisms among HIV infected patients in Georgia.  

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Host genetic factors are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis and natural history of HIV disease along with determining the rate and severity of HIV epidemic in a particular country. CCR5, CCR2 and SDF1 genes are known to influence the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and to be involved in the rate of disease progression. Unlike CCR5 Delta32 mutation, mutations in CCR2-64I and SDF1-3A do not provide full protection against HIV-1 acquisition, however, they are believed to delay the onset of AIDS defining illness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of host genetic factors among HIV infected patients in Georgia in order to define the correlations between CCR5Delta32, CCR-64I and SDF1-3A genotypes and HIV disease progression in our country. 120 HIV infected individuals were enrolled in the study. Mutations were detected by the polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism method. We have studied the DNA polymorphisms at the loci that encode these proteins in 120 HIV infected individuals. As expected, no CCR5 homozygous 32 base pair mutation was found among HIV infected persons, however 6 heterozygous patients produced allele frequency 2.5%. Allele frequency of CCR2 and SDF1 allele was equal to 10.75% and 32% respectively. The overall frequency of CCR2 and CCR5 mutations is comparable to their frequency among European populations. However, to our knowledge, the frequency of SDF1-3A allele frequency in Georgians is higher than has been reported in European countries. We found a delay in the progression of HIV infection among persons who were between heterozygous for the CCR5 Delta32 mutation. In order to explore the impact of host genetic factors on the HIV epidemic in Georgia, host genetic studies involving different groups would be of interest. PMID:19124913

Karchava, M; Nelson, Kenrad E; Gochitashvili, N; Dvali, N; Tsertsvadze, T

2008-12-01

248

Secondary syphilis in HIV infection - a diagnostic dilemma  

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Full Text Available A case of secondary syphilis in HIV infection is being reported. The patient presented with skin rash only. VDRL was found to be negative and HIV testing was positive. He was treated for secondary syphilis with clinical response. Blood VDRL test was subsequently reported as reactive.

Panvelker V

1997-01-01

249

The HIV-infected child: parental responses and psychosocial implications.  

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Four dimensions of psychological adaptation of 101 parents of HIV-infected children were examined. Heightened anxiety, depression, and anticipatory grief were associated with child's age at diagnosis, parent's HIV status, and parent's relationship to the child. Parents at higher risk for psychological distress were identified, and an optimum time point for intervention is suggested. PMID:7977671

Wiener, L; Theut, S; Steinberg, S M; Riekert, K A; Pizzo, P A

1994-07-01

250

Update on HIV/SIV infections in Cameroon.  

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The high degree of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity in the Cameroonian population indicates a relatively old epidemic in this country. However, studies of pygmy 'hunter-gatherers' show only rare HIV-1 infection, mainly after contact with Bantus rather than from contact with non-human primates.

Zekeng, L.

2001-01-01

251

Atopy in HIV-infected children in Pretoria  

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INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has not been documented in children.

2009-01-01

252

Epidemiology of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in Denmark.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Denmark is an area of low incidence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The number of newly reported cases of HIV has been stable during the 1990s, whereas the number of TB cases has doubled in Denmark in the past decade, mainly due to immigration. However, among native Danes the incidence of TB has increased in the younger age groups, indicating more newly infected persons. This study was performed in order to assess the impact of the HIV epidemic and immigration on TB incidence among native Danes. The study was also designed to reveal transmission patterns of TB among HIV-positive patients. Data from HIV-TB co-infected patients identified in the national registers of TB and AIDS from 1992-95 were collected retrospectively from medical records. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of TB isolates from co-infected patients were compared with all patterns registered in the nationwide Danish RFLP database (approximately 1,700 patients). Sixty-seven co-infected patients were identified, 26 Danes and 41 immigrants, representing only 4% of all TB cases during the study period. Danish co-infected patients were part of a cluster, i.e. they had a RFLP-pattern identical to a pattern in the national RFLP database, more often than immigrants (83% vs. 45%, p < 0.005). In only 2 cases were co-infected Danes and immigrants part of the same cluster. Danish HIV-TB co-infected patients were more often intravenous drug users than were co-infected immigrants (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, we found no evidence to suggest that the increase in TB incidence among young Danes was caused by the HIV-epidemic or transmission from immigrants. TB among HIV-positive Danes is most often due to recent infection. The patients often belong to a subpopulation living in Copenhagen characterized by intravenous drug use.

Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Bauer, J

1999-01-01

253

Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Counts in Therapy-Na?ve HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/HCV-Co-Infected Chinese  

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Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

Siu, Kenny K. Y.; Gan, Yong-Xia; Chen, Lin; Zee, Benny C. Y.; Yang, Li; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yang, Zheng-Rong; He, Ming-Liang

2014-01-01

254

Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Acquisition During Recent HIV Infection Does Not Influence Plasma HIV Levels  

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We assessed the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition on the plasma HIV RNA and CD4 cell levels among individuals with primary HIV infection using a retrospective cohort analysis. We studied 119 adult, antiretroviral-naive, recently HIV-infected men with a negative HSV-2–specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) result at enrollment. HSV-2 acquisition was determined by seroconversion on HSV-2 EIA, confirmed by Western blot analysis. Ten men acquired HSV-2 infection a median of 1...

Cachay, Edward R.; Frost, Simon D. W.; Poon, Art F. Y.; Looney, David; Rostami, Sherry M.; Pacold, Mary E.; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Smith, Davey M.

2008-01-01

255

A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals  

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Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I) and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II) were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% an...

Ar, Meamar; Rezaian, M.; Mohraz, M.; Zahabian, F.; Hadighi, R.; Eb, Kia

2007-01-01

256

Sexual Relationship Power and Depression among HIV-Infected Women in Rural Uganda  

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Background: Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women. Methods: Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ...

Hatcher, Abigail M.; Tsai, Alexander Chung-yu; Kumbakumba, Elias; Dworkin, Shari L.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Clark, Gina; Bangsberg, David Roy; Weiser, Sheri D.

2012-01-01

257

The diagnostic challenge of the child born "at risk" for HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Standard serologic tests for human immunodeficiency (HIV)-specific antibodies are difficult to interpret in young infants born "at risk" for HIV infection owing to transplacentally acquired maternal IgG. This article reviews the treatment advantages of early diagnosis of HIV infection, the indications for HIV testing in children, the general principles and use of individual HIV assays, and an idealized evaluation schedule for infants born "at risk" for HIV infection. PMID:8047368

Church, J A

1994-08-01

258

Oxidative Imbalance in HIV-1 Infected Patients Treated with Antiretroviral Therapy  

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It is generally accepted that oxidative stress is involved in HIV infection. However, the role in oxidative balance of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) is still debated. In our study we assessed serum oxidant and antioxidant levels in an HIV-1-infected population treated with HAART, and compared them with those of untreated HIV-1 patients and HIV-1-negative subjects. The study included 116 HIV-1-infected patients (86 HAART-treated and 30 untreated), and 46 HIV-negative controls. S...

Antonella Mandas; Eugenio Luigi Iorio; Maria Gabriella Congiu; Cinzia Balestrieri; Antonello Mereu; Daniela Cau; Sandra Dessì; Nicoletta Curreli

2009-01-01

259

Hiv infection in patients of sexually transmitted disease  

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Full Text Available A total of 1027 male patients suffering from sexually transmitted diseases (STD during 1990 to 1996 were screened for HIV infection. All cases were in the age group 17 years to 48 years. One hundred and sixty-seven STD cases (16.3% were found to have HIV infection. A rising trend in incidence of HIV infection in STD patients from 1990 (2.8% to 1996 (27.8% was noticed countrary to declining trend of STDs from 213 cases in 1990 to 79 cases in 1996. The incidence of HIV infection was 30.3% in lymphogranuloma venereum, 19.5% in chancroid, 13.5% in syphilis, 17.6% in herpes genitatis, 6.7% in gonorrhoea and 11.2% in other STD cases.

Sayal S

1999-01-01

260

Postpartum Sterilization Choices Made by HIV-Infected Women  

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Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994) compared to before implementation.

Stuart, Gretchen S.; Paula M. Castaño; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Barbara McElwee; Mcintire, Donald D.; Wendel, George D.

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Update on antiretroviral treatment during primary HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary HIV-1 infection covers a period of around 12 weeks in which the virus disseminates from the initial site of infection into different tissues and organs. In this phase, viremia is very high and transmission of HIV is an important issue. Most guidelines recommend antiretroviral treatment in patients who are symptomatic, although the indication for treatment remains inconclusive in asymptomatic patients. In this article the authors review the main virological and immunological events during this early phase of infection, and discuss the arguments for and against antiretroviral treatment. Recommendations of different guidelines, the issue of the HIV transmission and transmission of resistance to antiretroviral drugs, as well as recently available information opening perspectives for functional cure in patients treated in very early steps of HIV infection are also discussed. PMID:24803105

Ambrosioni, Juan; Nicolas, David; Sued, Omar; Agüero, Fernando; Manzardo, Christian; Miro, Jose M

2014-07-01

262

Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems  

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Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

1990-09-01

263

Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand  

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Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug u...

2009-01-01

264

Sexually transmissible infections other than HIV.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are notable for their fastidious requirements for transmission and growth in the laboratory and for their high physical and psychosocial morbidity. The combination of subtle or absent symptoms and stigma preventing the seeking of health care, leaves many infections undiagnosed. The development of nucleic-acid amplification tests heralded a new era in sensitive and robust diagnostic procedures for STIs. Unfortunately, many of these tests are not commercially available or are too expensive for the populations that need them most. Single-dose oral azithromycin has improved the treatment of several bacterial STIs, but quinolones are rapidly becoming ineffective for gonorrhoea. Self-treatment of genital warts with podophyllotoxin or imiquimod preparations is attractive to patients and might be cost effective for health services. The prospect of effective vaccines against genital papillomaviruses in the near future is real. Such vaccines could reduce the global incidence of some anogenital cancers. Episodic treatment of genital herpes is getting easier and cheaper, and suppressive treatment can reduce transmission to regular sexual partners. A vaccine against herpes simplex virus type 2 has shown some limited efficacy. Ultimately, better control of STIs, and reduction of their contribution to the spread of HIV, will require a broad health-sector response with adequate resourcing, and a change in social and political attitudes. PMID:14975619

Donovan, Basil

2004-02-14

265

HIV-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in primary HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by a high-titer viremia that declines precipitously within weeks, most likely as a result of host immune responses. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma of four recently HIV-infected individuals were examined to assess the humoral and cellular immune responses potentially involved in early suppression of viral replication. Neutralizing antibodies against autologous viral isolates were low or undetectable in three subjects studied. Cellular cytotoxicity was assayed using Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) infected with recombinant vaccinia that express HIV-1 proteins. HIV envelope-specific cytotoxicity, which was not mediated by CD8+ cells nor human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I restricted, developed in PBMCs of all four subjects early after primary infection, but was not correlated with declines in viremia. Gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity was observed in freshly isolated PBMCs of two subjects, and HIV-specific CTL cell lines were cultured from PBMCs of three subjects shortly after HIV infection. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) developed early in all four subjects, and was temporally correlated with declines in viremia in two subjects in whom viral load was well characterized. These data suggest that both CTL responses and ADCC may be critical to control of viral replication in acute HIV infection. PMID:8844017

Connick, E; Marr, D G; Zhang, X Q; Clark, S J; Saag, M S; Schooley, R T; Curiel, T J

1996-08-10

266

Safety of live, attenuated oral vaccines in HIV-infected Zambian adults Oral vaccines in HIV  

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Background: Current recommendations are that HIV-infected persons should not be given live vaccines. We set out to assess potential toxicity of three live, attenuated oral vaccines (against rotavirus, typhoid and ETEC) in a phase 1 study. Methods: Two commercially available oral vaccines against rotavirus (Rotarix) and typhoid (Vivotif) and one candidate vaccine against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coil (ACAM2017) were given to HIV seropositive (n = 42) and HIV seronegative (n = 59) adults. Ga...

Banda, Rose; Yambayamba, Vera; Lalusha, Bwalya Daka; Sinkala, Edford; Kapulu, Melissa Chola; Kelly, Paul

2012-01-01

267

Disseminated Histoplasmosis and Tuberculosis in a Patient with HIV Infection  

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Histoplasmosis is a very rare disease in Korea. Clinical manifestations are very similar to those of tuberculosis. This is the first case report of combined disseminated histoplasmosis and tuberculosis in a patient with HIV infection in Korea. A 42-year-old Korean with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed with tuberculosis. He had lived in Guatemala for the past five years. Upon diagnosis of disseminated tuberculosis with HIV infection, he was treated with anti-tuberculosis...

