Globally, violence against women is increasing, and is currently recognized as a major public health problem with significant consequences to women’s health. The detrimental health effects such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder have been observed in abused women. Violence, like in other Asian countries, is a huge problem in Pakistan.
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...
Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R.; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0.25-0.90, p-value = 0.018. Use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with increased prevalence of any type of violence (physical, sexual or psychological with ARR 3.04 (95%CI 1.15-8.45, p-value = 0.032. Conclusion Almost one in three women living with HIV had suffered intimate partner violence in the preceding 12 months. Nearly one in five HIV patients reported physical violence, and about one in every seven HIV patients reported sexual/psychological violence. Likewise, women who were taking antiretroviral drugs for HIV treatment were more likely to report any type of intimate partner violence (physical, sexual or psychological. The implication of these findings is that women living with HIV especially those on antiretroviral drugs should be routinely screened for intimate partner violence.
Osinde Michael O
Full Text Available Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-seeking behaviors of women exposed to intimate partner violence. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between May and July 2011 within Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital in Lomé. HIV-infected women attending HIV care and uninfected women attending postnatal care and/or children immunization visits were interviewed. Intimate partner physical and sexual violence and controlling behaviors were assessed using an adapted version of the WHO Multi-country study on Women's Health and Life Events questionnaire. Results: Overall, 150 HIV-uninfected and 304 HIV-infected women accepted to be interviewed. The prevalence rates of lifetime physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected women were significantly higher than among uninfected women (63.1 vs. 39.3%, p<0.01 and 69.7 vs. 35.3%, p<0.01, respectively. Forty-two percent of the women reported having ever had physical injuries as a consequence of intimate partner violence. Among injured women, only one-third had ever disclosed real causes of injuries to medical staff and none of them had been referred to local organizations to receive appropriate psychological support. Regardless of HIV status and after adjustment on potential confounders, the risk of intimate partner physical and sexual violence was strongly and significantly associated with male partner multi-partnership and early start of sexual life. Among uninfected women, physical violence was significantly associated with gender submissive attitudes. Discussion and conclusions: The prevalence rates of both lifetime physical and sexual violence were very high among HIV-uninfected women and even higher among HIV-infected women recruited in health facilities in this West African country. Screening for intimate partner violence should be systematic in health-care settings, and specifically within HIV care services. At a time of increased investments in couple-oriented HIV prevention interventions, further longitudinal research to better understanding of HIV-serodiscordant couple dynamics in terms of intimate partner violence is needed.
HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...
Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.
The situation of women and girls in the context of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in many parts of the world and particularly sub-Saharan Africa continues to be a cause of major concern. With more than 30% of women in some countries reporting their first sexual encounter as forced, and the continued feminization of the HIV epidemic, violence remains both a cause and consequence of HIV infection. Once infected with HIV, women often face varied forms of violence, particularly driven by stigma and di...
Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5 participants (41.7%) reported being forced or coerced into sex work. During the first month in sex work, such FSWs had higher odds of sexual violence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-6.1), ? 7 clients per day (AOR, 3.3; 1.8-6.1), no use of condoms (AOR, 3.8, 2.1-7.1), and frequent alcohol use (AOR, 1.9; 1.0-3.4) than HIV-infected FSWs not entering involuntarily. Those trafficked into sex work were also at higher odds for alcohol use at first sex work episode (AOR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0). These results suggest that having been trafficked into sex work is prevalent among this population and that such FSWs may face high levels of sexual violence, alcohol use, and exposure to HIV infection in the first month of sex work. Findings call into question harm reduction approaches to HIV prevention that rely primarily on FSW autonomy. PMID:22043037
Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; Bridden, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anony...
Sarkar, Kamalesh; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott
HIV disproportionately affects women, which propagates the disparities gap. This study was designed to (a) explore the personal, cognitive, and psychosocial factors of intimate partner violence among women with HIV; (b) explore the perceptions of male perpetrators' roles in contributing to violence; and (c) determine the implications for methodological and data source triangulation. A concurrent Mixed Method study design was used, including 30 African American male and female participants. Quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Eleven themes were identified in the qualitative data from the female (n = 15) and 9 themes from the male (n = 15) participant interviews using Giorgi's technique. Data sources and methodological approaches were triangulated with relative convergence in the results. Preliminary data generated from this study could inform gender-based feasibility research studies. These studies could focus on integrating findings from this study in HIV/intimate partner violence prevention interventions and provide clinical support for women. PMID:24503500
A large number of female sex workers are children. Multiple studies demonstrate that up to 40% of women in prostitution started this work prior to age 18. In studies across India, Nepal, Thailand and Canada, young age at entry to sex work has been found to heighten vulnerability to physical and sexual violence victimisation in the context of prostitution, and relates to a two to fourfold increase in HIV infection. Although HIV risk reduction among adult female sex workers has been a major focus of HIV prevention efforts across the globe, no public health interventions, to date, have addressed the increased hazards and HIV risk faced by adolescent female sex workers. Beyond the structural barriers that limit access to this vulnerable group, historical tensions between HIV prevention and child protection agencies must be overcome in order to develop effective strategies to address this large scale yet little recognised human rights and HIV-related crisis. PMID:21357241
Silverman, Jay G
To achieve its national public health goals, the US must improve the health of low-income urban populations. To contribute to this process, this study reviewed published reports of health promotion interventions designed to prevent heart disease, HIV infection, substance abuse, and violence in US cities. The study's objectives were to describe the target populations, settings, and program characteristics of these interventions and to assess the extent to which these programs followed accepted...
Freudenberg, Nicholas; Silver, Diana; Carmona, Jenniferm M.; Kass, Daniel; Lancaster, Brick; Speers, Marjorie
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in mid-1995, the prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has brightened dramatically. However, the conjunction of potent antiviral therapy and longer life expectancy may engender a variety of health risks that, heretofore, HIV specialists have not had to confront. The long-term effects of HIV infection itself and exposure to antiretroviral agents is unknown. Several aspects of aging, including psychiatric disease, neurocognitive i...
Kohli, Rakhi; Klein, Robert S.; Schoenbaum, Ellie E.; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Sacks, Henry S.
The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were per...
SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi; Maziar Parsa; Pegah Valiollahi; Koosha Paydary; Alireza Abdollahi; Maryam Rasoulinejad; Sirous Jafari; Mahboubeh Hajiabdolbaghi
Screening of chronic kidney disease (CKD) that includes estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and evaluation proteinuria should be performed in all HIV-infected patients and these parameters have to be monitored annually in patients at higher risk for CKD. Black patients have a genetic predisposition to develop HIV-associated nephropathy. Suppression of HIV viral replication with antiretroviral therapy prevents the development of HIV-associated nephropathy or halts its progression. Kidney biopsy remains the most informative diagnosis test to differentiate various forms of kidney diseases in HIV-infected patients. Dosing antiretroviral agents with kidney metabolism should be adjusted when eGFR is bellow 50 mL/min/1.73 m(2). eGFR and serum phosphorus at baseline and during treatment should be carefully assessed in patients receiving tenofovir. Proximal renal tubular toxicity must be further evaluated in the presence of eGFR decrease and/or hypophosphatemia under tenofovir therapy. PMID:22245017
Plaisier, Emmanuelle; Lescure, François-Xavier; Ronco, Pierre
Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors? personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.
Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a cr...
Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.
The incidence of lymphoma in patients with HIV infection greatly exceeds that of the general population. The increased risk for lymphoma appears related to multiple factors, including the transforming properties of the retrovirus itself, the immunosuppression and cytokine dysregulation that results from the disease, and, most importantly, opportunistic infections with other lymphotrophic herpes viruses such as Epstein–Barr virus and human herpesvirus 8. Histologically lymphomas fall into th...
Grogg, K. L.; Miller, R. F.; Dogan, A.
A total of 188 children with positive serology for HIV were identified during an 18 month period. Two seronegative children with clinical features of AIDS had seropositive mothers. Ten children were asymptomatic on initial testing; one has since died with infection. The commonest presenting features were generalised lymphadenopathy, failure to thrive, chronic diarrhoea, and pneumonia. Thirty four children are known to have died.
Topley, J. M.
Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.
Kaviarasan P K
...Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related...intersection of HIV/AIDS, violence against women and girls, and gender-related...Intersection of HIV/ AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls, and...
Full Text Available Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that of the 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world, approximately 2.8 million are 50 years and older. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in the mid-1990s, survival following HIV diagnosis has risen dramatically and HIV infection has evolved from an acute disease process to being managed as a chronic medical condition. As treated HIV-infected patients live longer and the number of new HIV diagnoses in older patients rise, clinicians need to be aware of these trends and become familiar with the management of HIV infection in the older patient. This article is intended for the general clinician, including geriatricians, and will review epidemiologic data and HIV treatment as well as provide a discussion on medical management issues affecting the older HIV-infected patient.Keywords: HIV, epidemiology, treatment, aging, review
The HIV counselling and testing clinic at the Oslo City Board of Health started in April 1986 to monitor its programme to encourage HIV-infected persons to inform their partners. By 1 April 1989, 65 of 233 potentially identifiable case contacts reported by 167 index patients had been tested and shown to be HIV-antibody positive. For 30 of the case contacts the main reason for seeking counselling and taking a HIV-antibody test was being told that their partner was HIV-infected. We discuss the effectiveness and acceptability of the programme. PMID:2006479
Kristoffersen, J E; Petersen, G
Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the HAART era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is 2–4 times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the common...
Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M.
The article reports findings from a pilot study of 21 domestic violence shelters in a southwestern state in the United States. The survey instrument included descriptive information on shelter service delivery. Specifically, questions were asked about the practice of assessing a client's risk of HIV/AIDS, the provision of HIV/AIDS educational and…
Rountree, Michele A.; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Marsiglia, Flavio F.
Prior research has shown a strong correlation between HIV infection and a history of intimate partner violence, particularly among young women. However, the role violence plays in the sexual relationships of young people in Sub-Saharan Africa is not well understood. Locally trained interviewers conducted semi-structured interviews with 40 young men and 20 young women aged 16-24 who were recruited from public venues in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The participants described complex interactions ...
Lary, Heidi; Maman, Suzane; Katebalila, Malingo; Mccauley, Ann; Mbwambo, Jessie
Full Text Available Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection.
HIV-infected children require a peculiar management when compared to infected adults. Antiretroviral therapy has been quite well adapted to children, but new studies are needed to answer many unsolved questions, such as when to start therapy in asymptomatic infected children. Recently, several guidelines have been updated. In this review, we compare these recommendations together with the latest studies concerning the treatment of HIV in children. A triple-drug combination therapy based eithe...
Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the viral load during follow-up. The actual demonstration of dual infections involves a great deal of additional research to completely characterize the patient's viral quasispecies. The identification of a source partner would of course confirm the authenticity of the second infection.
Three children aged between 7 months and 2 years developed thrombocytopenia as an early feature of HIV infection. The prevalence of this condition, possible pathogenesis, and options for treatment are discussed. HIV testing should be considered in the investigation of a child with thrombocytopenia.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.
This paper provides a critical narrative review of the scientific literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) and risky sexual behavior as well as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among adolescents, aged 14-24 years. Intimate partner violence has been associated with a number of high risk sexual behavior, including inconsistent condom use, multiple sexual partners, earlier sexual debut, consuming substances while engaging in sexual behavior, and sexually transmitted infections among adolescents. An electronic search of the literature was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science and articles from January 2000 - June 2013 were reviewed. Search terms included a combination of keywords for IPV, HIV/STI risk, and adolescents. The findings from the review indicated that IPV was associated with inconsistent condom use, STIs, early sexual debut, multiple sexual partners, and other HIV/STI-associated risk factors among adolescents. HIV/STI interventions for female adolescents often focus on increasing behavioral and cognitive skills, specifically condom negotiation. However, within the context of an abusive relationship, it becomes challenging for adolescents to enact these skills, where this behavior could potentially place them at greater risk. Components that address violence are necessary within HIV prevention programming. Additionally, integration of IPV screening within healthcare settings is important along with a combined approach that merges resources from healthcare, social, and community-level settings. PMID:24476354
Seth, Puja; DiClemente, Ralph J; Lovvorn, Amy E
Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus) and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed) can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns abou...
Cornelissen Marion; van der Kuyl Antoinette C
To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). PMID:25381267
Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit
A violência intrafamiliar e o adolescente que vive com HIV/AIDS por transmissão vertical: análise dos fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade Domestic violence and the adolescent that was infected with HIV through vertical transmission: analysis of protection and vulnerability factors
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar os fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade à violência intrafamiliar física e/ou psicológica entre adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids por transmissão vertical. Este grupo encontra-se especialmente suscetível por apresentar fatores de vulnerabilidade como doença crônica, orfandade com consequente troca de cuidadores e comprometimento da imagem corporal. A pesquisa foi realizada com adolescentes atendidos em um hospital de referência. A primeira etapa abrangeu a aplicação dos instrumentos Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales e Escala de Violência Psicológica, para aferição do tipo de violência intrafamiliar acometida. A segunda parte, qualitativa, utilizou-se de entrevistas com os adolescentes, com os maiores e os menores escores para violência nos instrumentos quantitativos. Verificou-se uma alta prevalência de violência física e psicológica, bem como nas entrevistas realizadas foram detalhadas as dinâmicas familiares abusivas, corroborando a literatura. Tendo em vista as consequências deste tipo de violência, se torna fundamental que o profissional de saúde esteja atento à identificação das situações de violência, como também ao reconhecimento dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e ao incentivo aos fatores de proteção aos maus-tratos.The scope of this study was to analyze protection and vulnerability factors in physical and psychological domestic violence among adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS through vertical transmission. This group is especially susceptible as they have vulnerability factors such as chronic disease, orphanhood with consequent change of caregivers and impaired body image. The research was conducted in a public hospital. The first stage used the Parent Child Conflict Tactics and the Degree of Psychological Violence Scale to determine what domestic violence occurred. In the second qualitative stage, the adolescents who scored the most or the least for violence in the quantitative instrument were interviewed. The questionnaires and the interviews revealed a high prevalence of physical and psychological violence and abusive domestic dynamics, thereby corroborating the extant literature. In view of the consequences of this kind of violence, it is essential that the health professional should be able to identify violent situations and recognize vulnerability factors and to promote protection factors against ill-treatment.
Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone
This study examined the relationship between interpersonal violence, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among pregnant teenagers. A sample of 116 pregnant teenagers was recruited in Rhode Island. Multivariate logistic regressions tested whether the relationship between history of interpersonal violence and HIV risk remained after controlling for age and education. Participants reported a young age of sexual debut and low rates of condom use. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate a significant relationship between interpersonal violence and HIV risk but not in degree of depression symptoms and HIV risk. Pregnant teenagers with a history of interpersonal violence may benefit from interventions that address HIV risk. PMID:25309117
Kuo, Caroline C; Zlotnick, Caron; Raker, Christina; Tzilos, Golfo; Phipps, Maureen G
Nancy Nguyen1, Mark Holodniy21University of the Pacific School of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Stockton, CA, USA; 2VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USAAbstract: In the US, an estimated 1 million people are infected with HIV, although one-third of this population are unaware of their diagnosis. While HIV infection is commonly thought to affect younger adults, there are an increasing number of patients over 50 years of age living with the condition. UNAIDS and WHO estimate that ...
Nancy Nguyen; Mark Holodniy
A child infected with HIV who developed chronic varicella zoster virus infection resistant to acyclovir is presented. The clinical course of the infection, treatment, virological investigations, and relationship of the infection to the child's immunodeficient state are discussed. PMID:8129436
Lyall, E G; Ogilvie, M M; Smith, N M; Burns, S
A child infected with HIV who developed chronic varicella zoster virus infection resistant to acyclovir is presented. The clinical course of the infection, treatment, virological investigations, and relationship of the infection to the child's immunodeficient state are discussed.
Lyall, E. G.; Ogilvie, M. M.; Smith, N. M.; Burns, S.
Background: We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT...
Karamagi, Charles A. S.; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleska?r, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Kristian
... nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the United States: recommendations from the US Department of Health and Human Services. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005 Jan 21;54(RR-2):1–20. Chapter 3 - Histoplasmosis Chapter 3 - Human Papillomavirus Print page Our Twitter Our Facebook page Get ...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.
newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults A A A When HIV is first contracted, there may be ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...
Full Text Available Background: Violence against Women (VAW and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 43 HIV positive women in three districts of Nepal, in the period of March-May 2008. Data was collected through semi-structured interview questionnaire. Results: The vast majority of the participants (93.02% had suffered from at least one form of the violence. The prevalence of violence rose up sharply after being diagnosed with HIV positive than before (93.02% vs.53.5%. Forty-five percent of the participants reported their husbands being main perpetrator of violence. Self-humiliation and health and treatment problem were the major consequences of violence as reported by 90% and 77.5% of the participants respectively. Conclusion: Violence was observed to be highly prevalent among women living with HIV in Nepal. Further larger and nationally representative researches are imperative to better understand the cross-section between VAW and HIV. Our finding recommends to prioritizing programs on social aspects of HIV such as violence.
Full Text Available Susan J Schuval1,21Division of Allergy/immunology, Department of Pediatrics, North Shore – Long island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY, USA; 2Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Significant advances have been made in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection over the past two decades. Improved therapy has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcome for HIV-infected children and adults. Sixteen antiretroviral (ART medications have been approved for use in pediatric HIV infection. The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS has issued “Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection”, which provide detailed information on currently recommended antiretroviral therapies (ART. However, consultation with an HIV specialist is recommended as the current therapy of pediatric HIV therapy is complex and rapidly evolving. Keywords: antiretroviral, HAART, Pediatric Guidelines, HIV, AIDS
Susan J Schuval
Full Text Available Metabolic complications continue to play a major role in the management of HIV infection. Dyslipidemia associated with HIV infection and with the use of combined antiretroviral therapy includes elevations in triglycerides, reduced high-density cholesterol, and variable increases in low-density and total cholesterol. The association between dyslipidemia and specific antiretroviral agents has been underscored. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which HIV and antiretroviral agents lead to dyslipidemia have been hypothesized, but they are still controversial. The potential clinical and pathological consequences of HIV-associated hyperlipidemia are not completely known, but several studies reported an increased risk of coronary artery disease in HIV-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected persons who have hyperlipidemia should be managed similarly to those without HIV infection in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program. Life style changes are the primary target. Statins and fibrates and/or modification in antiretroviral therapy are possible approaches to this problem.
Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission...
Tylleskar Thorkild; Tumwine James K; As, Karamagi Charles; Heggenhougen Kristian
Background: Violence against Women (VAW) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among...
Nirmal Aryal; Pramod Raj Regmi; Naba Raj Mudwari
Solid organ transplantation (SOT) is an appropriate therapeutic option for HIV-infected patients with end-stage organ disease. Recent experience in North America and Europe indicates that 3- to 5-year survival in HIV/HCV-coinfected liver recipients is lower than that of HCV-monoinfected recipients. Conversely, 3- to 5-year survival of non-HCV-coinfected transplant patients (liver, kidney and heart) was similar to that of non-HIV-infected patients. Preliminary experience with lung transplantation and combined kidney and pancreas transplantation is also satisfactory. Infections in HIV-infected recipients during the post-transplant period are similar to those seen in non-HIV-infected patients, although the incidence rates of tuberculosis and fungal infections seem to be higher. HIV-infected patients who are being evaluated for SOT should follow the same recommendations as those used for non-HIV-infected patients in order to prevent infections during the pre-transplant period. After transplantation, HIV-infected SOT recipients must follow recommendations on post-SOT and anti-HIV immunization and on antimicrobial prophylaxis. The recommended antiretroviral regimen is one based on raltegravir or dolutegravir plus two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (tenofovir + emtricitabine or abacavir + lamivudine), because it can prevent pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretroviral drugs, immunosuppressive drugs and some of the antimicrobial agents used to treat or prevent post-transplant infections. In this manuscript, we review current recommendations for preventing infections both before and after transplantation. We also analyse the incidence, aetiology and clinical characteristics of opportunistic and non-opportunistic bacterial, mycobacterial, fungal and viral infections in HIV-infected SOT recipients during the post-transplant period. PMID:25040016
Miro, J M; Agüero, F; Duclos-Vallée, J-C; Mueller, N J; Grossi, P; Moreno, A
Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.
Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L.; Hanson-nortey, L.; Addy, Jh
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome affect millions of children worldwide. The development of antiretroviral therapy has significantly improved the morbidity and mortality of pediatric patients infected with HIV. Currently, 4 classes of antiretroviral agents exist: nucleoside / nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, and entry inhibitors. A total of 21 single-entity antir...
Morris, Jennifer L.; Kraus, Donna M.
... to the HIV-infected patient with pulmonary symptoms Cryptococcus neoformans infection outside the central nervous system Diagnosis and ... to the HIV-infected patient with pulmonary symptoms Cryptococcus neoformans infection outside the central nervous system Diagnosis and ...
Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332
Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B
Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.
At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)
Acute/early HIV infection plays a critical role in onward HIV transmission. Detection of HIV infections during this period provides an important early opportunity to offer interventions which may prevent further transmission. In six US cities, persons with acute/early HIV infection were identified using either HIV RNA testing of pooled sera from persons screened HIV antibody negative or through clinical referral of persons with acute or early infections. Fifty-one cases were identified and 34...
Kerndt, Peter R.; Dubrow, Robert; Aynalem, Getahun; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Beckwith, Curt; Remien, Robert H.; Truong, Hong-ha M.; Uniyal, Apurva; Chien, Michael; Brooks, Ronald A.; Vigil, Ofilio R.; Steward, Wayne T.; Merson, Michael; Rotheram-borus, Mary Jane; Morin, Stephen F.
Following presentations, discussions and debates, participants at the SAfAIDS Regional Summit: Turning the Tide on Gender-based Violence, HIV and Culture in Southern Africa, drafted recommendations, which they endorsed. This articled presents those recommendations.
Wangulu, E. F.
Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...
Robinson-papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M.
Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses such as SIV that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection. However, there are significant genetic and biological differences among lentiviruses and some HIV-specific interventions are not effective against other lentiviruses in non-human hosts. For these reasons much emphasis has recently been placed on developing alternative animal models that suppo...
Denton, Paul W.; Garcia, J. Victor
Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.
The papers in this special issue focus on the topic of violence against women. This group of scholarly works explores theoretical issues, context and health care interventions pertaining to violence in women’s lives. In conjunction with this special issue, this editorial provides a synopsis of presentations and discussions about the topic of the intersections of gender-based violence, HIV and the girl child that took place in July 2008 as part of the 17th conference of International Council...
Teitelman, Anne M.; Seloilwe, Esther S.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
Abstract In Kenya many people who have been affected by sexual violence turn to the health sector for clinical treatment and preventive therapies. This interface provides a vital opportunity to impact on the dual epidemics of HIV and sexual violence. Despite this, the uptake of existing post-rape care services was low when the study was commenced and health care providers feel ill-prepared to deal with the consequences of sexual violence. A qualitative study was conducted to better...
Kilonzo, Nduku; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Molyneux, Catherine; Kibaru, Josephine; Kimonji, Virginia; Theobald, Sally
Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...
Full Text Available As per literature, very few case reports of leprosy ( M. leprae infection in association with HIV are available till date. The cause for this rare coexistence when compared to Mycobacterium tuberculosis may be due to the fact that (a M. leprae infection occurs due to affection of specific cell mediated immunity, (b missing of signs and/or symptoms of leprosy both by physicians and patients as they are masked by overwhelming opportunistic infections and (c long-time taken by M. leprae to manifest the disease. A case of lepromatous leprosy in an HIV-infected person is herewith reported for its rarity, wherein leprosy was nearly missed. Hence it is suggested to look for any evidence of leprosy in all HIV-positive cases. Then only the real incidence of leprosy in HIV-positive patients will come in the light.
Chandra Gupta T
Full Text Available Abstract Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT. Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7 were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2 and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7 were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7. Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms because of fear of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence is common in eastern Uganda and is related to gender inequality, multiple partners, alcohol, and poverty. Accordingly, programmes for the prevention of intimate partner violence need to target these underlying factors. The suggested link between intimate partner violence and HIV risky behaviours or prevention strategies calls for further studies to clearly establish this relationship.
Background We were interested in finding out if the very low antenatal VCT acceptance rate reported in Mbale Hospital was linked to intimate partner violence against women. We therefore set out to i) determine the prevalence of intimate partner violence, ii) identify risk factors for intimate partner violence and iii) look for association between intimate partner violence and HIV prevention particularly in the context of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme (PMTCT). Methods The study consisted of a household survey of rural and urban women with infants in Mbale district, complemented with focus group discussions with women and men. Women were interviewed on socio-demographic characteristics of the woman and her husband, antenatal and postnatal experience related to the youngest child, antenatal HIV testing, perceptions regarding the marital relationship, and intimate partner violence. We obtained ethical approval from Makerere University and informed consent from all participants in the study. Results During November and December 2003, we interviewed 457 women in Mbale District. A further 96 women and men participated in the focus group discussions. The prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence was 54% and physical violence in the past year was 14%. Higher education of women (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) and marriage satisfaction (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.7) were associated with lower risk of intimate partner violence, while rural residence (OR 4.4, 95% CI 1.2–16.2) and the husband having another partner (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.02–5.7) were associated with higher risk of intimate partner violence. There was a strong association between sexual coercion and lifetime physical violence (OR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5–5.7). Multiple partners and consumption of alcohol were major reasons for intimate partner violence. According to the focus group discussions, women fear to test for HIV, disclose HIV results, and request to use condoms because of fear of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence is common in eastern Uganda and is related to gender inequality, multiple partners, alcohol, and poverty. Accordingly, programmes for the prevention of intimate partner violence need to target these underlying factors. The suggested link between intimate partner violence and HIV risky behaviours or prevention strategies calls for further studies to clearly establish this relationship. PMID:17116252
Karamagi, Charles AS; Tumwine, James K; Tylleskar, Thorkild; Heggenhougen, Kristian
Depression is the most common neuropsychiatric complication in HIV-infected patients and may occur in all phases of the infection. Accurately, diagnosing major depressive disorder in the context of HIV is an ongoing challenge to clinicians and researchers, being complicated by the complex biological, psychological, and social factors associated with the HIV illness. Evidences exist to support the importance of improving the identification of depressive symptoms and their adequate treatment. Depression has long been recognized as a predictor of negative clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients, such as reducing medication adherence, quality of life, and treatment outcome, and possibly worsening the progression of the illness and increasing mortality. By analyzing the most relevant studies (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycLit, Cochrane Library), the review discusses the epidemiology and the main clinical features of depression in HIV-infected patients, the causal pathways linking depression and HIV infection, the validity of screening tools, and the efficacy of different treatment approaches, including psychosocial interventions, psychopharmacology as well as HIV-specific health psychology health service models. PMID:25413636
Nanni, Maria Giulia; Caruso, Rosangela; Mitchell, Alex J; Meggiolaro, Elena; Grassi, Luigi
Full Text Available HIV is a retrovirus on the Lentivirus subfamily. The virus binds to the CD4 receptor on the T helper lymphocytes. Fusion of the viral and cell membranes allows entry of the viral core into the cell. The reverse transcriptase enzyme, a protein carried by the virus that allows transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA into deoxyribonucleic acid, then mediates transcription of the viral RNA genome into viral DNA. Viral integrase then facilitates incorporation of the viral DNA into the host genome. The viral DNA is then transcribed into multiple RNA copies by the host cell. This newly created RNA is translated into viral proteins. Translation of the viral RNA sequences results in protein precursors that undergo proteolytic processing by a viral protease that liberates the functional viral proteins [1, 2]. As the virus infects and damages helper T cells, both humoral and cell-mediated immunity are impaired. Defective chemotaxis and phagocytosis causes increased vulnerability to infections such as candidiasis and toxoplasmosis. A lack of T-cell stimulation of B cells results in decreased immunoglobulin production and a vulnerability to encapsulated organisms such as Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria. These problems are compounded by impaired neutrophil function .
Background: Although the overall sensitivity and specificity of the western blot (WB) test for detection of antibodies to various viral proteins is high, there has been a substantial difference in the timing of the appearance of antibody bands and their intensities during different stages of HIV infection. Aims: Mapping different band patterns of Western blot results and correlating them with stages of HIV infection. Methods: We performed a retrospective study with 1...
Sudha T; Lakshmi V; Teja V
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after infection and gets localized in different brain regions, leading to various types of neuropathological problems. It has been hypothesized that HIV-1 infection mediated neuropathogenesis may also adversely affect the activity of the central monoamine neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin), resulting in neurocognitive deficits and mental he...
Kumar, Adarsh M.; Fernandez, J. B.; Irina Borodowsky; Louis Gonzalez; Mahendra Kumar
Susan J Schuval1,21Division of Allergy/immunology, Department of Pediatrics, North Shore – Long island Jewish Health System, Great Neck, NY, USA; 2Associate Professor of Clinical Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAAbstract: Significant advances have been made in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past two decades. Improved therapy has prolonged survival and improved clinical outcome for HIV-infected children and adults....