Jeong, Hye Won; Sohn, Jang-wook; Kim, Min Ja; Choi, Jung Woo; Kim, Chul Hwan; Choi, Sang-ho; Kim, Jeeyong; Cho, Yunjung

2007-01-01

268

Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients  

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Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals...

2007-01-01

269

Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients  

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We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine he...

Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

2012-01-01

270

Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicines for Treating HIV Infections and AIDS  

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To assess the effects of TCHM on patients with HIV infection and AIDS, we reviewed eleven randomized placebo-controlled trials involving 998 patients. Due to the limited number of RCTs for included trials and the small sample size of each study, we are not able to draw firm conclusions concerning TCHM therapy in treating patients with HIV infection and AIDS. However, some high-quality clinical studies do exist. Studies of diarrhea and oral candidiasis, which are challenging symptoms of AI...

Zou, Wen; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jian; Li, Hongjuan; Liao, Xing

2012-01-01

271

Dendritic Cells and HIV-1 Trans-Infection  

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Dendritic cells initiate and sustain immune responses by migrating to sites of pathogenic insult, transporting antigens to lymphoid tissues and signaling immune specific activation of T cells through the formation of the immunological synapse. Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to CD4 T cells through an analogous structure, the infectious synapse. This replication independent mode of HIV-1 transmission, known as trans-infection, greatly increases T cell infection in vi...

2010-01-01

272

Genital herpes - A maker of HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An HIV positive patient with severe genital herpes and oral hairy leukoplakia is reported. Lower rate of heterosexual transmission and implications of transimission of HIV in a hospital set up are stressed.

Kumar Bhushan

1990-01-01

273

Congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother  

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Full Text Available We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant born to an HIV infected mother who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM at nine weeks of gestation. We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women.

Maria Letícia Santos Cruz

2007-12-01

274

Congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother  

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We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant born to an HIV infected mother who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM at nine weeks of gestation. We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women.

Maria Letícia Santos Cruz; Claudete Araújo Cardoso; Saavedra, Mariza C.; Eliane dos Santos; Tatiana Melino

2007-01-01

275

Risk Factors for HSV-2 Infection among Sexual Partners of HSV-2/HIV-1 Co-Infected Persons  

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Abstract Background Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is the most frequent cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide and has been associated with increased risk for HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of risk factors for HSV-2 infection among HIV-1 uninfected partners, whose partners were co-infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. Methods Between November 2004 and April 2007, 3408 HIV-discordant couples, in which the HIV-1 infecte...

Mujugira Andrew; Magaret Amalia S; Baeten Jared M; Celum Connie; Lingappa Jairam

2011-01-01

276

The ethics of feedback of HIV test results in population-based surveys of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Population-based disease prevalence surveys raise ethical questions, including whether participants should be routinely told their test results. Ethical guidelines call for informing survey participants of any clinically relevant finding to enable appropriate management. However, in anonymous surveys of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, participants can "opt out" of being given their test results or are offered the chance to undergo voluntary HIV testing in local counselling and testing services. This is aimed at minimizing survey participation bias. Those who opt out of being given their HIV test results and who do not seek their results miss the opportunity to receive life-saving antiretroviral therapy. The justification for HIV surveys without routine feedback of results to participants is based on a public health utility argument: that the benefits of more rigorous survey methods - reduced participation bias - outweigh the benefits to individuals of knowing their HIV status. However, people with HIV infection have a strong immediate interest in knowing their HIV status. In consideration of the ethical value of showing respect for people and thereby alleviating suffering, an argument based on public health utility is not an appropriate justification. In anonymous HIV surveys as well as other prevalence surveys of treatable conditions in any setting, participation should be on the basis of routine individual feedback of results as an integral part of fully informed participation. Ensuring that surveys are ethically sound may stimulate participation, increase a broader uptake of HIV testing and reduce stigmatization of people who are HIV-positive. PMID:24347734

Maher, Dermot

2013-12-01

277

Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

Gupta V

2004-01-01

278

Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa  

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Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

Busisiwe Ncama

2013-01-01

279

Minibus taxi drivers' sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the hi [...] gh vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

Ncama, Busisiwe; Mchunu, Gugu; Naidoo, Joanne; Majeke, Sisana; Pillay, Padmini; Myeza, Thandazile; Ndebele, Thandiwe.

280

Home Testing for HIV Infection in Resource-Limited Settings  

Science.gov (United States)

Among an estimated 33 million individuals who are infected with HIV worldwide, only 10% are aware of their status. HIV testing is the cornerstone to preventing further transmission and to caring for those infected, particularly as access to treatment improves in resource-limited settings. However, efforts to expand testing through facilities-based testing have not achieved adequate testing coverage, prompting efforts to reach more individuals through strategies such as home-based HIV testing. Home testing is showing promising early results in some high-prevalence, resource-limited settings. This article reviews the mechanisms and literature to date of this door-to-door approach.

Ganguli, Ishani; Bassett, Ingrid V.; Dong, Krista L.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Female genital TB and HIV co-infection  

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Full Text Available HIV-induced immunosuppression paves the way for several infections, tuberculosis being very common in our country. Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB, presenting as menstrual irregularities, is a diagnostic challenge in an adolescent female when these may be considered normal. The present case is of a young female who presented with menstrual irregularities, diagnosed subsequently as a case of genital tuberculosis. Microbiological relapse after anti-tubercular treatment of six months caused suspicion of a co-existing immunodeficiency and investigations revealed HIV co-infection; thus emphasizing the need of HIV testing in all patients of tuberculosis for timely diagnosis and treatment support thereafter.

Duggal S

2009-01-01

282

Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal  

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Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.

Silverman, Jay G.; Decker, Michele R.; Gupta, Jhumka; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Seage, George R.; Raj, Anita

2008-01-01

283

Syphilis and hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-infected, sex-trafficked women and girls, Nepal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B. PMID:18507905

Silverman, Jay G; Decke, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Seage, George R; Raj, Anita

2008-06-01

284

Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: OR of HIV diagnosis was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.3) among heterosexual individuals with low educational attainments, but no associations between educational attainment and time to HAART initiation, CD4 cell count, or viral suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated with late/very late presentation of HIV, time to HAART initiation, or HAART response. However, low educational attainment substantially increased lifestyle-related mortality, which indicates that increased mortality in HIV-infected patients with low educational attainments stems from risk factors unrelated to HIV.

Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H

2014-01-01

285

A natural theaflavins preparation inhibits HIV-1 infection by targeting the entry step: potential applications for preventing HIV-1 infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Theaflavins are the major components of tea polyphenols in brewed black tea. We previously reported that theaflavin derivatives, such as TF3, inhibited HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41. However, it is difficult to purify the individual theaflavins and the purified compounds are highly unstable. To develop theaflavins as affordable anti-HIV-1 microbide for preventing HIV sexual transmission, we intended to use an economic natural preparation containing 90% of theaflavins (TFmix). Its antiviral activity against HIV-1 strains was evaluated in vitro using p24 production and luciferase assays. The mechanism by which TFmix inhibits HIV-1 infection was investigated using time-of-addition, cell-cell fusion and biophysical assays. The data suggested TFmix exhibited potent anti-HIV-1 activity on lab-adapted and primary HIV-1 strains with IC(50) less than 1.20 ?M. It also effectively inhibited infection by T-20 resistant HIV-1 strains. The mechanism studies suggest that TFmix mainly inhibit the HIV-1 entry by targeting gp41 since it is effective in inhibiting gp41 six-helix bundle (6-HB) formation and HIV-1 envelope protein-mediated cell-cell fusion. TFmix could also inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) activity, but the IC(50) is about 8-fold higher than that for inhibiting gp41 6-HB formation, suggesting RT is not a major target for TFmix. In conclusion, TFmix is an economic natural product preparation containing high content of theaflavins with potent anti-HIV-1 activity by targeting the viral entry step through the disruption of gp41 6-HB core structure. It has a potential to be developed as a safe and affordable topical microbicide for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:22155187

Yang, Jie; Li, Lin; Tan, Suiyi; Jin, Hong; Qiu, Jiayin; Mao, Qinchao; Li, Runming; Xia, Chenglai; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Jiang, Shibo; Liu, Shuwen

2012-03-01

286

Use of Quantitative HIV RNA Detection for Early Diagnosis of HIV Infection in Infants and Acute HIV Infections in Alberta, Canada  

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Quantitative HIV RNA viral load (QVL) assays (Roche Diagnostics) were sensitive and specific when used to diagnose HIV infection in (i) HIV-exposed infants (sensitivity of 100% [63.1 to 100%] and specificity of 100% [97.9 to 100%]) and (ii) suspected acute HIV infection patients with a negative/indeterminate Western blot (sensitivity of 97.6% [91.6 to 99.7%] and specificity of 100% [96.1 to 100%]). No false-positive QVL results were identified.

Lee, Bonita E.; Plitt, Sabrina S.; Jayaraman, Gayatri C.; Chui, Linda; Singh, Ameeta E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.

2012-01-01

287

Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine-dependent participants. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest significant brain structure alterations associated with both HIV infection and methamphetamine dependence. The regional patterns of the changes associated with these factors were distinct but overlapping, and the effects on brain volumes were opposing. Although the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results have implications for the interpretation of brain morphological findings in methamphetamine-dependent, HIV-positive individuals, a group whose numbers are unfortunately increasing

Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C

2005-01-01

288

Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection  

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This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

2009-07-15

289

Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

2009-07-01

290

Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

Petropoulos Christos J

2005-11-01

291

Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels  

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Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

2011-04-01

292

Development of Human Dendritic Cells and their Role in HIV Infection: Antiviral Immunity vs HIV Transmission  

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Full Text Available Although dendritc cells (DC represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing AIDS vaccines. However, HIV not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC-T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC-T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology and discuss what needs to be known in order to successfully manipulate DC for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future.

YasukoTsunetsugu-Yokota

2013-07-01

293

Oral mucoceles and ranulas may be part of initial manifestations of HIV infection  

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It is well documented and generally accepted that enlargement of parotid salivary glands, as part of HIV-related salivary gland diseases (HIV-SGD), may be the initial symptoms/manifestations of the HIV infection. Oral

Syebelele, Kabunda; Butow, Kurt-wilhelm

2013-01-01

294

Interplay between HIV-1 infection and host microRNAs  

Science.gov (United States)

Using microRNA array analyses of in vitro HIV-1-infected CD4+ cells, we find that several host microRNAs are significantly up- or downregulated around the time HIV-1 infection peaks in vitro. While microRNA-223 levels were significantly enriched in HIV-1-infected CD4+CD8? PBMCs, microRNA-29a/b, microRNA-155 and microRNA-21 levels were significantly reduced. Based on the potential for microRNA binding sites in a conserved sequence of the Nef-3?-LTR, several host microRNAs potentially could affect HIV-1 gene expression. Among those microRNAs, the microRNA-29 family has seed complementarity in the HIV-1 3?-UTR, but the potential suppressive effect of microRNA-29 on HIV-1 is severely blocked by the secondary structure of the target region. Our data support a possible regulatory circuit at the peak of HIV-1 replication which involves downregulation of microRNA-29, expression of Nef, the apoptosis of host CD4 cells and upregulation of microRNA-223.

Sun, Guihua; Li, Haitang; Wu, Xiwei; Covarrubias, Maricela; Scherer, Lisa; Meinking, Keith; Luk, Brian; Chomchan, Pritsana; Alluin, Jessica; Gombart, Adrian F.; Rossi, John J.

2012-01-01

295

Risk Factors for Incomplete Immunization in Children with HIV Infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

OBJECTIVE: To document the immunization rates, factors associated with incomplete immunization, and missed opportunities for immunizations in children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient follow-up. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of immunization status of children affected by HIV presenting for routine outpatient care was conducted. RESULTS: Two hundred and six HIV affected children were enrolled. The median age of children in this cohort was 6 y. One hundred ninety seven of 206 children were HIV infected, nine were HIV exposed, but indeterminate. Fifty (25 %) children had incomplete immunizations per the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) of India. Hundred percent of children had received OPV. Ninety three percent of children got their UIP vaccines from a government clinic. Children with incomplete immunization were older, median age of 8 compared to 5 (p?=?0.003). Each year of maternal education increased the odds of having a child with complete UIP immunizations by 1.18 (p?=?0.008)-children of mothers with 6 y of education compared to those with no education were seven times more likely to have complete UIP vaccine status. The average number of visits to the clinic by an individual child in a year was 4. This represents 200 missed opportunities for immunizations. CONCLUSIONS: HIV infected children are at risk for incomplete immunization coverage though they regularly access medical care. Including routine immunizations, particularly catch-up immunizations in programs for HIV infected children maybe an effective way of protecting these children from vaccine preventable disease. PMID:23640700

Bhattacharya, Sangeeta Das; Bhattacharyya, Subhasish; Chatterjee, Devlina; Niyogi, Swapan Kumar; Chauhan, Nageshwar; Sudar, A

2013-05-01

296

Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil  

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BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference cente...

Paula Matos Oliveira; Rita Elizabeth Mascarenhas; Claire Lacroix; Suzana Ramos Ferrer; Oliveira, Rone Peterson C.; Elaine Andrade Cravo; Ribeiro Alves, Andre? P.; Maria Fernanda Rios Grassi

2011-01-01

297

Recent Hepatitis C Virus Infections in HIV-Infected Patients in Taiwan: Incidence and Risk Factors  

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Outbreaks of sexually transmitted hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections have been recently reported in HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Europe, Australia, and North America. Little is known concerning whether this also occurs in other Asia-Pacific countries. Between 1994 and 2010, a prospective observational cohort study was performed to assess the incidence of recent HCV seroconversion in 892 HIV-infected patients (731 MSM and 161 heterosexuals) who were not injecting drug users....

Sun, Hsin-yun; Chang, Sui-yuan; Yang, Zong-yu; Lu, Ching-lan; Wu, Hsiu; Yeh, Chang-ching; Liu, Wen-chun; Hsieh, Chia-yin; Hung, Chien-ching; Chang, Shan-chwen

2012-01-01

298

Changing Concepts of “Latent Tuberculosis Infection” in Patients Living with HIV Infection  

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One third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, representing a huge reservoir of potential tuberculosis (TB) disease. Risk of progression to active TB is highest in those with HIV coinfection. However, the nature of the host-pathogen relationship in those with “latent TB infection” and how this is affected by HIV coinfection are poorly understood. The traditional paradigm that distinguishes latent infection from active TB as distinct compar...

Lawn, Stephen D.; Wood, Robin; Wilkinson, Robert J.

2011-01-01

299

Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers  

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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall...

Durvasula, Ramani S.; Hinkin, Charles H.

2006-01-01

300

Glut1-mediated glucose transport regulates HIV infection  

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Cell cycle entry is commonly considered to positively regulate HIV-1 infection of CD4 T cells, raising the question as to how quiescent lymphocytes, representing a large portion of the viral reservoir, are infected in vivo. Factors such as the homeostatic cytokine IL-7 have been shown to render quiescent T cells permissive to HIV-1 infection, presumably by transiently stimulating their entry into the cell cycle. However, we show here that at physiological oxygen (O2) levels (2–5% O2 tension...

Loisel-meyer, Se?verine; Swainson, Louise; Craveiro, Marco; Oburoglu, Leal; Mongellaz, Ce?dric; Costa, Caroline; Martinez, Marion; Cosset, Franc?ois-loic; Battini, Jean-luc; Herzenberg, Leonard A.; Herzenberg, Leonore A.; Atkuri, Kondala R.; Sitbon, Marc; Kinet, Sandrina; Verhoeyen, Els

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Syphilis and HIV co-infection in an Israeli HIV clinic: incidence and outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The re-emergence of syphilis among HIV-infected patients has been reported in recent years. We evaluated co-infection among heterosexual immigrants in an Israeli AIDS center. The records of 1060 HIV-infected patients were evaluated for positive syphilis serology between the years 2000 and 2005, and all seropositive patients were further evaluated. We found 150 HIV/syphilis co-infected patients (57% men, 93% of African origin), of who 135 were found to have late latent syphilis. Lumbar puncture (LP) was performed in 51 patients, 16 (31%) had abnormal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) compatible with neurosyphilis. Abnormal CSF correlated with the absence of previous anti-syphilis treatment, but not with CD4 count, viral load or Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titres. Penicillin was recommended to all patients according to their disease stages and 81 patients completed 12 months post-treatment follow-up. Twenty-one of 81 (26%) treatments were successful, 33 (41%) showed 'serofast reaction' and 27 (33%) failed therapy. In conclusion, a high incidence of syphilis with CSF reactivity suggestive of neurosyphilis was observed in heterosexual Ethiopian HIV-infected patients. Thus, repeated serological screening and CSF evaluation seems to be indicated in these patients. Penicillin therapy resulted in 'serofast reaction' or treatment failure for most patients. More, intensive treatment might be needed for HIV/syphilis in co-infected patients, especially those with severe immune-deficiency and prolonged syphilis infection. PMID:20378895

Agmon-Levin, N; Elbirt, D; Asher, I; Gradestein, S; Werner, B; Sthoeger, Z

2010-04-01

302

Dendritic Cells and HIV-1 Trans-Infection  

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Full Text Available Dendritic cells initiate and sustain immune responses by migrating to sites of pathogenic insult, transporting antigens to lymphoid tissues and signaling immune specific activation of T cells through the formation of the immunological synapse. Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to CD4 T cells through an analogous structure, the infectious synapse. This replication independent mode of HIV-1 transmission, known as trans-infection, greatly increases T cell infection in vitro and is thought to contribute to viral dissemination in vivo. This review outlines the recent data defining the mechanisms of trans-infection and provides a context for the potential contribution of trans-infection in HIV-1 disease.

David McDonald

2010-08-01

303

Acquisition of resistant microorganisms and infections in HIV-infected patients admitted to the ICU.  

Science.gov (United States)

Whether critically ill human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at risk of acquiring nosocomial infections and resistant or potentially resistant microorganisms (RPRMs) remains to be clarified. The aim was to compare the acquisition of RPRMs, infections and mortality in critically ill HIV-infected and non-infected patients. An observational, prospective cohort study of patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (ICU) was undertaken. Swabbing of nares, pharynx and rectum, and culture of respiratory secretions were obtained within 48 h of admission and thrice weekly thereafter. Clinical samples were obtained as deemed necessary by the attending physician. Clinical variables, severity scores on admission and exposures during ICU stay were collected. Logistic regression was used to evaluate ICU mortality. Out of the 969 included patients, 64 (6.6%) were HIV-infected. These patients had a higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score on admission (19.5 ± 6.6 vs. 21.1 ± 5.4, p = 0.02), stayed longer in the care unit and were more exposed to several invasive devices and antibiotics. There were no differences in the rate of acquisition of RPRMs and the only difference in ICU-acquired infections was a significantly higher incidence of catheter-related bacteraemia (3% vs. 9%, p = 0.03). The ICU-related mortality was similar in both groups (14% vs. 16%, p = 0.70) and in HIV-infected patients, it tended to be associated with a lower CD4 cell count (p = 0.06). Despite a longer ICU stay, critically ill HIV-infected patients did not show a higher rate of RPRMs acquisition. The rate of ICU-acquired infection was similar between HIV-infected and non-infected patients, except for catheter-related bacteraemia, which was higher in the HIV-infected population. Mortality was similar in both groups. PMID:24150792

Cobos-Trigueros, N; Rinaudo, M; Solé, M; Castro, P; Pumarol, J; Hernández, C; Fernández, S; Nicolás, J M; Mallolas, J; Vila, J; Morata, L; Gatell, J M; Soriano, A; Mensa, J; Martínez, J A

2014-04-01

304

Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients : Impact of HIV, Lifestyle, Body Composition, and Demography - A Cross Sectional Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).

Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne

2012-01-01

305

Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues its spread at a rate of over 15,000 new infections every day. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is the dominant mode of this pandemic spread. For the first time since the disease emerged in the early 1980s, about half the 42 million people now living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women. Worldwide, more than 90 percent of all adolescent and adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse. The "feminization" of the pandemic largely driven by the social, economic, and biological factors warrants urgent attention particularly for the adolescent female population. In the absence of an effective prophylactic anti-HIV therapy or vaccine, current efforts are aimed at developing intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents or microbicides to curb the mucosal and perinatal HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing HIV from attaching, entering or replicating in susceptible target cells as well as dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells that line the vaginal/rectal wall. Thus, ideally, anti-HIV microbicides should be capable of attacking HIV from different angles. In addition, a contraceptive microbicide could help prevent unintended pregnancies worldwide. To be a microbicide, these agents must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms following long-term repeated usage. A safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, 18 of which have advanced to clinical testing. Targeting HIV entry has been a favored approach because it is the first step in the process of infection and several readily available anionic polymeric products seem to variably interfere with these processes are the primary candidates for potential microbicides. Formulations of some anionic polymeric antiviral agents have been tested at various doses and various durations for safety, tolerability, and acceptability in Phase I/II clinical trials (vaginal, rectal, or penile studies) in HIV-uninfected and/or HIV-infected populations. Current multicenter Phase I/II safety and Phase II/III efficacy studies that are being conducted or planned in different geographical locations by various special interest groups are designed for rapid clinical development of candidate products. The currently marketed detergent-type spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), has failed in Phase III clinical trials, due to the drug-induced formation of localized genital lesions that might in fact actually promote virus transmission. Alternative "first-generation" microbicides that have undergone Phase I/II safety and tolerability studies in HIV-uninfected and/or HIV-infected volunteers include polymeric viral fusion inhibitors (dextrin sulfate/Emmelle, carrageenans [PC-213, PC-503, PC-515/Carraguard], cellulose sulfate/Ushercell, polystyrene sulfonate, naphthalene sulfonate [PIC 024-4/PRO 2000/5], acidifying gel [Carbomer 974P/BufferGel], Lactobacillus (L. crispatus) suppository/CTV-05, detergent-type dual-function barriers [ACIDFORM, GEDA Plus, SURETE, Glyminox/C31G/Savvy, Invisible Condom], herbal extracts [Praneem], and viral replication inhibitors [PMPA/Tenofovir]. For majority of these products, no information is available regarding their long-term mucosal safety, carcinogenicity potential, bioavailability, or efficacy following their extended vaginal or rectal exposure. The irritative genitourinary symptoms reported for a number of these first-generation products in Phase I clinical trials implies that the "soft" preclinical endpoints for mucosal safety established for the use and development of vaginal spermicides may not be rigorous enough for vaginal and rectal microbicides because of the efficient sexual tra virus diversity, and genetic environment. It is now apparent that sexually transmitted R5 HIV-1 viruses have less positive c

D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

2004-01-01

306

The spectrum of liver diseases in HIV infected individuals at an HIV treatment clinic in Kampala, Uganda  

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Background: Liver diseases are common in patients with HIV due to viral hepatitis B and C co-infections, opportunistic infections or malignancies, antiretroviral drugs and drugs for opportunistic infections.

Ocama, P.; Katwere, M.; Piloya, T.; Feld, J.; Opio, K. C.; Kambugu, A.; Katabira, E.; Thomas, D.; Colebunders, R.; Ronald, A.

2008-01-01

307

Relationship of vitamin D, HIV, HIV treatment and lipid levels in the Women's Interagency HIV study (WIHS) of HIV-infected and un-infected women in the US  

Science.gov (United States)

Relationships between vitamin D, lipids, HIV infection, and HIV treatment (±ART) were investigated with Women’s Interagency HIV Study data (n=1758 middle-aged women) using multivariable regression. 63 % had vitamin D deficiency. Median 25-OH vitamin D was highest in HIV-infected +ART-treated women (17 ng/mL, p<0.001), but the same in HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected without ART (14 ng/mL). Vitamin D levels were lower if ART included efavirenz (15 vs 19 ng/mL, p<0.001). The most common lipid abnormality was high triglycerides (?200 mg/dL) in HIV-infected +ART, (13%, vs 7% of HIV-infected without ART and 5% of HIV-uninfected (p<0.001) with a positive relationship between 25-OH-D and triglycerides (95% confidence interval 0.32 to 1.69, p<.01). No relationships between 25-OH-D and cholesterol were detected. Vitamin D deficiency is common irrespective of HIV status but influenced by HIV treatment. Similarly, vitamin D levels were positively related to triglycerides only in ART treated HIV infected, and unrelated to cholesterol.