Schuval, Susan J.
The occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported mainly in advanced stages of the disease and was generally associated with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, opportunistic infections, or tumors, although in recent series a large number of cryptogenic strokes were found, probably related to HIV vasculopathy. Recently a population-based study reported a strong association between acquired immunodeficiency syndrom...
We conducted a reproductive health assessment among women aged 15-49 years residing in an internally displaced persons (IDP) camp and surrounding river populations in the Democratic Republic of Congo. After providing informed consent, participants were administered a behavioral questionnaire on demographics, sexual risk, reproductive health behavior, and a history of gender based violence. Participants provided a blood specimen for HIV and syphilis testing and were referred to HIV counseling and testing services established for this study to learn their HIV status. HIV prevalence was significantly higher among women in the IDP population compared to women in the river population. Sexually transmitted infection symptoms in the past 12 months and a history of sexual violence during the conflict were associated with HIV infection the river and IDP population, respectively. Targeted prevention, care, and treatment services are urgently needed for the IDP population and surrounding host communities during displacement and resettlement. PMID:19319674
Kim, Andrea A; Malele, Faustin; Kaiser, Reinhard; Mama, Nicaise; Kinkela, Timothée; Mantshumba, Jean-Caurent; Hynes, Michelle; De Jesus, Stacy; Musema, Godefoid; Kayembe, Patrick K; Hawkins Reed, Karen; Diaz, Theresa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of untreated HIV infection varies widely with some HIV-positive individuals able to maintain high CD4 cell counts and/or suppressed viral load in the absence of ART. Although similar, the underlying mechanistic processes leading to long-term nonprogression and viral control are likely to differ. Concerted ongoing research efforts will hopefully identify host factors that are causally related to these phenotypes, thus providing opportunities for the development of novel treatment or preventive strategies. Although there is increasing evidence that initiation of ART during primary infection may prevent the immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV infection has the potential to identify novel targets for intervention to prevent and treat HIV-infected persons. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams &Wilkins.
Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.
Oral candidosis (syn. Oral candidiasis; OC), is a collective term given to a group of oral mucosal disorders caused by the fugal pathogen belonging to the genus Candida. The association of OC with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. OC is one of the earliest manifestations of HIV disease in high risk individuals not undergoing chemotherapy and is also a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS-related illness or death. With the advances in HIV therapy, such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence and presenting features of OC have changed in HIV-infected individuals, especially those in industrialized countries. The presence of OC in "controlled" HIV-positive individuals may be indicative of a patient nonadherence to therapy or possible failure. The factors contributing to the genesis of OC and its progression in these individuals are poorly understood, but may include an interrelationship between HIV and Candida and/or a dysfunction in the local immunity, superimposed on weakened cell-mediated immunity and depletion of CD4 T cells. The dramatic increase in publications on this topic matches the increased importance and awareness of this opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we first address the epidemiologic and clinical features of OC in HIV-infected persons, followed by the current understanding of the pathogenesis of OC in the context of HIV infection with a concluding section on the current management concepts of OC. PMID:18991614
Egusa, Hiroshi; Soysa, Niroshani S; Ellepola, Arjuna N; Yatani, Hirofumi; Samaranayake, Lakshman P
A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection. This evidence supports a mechanism other than cross-neutralizing antibodies for the mild course of HIV-1 infection in this woman.
Gu?nthard, H. F.; Huber, M.; Kuster, H.; Shah, C.; Schu?pbach, J.; Trkola, A.; Bo?ni, J.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Metabolic complications continue to play a major role in the management of HIV infection. Dyslipidemia associated with HIV infection and with the use of combined antiretroviral therapy includes elevations in triglycerides, reduced high-density cholesterol, and variable increases in low-density and t [...] otal cholesterol. The association between dyslipidemia and specific antiretroviral agents has been underscored. Multiple pathogenic mechanisms by which HIV and antiretroviral agents lead to dyslipidemia have been hypothesized, but they are still controversial. The potential clinical and pathological consequences of HIV-associated hyperlipidemia are not completely known, but several studies reported an increased risk of coronary artery disease in HIV-positive individuals receiving combined antiretroviral therapy. HIV-infected persons who have hyperlipidemia should be managed similarly to those without HIV infection in accordance with the National Cholesterol Education Program. Life style changes are the primary target. Statins and fibrates and/or modification in antiretroviral therapy are possible approaches to this problem.
Eduardo, Sprinz; Rosmeri Kuhmmer, Lazzaretti; Regina, Kuhmmer; Jorge Pinto, Ribeiro.
Introduction Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) has the potential to eliminate new HIV infections among infants. Yet in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, PMTCT coverage remains low, leading to unacceptably high rates of morbidity among mothers and new infections among infants. Intimate partner violence (IPV) may be a structural driver of poor PMTCT uptake, but has received little attention in the literature to date. Methods We conducted qualitative research in three Johannesburg antenatal clinics to understand the links between IPV and HIV-related health of pregnant women. We held focus group discussions with pregnant women (n=13) alongside qualitative interviews with health care providers (n=10), district health managers (n=10) and pregnant abused women (n=5). Data were analysed in Nvivo10 using a team-based approach to thematic coding. Findings We found qualitative evidence of strong bidirectional links between IPV and HIV among pregnant women. HIV diagnosis during pregnancy, and subsequent partner disclosure, were noted as a common trigger of IPV. Disclosure leads to violence because it causes relationship conflict, usually related to perceived infidelity and the notion that women are “bringing” the disease into the relationship. IPV worsened HIV-related health through poor PMTCT adherence, since taking medication or accessing health services might unintentionally alert male partners of the women's HIV status. IPV also impacted on HIV-related health via mental health, as women described feeling depressed and anxious due to the violence. IPV led to secondary HIV risk as women experienced forced sex, often with little power to negotiate condom use. Pregnant women described staying silent about condom negotiation in order to stay physically safe during pregnancy. Conclusions IPV is a crucial issue in the lives of pregnant women and has bidirectional links with HIV-related health. IPV may worsen access to PMTCT and secondary prevention behaviours, thereby posing a risk of secondary transmission. IPV should be urgently addressed in antenatal care settings to improve uptake of PMTCT and ensure that goals of maternal and child health are met in sub-Saharan African settings. PMID:25371218
Hatcher, Abigail M; Woollett, Nataly; Pallitto, Christina C; Mokoatle, Keneuoe; Stöckl, Heidi; MacPhail, Catherine; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; García-Moreno, Claudia
HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest th...
Nair, Madhavan P. N.; Zainulabedin Saiyed; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Sudheesh Pilakka-Kanthikeel; Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy
We reviewed the antenatal HIV testing history, clinical presentation and outcome of 25 infants diagnosed with HIV between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2005 in a tertiary referral hospital in London. Of the 25 cases, 21 had received antenatal care in the UK. Twelve mothers had not had an antenatal HIV test, four had tested positive antenatally, while five had had a negative HIV test on antenatal booking, implying seroconversion in pregnancy. When mothers had not been diagnosed antenatally, infants presented with severe infections, which were fatal in six cases. The majority (65%) of the children have long-term neurological sequelae. HIV seroconversion is an important cause of infant HIV in the UK. PMID:17855439
Struik, S S; Tudor-Williams, G; Taylor, G P; Portsmouth, S D; Foster, C J; Walsh, C; Hanley, C; Walters, S; Smith, J H; Lyall, H
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 enters the central nervous system (CNS shortly after infection and gets localized in different brain regions, leading to various types of neuropathological problems. It has been hypothesized that HIV-1 infection mediated neuropathogenesis may also adversely affect the activity of the central monoamine neurotransmitters systems, such as dopamine (DA, and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin, resulting in neurocognitive deficits and mental health problems. However, investigations are scarce with respect to the status of these neurotransmitters in the CNS of HIV-1+ individuals, particularly in those patients who had received antiretroviral therapy (ART during life. Since, mental health problems and neurocognitive and neuropsychological deficits continue to persist even after ART intervention, it is pertinent to determine the CNS status of the neurotransmitters associated with these functions. We determined the neurotransmitters, dopamine and its metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA in different brain regions of a group of autopsied cases of HIV-1+ and HIV-1 negative controls, using highly sensitive CoulArray HPLC-ECD system. Distribution of HIV-1 viral RNA in these brain regions was also measured using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR technology with high sensitivity of detection (<5 copies of RNA. In a separate study we reported measurement of 5-HT (serotonin and its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF obtained during life of neurologically asymptomatic HIV-1 infected patients and controls. A substantial decrease and a wide variation in the concentration of DA as well as its metabolite, homovanillic acid (HVA was found in the autopsied brain regions of HIV-1 infected individuals. Wide variation was also found in HIV-1 RNA concentrations in different brain regions with no specific pattern observed in any region. Brain regions of HIV- negative individuals showed no detectable viral RNA. Majority of HIV-1+ individuals had demonstrated neurocognitive impairment during life despite ART intervention. A significant decrease in 5-HT concentration was also found in the CSF of HIV-1 infected patients. These studies demonstrate that HIV-1 infection adversely affects the central DA and 5-HT systems.
Adarsh M. Kumar
HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and interpersonal violence (IV; e.g., childhood abuse, partner violence, and rape) victimization are significant and interconnected public health problems facing incarcerated women. We adapted a best-evidence HIV-prevention intervention for women (the Women's CoOp) to address sexual safety among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence victimization. The standard Women's CoOp teaches safe sex, substance use harm reduction, and violence prevention information and skills needed to empower women to make more intentional decisions about their safety. We also incorporated strategies to increase affect management, social support, and access to community resources. This resulted in the first trauma-focused HIV-prevention intervention for women that directly addresses the sequelae of IV (such as affect dysregulation in sexual situations) within the context of HIV harm reduction. This manuscript describes the rationale, feasibility, acceptability, and pre-post outcomes of this intervention among 14 women nearing release from prison in two state prison systems. Assessments took place at baseline, prior to release, and at 2-, 5-, and 8 months after release. The intervention overall and each of its components were feasible and acceptable. Participants' number of unprotected sexual occasions, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depressive symptoms decreased significantly from baseline to post-release. Effectiveness in obtaining resources increased significantly from baseline to post-release. Because pre-post measurements of outcomes are confounded with incarceration and subsequent release in this preliminary study, a randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this tailored intervention. PMID:25395223
Johnson, Jennifer E; Peabody, Marlanea E; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fernandes, Karen; Zlotnick, Caron
This thesis is based on seven previously published articles. The work was performed during my employment at The Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, as a scholarship student from 2000-2001 and as a research assistant in the period 2004-2010. HIV-infection is characterized by CD4+ cell depletion. The differences between patients in the degree of CD4+ cell recovery upon treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may in part be due to differences in the supply of naïve CD4+ cells from the thymus. The thymus atrophies with increasing age for which reason the adult thymus was previously assumed to be without function. The aim of these investigations was to examine the role of the thymus in different aspects of HIV-infection: In adult HIV-infected patients, during HIV-positive pregnancy, and in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) children born to HIV-infected mothers. Thymic size and output were determined in 25 adult HIV-infected patients receiving HAART and in 10 controls. Larger thymic size was associated with higher CD4 counts and higher thymic output. Furthermore, patients with abundant thymic tissue seemed to have broader immunological repertoires, compared with patients with minimal thymic tissue. The study supports the mounting evidence of a contribution by the adult thymus to immune reconstitution in HIV-infection. In a follow-up study conducted till 5 years of HAART, the importance of the thymus to the rate of cellular restoration was found to primarily lie within the first two years of HAART. The effect of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) was then investigated in a randomized, double-blinded placebo controlled trial in 46 adult HIV-infected patients on HAART. Daily treatment with a low dose of rhGH of 0.7mg for 40 weeks stimulated thymopoiesis as expressed by thymic size, density, and output strongly supporting the assumption that rhGH possesses the potential to stimulate the ageing thymus, holding promise as a future means to complete CD4 restoration and renew the TCR repertoire in patients who respond insufficiently to HAART. Apart from naïve T cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are developed in the thymus. Tregs play a critical role in peripheral tolerance and suppress inappropriate immune activation such as induced by HIV. We studied levels of Tregs in adult HIV-infected patients with known thymic output. Our studies demonstrate increased levels of Tregs in HIV-infected patients despite long-term treatment with HAART, suppressed viral loads, and normalized CD4 counts and immune activation suggesting that Tregs expand irreversibly in HIV-infection independently of viral load, CD4 depletion or level of immune activation. Our data further suggest that elevated levels of Tregs in HIV-infected adults may in part be due to increased thymic production of naive Tregs. During pregnancy, establishing fetal-maternal tolerance is essential to pregnancy success. In a prospective study on HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women we found alterations in thymic output and Treg levels in HIV-negative pregnant women compatible with such an establishment. HIV-infected women, however, displayed different immunological profiles from HIV-negative women, and this immune unbalance may interfere with the prevention of fetal rejection and may partly explain the increased risk of abortion in HIV-infected women. We finally examined thymic function in 20 HIV-EU children at 15 months of age. The thymus was reduced in size in HIV-EU children compared with children born to HIV-negative mothers, but no evidence of impaired thymic function, immune regulation, or antibody vaccination response was detected, suggesting that no qualitative immune deficits persist in HIV-EU children beyond infancy. In conclusion, the thymus is functional in adults, and it contributes to immunological recovery in HIV-infected patients primarily during the first two years of HAART. Treg levels are increased in HIV-infected patients independent of viral load, CD4 cell depletion or level of immune activatio
Full Text Available Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is an increasing concern for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. We investigated carotid intima-media thickness (IMT, flow-mediated dilation (FMD, pulse wave velocity (PWV and the augmentation index (AIx, evaluated as indices of subclinical atherosclerosis, in HIV-infected patients compared to uninfected subjects. We enrolled 80 HIV-infected patients, 68 of whom treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART and 12 therapy-naïve, matched with 82 healthy subjects for age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. We investigated IMT, FMD, PWV, AIx, viro-immunological parameters, inflammatory markers, microalbuminuria and other biochemical parameters. Compared with uninfected subjects, HIV-infected subjects had higher IMT, PWV and AIx values (all P=0.0001; and lower FMD (P=0.001. In the HIV+ group, naïve patients had statistically lower levels of IMT (P=0.02, and AIx (P=0.042 and higher FMD (P=0.032 compared with cART-treated patients. In the HIV+group, IMT values was significantly related to the number of CD4+ (r=?0.31, P=0.008 and CD8+ cells (r=0.261, P=0.025, interleukin-6 (r=0.284, P=0.015 and endothelin-1 (r=0.302, P=0.009. Vascular dysfunction evaluated as IMT, FMD and arterial stiffness is increased in HIV-infected subjects than in healthy subjects. Furthermore, cART-treated patients showed higher IMT and AIx and lower FMD values than naïve patients. Our data support the hypothesis that both HIV infection and cART treatment are risk factors for accelerated arteriosclerosis.