Schwartz, Janice B.; Moore, Kelly L.; Yin, Michael; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Dan; Islam, Talat; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M.

2014-01-01

308

Transplante renal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV / Kidney transplantation in HIV infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as principais considerações sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na última década, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART), a evolução dos pacientes infectados pelo [...] vírus da imunodeficiência humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV) mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta população. Neste contexto, o número de pacientes HIV positivos com doença renal crônica com necessidade de terapia dialítica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicação absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da função renal. Questões sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possível ação aumentando a replicação do HIV, além do risco de infecções oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, são amplamente discutidas. Porém, a experiência clínica nessa área mostra que a utilização dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ação antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta população. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critérios de seleção dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituição renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Abstract in english This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has significantly improved, showing a marked decrea [...] se in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.

Carina Nilsen, Moreno; Raquel Cruzeiro de, Siqueira; Irene L, Noronha.

309

The Incidence of Exudative Otitis Media in HIV Infected Children  

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Full Text Available Diseases of the ENT organs are among the commonly prevalent and dangerous pathologies of childhood, occurring as a complication of respiratory, bacterial diseases and HIV infection. One of the serious complications of HIV infection in children is the lesion of ENT organs. In HIV infected children, in addition to suppurative diseases occur middle ear diseases with nonsuppurative origin. A total of 79 HIV infected children aged 3-14 years with different pathologies of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx and paranasal sinuses were included into the current study. The control group included 20 healthy children of comparable age and sex. The survey was conducted in the ENT department of the Children’s Multi-Medical Center, in Bukhara region. Children with a diagnosis of suppurative otitis media and/or history of suppurative otitis media were not included into the study. All HIV infected children, along with physical examination, were performed ENT examination, finger study, X-ray examination of the paranasal sinuses, audiological research and impedancemetry.

Nuriddin U. Narzullaev, PhD

2012-09-01

310

Concurrent PCP and TB pneumonia in HIV infected patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to assess the incidence and clinical characteristics of patients with HIV infection with concurrent Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and tuberculosis (TB). We carried out a retrospective record review of HIV infected patients admitted with pulmonary TB and PCP during the same hospital admission at a large county hospital in Miami, from 1995 to 2004. 2651 patients with HIV infection and possible TB or PCP were identified. There were 99 cases of PCP (81 presumptive and 18 confirmed) and 35 were new cases of TB. There were 17 patients who had a new, concurrent diagnosis of pulmonary TB and PCP. Approximately half of these patients were unaware of their HIV infections and half of them had a negative AFB in sputum. Most were men and had a CD4 count less than 100 cells/mm(3). Chest X-ray disclosed bilateral infiltrates in most of the cases. All but 2 survived the hospital admission. Thus, concurrent TB and PCP in HIV infected patients were not uncommon in this large county hospital in Miami, Florida in the studied period, but its diagnosis was challenging. PMID:17852952

Castro, Jose G; Manzi, Gabriel; Espinoza, Luis; Campos, Michael; Boulanger, Catherine

2007-01-01

311

Diagnosing HIV infection in primary care settings: missed opportunities.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, 20% of HIV-infected persons are unaware of their diagnosis. Improved application of HIV screening recommendations in healthcare settings may facilitate diagnosis. Clinical patient data and previous healthcare visits were reviewed from medical records of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons in Durham County, North Carolina, who initiated HIV care at Duke University Medical Center in 2008-2011. Comparisons were made to similar data from 2002-2004 using the Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression. 101 consecutive newly diagnosed patients were identified: 67 males; 73 black, 20 white, and 8 Hispanic/Latino. Mean age was 39 years (range, 17-69), and 73 had health insurance. Median baseline CD4 count was 313 cells/?L (range, 4-1302), and HIV-1 viral load was 45,700 copies/mL (range, 165-10,000,000). One-third had a baseline CD4 count <50 cells/?L, and 15% presented with opportunistic infections. Compared to patients newly diagnosed in 2002-2004, significantly greater proportions were black and less immunocompromised in 2008-2011. Most had been seen at least once by a healthcare provider in the year prior to HIV diagnosis: 72 had ?1 prior visits, and 47 had ?2 visits. Among those with prior visits, 37/72 (51%) were seen in an emergency department on the first or second visit. Men were three times more likely than women to be diagnosed at their first healthcare encounter (p=0.03, OR=3.2). Despite CDC recommendations for widespread HIV screening in healthcare settings, HIV diagnosis remains delayed, even among those with frequent healthcare encounters. Educating providers and removing barriers to HIV screening may improve this problem. PMID:23802143

Chin, Tammy; Hicks, Charles; Samsa, Gregory; McKellar, Mehri

2013-07-01

312

Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

Zhang Lei

2012-05-01

313

A policy to control the spread of HIV infection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Prevention of transmission of HIV infection is the most important public health concern of the AIDS epidemic. To date, unfortunately, we have failed to contain the epidemic. The increasingly rapid spread of HIV into the IV drug-abusing population and subsequent heterosexual transmission represent a further failure of the public health system. Current organization of the public health programs, especially the lack of independence and adequate financial and personnel support, is an extremely se...

Kuller, L. H.

1988-01-01

314

Transmitted drug resistance in French HIV-2-infected patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the first transmitted drug resistance survey study in HIV-2-infected patients living in France. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance was 5.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.1-9.9) with mutations detected only in protease, not in reverse transcriptase. In this series, 10% of patients displayed X4/dual-mixed viruses. These findings classified the rate of transmitted drug resistance in the HIV-2 French Cohort as low prevalence. PMID:23595155

Charpentier, Charlotte; Visseaux, Benoit; Bénard, Antoine; Peytavin, Gilles; Damond, Florence; Roy, Céline; Taieb, Audrey; Chêne, Geneviève; Matheron, Sophie; Brun-Vézinet, Françoise; Descamps, Diane

2013-06-19

315

Doxycycline and HIV Infection Suppress Tuberculosis-induced Matrix Metalloproteinases  

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Rationale: Tuberculosis kills more than 1.5 million people per year, and standard treatment has remained unchanged for more than 30 years. Tuberculosis (TB) drives matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity to cause immunopathology. In advanced HIV infection, tissue destruction is reduced, but underlying mechanisms are poorly defined and no current antituberculous therapy reduces host tissue damage. Objectives: To investigate M MP activity in patients with TB with and without HIV coinfection and...

Walker, Naomi F.; Clark, Simon O.; Oni, Tolu; Andreu, Nuria; Tezera, Liku; Singh, Shivani; Saraiva, Lui?sa; Pedersen, Bernadette; Kelly, Dominic L.; Tree, Julia A.; D Armiento, Jeanine M.; Meintjes, Graeme; Mauri, Francesco A.; Williams, Ann; Wilkinson, Robert J.

2012-01-01

316

Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection  

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The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cel...

Mogensen, Trine H.; Melchjorsen, Jesper; Larsen, Carsten S.; Paludan, Søren R.

2010-01-01

317

Case management of HIV-infected children in Missouri.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The early referral of HIV-exposed children and their mothers to coordinated medical and social services has become increasingly important. In July 1989, the Missouri Department of Health initiated the Service Coordination Program to provide individualized referral (case management) for Missouri residents who were reported to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or HIV infection. The purpose of the Service Coordination Program is to assist persons in accessing medical and social serv...

1995-01-01

318

Periodontitis as an early presentation of HIV infection.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the presence of rapidly progressive periodontitis (RPP) in people at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) may be the first symptom of previously unrecognized human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Dental clinic. PATIENTS: Twenty patients who presented or were referred to the dental clinic over 6 months for the treatment of unexplained RPP and were at high risk for AIDS. OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of HIV i...

Tenenbaum, H. C.; Mock, D.; Simor, A. E.

1991-01-01

319

HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes  

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Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1...

Tazi Loubna; Imamichi Hiromi; Hirschfeld Steven; Metcalf Julia A; Orsega Susan; Pérez-Losada Marcos; Posada David; Clifford, Lane H.; Crandall Keith A

2011-01-01

320

Coreceptor use in nonhuman primate models of HIV infection  

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Abstract SIV or SHIV infection of nonhuman primates (NHP) has been used to investigate the impact of coreceptor usage on the composition and dynamics of the CD4+ T cell compartment, mechanisms of disease induction and development of clinical syndrome. As the entire course of infection can be followed, with frequent access to tissue compartments, infection of rhesus macaques with CCR5-tropic SHIVs further allows for study of HIV-1 coreceptor switch after intravenous and mucosal inocu...

Sina Silvana; Ren Wuze; Cheng-Mayer Cecilia

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Vitamin D deficiency in HIV-infected and un-infected women in the US  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Vitamin D deficiency is of increasing concern in HIV-infected persons, because of its reported association with a number of negative health outcomes that are common in HIV. We undertook this study to determine the prevalence and predictors of vitamin D deficiency among a nationally representative cohort of middle-aged, ethnically diverse HIV-infected and uninfected women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV study (WIHS). Methods Vitamin D testing was performed by Quest Diagnostics on frozen sera using the liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) method. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25 (OH) D ?20 ng/ml. Comparisons of continuous and categorical characteristics among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women were made by Wilcoxon tests and Pearson chi-squared tests, respectively. Results 1778 women (1268 HIV+) were studied. 63% had vitamin D deficiency (60% HIV +vs. 72% HIV?; p<0.001). Multivariable predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency were being African American (AOR 3.02), Hispanic (AOR 1.40), Body mass index (AOR 1.43), Age (AOR 0.84), HIV+ (AOR 0.76), Glomerular filtration rate <90/ml/min (AOR 0.94) and WIHS site; Los Angeles (AOR 0.66), Chicago (AOR 0.63). In the HIV+ women multivariate predictors were; undetectable HIVRNA (AOR 0.69), CD4 50–200 cells/mm3 (AOR 1.60), CD4 <50 cells/mm3 (AOR 1.94) and recent Protease Inhibitor use (AOR 0.67). Conclusions In this study of over 1700 women in the US, most women with or without HIV infection had low vitamin D levels and African American women had the highest rates of Vitamin D deficiency. An understanding of the role that vitamin D deficiency plays in non-AIDS related morbidities is planned for investigation in WIHS.

Adeyemi, Oluwatoyin M; Agniel, Denis; French, Audrey L; Tien, Phyllis; Weber, Kathleen; Glesby, Marshall J; Villacres, Maria C; Sharma, Anjali; Merenstein, Daniel; Golub, Elizabeth T; Meyer, William; Cohen, Mardge

2012-01-01

322

Intimate partner violence (physical and sexual and sexually transmitted infection: results from Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections.Method: This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence.Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.Keywords: intimate partner violence, socio-demographic, sexually transmitted disease, Nepal

Dhakal L

2014-01-01

323

HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients  

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Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies/mL, p =?0.2. There were only 53 patients that presented at the same time HE and HBV infection and the majority, 78.69%, were first infected with HBV. Conclusions: In our studied cohort HBV infection was associated with HE but further studies are needed to prove HBV neurotropic potential. Absolute CD4 nadir count and class C3 are proved to be strong predictors of HE in HIV-infected patients even after several changes in antiretroviral therapy schemes.

L Manolescu

2012-11-01

324

HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007  

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Full Text Available In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97% were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76 years. Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79% with ?1 year of follow-up. At initial presentation, two of 74 (3% women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown; coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis. Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality.