... Medications to Prevent HIV Infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention (or prophylaxis ) includes both safe sex practices and ... through sexual contact. Therefore, an important part of HIV prevention is practicing “safe sex.” This involves using condoms ...
Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common fungal infection of the CNS. The majority of patients with cryptococcosis have preexisting immunodeficiency such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CT and/or MRI of the brain only occasionally detects abnormalities specifically related to this infection. We report a case of MR appearance of central nervous system cryptococcosis in a 33-year-old HIV positive man.
Nabil Moatassim Billah; Touria Amil; Souad Chaouir
Disseminated cryptococcal infection is an uncommon initial manifestation in immunocompromised patients. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old female presenting with fever and burning epigastrium. Peripheral blood film revealed a leukoerythroblastic picture with thrombocytopenia. Bone marrow aspiration showed granulomas along with cryptococcal yeast forms. The ELISA test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen was positive. Disseminated cryptococcosis can develop as the first manifestation of HIV infection in previously healthy individuals and granulomas in such bone marrow aspiration smears are a valuable clue to an underlying opportunistic infection. PMID:25161991
Dharwadkar, Arpana; Vimal, Shruti; Buch, Archana C.; Panicker, N. K.
Full Text Available Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and advancements in humanized mouse models have allowed rapid developments of gene therapy for HIV treatment. In this review, we will discuss two aspects of HIV gene therapy using human hematopoietic stem cells. The first is to generate immune systems resistant to HIV infection while the second strategy involves enhancing anti-HIV immunity to eliminate HIV infected cells.
HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activ...
Hanauske-abel, Hartmut M.; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske, Axel-rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D.; Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; Gandolfi, Darlene D. Alliessi; Heller, Debra S.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John
Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…
McCutchan, J. Allen
We report a survey of HIV-1 group O infection in Cameroon during 1986 to 1998. The prevalence of HIV-1/O decreased from 0.6% to 0.4%, while HIV-1/M increased from 19.2% to 31.5% from 1994 to 1998. We concluded that HIV-1/O infection is stable in Cameroon and may be declining slightly.
Ayouba, A.; Maucle?re, P.; Martin, P. M.; Cunin, P.; Mfoupouendoun, J.; Njinku, B.; Souquie?res, S.; Simon, F.
Rationale: Prior studies comparing abnormalities in pulmonary function between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected persons in the current era are limited. Objectives: To determine the pattern and severity of impairment in pulmonary function in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of 300 HIV-infected and 289 HIV-uninfected men enrolled from 2009-2011 in two clinical centers of the Lung HIV Study. Participants completed pre- and post-bronchodilator spirometry, diffusing capacity (DLCO) measurement, and standardized questionnaires. Results: Most participants had normal airflow; 18% of HIV-infected and 16% of HIV-uninfected men had airflow obstruction. The mean percent predicted DLCO was 69% in HIV-infected vs. 76% in HIV-uninfected men (p<0.001). A moderately to severely reduced DLCO of ?60% was observed in 30% of HIV-infected compared to 18% of HIV-uninfected men (p<0.001), despite the fact that 89% of those with HIV were on antiretroviral therapy. A reduced DLCO was significantly associated with HIV and CD4 cell count in linear regression adjusting for smoking and other confounders. The DLCO was lowest in HIV-infected men with CD4 cell counts <200 compared to those with CD4 cell counts ?200 and to HIV-uninfected men. Respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm and dyspnea were more prevalent in HIV-infected patients particularly those with abnormal pulmonary function compared to HIV-uninfected patients. Conclusions: HIV infection is an independent risk factor for reduced DLCO, particularly in individuals with a CD4 cell count below 200. Abnormalities in pulmonary function among HIV-infected patients manifest clinically with increased respiratory symptoms. Mechanisms accounting for the reduced DLCO require further evaluation. PMID:23979001
Crothers, Kristina; McGinnis, Kathleen; Kleerup, Eric; Wongtrakool, Cherry; Hoo, Guy Soo; Kim, Joon; Sharafkhaneh, Amir; Huang, Laurence; Luo, Zhaoyu; Thompson, Bruce; Diaz, Philip; Kirk, Gregory D.; Rom, William; Detels, Roger; Kingsley, Lawrence; Morris, Alison
Full Text Available Abstract The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions. Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed.
van der Kuyl Antoinette C
We present two patients with a high viral load of HIV-1 who developed symptoms of ascending paralysis leading to respiratory failure and autonomic instability. One patient had symptom improvement with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a subsequent decrease in viral load. The other patient improved with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and did not show much improvement on HAART alone. There are several proposed mechanisms for peripheral neuropathies seen in HIV-infected patien...
Afzal, Aasim; Benjamin, Mina; Gummelt, Kyle L.; Afzal, Sadaf; Shamim, Sadat; Tribble, Marc
We report the case of a Nigerian adolescent recently arrived to Spain, who presented at the emergency room with severe respiratory distress. She had been previously diagnosed of HIV-1 discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, what was hidden by the family. This case illustrates the difficulties in management and stigma in HIV-infected adolescents, particularly immigrants and the need to collect all the information available before starting antiretroviral therapy.
Apezteguia Fernández Carolina; Hernández Muniesa Belén; Vicente Sánchez María del Pilar; Álvarez García Ana; Ruiz Jiménez Marta; Ramos Amador José Tomás
Full Text Available We report the case of a Nigerian adolescent recently arrived to Spain, who presented at the emergency room with severe respiratory distress. She had been previously diagnosed of HIV-1 discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, what was hidden by the family. This case illustrates the difficulties in management and stigma in HIV-infected adolescents, particularly immigrants and the need to collect all the information available before starting antiretroviral therapy.
Apezteguia Fernández Carolina
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence and extent of autonomic dysfunction in HIV infected individuals of one ethnic group. DESIGN: Prospective, age-sex matched study. METHODS: 25 patients (seven asymptomatic (HIV), eight AIDS related complex (ARC), 10 AIDS) and 25 controls were recruited from patients and staff at the Aga Khan Hospital, Nairobi. Autonomic function was assessed by measurement of pulse rate variability on standing, rest, deep breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, isometric exercis...
Rogstad, K. E.; Shah, R.; Tesfaladet, G.; Abdullah, M.; Ahmed-jushuf, I.
Full Text Available A 27 -year -old unmarried male presented with typical clinical features of lepromatous leprosy which was confirmed by slit-skin smear and histopathological examinations. He also had history of intra-venous use of heroin and tested positive for HIV-I antibody by ELISA and Western blot. This is the first case report of co-infection of leprosy and HIV from Manipur.
Singh Th. Nabakumar
A 27 -year -old unmarried male presented with typical clinical features of lepromatous leprosy which was confirmed by slit-skin smear and histopathological examinations. He also had history of intra-venous use of heroin and tested positive for HIV-I antibody by ELISA and Western blot. This is the first case report of co-infection of leprosy and HIV from Manipur.
Singh Th. Nabakumar; Nandakishore Th. Nandakishore; Singh K
HIV diagnostic testing has come a long way since its inception in the early 1980s. Current enzyme immunoassays are sensitive enough to detect antibody as early as one to two weeks after infection. A variety of other assays are essential to confirm positive antibody screens (Western blot, polymerase chain reaction [PCR]), provide an adjunct to antibody testing (p24 antigen, PCR), or provide additional information for the clinician treating HIV-positive patients (qualitative and quantitative PC...
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV prevention services. Results provide a number of priorities for research and prevention programmes for MSM, including providing access to and encouraging regular confidential HIV testing and counselling, and risk reduction counselling related to anal intercourse. Other targets include the provision of condoms and compatible lubricants, HIV prevention information, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection treatment and adherence support. Addressing multiple levels of HIV risk, including structural factors, may help to ensure that programmes have sufficient coverage to impact this HIV epidemic among MSM.
Andrea L Wirtz
Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (
Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary
Unanticipated results from two recent candidate HIV-1 vaccine regimens in large-scale international trials highlight the importance of understanding the optimal earliest immune defense against HIV-1 infection. Presented here are key findings in these vaccine studies that have relevance to the development of future HIV-1 vaccines that can control acute HIV-1 infection.
Mcelrath, M. Juliana
Full Text Available
In the last 15 years, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART has determined a dramatic reduction of both morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected subjects, transforming this infection in a chronic and manageable disease. Patients surviving with HIV in the developed world, in larger number men, are becoming aged. As it would be expected for a population of comparable age, many HIV-infected individuals report a family history of cardiovascular disease, a small proportion have already experienced a cardiovascular event and an increasing proportion has diabetes mellitus. Smoking rate is very high while an increasing proportion of HIV-infected individuals have dyslipidaemia. Studies suggest that these traditional risk factors could play an important role in the development of cardiovascular disease in these patients as they do in the general population. Thus, whilst the predicted 10-year cardiovascular disease risk remains relatively low at present, it will likely increase in relation to the progressive aging of this patient population. Thus, the long-term follow-up of HIV infected patients has to include co-morbidity management such as cardiovascular disease prevention and treatment. Two intriguing aspects related to the cardiovascular risk in patients with HIV infection are the matter of current investigation: 1 while these subjects share many cardiovascular risk factors with the general population, HIV infection itself increases cardiovascular risk; 2 some HAART regimens too influence atherosclerotic profile, partly due to lipid changes. Although the mechanisms involved in the development of cardiovascular complications in HIV-infected patients remain to be fully elucidated, treatment guidelines recommending interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease in these individuals are already available; however, their application is still limited.
Bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2, also known as tetherin/CD317/HM1.24) inhibits the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and other enveloped viruses by tethering virus particles to the cell surface. In this study, we provide evidence not only that the yield of cell-free HIV-1 particles is significantly reduced by BST-2 but also that the infectivity of these progeny virions is severely impaired. The lowered virion infectivity is due to the accumulation of pr55 Gag pr...
Zhang, Jianyong; Liang, Chen
This paper determines the spectrum of abnormalities identified by means of CT in children with HIV infection and correlate them with clinical findings; to provide additional insight into the timing and type of insult occurring in these children. The CT studies of 24 HIV-infected children aged 1 mo--8 y were reviewed. The findings were correlated with the history and physical examination. CT abnormalities were seen in 18/24 children. Among 10 children with normal findings on neurologic study, seven showed one or more CT abnormalities. These included microcephaly (n = 2), intracranial calcification (n = 2), and cerebral atrophy (n = 6)
Nearly one fourth of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the US and Western Europe. With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the consequent reduction in opportunistic infections, resulting in the prolongation of the life span of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection has emerged as a significant factor influencing the survival of HIV patients. Patients with HIV/HCV co-infection have a faster rate of ...
Ashwani K Singal, Bhupinderjit S. Anand
This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...
Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.
HIV epidemic continues to be a severe public health problem and concern within USA and across the globe with about 33 million people infected with HIV. The frequency of drug abuse among HIV infected patients is rapidly increasing and is another major issue since injection drug users are at a greater risk of developing HIV associated neurocognitive dysfunctions compared to non-drug users infected with HIV. Brain is a major target for many of the recreational drugs and HIV. Evidences suggest that opiate drug abuse is a risk factor in HIV infection, neural dysfunction and progression to AIDS. The information available on the role of morphine as a cofactor in the neuropathogenesis of HIV is scanty. This review summarizes the results that help in understanding the role of morphine use in HIV infection and neural dysfunction. Studies show that morphine enhances HIV-1 infection by suppressing IL-8, downregulating chemokines with reciprocal upregulation of HIV coreceptors. Morphine also activates MAPK signaling and downregulates cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Better understanding on the role of morphine in HIV infection and mechanisms through which morphine mediates its effects may help in devising novel therapeutic strategies against HIV-1 infection in opiate using HIV-infected population. PMID:22666564
Reddy, Pichili Vijaya Bhaskar; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Saxena, Shailendra K.; Saiyed, Zainulabedin; Nair, Madhavan P. N.
Abstract Background Female sex workers (FSWs) are a population sub-group most affected by the HIV epidemic in India and elsewhere. Despite research and programmatic attention to FSWs, little is known regarding sex workers' reproductive health and HIV risk in relation to their experiences of violence. This paper therefore aims to understand the linkages between violence and the reproductive health and HIV risks among a group of mobile FSWs in India. Methods Data ...
Verma Ravi K; Battala Madhusudana; Saggurti Niranjan; Swain Suvakanta N; Jain Anrudh K
Full Text Available Five hundred twenty seven HIV seropositive male cases were observed for herpes zoster for a period of five years. Overall incidence of herpes zoster in HIV infection was found to be 11.8%. Herpes zoster was presenting symptom in 50% cases. It developed in first year of follow up in 38.8% cases, in second and third year of follow up in 4.8% cases each and in fourth year in 1.6% case. Majority of cases (89% were in age group of 20 - 40 years. Thoracic dermatome (68% was commonest to get involved followed by cervical (14.5%, trigeminal (9.7% and lumbosacral (8%. Among other associations of HIV seropositive herpes zoster cases 24.2% cases had tuberculosis and 4.8% cases had hepatitis B virus infection. The skin lesions of herpes zoster in majority of cases were bullous, haemorrhagic and necrotic.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) caused by the polyomavirus, JC virus (JCV), is one of the most dreaded complications of HIV-1 infection. Unlike other opportunistic infections, PML may present while blood CD4+ T cells remain above AIDS-defining levels and while patients receive combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), either shortly after starting or, more rarely, during chronic successful treatment. PML can be suspected by typical presentation with focal neurological deficits ...
Cinque, Paola; Koralnik, Igor J.; Gerevini, Simonetta; Miro, Jose M.; Price, Richard W.
Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common fungal infection of the CNS. The majority of patients with cryptococcosis have preexisting immunodeficiency such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. CT and/or MRI of the brain only occasionally detects abnormalities specifically related to this infection. We report a case of MR appearance of central nervous system cryptococcosis in a 33-year-old HIV positive man.
Nabil Moatassim Billah
With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present e...
Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, Batsheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie
Background: Onychomycosis is one of the early manifestations of HIV infection with a prevalence of 15-40%. Multiple nail involvement, isolation of both common and rare species, and resistance to treatment are the characteristics of onychomycosis in HIV. Aim: To study the epidemiology, clinical manifestations of onychomycosis in HIV-infected individuals and to identify the various causative fungi microbiologically. Methods: A total of 250 HIV infected patients,...
Surjushe Amar; Kamath Ratnakar; Oberai Chetan; Saple Dattatray; Thakre Minal; Dharmshale Sujata; Gohil Aruna
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased life expectancy among HIV-infected individuals, and by 2015, at least half of all HIV-infected individuals will be over 50 years of age. Neurodegenerative processes associated with aging may be facilitated by HIV-1 infection, resulting in premature brain aging. This review will highlight brain abnormalities in HIV patients in the setting of aging, focusing on recent neuroimaging studies of the structural, physiological, functional and...
Holt, John L.; Kraft-terry, Stephanie D.; Chang, Linda
Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725
Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth
Background: There is a widespread believe that the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in HIV infected persons are higherthan the general population. This study seeks to found out the seroprevalence of HHV-8 antibodies among HIVinfected patients in Edo State, South- South Nigeria.Materials and Method: The sera of HIV infected and non HIV infected persons were tested with double ELISA(Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab ELISA and JN HIV-1/2 ELISA KIT) for HIV screening and HHV-8 testing was<...
Bob Agwu Ukonu; Eze, Emeka U.
This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations. Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 9/23/2010.
Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.
E. B. S. M. Trindade
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host-pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune sensing of human retroviruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 is influenced by the target cell phenotype, viral replicative intermediates, and host restrictionfactors that limit retroviral replication. Macrophages and dendritic cells detect HIV-DNA intermediates, whereas CD4 T cells differentially sense HIV DNA depending on the level of T-cell activation. Furthermore, the structure of the viral capsid and interplay between innate DNA sensors and host restriction factors all contribute to the magnitude of the ensuing innate immune response. SUMMARY: The interplay between HIV infection and the innate immune system has emerged as an important component of HIV pathogenesis, linked to both induction of innate immunity and stimulation of cell death mechanisms. Ultimately, an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of innate immune control of human retrovirus infection may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies to control retrovirus-induced immunopathology.
Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Olagnier, David
Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among p...
Ulibarri, Monica D.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-rodriguez, Carlos; Amaro, Hortensia; O’campo, Patricia; Patterson, Thomas L.
Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to ...
Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise
The authors present the case of a vertically HIV infected, six-year-old girl, with precocious puberty. The late diagnosis of HIV both in the mother and in the child is of significance. Different causes of adrenarche precox are also discussed. In pediatric practice vertical HIV infection should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis. In routine care of HIV-infected children, monitoring of development including sexual development is indicated. The presence of symptoms of adrenarche precox, as in noninfected children needs in depth diagnostic investigations. The role of HIV infection and of antiretrovirus treatment in the pathogenesis of adrenarche precox remains unclear and needs further investigation. PMID:22971659
Zawadka, Konrad; Dobosz, Sabina; Moszczy?ska, El?bieta; Marczy?ska, Magdalena
Full Text Available Around 33 million people worldwide are living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection, and approximately 20-30% of HIV-infected individuals are also infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV. The main form of HCV transmission is via the blood borne route; high rates of co-infection are found in intravenous drug users with HCV prevalence rates as high as 90%. Introduction of effective anti-retroviral therapy (ART has led to a significant decline in HIV-related morbidity, but at the same time the incidence of HCV related liver disease is increasing in the co-infected population. Meta analysis has revealed that individuals who are co-infected with HIV/HCV harbor three times greater risk of progression to liver disease than those infected with HCV alone. Increased risk of progression to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS and AIDS-related deaths is shown among the co-infected patients by some studies, suggesting that HCV infection may accelerate the clinical course of HIV infection. HCV may also affect the incidence of liver toxicity associated with ART, affecting the management of HIV infection. There is a lack of optimal therapeutic approaches to treat HCV infection in HIV co-infected patients. This review discusses recent literature pertaining HIV/HCV co-infection, in addition to providing a snapshot of impact of co-infection on human genome at the level of gene expression and its regulation by microRNAs (miRNAs.
HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chanc...
Khopkar Uday; Raj Sujata; Sukthankar Ashish; Kulkarni M; Wadhwa S
Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.
We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.
Pericarditis and myocarditis are frequent in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but most cases are asymptomatic or masked by signs and symptoms of other organ system disease. We present a case of cardiac tamponade, secondary to a disseminated tuberculosis infection, in a patient with HIV infection. In HIV-infected patients with symptomatic pericardial effusion, about two thirds have an identifiable cause. A review of the literature emphasises the role of pericardiocentesis in the management of these patients. PMID:10407948
Lepori, M; Tinguely, F; Erard, V; Delabays, A; Nicod, P
Objective: To discuss the influence of HIV-1 specific T cell on disease progression of HIV-1 infection. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with HIV-1 infection were recruited from a cohort study and their HIV-1 specific T cell responses were analyzed using overlapping peptides and ELISP0T assay. Results: 83.78% (31/37) of candidates with HIV-1 infection responded to at least one peptide (magnitude was above 50 SFU/10 6 PBMCs). Peptides from HIV-1 subtype B proteins could elicit specific T cell re...
Zhang, Y-h; Zhao, Y.; Xu, K-y; Yan, H-p; Ma, L-n; Lun, W-h; Wu, H.; Dong, T.; Chen, X-y
We present two patients with a high viral load of HIV-1 who developed symptoms of ascending paralysis leading to respiratory failure and autonomic instability. One patient had symptom improvement with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and a subsequent decrease in viral load. The other patient improved with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and did not show much improvement on HAART alone. There are several proposed mechanisms for peripheral neuropathies seen in HIV-infected patients, including a direct action of HIV on the nerve by neurotropic strains or formation of autoantibodies against nerve elements. The comparison of the response to different therapies in these two cases highlights the importance of understanding different pathophysiologies, as the treatment modality may differ. PMID:25552790
Afzal, Aasim; Benjamin, Mina; Gummelt, Kyle L.; Afzal, Sadaf; Tribble, Marc
OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group ...
Kumar Alok; Bent Valmay
HIV-1 exploits numerous host cellular pathways for productive infection. To identify novel factors involved in HIV-1 replication, HIV-1 integrase and matrix protein complexes were captured at 4 hours post infection for proteomic analysis using an affinity purification system. Leucine-rich PPR-motif containing (LRPPRC) protein, a cellular protein involved in mitochondrial function, cell metabolism, and cell-cycle progression was identified as one of the candidate HIV-1 factors. Co-immunoprecip...
Schweitzer, Cameron J.; Matthews, John M.; Madson, Christian J.; Donnellan, Meghan R.; Cerny, Ronald L.; Belshan, Michael
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the possible spread of HIV infection and its route of transmission among prison inmates. DESIGN--In response to an outbreak of acute clinical hepatitis B and two seroconversions to HIV infection, counselling and testing for HIV were offered to all inmates over a two week period in July 1993. Information was sought about drug injecting, sexual behaviour, and previous HIV testing. SETTING--HM Prison Glenochil in Scotland. SUBJECTS--Adult male prisoners. MAIN OUTCOME ME...
Taylor, A.; Goldberg, D.; Emslie, J.; Wrench, J.; Gruer, L.; Cameron, S.; Black, J.; Davis, B.; Mcgregor, J.; Follett, E.
Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469
Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel
The challenge to rural nurses to deliver knowledgeable and skilled nursing and health care to individuals with HIV infection and AIDS is indeed tremendous. Isolation of rural communities and health care facilities coupled with limited resources, financial concerns, conservative values of many traditional rural communities, and the tendency to exclude those who do not conform to community norms make it difficult to integrate the individual with HIV disease into the rural health care delivery system fully. Issues of particular concern to the rural nurse include maintenance of client confidentiality, obtaining and maintaining current knowledge and skills necessary to the provision of quality HIV nursing care, management of complex client health care problems, and provision of appropriate support services. Rural nurses must be innovative and creative in developing mechanisms to deal with these concerns. In addition, because rural nurses are well respected by the community and viewed as possessing a great deal of expertise in the delivery of health care, they are well positioned to provide leadership to the community in developing educational and care strategies to more effectively provide HIV care. Indeed, the delivery of high-quality HIV care in rural areas across the United States will likely depend on the expertise and leadership provided by rural nurses. PMID:8451211
Carwein, V L; Sabo, C E; Berry, D E
Abstract The combined epidemics of substance abuse, violence, and HIV/AIDS, known as the SAVA syndemic, contribute to the disproportionate burden of disease among people of color in the US. To examine the association between HIV viral load suppression and SAVA syndemic variables, we used baseline data from 563 HIV+ women of color treated at nine HIV medical and ancillary care sites participating in HRSA's Special Project of National Significance Women of Color (WOC) Initiative. Just under half the women (n=260) were virally suppressed. Five psychosocial factors contributing to the SAVA syndemic were examined in this study: substance abuse, binge drinking, intimate partner violence, poor mental health, and sexual risk taking. Associations among the psychosocial factors were assessed and clustering confirmed. A SAVA score was created by summing the dichotomous (present/absent) psychosocial measures. Using generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to account for site-level clustering and individual-covariates, a higher SAVA score (0 to 5) was associated with reduced viral suppression; OR (adjusted)=0.81, 95% CI: 0.66, 0.99. The syndemic approach represents a viable framework for understanding viral suppression among HIV positive WOC, and suggests the need for comprehensive interventions that address the social/environmental contexts of patients' lives. PMID:25397666
Sullivan, Kristen A; Messer, Lynne C; Quinlivan, E Byrd
The ability of selected phthalocyanines and metallophthalocyanines to block HIV infection has been evaluated in an epithelial HeLa-CD4 cell line with an integrated LTR-beta-galactosidase gene. Sulfonated phthalocyanine itself (PcS), as well as its copper, nickel, and vanadyl chelates, were the most effective in blocking viral infection. These compounds were also very effective in blocking the fusion activity of the viral Env proteins. All of these compounds are expected to bind axial ligands weakly or not at all. In contrast, sulfonated phthalocyanines bearing metals expected to bind axial ligands more tightly (aluminum, cobalt, chromium, iron, silicon, and zinc) were less effective in blocking HIV infection and also less effective at inhibiting fusion. A number of active compounds were found to block binding of gp120 to CD4. Selected cationic and carboxy phthalocyanines, as well as porphyrazines, were also evaluated. Our results indicate that at least some of the compounds render the virus noninfectious, i.e. that they are virucidal. These compounds have potential as microbicides that might be used to provide protection against sexually transmitted HIV. PMID:12895693
Vzorov, Andrei N; Marzilli, Luigi G; Compans, Richard W; Dixon, Dabney W
HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play an important role in control of HIV infection. HLA class I molecules, which mediate recognition of HIV-infected cells by the CTLs, have great diversity. Some HLA class I molecules are well known to associate with HIV control. HIV escapes from the CTLs through amino acid mutations within CTL epitopes. The rapid and extensive spread of HIV escape mutants provides accumulation of the mutants at a population level, demonstrating strong evidence of HIV adaptation to HLA class I. In this review, we discuss the role of the CTLs in controlling HIV, the relationship between HLA alleles and HIV control, and the accumulation of HIV mutants selected by the CTLs at a population level. PMID:25366055
Murakoshi, Hayato; Takiguchi, Masafumi
Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication
Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is one of the most fatal diseases in the world today, and the most important worldwide infectious disease in terms of mortality. This virus infects and kills cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria. Infected cells can circulate throughout the body enabling HIV to disseminate and cause infection in many different anatomical compartments. HIV can either establish active inf...
Vaccination for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains an elusive goal. Whether an unsuccessful vaccine might not only fail to provoke detectable immune responses but also could actually interfere with subsequent natural immunity upon HIV-1 infection is unknown. We performed detailed assessment of an HIV-1 gag DNA vaccine recipient (subject 00015) who was previously uninfected but sustained HIV-1 infection before completing a vaccination trial and another contemporaneously acutel...
Balamurugan, Arumugam; Lewis, Martha J.; Kitchen, Christina M. R.; Robertson, Michael N.; Shiver, John W.; Daar, Eric S.; Pitt, Jacqueline; Ali, Ayub; Ng, Hwee L.; Currier, Judith S.; Yang, Otto O.
The potential for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to enter domestic sewers via contaminated body fluids such as blood has spurred interest in the survival of this virus in water and wastewater. This study focused on establishing the inactivation of HIV and productively infected lymphocytes in dechlorinated tap water. In addition, HIV survival was compared with that of poliovirus. Results indicated that either free HIV or cell-associated HIV was rapidly inactivated, with a 90% loss of infec...
Moore, B. E.
Abstract Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measure, and that 43% screened positive using multiple screening tools. Although overall viral load suppression rate was high at 81.4%, women with a history of violence were less likely to be virally suppressed when compared to those without such a history (76.4% versus 93.3%, p<0.05). Our findings suggest using a variety of screening questions at entry and at follow-up care appointments may be key to identifying and supporting women survivors who may not disclose violence when first asked. Future research should foster further development, analysis, and use of a variety of screening tools such as those used in this study. PMID:25561308
Espino, Susan Ryerson; Fletcher, Jason; Gonzalez, Marisol; Precht, Allison; Xavier, Jessica; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina
Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…
Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.
The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…
Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.
This work was designed to characterize the HIV viral antibodies in HIV infected and non-HIV infected HBsAgseropositive patients. Fifty non HIV infected (male = 25; female = 25)and 50 HIV infected HBsAg seropositivepatients (male – n = 25; female – n = 25) aged 6 – 64 years recruited from the medical outpatient department ofBaptist Medical Centre, Saki – Oyo State – Nigeria were investigated as test subjects. Fifty apparently healthyHIV and HBsAg seronegative ...
Olaniyan, Mathew Folaranmi
Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the neoplasm, and mortality is high.
Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is classified as a retrovirus because of its RNA genome and the fact that it requires reverse transcriptase to convert it into DNA. This virus belongs to the lentivirinae subfamily and is able to infect quiescent cells but is better known for its association with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS and can be described as one of the most effective vectors for gene transfer. Biosafety concerns are present whenever viral vectors are employed but are particularly pertinent to the development of HIV-based vectors. Insertional mutagenesis and the production of new replication-competent viruses (RCV have been pointed to as major problems, but experimental data have shown that safe protocols can be developed for their production and application. Virological, evolutionary, immunological and cell biology studies must be conducted jointly to allow the clinical use of HIV vectors. This review will focus on the general properties, production and applications of retrovectors in gene therapy, with particular emphasis on those based on HIV systems.
Flávia Helena da Silva
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is classified as a retrovirus because of its RNA genome and the fact that it requires reverse transcriptase to convert it into DNA. This virus belongs to the lentivirinae subfamily and is able to infect quiescent cells but is better known for its association wi [...] th acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and can be described as one of the most effective vectors for gene transfer. Biosafety concerns are present whenever viral vectors are employed but are particularly pertinent to the development of HIV-based vectors. Insertional mutagenesis and the production of new replication-competent viruses (RCV) have been pointed to as major problems, but experimental data have shown that safe protocols can be developed for their production and application. Virological, evolutionary, immunological and cell biology studies must be conducted jointly to allow the clinical use of HIV vectors. This review will focus on the general properties, production and applications of retrovectors in gene therapy, with particular emphasis on those based on HIV systems.
Flávia Helena da, Silva; Tiago Pires, Dalberto; Nance Beyer, Nardi.
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with a 2%–6% decrease in BMD over the first 2 years, a decrease that is similar in magnitude to that sustained during the first 2 years of menopause. Recent studies have also described increased fracture rates in the HIV-infected population. The causes of low BMD in individuals with HIV infection appear to be multifactorial and likely repr...
Mccomsey, Grace A.; Tebas, Pablo; Shane, Elizabeth; Yin, Michael T.; Overton, E. Turner; Huang, Jeannie S.; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Cardoso, Sandra W.; Santana, Jorge L.; Brown, Todd T.
The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world's highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-naïve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Simão Mendes, the main hospital in Bissau, the capital of the country. From July 2007 to June 2013, 3762 HIV-infected patients (69% HIV-1, 18% HIV-2, 11% HIV-1/2 and 2% HIV type unknown) were included in the world's largest single-centre HIV-2 cohort. Demographic and clinical data are collected at baseline and every 6 months, together with CD4 cell count and routine biochemistry analyses. Plasma and cells are stored in a biobank in Denmark. The Bissau HIV Cohort is administered by the Bissau HIV Cohort study group. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the chair of the cohort study group, Christian Wejse, e-mail: [firstname.lastname@example.org]. PMID:25342251
Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Oliveira, Inés; Medina, Candida; da Silva Té, David; Correira, Faustino Gomes; Erikstrup, Christian; Laursen, Alex Lund; Ostergaard, Lars; Wejse, Christian
The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-na? ?ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ? o Mendes, the main hos- pital in Bissau, the capital of the country. From July 2007 to June 2013, 3762 HIV-infected patients (69% HIV-1, 18% HIV-2, 11% HIV-1/2 and 2% HIV type unknown) were included in the world’s largest single-centre HIV-2 cohort. Demographic and clinical data are col- lected at baseline and every 6 months, together with CD4 cell count and routine biochem- istry analyses. Plasma and cells are stored in a biobank in Denmark. The Bissau HIV Cohort is administered by the Bissau HIV Cohort study group. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the chair of the cohort study group, Christian Wejse, e-mail: [email@example.com].
Jespersen, Sanne; HØnge, Bo Langhoff
We report an autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV)-hepatitis B virus co-primary infection in a 41-year-old man having sex with men and infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This case prompts testing for HEV in HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis even if primary infection with another hepatitis virus is diagnosed. PMID:23303497
Bouamra, Yanis; Benali, Souad; Tissot-Dupont, Hervé; Tamalet, Catherine
The purpose of this article is to review immunization recommendations for HIV-infected individuals in resource-constrained countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent evidence suggests that HIV-infected children are at risk for low immunization coverage in sub-Saharan Africa. Routine immunization is recommended for these children. In comparison with immunocompetent children, recommendations for live-attenuated vaccines differ in HIV-infected children. However, limited laboratory capacity to diagnose HIV infection amongst young children prevents the implementation of these HIV-specific guidelines in resource-constrained countries. Re-immunization has been the focus of recent research in high- and middle-income countries. Findings show that children established on highly active antiretroviral therapy have suboptimal vaccine-specific immunity and may benefit from re-immunization. Before re-immunization guidelines can be formulated for resource-constrained countries, several questions should be addressed, including whether all HIV-infected children will benefit from routine re-immunization and what optimal number of vaccine doses should be administered. Pneumococcal and influenza infections are important causes of morbidity and mortality amongst HIV-infected individuals. There is compelling evidence showing that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines will protect HIV-infected and uninfected children against invasive infection. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines should be prioritized for introduction in countries with high HIV prevalence. Although, annual influenza immunization is recommended for HIV-infected individuals, the effectiveness in Africa remains unclear. In conclusion, this brief overview has identified several limitations of current immunization policy and practice for HIV-infected individuals living in resource-constrained countries. PMID:18627205
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe pregnancies in HIV-infected teenagers. METHODS: A review of the case notes of HIV-infected pregnant teenagers aged 13-19 years from 12 London hospitals was carried out for the period 2000-2007. RESULTS: There were 67 pregnancies in 58 young women, of whom one was known to have acquired HIV vertically. The overall mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate of HIV was 1.5% (one of 66). There were 66 live births. Median ages at HIV diagnosis and conc...
Elgalib, A.; Hegazi, A.; Samarawickrama, A.; Roedling, S.; Tariq, S.; Draeger, E.; Hemelaar, J.; Rathnayaka, T.; Azwa, A.; Hawkins, D.; Edwards, S.; Perez, K.; Russell, J.; Wood, C.; Poulton, M.
CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)
Combination antiretroviral therapy can suppress human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection but cannot completely eradicate the virus. A major obstacle in the quest for a cure is the difficulty in targeting and measuring latently infected cells. To date, a single person seems to have been cured of HIV. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) preceded this cancer patient's long-term sustained HIV remission, but researchers have been unable to replicate this cure, and the mechanisms that led to HIV remission remain to be established. In February 2014, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases sponsored a workshop that provided a venue for in-depth discussion of whether HSCT could be exploited to cure HIV in cancer patients requiring such procedures. Participants also discussed how HSCT might be applied to a broader community of HIV-infected persons in whom the risks of HSCT currently outweigh the likelihood and benefits of HIV cure. PMID:25273081
Smiley, Stephen T; Singh, Anjali; Read, Sarah W; Sharma, Opendra K; Finzi, Diana; Lane, Clifford; Rice, Jeffrey S
This study examines depression among HIV infected AIDS caregivers, documenting and explaining variation in health within a stress proliferation framework. Longitudinal data for 376 HIV- and HIV+ caregiving men who self-identify as gay are analyzed to establish how changes in depression are influenced by care-related stressors and by being a member of the gay, HIV-affected community. This research identifies the mechanisms by which the caregiver stress process unfolds distinctively among caregivers with AIDS-related health problems, in comparison to HIV- caregivers. Three waves of data are analyzed using longitudinal multiple regression models. Among HIV infected caregivers, mental health is affected by deteriorating health, perceptions of AIDS alienation/stigma, internalized homophobia, role overload, and financial worry. For both groups, depression is a function of social constriction and AIDS-related bereavement. The precursive nature of caregiving among these HIV infected men may magnify the stress of being in poor health, gay, and stigmatized. PMID:10975235
Wight, R G
Neurologic complications for HIV-infected persons retain significant prevalence despite an increasingly global use of antiretroviral therapies. Such complications are often ascribed to advanced immunosuppression; however, the most common neurologic problems for HIV-infected persons, distal sensory polyneuropathy and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, affect a significant proportion of patients who have successfully achieved immunologic restoration with normal or near-normal CD4 count levels and undetectable HIV RNA in the periphery. Understanding specific considerations for HIV-associated complications, including the epidemiology, risk factors, medication-adverse effects, and benefits of appropriate management, is vital for all providers caring for those with HIV. This review will describe such considerations, as well as providing a more detailed review of the most common neurologic complications of HIV infection, and will highlight some of the challenges involved with diagnosis, management, and long-term effects. PMID:23307491
McArthur, Justin; Smith, Bryan
The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) /AIDS patients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Ethiopia. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in HIV/AIDS patients at Jimma Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia, between January and February 2002. Stool specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control groups were screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct and formalin-ether sedimentation concentration methods. Out of 78 HIV/AIDS patients, 52.6% (41/78), and out of 26 HIV-negative individuals, 42.3% (11/26), were infected with one or more types of intestinal protozoa and/or helminthes. The parasites detected among HIV/AIDS patients included Ascaris lumbricoides (30.8%), Blastocystis spp. (14.1%), Entamoeba histolytica (10.3%), Trichuris trichiura (6.4%), Strongyloides stercoralis (5.1%), Giardia lamblia (3.8%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.5%), hookworm species (2.5%), and Taenia spp. (1.3%). Multiple infections were more common among HIV/AIDS patients. Blastocystis spp. were found to be significantly higher in HIV/AIDS patients than in controls (P < 0.05). The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection was high both in HIV/AIDS patients and in controls. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the HIV-infected and uninfected individuals by contributing to reduce morbidity. PMID:15118206
Hailemariam, Getachew; Kassu, Afework; Abebe, Gemeda; Abate, Ebba; Damte, Demekech; Mekonnen, Endris; Ota, Fusao
Early identification of persons with undiagnosed HIV infection is an important health care issue. We examined associations between diseases diagnosed in hospitals and risk of subsequent HIV diagnosis.
SØgaard, Ole S; Lohse, Nicolai
General HIV laws seldom, if ever, address the human rights abuses that most affect women, particularly rape, sexual assault and domestic violence. In this article, which is based on his presentation at a concurrent session at the conference, Richard Pearshouse describes a Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network project to develop draft legislation covering certain areas of women's rights. The draft legislation is intended to be used as a practical resource for bringing about concrete law reform. This presentation won for Richard the International AIDS Society's Young Investigator Award for the conference's Track E (Policy and Political Sciences). PMID:19297763
Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...
This article presents baseline data from the SASA! (this is the Swahili for 'now') Study, a cluster randomized trial of a community-mobilization intervention to prevent violence against women and HIV/AIDS in Kampala, Uganda. Logistic regression was used to explore associations between intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexual risk behaviors, among 1,206 ever-partnered men and women (18-49 years). Twenty-seven percent of women reported past-year experience of physical and/or sexual IPV. Female experience and male perpetration of IPV were strongly associated with sexual risk behaviors. Findings confirm the importance of the SASA! intervention in this setting and endorse integrated strategies for IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23955928
Francisco, Leilani; Abramsky, Tanya; Kiss, Ligia; Michau, Lori; Musuya, Tina; Kerrigan, Deanna; Kaye, Dan; Watts, Charlotte
Introduction As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients . Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide , only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far . Materials and Methods We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013) in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients), we found 15 patients (0.2%) with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56) than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years) . Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV) co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with severe outcomes. PMID:25394151
Chawki, Sylvain; Ploussard, Guillaume; Montlahuc, Claire; Verine, Jérome; Mongiat-Artus, Pierre; Desgrandchamps, François; Molina, Jean-Michel
Urogenital schistosomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by a worm, Schistosoma haematobium, which lives in the bloodstream of infected individuals. It affects at least 112 million people, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa, and has been suggested to be a risk factor for becoming infected with HIV. We reviewed publications in order to examine whether it seems likely that this parasitic infection could be a risk factor for HIV. Evidence from many types of studies supports the hypothesis that uroge...
Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.
Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its cour...
Gupta V; Gupta S.
Paediatric HIV infection is a substantial global public health problem in its own right. Approximately one in six new HIV infections worldwide arises as a result of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT). In contrast to adult infection, progression to AIDS and death is rapid in most infected children and cannot be satisfactorily predicted in the youngest children based on viral load or CD4 count. For this reason, the current revised WHO guidelines recommending antiretroviral therapy (ART) be ini...
Goulder, Pj; Prendergast, Aj
Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...
Yoon, Jeanie C.; Crane, Paul K.; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.
This article presents an analysis of a 2008 community needs assessment survey of a convenience sample of 179 Pacific Islander respondents in southern California; the needs assessment focused on HIV knowledge, HIV testing behavior, and experience with intimate partner/relationship violence. Multivariate logistic regression results indicated that…
Takahashi, Lois M.; Kim, Anna J.; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes Flores; Lepule, Jonathan; Maguadog, Tony; Perez, Rose; Young, Steve; Young, Louise
Full Text Available Invasive-squamous-cell-cancer (ISCC of the anal canal is an uncommon disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV is the etiological agent of most of types of ISCC. The incidence of ISCC has been increasing in HIV-infected individuals, even after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The aim of this study was to analyze biopsy specimens from patients diagnosed with ISCC at a tertiary hospital from 1983 to 2012 in order to detect HPV-DNA. Methods: Formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens from patients with ISCC underwent HPV-DNA genotyping using multiplex PCR assay. Results: A total of 31 cases were collected; 10 were HIV-infected (9 men, 1 woman and 21 non-HIV-infected (11 men, 10 women. HPV infection was detected in 87.5% (7/8 of the HIV-infected patients (DNA from 2 biopsies was degraded and 76.2% (16/21 of non-HIV-infected individuals. Multiple-type infections were only found in 28.6% (2/7 of the HIV-infected patients (no multiple-type infections in non-HIV-infected individuals. The most prevalent type was HPV-16: 50% (4/8 in the HIV-infected group (57% [4/7] of the HPV-positive samples and 66.7% (14/21 in the non-HIV-infected group (87.5% (14/16 of the HPV-positive samples. Remarkably, 37.5% (3/8 of the HIV-infected group had high-risk HPV types not included in the vaccines (HPV-33, 51, 52, and 66 compared with 4.8% in the non-HIV-infected group (1/21, HPV-52. All cases of anal ISCC in HIV-infected patients were recorded in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. Conclusion: HIV-infected patients presented anal ISCC with a higher proportion of high-risk HPV types not covered by the conventional vaccines than non-HIV-infected individuals.
A small animal model that could be infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) after peripheral inoculation would greatly facilitate the study of the pathophysiology of acute HIV-1 infection. The utility of SCID mice implanted with human fetal thymus and liver (SCID-hu mice) for studying peripheral HIV-1 infection in vivo has been hampered by the requirement for direct intraimplant injection of HIV-1 and the continued restriction of the resultant HIV-1 infection to the human thymus a...