Kristina Krohn

2012-11-01

325

HIV disclosure and its effect on treatment outcomes in perinatal HIV-infected Thai children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The World Health Organization guideline recommends informing children of their HIV status between the ages of 6-12 years. Primary caregivers of perinatal HIV-infected Thai children ?6 years were interviewed in order to assess the HIV status disclosure rate. In addition, pill counts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were performed every three months. CD4 and HIV-RNA were performed every six months. Of the 260 children/adolescents included, the median age of disclosure was 14.8 years. The disclosure rate among those from 6 to 12 years was 21% and for those greater than 12 years of age was 84%. When comparing children aged 6-12 years whose HIV status had been disclosed to them, to children whose HIV had yet to be disclosed, no difference was noted in median ART adherence by pill count, CD4 count, or proportion of HIV-RNA 0.05). Factors associated with HIV disclosure were an age of ?12 years (OR 17.8, 95% CI 8.86-35.79) and a current CD4 ? 30% (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.20-3.62). In conclusion, although the majority of adolescents ?12 years were aware of their HIV status only one-fifth of children aged 6-12 years were aware. Moreover, the child's/adolescent's disclosure status had no bearing on ART adherence by pill count or immunological and virological outcomes. PMID:24625136

Sirikum, Chompoonoot; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Chuanjaroen, Thongsuai; Lakonphon, Sudrak; Srimuan, Amornrat; Chusut, Patcharaporn; Do, Tanya C; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Bunupuradah, Torsak

2014-09-01

326

HIV infection and Periodontal disease a Hidden Truth  

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Full Text Available The association of periodontal disease in HIV-infected patients had been initially considered to be the first clinical expression or indication of profound immunodeficiency and stage of HIVdisease as expressed by CD4 –cells in the peripheral blood circulation. Three entities were majorly described and are strongly associated with HIV-infection include (aLinear gingival erythema(LGE, (bAcute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis(ANUG and (cAcute necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (ANUP. Many studies and case reports initially had reported higher prevalence of periodontal disease and also higher severity and rapid progression of existing gingivitis or periodontitis which was clinically assessed by measuring periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in HIV-seropositve or AIDS patients is due to severe immune suppression expressed by rapid depletion of CD4-cells/ T- helper cells.HIVinfected patients are more prone to get periodontal disease when the CD4-cell count falls below 200 cells/ ?L or the stage of HIV-infection progresses to AIDS. In contrast, considerable variation has been observed in recent studies that there were less severity of progression and prevalence of periodontal disease in AIDS patients whose CD4-cell is below 200 cells/?L compared to HIV-infected patients whose CD4 cell count is above 200 cells/?L. The aim of this article is to review old and present concepts based on studies and case reports and also to encourage researchers to explore the changing face of disease progression in HIV-positive individuals

Hemachandra Babu C

2011-12-01

327

Bone Loss in the HIV-Infected Patient: Evidence, Clinical Implications, and Treatment Strategies  

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Osteoporosis is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons. The etiology of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients is likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors such as low body weight, hypogonadism, and smoking, as well as direct effects of chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons translates into a higher risk of fracture, likely leading to excess morb...

2012-01-01

328

High acceptability of cognitive screening in HIV-infected patients: a pilot study  

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With combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) life expectancy of HIV-infected persons is close to the one of non-infected persons. Identifying neurocognitive deficits in ageing HIV-infected individuals is important. This study aimed to evaluate the acceptability of screening neurocognitive deficits in HIV-infected patients. Thirty patients (26 men, 4 women) from the HIV clinic were examined with a new screening test and an in-depth neuropsychological examination. The screening tests consisted o...

Fasel, D.; Kunze, U.; Monsch, A.; Battegay, M.

2012-01-01

329

Sexual risk behaviour among subgroups of heterosexual HIV infected patients in an urban setting.  

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OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of characteristics associated with unprotected heterosexual intercourse in HIV infected adults in an urban area. DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of sexual risk transmission behaviour between HIV infected men and women from a drug treatment site and between women from the drug site and HIV infected women from an urban medical centre. METHODS: HIV infected women and men were asked questions on sexual behaviour for a 1 year period before enrollment. The out...

Dehovitz, J. A.; Feldman, J.; Brown, L. S.; Minkoff, H.

1997-01-01

330

HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.

Pérez-Losada Marcos

2011-03-01

331

Polypharmacy in the HIV-infected older adult population  

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Full Text Available Lauren J Gleason1, Amneris E Luque2, Krupa Shah1 1Division of Geriatrics and Aging, Highland Hospital, Rochester, NY, USA; 2Division of Infectious Disease, Department of Medicine, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection among people older than 50 years is increasing. Older HIV-infected patients are particularly at risk for polypharmacy because they often have multiple comorbidities that require pharmacotherapy. Overall, there is not much known with respect to both the impact of aging on medication use in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential for interactions with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART and coadministered medications and its clinical consequences. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of polypharmacy with a focus on its impact on the HIV-infected older adult population and to also provide some clinical considerations in this high-risk population. Keywords: HIV, older adults, polypharmacy

Gleason LJ

2013-06-01

332

Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)

1992-01-01

333

Relationship Between Neck Circumference and Cardiometabolic Parameters in HIV-Infected and non–HIV-Infected Adults  

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OBJECTIVE: Upper body fat is associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. More recently, neck circumference (NC) and/or neck fat have been associated with hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose homeostasis, and hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether this relationship is evident in HIV-infected individuals, who often exhibit changes in relative fat distribution, and to determine whether NC is independently associated with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in HIV an...

Rope, Alison M.; Fitch, Kathleen V.; Stanley, Takara Leah; Looby, Sara Elizabeth Dolan; Grinspoon, Steven Kyle

2011-01-01

334

Genital chlamydial infection in STD patients: Its relation to HIV infection  

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Full Text Available In the present report, we have analysed C.trachomatis infection and HIV positivity among patients (n-143 who attended the STD clinic at the Institute of STDs, Government General Hospital, Chennai. HIV positivity rate was significantly high among those with chlamydial infection than in those without chlamydial infection (29.5% (13/44 vs. 11.1% (11/99; p0.05. The results of the present study suggest the association between C.trachomatis and HIV infections and reinforce the need for routine screening for C.trachomatis as a necessary intervention to reduce the burden of chlamydial diseases and to reduce the risk of HIV and its spread in India.

Joyee A

2005-01-01

335

Interactions between HIV infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Clinical and epidemiological aspects  

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Abstract Introduction An association between HIV infection and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been observed in several studies. Objective and methods we conducted a review of the literature linking HIV infection to COPD, focusing on clinical and epidemiological data published before and during widespread highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Results Interactions between HIV infection and COPD appear to be influenced by mul...

Raynaud Christine; Roche Nicolas; Chouaid Christos

2011-01-01

336

Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sleep Disturbances Among Early-Treated HIV-Infected Persons  

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Persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of insomnia (46%) and daytime drowsiness (30%). Factors associated with insomnia among patients with HIV infection include depression and increased waist size. Screening for sleep disturbances should be considered among HIV-infected persons.

Crum-cianflone, Nancy F.; Roediger, Mollie Poehlman; Moore, David J.; Hale, Braden; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Eberly, Lynn E.; Johnson, Erica; Agan, Brian K.; Letendre, Scott

2012-01-01

337

Atopy in HIV-infected children in pretoria  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has n [...] ot been documented in children. METHODS: A prospective convenience sample of 50 children aged between 3 months and 12 years attending the Tshwane District Hospital Paediatric HIV clinic in Pretoria was recruited. Their personal and family histories of atopy, World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical staging and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immunological staging with CD4 counts were documented. An age- and sex-matched control group of 50 HIV-negative children was included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) to identify common aeroallergens were conducted on all patients. RESULTS: One hundred children were enrolled, with 50 in each group. Ten per cent of the HIV-infected patients compared with 16% of controls had positive SPTs to aeroallergens. A higher percentage of the HIV-infected patients had chronic rhinitis and eczema (60% and 68%, respectively). There was no relationship between CD4 count and positive SPTs (p=0.61), mean log CD4 count and presence of reported asthma (p=0.71), and CD4 count and presence of reported dermatitis (p=0.84). The CD4 count was not statistically different between children with and without a family history of atopy (p=0.68). CONCLUSION: It appears that the stage of HIV disease does not influence the development or expression of allergy. There is a high prevalence of dermatitis and chronic rhinitis in HIVinfected children, probably not atopic in origin.

Masekela, R; Moodley, T; Mahlaba, N; Wittenberg, D F; Becker, P; Kitchin, O; Green, R J.

338

Possible biochemical impact of malaria infection in subjects with HIV co-infection in Anambra state, Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective.Methods: Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45; and (ii HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57. Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations.Results: The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in ‘Malaria–HIV co-infection group’ compared with ‘HIV infection group’ (p <0.05 and p <0.05. A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p <0.05 while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = – 0.388; p <0.05 and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = – 0.362; p<0.05 in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.

C.C. Onyenekwe

2008-05-01

339

Prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection among persons aged ?13 years--National HIV Surveillance System, United States, 2005-2008.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, approximately 1.1 million adults and adolescents are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and, each year, another 50,000 become infected. At the end of 2008, approximately 20% of the persons living with HIV had an undiagnosed infection. Of those living with HIV at the end of 2008, nearly two thirds were racial/ethnic minorities and half were men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2007, HIV ranked fifth as a leading cause of death among persons aged 35-44 years in the United States but third among blacks or African Americans in this age group. In 40 states with longstanding confidential name-based HIV surveillance systems, 33% of the estimated 41,768 adults and adolescents diagnosed with HIV infection in 2008 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) within 1 year and, of these, 44% received their initial diagnosis in an acute care setting, suggesting that they received HIV testing late in the course of the infection. HIV-infected persons who are unaware of their infection or who receive a late diagnosis cannot benefit fully from timely initiation of therapy and are more likely to experience HIV-related morbidity and premature mortality. In addition, persons unaware of their infection are more likely to transmit HIV to others because of a higher prevalence of high-risk sexual behaviors and higher levels of viral RNA that continue to replicate without appropriate antiretroviral treatment. PMID:22695465

Chen, Mi; Rhodes, Philip H; Hall, Irene H; Kilmarx, Peter H; Branson, Bernard M; Valleroy, Linda A

2012-06-15

340

DEATH ANXIETY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS AND HIV TB CO-INFECTED PATIENTS  

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Full Text Available The main purpose of the study is to investigate the Death Anxiety and Psychological Well-being of HIV +ve patients and HIV TB co-infected patients and the examine the difference between gender and type of disease of the study on their death anxiety and psychological well-being. For this investigation sample consists of 80, (40 HIV +ve and 40 HIV TB co-infected were taken from Gulbarga District, Karnataka State. This sample consists of both male and female HIV +ve patients and HIV TB coinfected male and female samples. Death anxiety scale and psychological well-being scale was used for this study, and't' test was applied to examine the difference between sample subgroups. The result through the study showed significant difference between male and female HIV +ve patients and HIV TB co-infected patients in death anxiety and psychological well-being.

VANISRI

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Malignant syphilis as the first manifestation of HIV infection  

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Full Text Available Malignant syphilis is a rare and severe variant of secondary syphilis. It is clinically characterized by large papular, nodular and ulcerative lesions affecting the trunk and the extremities and covered with thick crust. We present a case of 52-year-old homosexual male who developed malignant syphilis and this was the first clinical manifestation of HIV infection. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous aqueous crystalline penicillin G. Physicians should recognize malignant syphilis and considered it in all HIV-infected individuals with ulceronodular skin lesions.

Vasileios Paparizos

2012-01-01

342

Decreasing cardiovascular risk in HIV infection between 2005 and 2011.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cardiovascular risk profile was compared in 765 Italian HIV-infected outpatients enrolled in 2005 and in 765 individually age-matched and sex-matched patients enrolled in 2011. Median Framingham risk score was 8.6% in 2005 vs. 7.9% in 2011 (P = 0.04); metabolic syndrome was present in 40.3% vs. 33.4% (P = 0.006). Blood glucose, triglycerides, prevalence of smokers, and lipodystrophy were all significantly lower in 2011 (all P < 0.0001). Cardiovascular risk improved over a 6-year period in Italian HIV-infected patients. PMID:24378754

De Socio, Giuseppe V; Parruti, Giustino; Ricci, Elena; Maggi, Paolo; Celesia, Benedetto M; Penco, Giovanni; Martinelli, Canio; Franzetti, Marco; Di Biagio, Antonio; Bonfanti, Paolo; Pucci, Giacomo; Schillaci, Giuseppe

2014-02-20

343

Renal transplantation in an HIV-infected patient: Pharmacokinetic aspects  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and progression to AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection has now turned into a chronic disease with improved survival and prognosis. Hence, patients with well-controlled HIV infection are no longer prevented from receiving transplants, but treatment must be based on knowledge of pharmacokinetics for the drugs involved. The common approach measuring the cyclosporine level after 2 h or trough level is misleading and it was necessary to determine the area under the curve.

Alstrup, Karen; Kangas, Ida

2011-01-01

344

HIV Infection In The Patients Of Sexually Transmitted Diseases  

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Four sixty-three males with sexually transmitted disease from January 1993 to June 1995 were screened for HIV infection to find out the magnitude of HIV infection in a high risk group. Majority (85%) were in age group of 21-35 years. 374 (80.7%) men were married. 463 males gave history of heterosexual exposures with prostitutes (90.8%), amatures (6.4%) and marital (2.8%). None had used condoms. Out of 463 STDs, 45(9.7%) cases had syphilis, 133 (28.7&#...

Kar P K; Dhaka R S; Chari K R V

1996-01-01

345

Alcohol Use and Sex Risk Behaviors Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers (FSWs) and HIV-Infected Male Clients of FSWs in India  

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Unprotected heterosexual transactional sex plays a central role in the spread of HIV in India. Given alcohol’s association with risky sex in other populations and alcohol’s role in HIV disease progression, we investigated patterns of alcohol use in HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs in Mumbai. Analyses identified factors associated with heavy alcohol use and evaluated the relationship between alcohol use and risky sex. We surveyed 211 female and 2...

Samet, Jeffrey H.; Pace, Christine A.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardesi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

2010-01-01

346

Relationship of Body Composition, Metabolic Status, Antiretroviral Use, and HIV Disease Factors to Endothelial Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Subjects  

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Vascular endothelial dysfunction may contribute to the increase in cardiovascular events during HIV-1 infection and its treatment. Antiretroviral therapy (ART), metabolic factors, lipodystrophy, and HIV infection itself may be involved. Ninety-six HIV-infected subjects were evaluated for endothelial function by measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) by ultrasound, single-slice CT of the abdomen and mid-thigh, whole-body dual x-ray absorptiomety (DXA) scans, and metabolic ...

Dube?, Michael P.; Shen, Changyu; Mather, Kieren J.; Waltz, Jeff; Greenwald, Martha; Gupta, Samir K.

2010-01-01

347

Herpes simplex virus 2 infection: A risk factor for HIV infection in heterosexuals  

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Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ?P? was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ?P? value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.

Anuradha K

2008-01-01

348

HIV-infected men's practices in notifying past sexual partners of infection risk.  

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The researchers studied the self-reported practices of men infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Los Angeles concerning notifying past sexual partners of their risk of infection. The sample of 111 men consisted of 87 Hispanics, 14 whites, 9 blacks, and 1 Asian. Ninety-three percent identified themselves as homosexual or bisexual, and 13 percent reported having injected a nonprescription drug. Seventy-five percent had tested HIV seropositive within the previous 8 months. Subj...

Marks, G.; Richardson, J. L.; Ruiz, M. S.; Maldonado, N.

1992-01-01

349

HIV-I infection in perinatally exposed siblings and twins. The Italian Register for HIV Infection in Children.  

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In a multicentre study on perinatal HIV-I infection including 1493 children born from 1471 pregnancies to 1415 infected mothers, 22 twin pairs and 56 sibships (115 children) were recorded. The frequency of twin pregnancies was 1.5 (22/1471) and 3.9% (56/1415) seropositive women had more than one at risk pregnancy. In 18 twin pairs with a known infection status nine of the 36 children (25%) were infected. Discordance in infection status was present in only one (5.5%) dizygous pair. A high rela...

Martino, M.; Tovo, P. A.; Galli, L.; Caselli, D.; Gabiano, C.; Mazzoni, P. L.; Giacomelli, A.; Duse, M.; Fundaro?, C.

1991-01-01

350

Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience  

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Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

Kannangai R

2010-01-01

351

Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women  

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HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencingNT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination...

Mansoor, Ather; Althoff, Keri; Gange, Stephen; Anastos, Kathryn; Dehovitz, Jack; Minkoff, Howard; Kaplan, Robert; Holman, Susan; Lazar, Jason M.

2009-01-01

352

Persistence of measles neutralizing antibody related to vaccine and natural infection acquired before HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

Little is known about long-lasting measles protective immunity when exposure to wild-type or vaccine measles virus precedes HIV infection. The results obtained suggest that measles immunity wanes and the lowest measles geometric mean titres (GMT) were significantly associated with measles vaccine-induced immunity in individuals that later developed HIV infection (86% prevalence, GMT 164 mIU/ml) compared to naturally induced immunity in HIV-infected adults (100% prevalence, GMT 340 mIU/ml, P = 0·0082) or non-HIV infected adults (100%, GMT 724 mIU/ml, P = 0·0001), and vaccine-induced immunity in non-HIV-infected adults (100%, GMT 347 mIU/ml, P = 0·017). The study was conducted in an area without wild-type virus circulation since 2000. The absence of virus circulating may alter the paradigm of lifelong immunity to measles virus after vaccination. As the proportion of HIV-infected individuals possessing only vaccine-induced immunity continues to grow, checking the status of measles immunity in this group is strongly recommended. PMID:24139476

Isa, M B; Pavan, J V; Sicilia Don, P; Grutadauria, S; Martinez, L C; Giordano, M O; Masachessi, G; Barril, P A; Nates, S V

2014-08-01

353

Prevalence of HIV infection in pregnant women in Vellore region.  

Science.gov (United States)

All pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a large hospital in Vellore, India (Christian Medical College Hospital) were screened for HIV infection between October 1987 and June 1992. A total of 36,953 blood samples were thus screened and 20 infected women were identified. Among these 18 women had acquired HIV infection from their husbands, who were also detected to be HIV infected. While these 18 women were monogamous, all the husbands had multiple sex partners. Two of the 20 women in this series were commercial sex workers. Among the 20, 17 (85%) women belonged to low socio-economic status, while three were from well-to-do families, with the husbands being businessmen or teachers. As the overall prevalence (0.054%) of HIV infection among pregnant women was relatively high and equal to or higher than many States in the USA and in areas outside London in the UK, the authors recommend that strict universal precautions be instituted in all obstetric practice in India. PMID:8144202

John, T J; Bhushan, N; Babu, P G; Seshadri, L; Balasubramanium, N; Jasper, P

1993-11-01

354

Cryptosporidiosis in Colombian children with HIV/AIDS infection  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Enteric cryptosporidiosis in children with HIV/AIDS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.Objective: To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces, via the Ziehl Neelsen modified technique,among Colombian children with HIV/AIDS and to determine possible associations.Methodology: Prevalence study in 131 children with HIV/AIDS at the Hospital Universitario del Valle in Cali, Colombia.We evaluated clinical records, laboratory results, environmental factors, and socio-demographic variables. Statisticalanalysis included the estimation of prevalence of infection in children and the corresponding 95% confidence interval;estimation of other descriptive conditions of interest and the association analyses by multiple logistic regression.Results: In this group of children with a mean age of 57 months, we found a prevalence of infection of 29%, morefrequently among male children and among those with vertical HIV transmission. The infection was also associated withabdominal pain, having pets inside the house and C stage for HIV, with >100,000 copies/ml of viral load and CD4 percentage>25%. Association analysis showed a larger risk of Cryptosporidium infection with older age, and among patients not livingin Cali, with more severe status of HIV disease, previous hospitalizations, and dried oral mucosa. Factors found finallyassociated were older age, chronic undernutrition, living in day-care institutions and having previous hospitalizations.Conclusion: Almost a third of these children patients had Cryptosporidium infection, and it was found associated withage, previous hospitalizations, chronic undernutrition and living in day-care institutions.

Carlos Alberto Velasco

2011-11-01

355

Anti-infective treatment in HIV-infected patients during perioperative period  

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Abstract Objective To investigate anti-infective treatments in HIV-infected surgical patients during the perioperative period. Methods A retrospective study of sepsis and surgical site infections (SSIs) was conducted in 266 HIV-infected patients. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on CD4+ T cells counts in the preoperative period: group A (0–199 cell/ul), group B (200–349 cell/ul) and group C ([greater than or equal to] 350 cell/ul). When the CD4 ...

Liu Baochi; Zhang Lei; Guo Ruizhang; Su Jinsong; Li Lei; Si Yanhui

2012-01-01

356

The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection  

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Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

Vogel Martin

2009-12-01

357

Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru  

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There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this...

Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A. J.; Castro, Cecilia; Ticona, Eduardo; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; Evans, Carlton A.; Gilman, Robert H.

2006-01-01

358

Prevalence of risk factors associated with human papillomavirus infection in women living with HIV  

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BACKGROUND: Concurrent infection with HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) in women is associated with increased rates of cervical dysplasia and shorter survival following the development of cervical cancer. The authors examined risk factors for HPV infection at study entry in HIV-positive women enrolled in the Canadian Women's HIV Study, a prospective open cohort study. METHODS: Subjects eligible for this analysis included the 375 HIV-positive women in the Canadian Women's HIV Study for whom H...

Hankins, C.; Coutle?e, F.; Lapointe, N.; Simard, P.; Tran, T.; Samson, J.; Hum, L.

1999-01-01

359

Movement disorders in 28 HIV-infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available From 1986 to 1999, 2460 HIV-positive inpatients were seen in our Hospital. Neurological abnormalities were detected in 1053 (42.8% patients. In this group, 28 (2.7% had involuntary movements, 14 (50% with secondary parkinsonism, six (21.4% with hemichorea/hemiballismus, four (14.2% with myoclonus, two (7.2% with painful legs and moving toes, one (3.6% with hemidystonia and one (3.6% with Holmes' tremor. The HIV itself (12 patients, toxoplasmosis of the midbrain (1 and metoclopramide-related symptoms (1 were the most probable causes for the parkinsonism. All patients with hemichorea/hemiballismus were men and in all of them toxoplasmosis of the basal ganglia, mostly on the right side, was the cause of the involuntary movements. Generalized myoclonus was seen in two patients and they were due to toxoplasmosis and HIV-encephalopathy respectively; two others presented with spinal myoclonus. The two patients with painful legs and moving toes had an axonal neuropathy. The patient with hemidystonia suffered from toxoplasmosis in the basal ganglia and the patient with Holmes' tremor had co-infection with tuberculosis and toxoplasmosis affecting the midbrain and cerebellum. We conclude that HIV-infected patients can present almost any movement disorder. They can be related to opportunistic infections, medications, mass lesions and possibly to a direct or indirect effect of the HIV itself.

Mattos James Pitágoras de

2002-01-01

360

[Current status of HIV infection in Yunnan Province of China].  

Science.gov (United States)

In cooperation with the Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine and Yunnan Province Provincial Office for AIDS Control and Prevention, we studied the current status of HIV infection intravenous drug users (IVDUs) and other high risk groups in Yunnan province of China. As of the end of 1995, 1,807 HIV cases were officially reported (Positive rate was 0.6%), of which 1,278 (77.9%) were IVDUs, and 24 were their spouses. The majority of cases were found among the Dai minority male farmers near Ruili which borders on Myammar, but HIV also appears to be spreading among the Han people. HIV antibody positive rates among commercial sex workers, pregnant women and blood donors were 0.2%, 0.07% and 0.04%, respectively. A system for surveillance of HIV has been developed, but preventive strategies to cope with HIV epidemic are not sufficient. As HIV/AIDS is now a global issue, (1) the integration and coordination of such preventive strategies in cooperation with community health workers, (2) general health education for condom use promotion and (3) care of psychological vulnerable person such as IVDUs, should be developed. PMID:9261209

Hirabayashi, K; Tajima, K; Soda, K; Yi, Z; Dong, Z X; He, C H; Lin, Y G

1997-05-01

 
 
 
 
361

Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms.

Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

2010-01-01

362

Reconsidering empirical cotrimoxazole prophylaxis for infants exposed to HIV infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Infants with HIV infection are vulnerable to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP during their first year of life. WHO and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS now recommend that all children of HIV-positive mothers receive prophylactic cotrimoxazole against PCP from six weeks of age and continue this therapy until exposure through breast milk ceases and the infant is confirmed to be HIV-negative (rarely before one year of age. Empirical prophylaxis invokes a trade-off between possible benefit to the infant versus the risk of resistance to antibiotics and antimalarials. From a critical analysis of the literature, we offer a conceptual model demonstrating how, under certain circumstances, a policy of mass cotrimoxazole prophylaxis may be counterproductive.

Gill Christopher J.

2004-01-01

363

Reproductive and maternal healthcare needs of HIV infected women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Advances in HIV treatment and prevention of mother to child transmission have effectively reduced mortality and morbidity for women living with HIV and significantly reduced new infections in infants. Women living with HIV require comprehensive, integrated clinical services to address their reproductive and maternal healthcare needs. Guidelines for safer conception counseling with fertile couples recommend discussing fertility and childbearing, addressing contraception with those not wishing to conceive, and clarification of strategies to conceive for those wishing to do so. Services pre-conception to postpartum should emphasize HIV testing for mother, partner and infant, encourage the maintenance of medication adherence and promote engagement and retention in care, and ensure supportive and non-judgmental patient education by healthcare providers. Behavioral, psychosocial and healthcare factors can have profound effects on pregnancy outcomes, and male involvement and enhanced provider involvement throughout the reproductive process has been recommended to reduce transmission and enhance medication adherence and uptake. PMID:23918674

Jones, Deborah; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Cook, Ryan

2013-12-01

364

Neurobehavioral effects of HIV-1 infection in China and the United States: A pilot study  

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The HIV epidemic in China has been increasing exponentially, yet there have been no studies of the neurobehavioral effects of HIV infection in that country. Most neuroAIDS research has been conducted in Western countries using Western neuropsychological (NP) methods, and it is unclear whether these testing methods are appropriate for use in China. Twenty-eight HIV seropositive (HIV+) and twenty-three HIV seronegative (HIV?) individuals with comparable gender, age, and education distribution...

2007-01-01

365

HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease : epidemiology and prevention  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population. High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other, sometimes less well understood, mechanisms, has been linked to increased CVD risk. HIV infection, especially untreated, is a further contributing factor to increased CVD risk in HIV-positive patients. As the HIV-positive population continues to age, the risk of CVD will continue to increase. Guidelines for the management and prevention of CVD risk have been developed, and are largely modelled on those used in the general population. However, the data currently suggest that these interventions, such as the use of lipid-lowering medications and smoking cessation programs, remain quite low. A better understanding the mechanisms of CVD risk in this aging population and further efforts in improving uptake of prevention strategies will remain an important research area.

Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

2011-01-01

366

How the circumcision solution in Africa will increase HIV infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The World Health Organization and UNAIDS have supported circumcision as a preventive for HIV infections in regions with high rates of heterosexually transmitted HIV; however, the circumcision solution has several fundamental flaws that undermine its potential for success. This article explores, in detail, the data on which this recommendation is based, the difficulty in translating results from high risk adults in a research setting to the general public, the impact of risk compensation, and how circumcision compares to existing alternatives. Based on our analysis it is concluded that the circumcision solution is a wasteful distraction that takes resources away from more effective, less expensive, less invasive alternatives. By diverting attention away from more effective interventions, circumcision programs will likely increase the number of HIV infections.

Michelle R. Storms

2011-03-01

367

Dynamics of Epstein-Barr Virus DNA concentrations in whole blood of HIV-1-infected patients during primary HIV-1 infection  

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Introduction: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viraemia is associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoproliferative diseases. In HIV-1 infection, persistent EBV viraemia is a common phenomenon. The underlying mechanism of these high EBV DNA loads has not been clarified. We studied EBV viraemia during primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) to explore the mechanism of EBV viraemia in HIV-1 infection. Methods: Patients with PHI, participating in Primo-SHM study, a clinical trial with three study arms: no...

2012-01-01

368

Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia  

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BACKGROUND-: The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. METHODS-: We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face interviews by t...

Deribew, A.; Tesfaye, M.; Hailmichael, Y.; Apers, L.; Abebe, G.; Duchateau, L.; Colebunders, R.

2010-01-01

369

Impact of HIV and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Co-Infections on Antioxidant Status in Nigeria  

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Severe Oxidative stress has been reported in Tuberculosis infected individuals as a result of tissue inflammation, poor nutrition and poor immunity and this stress becomes more severe in those co-infected with HIV. Therefore the present study was designed to assess the antioxidant status of HIV infected participants with or without tuberculosis co-infections and in HIV seronegative participants infected with tuberculosis. 193 participants were randomly recruited for the study and groupe...

Osuji Faustina Nkechi; Onyenekwe Charles Chinedu; Ifeanyichukwu Martins Ositadinma; Ahaneku Joseph Ebere; Ezeani Michael; Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla

2013-01-01

370

THE ROLE OF ORAL CANDIDA SPECIES IN HIV-INFECTED PATIENT : SPECIES IDENTIFICATION  

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ABSTRACT Candida infection is one of the very prominent disease in HIV-infected individuL. Whether this infection associated with damaged immune cells or specifically associated with wide range species found in HIV-infected patient need to study. Due to some research report about epidemiologically shifting and changing in distribution pattern of Candida species, this study then aimed to identify candida species in HIV-infected patients. 14 subject, 9 men and 5 women, mean age 29,1...

Marlina, Erni; Sumintarti, Sumintarti; Harlina, Harlina; Nazaruddin, Zohra

2013-01-01

371

HBV infection in HIV-infected subjects in the state of Piauí, Northeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the prevalence, genotype frequency, and risk factors for HBV infection in 768 HIV-infected subjects living in Piauí were determined. Forty-six (6.0 %) HIV-positive subjects were reactive for HBsAg and positive for HBV-DNA. Genotypes A (71.8 %), F (23.9 %) and D (4.3 %) were identified. Multivariate analysis revealed an association between HIV-HBV coinfection and male gender, older age groups, unprotected sex, reporting more than ten sexual partners throughout life, STD, and tattooing. This study shows the importance of monitoring sites and professionals who perform tattooing and practice safe sex to prevent the spread of HIV and HBV infections. PMID:24264385

Oliveira, Evaldo H; Lima Verde, Roseane M C; Pinheiro, Luiz Marcelo L; Benchimol, Marcos G; Aragão, Ana Luisa E D; Lemos, José Alexandre R; Oliveira-Filho, Aldemir B; Vallinoto, Antonio C R

2014-05-01

372

Emerging disease issues and fungal pathogens associated with HIV infection.  

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Fungal diseases are increasing among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. Infections due to Candida and Cryptococcus are the most common. Although mucocutaneous candidiasis can be treated with oral antifungal agents, increasing evidence suggests that prolonged use of these drugs results in both clinical and microbiologic resistance. The optimal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis remains unresolved, although initial treatment with amphotericin B, followed by life-...

Ampel, N. M.

1996-01-01

373

Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection  

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LONG-TERM REMISSION OF HIV-1 DISEASE CAN BE READILY ACHIEVED by combinations of antiretroviral agents. The suppression of plasma viral loads to less than the limit of quantification of the most sensitive commercially available assays (i.e., less than 50 copies/mL) and the coincident improvement in CD4 T cell counts is associated with resolution of established opportunistic infections and a decrease in the risk of new opportunistic infections. However, prolonged treatment with combination regi...

Montessori, Valentina; Press, Natasha; Harris, Marianne; Akagi, Linda; Montaner, Julio S. G.

2004-01-01

374

Therapeutic targets for HIV-1 infection in the host proteome  

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Abstract Background Despite the success of HAART, patients often stop treatment due to the inception of side effects. Furthermore, viral resistance often develops, making one or more of the drugs ineffective. Identification of novel targets for therapy that may not develop resistance is sorely needed. Therefore, to identify cellular proteins that may be up-regulated in HIV infection and play a role in infection, we analyzed the effects of Tat on cellular gene expression durin...

Liang Winnie S; Maddukuri Anil; Teslovich Tanya M; de la Fuente Cynthia; Agbottah Emmanuel; Dadgar Shabnam; Kehn Kylene; Hautaniemi Sampsa; Pumfery Anne; Stephan Dietrich A; Kashanchi Fatah

2005-01-01

375

Clinicopathological study of itchy folliculitis in HIV-infected patients  

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Background: Itchy folliculitis are pruritic, folliculo-papular lesions seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Previous studies have shown that it was impossible to clinically differentiate between eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) and infective folliculitis (IF). Also, attempts to suppress the intense itch of EF were ineffective. Aims: The present study is aimed at correlating clinical, histopathological and immunological features of itchy folliculitis in ...

2010-01-01

376

Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.  

Science.gov (United States)

High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571

Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

2007-03-01

377

Diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: There is little in the literature on HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at 4 sites. Each HIV [...] -infected patient with DM (n=48) was matched with 2 HIV-infected controls (n=108) by age (±2 years) and sex. Primary analysis was conditional logistic regression to estimate univariate odds and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each characteristic. RESULTS: There was no significant association between co-morbid diseases, tuberculosis, hypertension or cancer and risk of diabetes. DM patients were more likely to have higher pre-ART weight (odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.14). HIV-infected adults >70 kg were significantly more likely to have DM (OR 12.30; 95% CI 1.40 - 107.98). Participants receiving efavirenz (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.44 - 14.57) or protease inhibitor therapy (OR 20.7; 95% CI 1.79 - 240.02) were more likely to have DM. Neither mean pre-ART CD4 cell count (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.99 - 1.01) nor pre-ART viral load >100 000 copies/ml (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.21 - 2.43) were associated with a significant risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a complex interrelation among traditional host factors and treatment-related metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of DM inpatients receiving ART. Notably, pre-ART weight, particularly if >70 kg, is associated with the diagnosis of diabetes in HIV-infected patients in Botswana.

D, Moyo; G, Tanthuma; O, Mushisha; G, Kwadiba; F, Chikuse; M S, Cary; A P, Steenhoff; M J A, Reid.

378

Psychosocial Issues of Children Infected with HIV/AIDS  

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The chronic medical conditions in the paediatric population pose a range of potential psychosocial challenges not only to the child, but also to the family members and health care providers. This paper comprehensively reviews the psychosocial issues of children infected with HIV and AIDS and offer some of the strategies to address the issues comprehensively by multidisciplinary team.

2013-01-01

379

Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: The Role of Substance Use  

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HIV infection and substance use disorders are chronic diseases with complex contributions to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network sites in 2003 to estimate associations between HRQOL and specific substance use among HIV-infected patients. HRQOL was assessed by multi-item measures of physical and role functioning, general health, pain, energy, positive affect, anxiety, and depression. ...

Korthuis, P. Todd; Zephyrin, Laurie C.; Fleishman, John A.; Saha, Somnath; Josephs, Joshua S.; Mcgrath, Moriah M.; Hellinger, James; Gebo, Kelly A.

2008-01-01

380

Homelessness and Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among a Cohort of HIV-Infected Injection Drug Users  

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Homelessness is prevalent among HIV-infected injection drug users (IDU) and may adversely affect access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). There are limited descriptions of the effect of homelessness on adherence to ART in long-term cohorts of HIV-infected IDU. We used data from a community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-infected IDU, including comprehensive ART dispensation records, in a setting where HIV care is free. We examined the relationship between the homelessness me...

Palepu, Anita; Milloy, M-j; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Wood, Evan

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Current and future assays for identifying recent HIV infections at the population level  

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The precise diagnosis of recent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is crucial for estimating HIV incidence, defined as the number of new infections in a population, per person at risk, during a specified time period. Incidence assessment is considered to be a tool for surveillance, public health and research. Differentiating recent from long-term HIV infections is possible thanks to the evaluation of HIV-specific immune response development or viral markers measurement. Several meth...

Smolen?-dzirba, Joanna; Wa?sik, Tomasz J.

2011-01-01

382

Vitamin Supplementation Increases Risk of Subclinical Mastitis in HIV-Infected Women123  

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Subclinical mastitis is common in HIV-infected women and is a risk factor for mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of vitamin supplementation [vitamin A + ?-carotene, multivitamins (B complex, C, and E), or multivitamins, including vitamin A + ?-carotene] on the risk of subclinical mastitis during the first 2 y postpartum among HIV-infected women. The study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial including 674 HIV-infected, an...

Arsenault, Joanne E.; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.; Villamor, Eduardo

2010-01-01

383

Assessing the effect of HAART on change in quality of life among HIV-infected women  

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Abstract Background The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on health-related quality of life (QOL) of HIV-1 infected individuals in large prospective cohorts has not been well studied. Objective To assess the effect of HAART on QOL by comparing HIV-infected women using HAART with HIV-infected women remaining HAART naïve in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a multicenter prospective cohort study begun in 1994 in the US. Methods...

Liu Chenglong; Weber Kathleen; Robison Esther; Hu Zheng; Jacobson Lisa P; Gange Stephen J

2006-01-01

384

Bystander CD4+ T lymphocytes survive in HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue  

Science.gov (United States)

HIV infection is associated with depletion of CD4(+) T cells. The mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be understood. In particular, it remains controversial whether and to what extent uninfected ("bystander") CD4(+) T cells die in HIV-infected individuals. We address this question using a system of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Tissue blocks were inoculated with HIV-1. After productive infection was established, they were treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine to protect from infection those CD4(+) T cells that had not yet been infected. These CD4(+) T cells residing in HIV-infected tissue are by definition bystanders. Our results demonstrate that after nevirapine application the number of bystander CD4(+) T cells is conserved. Thus, in the context of HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue, productive HIV infection kills infected cells but is not sufficient to cause the death of a significant number of uninfected CD4(+) T cells.

Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angelique; Ito, Yoshinori; Lima, Rosangela G.; Margolis, Leonid B.

2003-01-01

385

Pathology of placenta in HIV infection.  

Science.gov (United States)

The spectrum of HIV pathological lesions encountered in the placenta has not been well documented in the literature. To address this issue, we examined 51 placentae of HIV positive mothers, prospectively over a one year period and compared the pathology of the cases treated with zidovudine (AZT) or nevirapine (NVP) with untreated cases. We also correlated the placental pathology with the HIV status of the neonates. The maternal to child transmission rate was 4.44%. A lower fetal / placental weight ratio was seen in normal birth weight neonates compared to low birth weight neonates. No significant gross lesions were encountered and the placental disc did not show any significant decrease in dimensions. The commonest inflammatory lesion seen was chorio-amnionitis 31.37% and the commonest non-inflammatory lesion was cytotrophoblastic hyperplasia 76.47%. There was no significant decrease in the incidence of the lesions following anti-retroviral therapy in our study, and we did not find any correlation between the incidence of placental lesions and the HIV status of the newborn. PMID:17883121

D'costa, Grace Francis; Khadke, Kavita; Patil, Yoganand Vishwasrao

2007-07-01

386

Sexual practice among Thai HIV-infected patients: prevalence and risk factors for unprotected sex.  

Science.gov (United States)

Positive prevention which focuses on prevention of HIV transmission from those already infected to those uninfected is an important issue for HIV prevention. A self-administered questionnaire on sexual practice survey of HIV-infected patients attending HIV clinics was undertaken. Of the 1160 patients, 53% knew their HIV status after being ill and 59% believed that they got infection from their regular sexual partner. In 3 months prior to the survey, 18% reported unprotected sex. Unprotected sex significantly decreased in people having adequate condoms but increased in those who believed that their sexual partners were already infected. Effect of disclosure of HIV status on unprotected sex depended on whether patients were men or women. Non-disclosure HIV-positive men claimed to have less unprotected sex than their counterpart, HIV-positive women. Factors related to unprotected sex should be addressed and sexual health must be integrated and promoted in HIV health care. PMID:20739591

Chaiyamahapurk, Sakchai; Pannarunothai, Supasit; Nopkesorn, Tawesak

2010-01-01

387

Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors. We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

Edgardo G. Bottaro

2004-08-01

388

Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV / Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores [...] de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa). Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes. Abstract in english Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individu [...] als that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors). We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

Edgardo G., Bottaro; Raúl H., Figueroa; Pablo G., Scapellato; Gabriela I., Vidal; María T., Rodríguez Brieschke; Silvia, da Representaçao; María B., Seoane; Marcelo F., Laurido; Diego, Caiafa; Gustavo, Lopardo; Fabián, Herrera; Isabel, Cassetti.

389

Compromiso renal en pacientes HIV+ Renal abnormalities in HIV infected patients  

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Full Text Available Varias complicaciones nefrológicas pueden ocurrir durante la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (HIV especialmente en estadios avanzados de la enfermedad o relacionadas con otras infecciones o drogas. Poco conocida es la prevalencia de alteraciones renales subclínicas de pacientes HIV+ surgidas como complicación o relacionadas a la infección y/o tratamiento. Realizamos un corte transversal de pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ referidos en forma consecutiva al consultorio de nefrología para la detección de alteraciones nefrológicas. Se estudiaron 52 pacientes adultos mediante exámenes de sangre y orina, ultrasonido y biopsia renal. Edad media 39.9 ± 10.6 años, 88% varones, tiempo de diagnóstico de la infección: 53.2 ± 41.2 (2-127 meses. El 71% tenían síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (HIV-sida y el 77% recibían con antirretrovirales. La carga viral al momento del estudio fue 7043 ± 3322 copias y el recuento de CD4+ 484 ± 39 cel/mm³. El 30.7% presentó alteraciones del sedimento urinario: albuminuria: 16.6%, hematuria microscópica: 11.5%, hipercalciuria: 10.8% y cristaluria 6%. La media del filtrado glomerular fue 102.2 ± 22.9 ml/min (rango: 34-149. El 41% presentó anormalidades que corresponderían a enfermedad renal crónica (estadios 1 a 3. Los pacientes con alteraciones tenían mayor edad, con duración más prolongada de la infección. Las anomalías renales no se asociaron con mayor prevalencia de HIV-sida. Dos pacientes fueron biopsiados, con hallazgos de nefritis túbulo-intersticial crónica con cristales y glomerulonefritis por IgA. No hubo hallazgos de nefropatía por HIV. El amplio espectro y la alta prevalencia de anormalidades nefrológicas subclínicas encontradas sugieren que los pacientes asintomáticos HIV+ deberían realizar evaluaciones nefrológicas de rutina.Several renal complications may occur during HIV infection, especially in advanced stages related to HIV, to other infectious agents and/or drugs. Little is known about the prevalence of renal diseases that may occur as a complication of or related to HIV infection in asymptomatic patients. This is a single center cross-sectional study of asymptomatic HIV+ patients referred to a nefrology care service at an Argentine hospital to look for the presence of renal abnormalities. Fifty two consecutive patients were studied between April and November 2008. Patients underwent plasma and urine analysis, ultrasound, and kidney biopsy as needed. Mean age was 39.9 ± 10.6 years, 88% were male, time from HIV diagnosis 53.2 ± 41.2 months (2-127; 71% had HIV-disease and 77% were on antiretroviral therapy. Mean plasma HIV-RNA copies number was 7.043 ± 3.322 and CD4+ cell count: 484 ± 39. Pathologic findings in urine analysis were present in 30.7% of patients: albuminuria 16.6%, microscopic hematuria 11.5%, hypercalciuria 10.8% and crystalluria 6%. Mean glomerular filtration rate was 102.2 ± 22.95 ml/min (34-149 and 41% of patients could be classified in stages 1 to 3 of chronic kidney disease. Renal abnormalities prevaled in older patients without relationship with presence of HIV-disease. Two patients were biopsied and the findings included: tubulointerstitial nephritis with presence of crystal deposition in one and IgA nephropathy in the other. No HIV-associated nephropathy was detected. The broad spectrum and the high prevalence of lesions found in this series suggest that asymptomatic HIV-infected patients should routinely undergo renal evaluation.

María Marta Pernasetti

2010-06-01

390

An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.

Isac Shajy

2011-10-01

391

[Investigation of occult hepatitis B in HIV infected patients].  

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Due to their shared transmission route, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infections can be observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cases and are associated with more severe clinical courses. The detection of HBV DNA despite HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seronegativity is defined as occult HBV infections. According to the current seroepidemiological data, Turkey is classified as an intermediate HBV, low HIV endemic region. Occult HBV infections have previously been reported from Turkey but has not been investigated previously in HIV infected cohorts. The aim of this study was to identify occult HBV infections in HIV-infected persons. Twenty-eight HIV-positive cases followed-up at Hacettepe University Hospital, Infectious Diseases Unit were included in the study after informed consent. For the detection of HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HCV, commercial ELISA tests (Architect System, Abbott Diagnostics, USA) were employed. Absolute CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts were determined via flow cytometry. HIV viral load was calculated via COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA) and the presence of HBV DNA was evaluated via COBAS TaqMan HBV Real-time PCR (Roche Diagnostics, USA), in addition to a nested PCR assay targeting HBV S gene. The mean age of the study group was 43.2 (range between 27-65) years, 64.3% (18/28) of them were males and the mean duration of HIV infection was 4.2 (2-11) years. Mean CD4+ ve CD8+ T-cell counts were 414 ± 267 cells/mm3 and 854 ± 293 cells/mm3, respectively. Twenty-six (92.8%) cases were under highly-active anti-retroviral therapy at the time of the study, 88.5% of which included HBV-active drugs (lamivudine or tenofovir). HIV RNA were found negative in 11 (39.3%) patients, of those nine (81.8%) were the cases who treated with HBV-active antiretroviral therapy. HBsAg were negative in all of the 28 patients, while the positivity rates of anti-HBs and anti-HCV were 39.3% (11/28) and 3.6% (1/28), respectively. All samples were negative for HBV DNA via the commercial real-time PCR and in-house nested PCR assays. The absence of occult HBV in the study group may indicate the absence of occult HBV or suppression of viral replication due to the anti-retroviral therapy. In conclusion, further large-scale studies are required to fully understand the impact of occult HBV in HIV-infected patients in Turkey. PMID:21644079

Alt?nba?, Akif; Ergünay, Koray; Cal?k Ba?aran, Nursel; Alp, Alpaslan; Turgut, Didem; Hasçelik, Gül?en; Uzun, Ömrüm; Unal, Serhat

2011-04-01

392

Profile of the HIV Epidemic in Cape Verde: Molecular Epidemiology and Drug Resistance Mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 Infected Patients from Distinct Islands of the Archipelago  

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HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010–2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR?=?1–75) and 47 (IQR?=?12–84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_cpx (0.7%) and CRF49_cpx (0.7%), whereas all HIV-2 infections belonged to group A. Transmitted DRM (TDRM) was observed in 3.4% (2/58) of ARTn HIV-1-infected patients (1.7% NRTI, 1.7% NNRTI), but not among those with HIV-2. Among ARTexp patients, DRM was observed in 47.8% (33/69) of HIV-1 (37.7% NRTI, 37.7% NNRTI, 7.4% PI, 33.3% for two classes) and 17.6% (3/17) of HIV-2-infections (17.6% NRTI, 11.8% PI, 11.8% both). This study indicates that Cape Verde has a complex and unique HIV-1 molecular epidemiological scenario dominated by HIV-1 subtypes G, CRF02_AG and F1 and HIV-2 subtype A. The occurrence of TDRM and the relatively high level of DRM among treated patients are of concern. Continuous monitoring of patients on ART, including genotyping, are public policies to be implemented.

de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Ines M.; Guimaraes, Monick L.; Bello, Gonzalo; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Morgado, Mariza G.

2014-01-01

393

Profile of the HIV epidemic in Cape Verde: molecular epidemiology and drug resistance mutations among HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected patients from distinct islands of the archipelago.  

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HIV-1 and HIV-2 have been detected in Cape Verde since 1987, but little is known regarding the genetic diversity of these viruses in this archipelago, located near the West African coast. In this study, we characterized the molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 and HIV-2 and described the occurrence of drug resistance mutations (DRM) among antiretroviral therapy naïve (ARTn) patients and patients under treatment (ARTexp) from different Cape Verde islands. Blood samples, socio-demographic and clinical-laboratory data were obtained from 221 HIV-positive individuals during 2010-2011. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses of the pol region (1300 bp) were performed for viral subtyping. HIV-1 and HIV-2 DRM were evaluated for ARTn and ARTexp patients using the Stanford HIV Database and HIV-GRADE e.V. Algorithm Homepage, respectively. Among the 221 patients (169 [76.5%] HIV-1, 43 [19.5%] HIV-2 and 9 [4.1%] HIV-1/HIV-2 co-infections), 67% were female. The median ages were 34 (IQR?=?1-75) and 47 (IQR?=?12-84) for HIV-1 and HIV-2, respectively. HIV-1 infections were due to subtypes G (36.6%), CRF02_AG (30.6%), F1 (9.7%), URFs (10.4%), B (5.2%), CRF05_DF (3.0%), C (2.2%), CRF06_cpx (0.7%), CRF25_c