Introduction In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV. PMID:25499456
Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet
The long-term spontaneous evolution of humans and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not well characterized; many vertebrate species, including humans, exhibit remnants of other retroviruses in their genomes that question such possible endogenization of HIV. We investigated two HIV-infected patients with no HIV-related disease and no detection with routine tests of plasma HIV RNA or cell-associated HIV DNA. We used Sanger and deep sequencing to retrieve HIV DNA sequences integrated in the human genome and tested the host humoral and cellular immune responses. We noticed that viruses from both patients were inactivated by the high prevalence of the transformation of tryptophan codons into stop codons (25% overall (3-100% per gene) and 24% overall (0-50% per gene)). In contrast, the humoral and/or cellular responses were strong for one patient and moderate for the other, indicating that a productive infection occurred at one stage of the infection. We speculate that the stimulation of APOBEC, the enzyme group that exchanges G for A in viral nucleic acids and is usually inhibited by the HIV protein Vif, has been amplified and made effective from the initial stage of the infection. Furthermore, we propose that a cure for HIV may occur through HIV endogenization in humans, as observed for many other retroviruses in mammals, rather than clearance of all traces of HIV from human cells, which defines viral eradication. PMID:25366539
Colson, P; Ravaux, I; Tamalet, C; Glazunova, O; Baptiste, E; Chabriere, E; Wiedemann, A; Lacabaratz, C; Chefrour, M; Picard, C; Stein, A; Levy, Y; Raoult, D
Full Text Available A HIV infected patirent with recurrent herpes zoster has been presented.Recurrence of herpes zoster contralaterally on the same dermatome and concomitant occurrence of three viral infections, viz. HIV, HPV and VZV in the same patient were the unusual and interesting observations in the present case report.
Recognising the initial clinical presentation of acute HIV infection could enable earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy and appropriate counselling to reduce the risk of transmission to others. Herein, we describe an unusual case of acute HIV infection presenting as limbic encephalitis and rhabdomyolysis. PMID:25414090
Ferrada, Marcela A; Xie, Yingda; Nuermberger, Eric
OBJECTIVE: To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994) compared to before implementation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study in which medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic, obstetric and HIV-related data from January 1993 through December 2002. HIV-infected women who completed a pregnancy by birth or abortion were divided into two compa...
Wendel, George D.; Mcintire, Donald D.; Barbara McElwee; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Paula M. Castaño; Stuart, Gretchen S.
The smoking prevalence estimates among HIV-infected individuals range from 40%-84%; much higher than the overall adult prevalence in the United States. Characteristics that are associated with smokers who are HIV-positive include drug and alcohol abuse, psychiatric comorbidities, and lower education and socioeconomic status. There are important health implications for HIV-infected smokers, including bacterial and Pneumocystis pneumonia, tuberculosis, COPD, lung cancer and coronary artery dise...
Browning, Kristine K.; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Ferketich, Amy; Diaz, Philip
AIM—Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were evaluated for evidence of abnormal polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMN) rigidity, which can alter capillary blood flow.?METHODS—The transit time of individual PMN through 8 µm pores in a cell transit analyser was used as a measure of cell rigidity. PMN transit time was compared between HIV infected individuals (n=45) with and without CMV retinitis and HIV negative controls (n=17).?RESULTS—Transit times were longer...
Tufail, A.; Holland, G.; Fisher, T.; Cumberland, W.; Meiselman, H.
Maternal perinatal depression (PND) may interfere with effective perinatal HIV care. In order to begin examining the prevalence and characteristics of PND in HIV-infected women, we analyzed data from the medical records of all HIV-infected women who had received perinatal care in the Maternal-Child and Adolescent Center for Infectious Diseases and Virology at LAC/USC Medical Center from 1997 through 2006. Data from 273 individual women (328 live births) were analyzed. Demographic, medical his...
Kapetanovic, Suad; Christensen, Shawna; Karim, Roksana; Lin, Florence; Mack, Wendy J.; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Spencer, Lashonda; Stek, Alice; Kramer, Francoise; Kovacs, Andrea
Treatment advances such as the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have translated into greater life expectancy for HIV-infected individuals, which will ultimately result in a “graying” of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In addition, older individuals are engaging in a higher rate of high risk behaviors than had been previously expected. As such, study of older HIV-infected patients, including study of the psychiatric and neurocognitive aspects of the disease, appears highly ind...
Hinkin, C. H.; Castellon, S. A.; Atkinson, J. H.; Goodkin, K.
We have developed human cervicovaginal organ culture systems to examine the initiating events in HIV transmission after exposure to various sources of HIV infectivity, including semen. Newly infected cells were detected in the cervical submucosa 3–4 days after exposure to a primary HIV isolate. At earlier times, extensive and stable binding occurred when cervical surfaces were exposed to virions or seminal cells. Cervical mucus provided some protection for the endocervical surface, by physi...
Maher, Diane; Wu, Xiaoyun; Schacker, Timothy; Horbul, Julie; Southern, Peter
... in their lifetime (e.g., sexual coercion, unwanted sexual contact). 2 • Over 1.1 million people in the ... that can be applied vaginally or anally before sexual contact to prevent HIV transmission. • Supporting clinical trials of ...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the demographic profile, social and family characteristics, and life style traits of HIV-infected childbearing women in the Caribbean nation of Barbados in comparison to a control group of HIV-negative women. METHODS: Data for this report were drawn from the Pediatrics HIV Surveillance Program of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital in Barbados. The data covered all HIV-infected women in the country who delivered between 1986-2000, with similar data coming from a control group of HIV-negative childbearing women. Routine information recorded during antenatal care was obtained from the women's case records. Additional data were collected from interviews with the women. RESULTS: There were 182 HIV-infected women who delivered during the study period, and a group of 202 childbearing women served as controls. In comparison to the control group, the HIV-infected women were younger, more often multiparous, and more likely to have been unemployed at the time of their pregnancy. The HIV-infected women also had had an earlier onset of sexual activity, had had more sexual partners during their lifetime, and were more likely to be involved with an older sexual partner. At the time of giving birth most of the HIV-infected women were asymptomatic for AIDS and were living with either their parents (mother or father or both or the baby's father. In addition, at the time of their six-weeks-postnatal visit, the large majority of the HIV-infected women were involved in caring for their children. The proportion of HIV-infected women who were diagnosed prior to childbirth increased significantly over the study period, rising from 25% during 1986-1990 to 82% during 1996-2000. Slightly over one-fifth of the HIV-infected women had had one or more subsequent pregnancies after they had learned that they were infected. CONCLUSIONS: The early age of sexual activity as well as repeated pregnancies, especially from different and older partners, may have contributed significantly to both vertical and horizontal HIV transmission in Barbados. Future studies of HIV incidence and its trend among childbearing women could be important for monitoring the HIV epidemic in this country. Many of the HIV-infected childbearing women in our study were unemployed, sick, and had multiple children. Therefore, to help them to plan for and cope with the disease and also the care of their children beyond the perinatal period, there is a need to provide the women with repeated counseling with continued follow-up and, where necessary, additional economic, social, and medical support.
Full Text Available Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA no decorrer de suas vidas, destacando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA. Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania.This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.
Josicleide Maciel da Silva
Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in english Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fundamental for detecting and monitoring infection. Many diagnostic tools are available that are based on both detection of HIV-specific antibodies and virus antigen, or nucleic acid. As technology evolves, HIV testing assays ar [...] e being improved providing better sensitivity and specificity. In this short review, we summarize the common and new methodologies that are being used in laboratories, from the HIV antibody-based assays to the new tests for the detection of HIV nucleic acids.
Stefano, Buttò; Barbara, Suligoi; Emanuele, Fanales-Belasio; Mariangela, Raimondo.
The magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients requires careful consideration in the developing world where poor nutrition is associated with poor hygiene and several tropical diseases. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Cameroon. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in HIV/AIDS patients in Dschang -Cameroon. Stool and blood specimens from HIV/AIDS patients and control gro...
Nkenfou, Ce?line Nguefeu; Nana, Christelle Tafou; Payne, Vincent Khan
HIV-1/highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is an adipose tissue redistribution disorder characterized by subcutaneous adipose tissue lipoatrophy, sometimes including visceral adipose tissue hypertrophy and accumulation of dorsocervical fat ('buffalo hump'). The pathophysiology of HALS appears to be multifactorial and several key pathophysiological factors associated with HALS have been identified. These include mitochondrial dysfunction, adipocyte differentiation disturbances, high adipocyte lipolysis, and adipocyte apoptosis. These alterations in adipose tissue biology expand to involve systemic metabolism through alterations in endocrine functions of adipose tissue (via disturbed adipokine release), enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and excessive free fatty-acid release due to lipolysis. The deleterious action of some antiretroviral drugs is an important factor in eliciting these alterations in adipose tissue. However, HIV-1 infection-related events and HIV-1-encoded proteins also contribute directly to the complex development of HALS through effects on adipocyte biology, or indirectly through the promotion of local inflammation in adipose tissue. PMID:21663842
Giralt, Marta; Domingo, Pere; Villarroya, Francesc
Full Text Available Background: There is a widespread believe that the seroprevalence of HHV-8 in HIV infected persons are higherthan the general population. This study seeks to found out the seroprevalence of HHV-8 antibodies among HIVinfected patients in Edo State, South- South Nigeria.Materials and Method: The sera of HIV infected and non HIV infected persons were tested with double ELISA(Genscreen ultra HIV Ag-Ab ELISA and JN HIV-1/2 ELISA KIT for HIV screening and HHV-8 testing wasdone using Advanced Biotechnology Incorporated ELISA for HHV-8 IgG antibody detection.Results: The antibodies for HHV-8 was positive in 126 (70% of 180 recruited for the study. The HIV positivestudy group were 100 out of which 87 (87% were positive for HHV-8 antibodies. The sero-positivity of HHV-8among the 80 HIV negative control group was 39 (48.8%. There was statistically significant associationbetween HIV and HHV-8 at P ? 0.0001. The odds Ratio OR of 7.04 at 95% CI (3.21- 15.64 indicates thatHHV-8 positivity is more in HIV infected persons than those who were HIV negative. The relative risk ratio RRof 1.74; 95% CI (1.14- 2.26 also indicates that those with HIV infection are at a higher risk of acquiring HHV-8infection.Conclusion: There is a high seroprevalence of HHV-8 antibodies among people living with HIV/AIDS. Thismay not be in connection with route of transmission when compared to similar studies carried out by otherresearches in Africa.
Bob Agwu Ukonu
HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal antivirals that eliminate viral infection by destroying infected cells. A drug-based drug discovery program, based on these compounds, is warranted to determine the potential of such agents in clinical trials of HIV-infected patients. PMID:24086341
Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D; Cambiaghi, Tavane D; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; D'Alliessi Gandolfi, Darlene; Heller, Debra S; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M; Cone, Richard A; Holland, Bart; Pe'ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B
People with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more susceptible to thromboembolic events. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) occurs frequently in HIV infected persons but arterial thrombosis has only rarely been reported. We describe a case of a person with HIV infection who developed an arterial thrombosis and 3 months later an extensive VTE. Several non-HIV and HIV related thrombogenic factors were identified.
Callens, S.; Florence, E.; Philippe, M.; Planken, M.; Colebunders, R.
As agencies and programs serving individuals with developmental disabilities are called upon to serve a new population of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, they will be forced to confront complex legal questions. This paper discusses the legal frameworks in which individuals with HIV infection are considered eligible…
Harvey, David C.; Decker, Curtis L.
Progressive immune dysfunction and AIDS develop in most cases of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection but in only 25 to 30% of persons with HIV-2 infection. However, the natural history and immunologic responses of individuals with dual HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection are largely undefined. Based on our previous findings, we hypothesized that among patients with dual infection the control of HIV-1 is associated with the ability to respond to HIV-2 Gag epitopes and to maintain HIV-s...
Zheng, Natalie N.; Mcelrath, M. Juliana; Sow, Papa-salif; Hawes, Stephen E.; Diallo-agne, Habibatou; Stern, Joshua E.; Li, Fusheng; Mesher, Andrew L.; Robinson, Akeliah D.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; Huang, Yunda; Kiviat, Nancy B.
Purpose of the study: To identify and primarily characterize the elite controllers (EC) in Moscow Regional HIV Living People Cohort (Russia). Methods: 2682 HIV-1-positive individuals with A1 (asymptomatic) stage of HIV infection were under regular physician observation continuously for at least 5 years. Verification antibody testing was performed with “New Love Blot” and “Autoblot 2000” (Biorad). Patients underwent scheduled HIV viral load and T-lymphocyte subpopul...
Pronin, A.; Zukova, E.; Orlova-morozova, E.; Serkov, I.; Kaminskiy, G.
Although the primary mode of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is exposure to blood products or injection drug use (IDU), studies have found varying independent risk factors for HCV infection among persons with no history of IDU or exposure to blood products. For HIV-infected women, sexual transmission may be another potential source of HCV infection. HIV-infected and HIV-negative women at risk for HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) during October 1994 to November 199...
Frederick, Toni; Burian, Pamela; Terrault, Norah; Cohen, Mardge; Augenbraun, Michael; Young, Mary; Seaberg, Eric; Justman, Jessica; Levine, Alexandra M.; Mack, Wendy J.; Kovacs, Andrea
BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis from a median of 12.8 pg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 11.0-27.8] before infection to 46.7 pg/mL (IQR, 28.4-78.9) at the time of diagnosis (P = 0.027) and decreased to 13.0 pg/mL (IQR, 6.2-19.4) after treatment of syphilis (P <0.001). TNF-alpha levels showed no significant change from before to during syphilis in patients with primary or secondary stage syphilis (median 3.9 pg/mL (IQR, 3.3-9.6) and 9.0 pg/mL (IQR, 5.4-12.6), respectively (P = 0.31); however, treatment of syphilis was associated with a significant decrease in TNF-alpha to a median of 4.2 pg/mL (IQR, 2.7-6.8) (P <0.001). No significant changes in cytokine levels were observed in coinfected with latent stage syphilis.IL-10 and TNF-alpha levels correlated positively with plasma HIV RNA values at the time of diagnosis (r = 0.38, P = 0.023, and r = 0.64, P <0.001, respectively) and correlated inversely with CD4 T cell counts (-0.35, P = 0.036 and r = -0.34, P = 0.042, respectively). CONCLUSION: HIV-1 and early stage syphilis coinfection were associated with an increase in IL-10. IL-10 and TNF-alpha both decreased after treatment of syphilis. TNF-alpha and IL-10 correlated with low CD4 T cell counts and high plasma HIV RNA values.
Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas
As the population of people living with HIV ages, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has become an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors are common among those with HIV. In addition, some antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens contribute to conditions such as hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance. However, inflammation is increasingly recognized as a key contributor to ASCVD. HIV infection induces immune activation and inflammation through several mechanisms. Co-infections such as hepatitis C and cytomegalovirus along with HIV itself likely initiate immune activation and inflammation. Translocation of bacterial products across a compromised epithelial barrier as a result of HIV infection is another mechanism by which the immune system is activated. In this article we summarize the current understanding of drivers of immune activation and inflammation among those with HIV and the contribution of each to ASCVD. PMID:22556374
Maniar, Archana; Ellis, Collin; Asmuth, David; Pollard, Richard; Rutledge, John
OBJECTIVES: Immune factors determining clinical progression following HIV-1 infection remain unclear. The SPARTAC trial randomized 366 participants in primary HIV infection (PHI) to different short-course therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate how early immune responses in PHI impacted clinical progression in SPARTAC. DESIGN AND METHODS: Participants with PHI recruited to the SPARTAC trial were sampled at enrolment, prior to commencing any therapy. HIV-1-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+...
Frater, J.; Ewings, F.; Hurst, J.; Brown, H.; Robinson, N.; Fidler, S.; Babiker, A.; Weber, J.; Porter, K.; Phillips, Re
Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for spreading HIV. It is also more often diagnosed in HIV-infected homosexual men with a lifetime depression or dysthymic disorder than in the non-infected population. Untreated mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms and use of drugs can have serious repercussions. Therefore, general practitioners and internists should be trained to recognize mental health problems in HIV-infected patients.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the emerging intersections of HIV infection and Alzheimer's disease, we examined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers related of amyloid and tau metabolism in HIV-infected patients. Methods In this cross-sectional study we measured soluble amyloid precursor proteins alpha and beta (sAPP? and sAPP?, amyloid beta fragment 1-42 (A?1-42, and total and hyperphosphorylated tau (t-tau and p-tau in CSF of 86 HIV-infected (HIV+ subjects, including 21 with AIDS dementia complex (ADC, 25 with central nervous system (CNS opportunistic infections and 40 without neurological symptoms and signs. We also measured these CSF biomarkers in 64 uninfected (HIV- subjects, including 21 with Alzheimer's disease, and both younger and older controls without neurological disease. Results CSF sAPP? and sAPP? concentrations were highly correlated and reduced in patients with ADC and opportunistic infections compared to the other groups. The opportunistic infection group but not the ADC patients had lower CSF A?1-42 in comparison to the other HIV+ subjects. CSF t-tau levels were high in some ADC patients, but did not differ significantly from the HIV+ neuroasymptomatic group, while CSF p-tau was not increased in any of the HIV+ groups. Together, CSF amyloid and tau markers segregated the ADC patients from both HIV+ and HIV- neuroasymptomatics and from Alzheimer's disease patients, but not from those with opportunistic infections. Conclusions Parallel reductions of CSF sAPP? and sAPP? in ADC and CNS opportunistic infections suggest an effect of CNS immune activation or inflammation on neuronal amyloid synthesis or processing. Elevation of CSF t-tau in some ADC and CNS infection patients without concomitant increase in p-tau indicates neural injury without preferential accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau as found in Alzheimer's disease. These biomarker changes define pathogenetic pathways to brain injury in ADC that differ from those of Alzheimer's disease.
Animal and human studies suggest that Schistosoma mansoni infection may increase risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Therefore, we tested 345 reproductive age women in rural Tanzanian villages near Lake Victoria, where S. mansoni is hyperendemic, for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and schistosomiasis by circulating anodic antigen (CAA) serum assay. Over one-half (54%) had an active schistosome infection; 6% were HIV-seropositive. By univariate analysis, only schistosome infection predicted HIV infection (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9, 95% confidence interval = [1.3-12.0], P = 0.015) and remained significant using multivariate analysis to control for age, STIs, and distance from the lake (OR = 6.2 [1.7-22.9], P = 0.006). HIV prevalence was higher among women with more intense schistosome infections (P = 0.005), and the median schistosome intensity was higher in HIV-infected than -uninfected women (400 versus 15 pg CAA/mL, P = 0.01). This finding suggests that S. mansoni infection may be a modifiable HIV risk factor that places millions of people worldwide at increased risk of HIV acquisition. PMID:23033399
Downs, Jennifer A; van Dam, Govert J; Changalucha, John M; Corstjens, Paul L A M; Peck, Robert N; de Dood, Claudia J; Bang, Heejung; Andreasen, Aura; Kalluvya, Samuel E; van Lieshout, Lisette; Johnson, Warren D; Fitzgerald, Daniel W
Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) blunts viraemia, which enables HIV-1-infected individuals to control infection and live long, productive lives. However, HIV-1 infection remains incurable owing to the persistence of a viral reservoir that harbours integrated provirus within host cellular DNA. This latent infection is unaffected by ART and hidden from the immune system. Recent studies have focused on the development of therapies to disrupt latency. These efforts unmasked residual viral genomes and highlighted the need to enable the clearance of latently infected cells, perhaps via old and new strategies that improve the HIV-1-specific immune response. In this Review, we explore new approaches to eradicate established HIV-1 infection and avoid the burden of lifelong ART. PMID:25402363
Archin, Nancie M; Sung, Julia Marsh; Garrido, Carolina; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M
The rate of seroconversion for antibody to Chlamydia pneumoniae was analysed in blood samples of 26 vertically HIV-1 infected children and 14 seroreverter children (HIV-negative children born to HIV-positive mothers) during a 3-year study period. Seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae was found in 13 of 26 HIV-1 infected children and in 1 of 14 in the seroreverter group (P=0.013). A lower mean CD4+ cell count and p24 antigen positivity at enrolment were significantly associated with seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae. Signs and symptoms of acute respiratory infection were recorded in the 30 to 40 days preceding collection of the blood samples showing seroconversion for Chlamydia pneumoniae in 8 of 13 HIV-1 infected children and in the single seroreverter. This study confirms the potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the pathogenesis of respiratory tract infections in HIV-1 infected subjects. PMID:9865986
Cosentini, R; Esposito, S; Blasi, F; Clerici Schoeller, M; Pinzani, R; Tarsia, P; Fagetti, L; Arosio, C; Principi, N; Allegra, L
Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity
Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases gen...
Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C.; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q.; Kutsch, Olaf
Increased life expectancy and the need for long-term antiretroviral therapy have brought new challenges to the clinical management of HIV-infected individuals. The prevalence of osteoporosis and fractures is increased in HIV-infected patients; thus optimal strategies for risk management and treatment in this group of patients need to be defined. Prevention of bone loss is an important component of HIV care as the HIV population grows older. Understanding the mechanisms by which HIV infection ...
Del Carpio-cano, Fabiola E.; Dela Cadena, Raul A.; Sawaya, Bassel E.
In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an increase in viral load. The MACS performed equally well on cells from HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative donors. CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients were readily expanded with PHA; 19-fold by day 10, 50-fold by day 20, and 156-fold by day 25. However, CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients grew at a slower rate than CD4 cells from HIV-negative donors. The expanded CD4 cells showed a high degree of CD4 expression and no loss of polyclonality. Only in two of six cultures were we able to detect HIV-antigen production, and using an LTR-PCR and an RT assay, we did not find activation of the HIV infection during the culture period. Thus, the method described separates and expands CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activation of the HIV infection.
Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole
The prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and HIV among Kenyan women is known to be high, but the relationship between them is unknown. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from married and formerly married (MFM) women responding to the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/2009 were analyzed adjusting for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the covariate-adjusted associations between HIV serostatus and any reported DV as well as four constituent DV measures: physical, emotional, sexual, and aggravated bodily harm, adjusting for covariates entered into each model using a forward stepwise selection process. Covariates of a priori interest included those representing marriage history, risky sexual behavior, substance use, perceived HIV risk, and sociodemographic characteristics. The prevalence of HIV among MFM women was 10.7% (any DV: 13.1%, no DV: 8.6%); overall prevalence of DV was 43.4%. Among all DV measures, only physical DV was associated with HIV (11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.01, p <.05). Efforts by the government and women's groups to monitor and improve policies to reduce DV, such as the Sexual Offences Act of 2006, are urgently needed to curb HIV, as are policies that seek to provide DV counseling and treatment to MFM women. PMID:25127397
Onsomu, Elijah O; Abuya, Benta A; Okech, Irene N; Rosen, David L; Duren-Winfield, Vanessa; Simmons, Amber C
The spread and genotypical variability of GBV-C virus were determined among the HIV-positive patients in the Russian Federation. More than a fourth (26.2%) of the HIV-infected patients were shown to have GBV-C coinfection; all virus isolates belonged to genotype 2 with a predominance of subtype 2a. Analysis of the impact of GBV-C coinfection on HIV burden and CD4 lymphocyte levels showed no significant impact on these basic characteristics of HIV infection. However, coinfection with GBV-C and HIV was associated with the higher frequency of undetectably low ( < 400 copies/ml) of HIV burden, which enables GBV-C infection to be regarded as a potentially favorable factor in HIV infection. PMID:20364667
Dmitriev, P N; Tsikina, M N; Moiseeva, A V; Serkov, I L; Pronin, A Iu; Popova, O E; Isaeva, O V; Kiuregian, K K; Mikha?lov, M I
To describe sex risk behaviors of HIV-infected female sex workers (FSWs) and HIV-infected male clients of FSWs, to evaluate associations between risky transactional sex and number of unprotected transactional sex episodes, and to assess the association between unprotected transactional sex and self-reported sexually transmitted infection (STI). Adult HIV-infected FSWs (n=211) and HIV-infected male clients (n=205) were surveyed in Mumbai about demographics, STI, and past 90-day and past year s...
Raj, Anita; Saggurti, N.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Dasgupta, Anindita; Bridden, Carly; Pradeshi, Manojkumar; Samet, J. H.
Our objective was to assess the effects of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy on trabecular and cortical microarchitecture in postmenopausal minority women. A subgroup of 106 (46 HIV-infected, 60 uninfected) postmenopausal Hispanic and African American women from an established cohort had areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture measured by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) at the radius and tibia. HIV-infected women were slightly younger (58 ± 1 vs. 61 ± 1 years, p = 0.08), and had lower body mass index (BMI; 28 ± 1 vs. 32 ± 1 kg/m(2), p HIV-infected women at the lumbar spine, total hip, and ultradistal radius. Serum N-telopeptide and C-telopeptide levels were also higher in HIV-infected women. Trabecular and cortical vBMD were similar at the radius, but cortical area (105.5 ± 2.4 vs. 120.6 ± 2.0 mm(2), p HIV-infected women. Differences remained significant after adjusting for age, BMI, and race/ethnicity. In contrast, cortical porosity was similar in the two groups. Although HIV-infected postmenopausal women had lower aBMD at the spine, total hip, and ultradistal radius and higher levels of bone resorption markers, the only differences detected by HRpQCT were lower cortical thickness and area at the tibia. PMID:23460340
Yin, Michael T; Shu, Aimee; Zhang, Chiyuan A; Boutroy, Stephanie; McMahon, Donald J; Ferris, David C; Colon, Ivelisse; Shane, Elizabeth
The objective was to explore if HIV-1 infection is a risk factor for post-abortion endometritis-myometritis (PAEM) in an urban hospital in Kampala, Uganda. HIV-1 seroprevalence in women with and without post-abortion infection was established using two standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Fifty-two women with PAEM and 106 without PAEM infection were recruited. The HIV-1 seroprevalence was 17 (32.7%) among women with PAEM and 38 (36.5%) among women without post-abortion infection. HIV infection was not found to correlate with the risk for PAEM. HIV-1 seroprevalence in both groups was double that among antenatal clients in the same hospital, 14.6% in 1997. Life-threatening infections such as septicaemia, peritonitis and pelvic abscesses were observed among 12 cases (23%). HIV-1 infection was not shown to be a risk factor for PAEM, but women with abortions with and without PAEM have a higher prevalence of HIV-1 than antenatal clients. PMID:12437891
Okong, P; Biryahwaho, B; Bergström, S
Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010-2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and "rimming" partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823
Beachler, Daniel C; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Margolick, Joseph B; Weber, Kathleen M; Strickler, Howard D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Burk, Robert D; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber
Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conot statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well charact...
He, Lai; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Siu, Kenny K. Y.; Gan, Yong-xia; Chen, Lin; Zee, Benny C. Y.; Yang, Li; Kung, Hsiang-fu; Yang, Zheng-rong; He, Ming-liang
Summary Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV-infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes and antiretroviral therapy does not consistently restore the microbiota to an HIV-negative state. Despite the chronic gut inflammation characteristic of HIV infection, the associated microbiota showed limited similarity with other inflammatory states and instead showed increased, rather than decreased, diversity. Metaanalysis revealed that the microbiota of HIV-infected individuals in the US was most similar to a Prevotella-rich community composition typically observed in healthy individuals in agrarian cultures of Malawi and Venezuela and related to that of US individuals with carbohydrate-rich/ protein- and fat-poor diets. By evaluating innate and adaptive immune responses to lysates from bacteria that differ with HIV, we explore the functional drivers of these compositional differences. PMID:24034618
Lozupone, Catherine A.; Li, Marcella; Campbell, Thomas B.; Flores, Sonia C.; Linderman, Derek; Gebert, Matthew J.; Knight, Rob; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Palmer, Brent E.
Full Text Available Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215 subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 28.4%. Infection rate among HIV seropositve subjects (42.9% was statistically higher than that among HIV seronegative subjects (25.6% (P0.05. There was no statistically significant difference in the parasitic infection between HIV-seropositive males and females and among the various age groups (P>0.05. Adequate treatment, proper health education and good hygiene will help in reducing intestinal parasitic infection
Herbert Obi Okpala
Male couples represent a high priority group for HIV prevention interventions because primary partners have been identified as the source of one-third to two-thirds of HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM). HIV testing is an important component of the U.S. National AIDS Strategy. In previous research rates of HIV testing among partnered MSM have been found to be lower compared to other MSM. In this paper, we use a sample of 906 MSM recruited through internet advertisements to contrast HIV testing behavior, perceived risk of HIV infection and confidence in remaining HIV sero-negative between single MSM and MSM who report having a main partner. We also examine associations between sexual agreements and HIV testing and perceived risk among partnered MSM. Although results were marginally significant, men with a main partner had significantly higher odds of perceiving zero risk of HIV infection, higher odds of being very confident they will remain HIV-negative, and lower odds of testing for HIV in the past 6 months. Partnered men who reported they were in an open relationship had higher odds of recent HIV testing, lower odds of perceiving zero risk, and lower odds of being very confident in remaining HIV-negative, relative to those who reported monogamy. The results point to the need for dyadic interventions to tackle the underestimation of potential risk associated low HIV testing among partnered MSM. Couples HIV Testing and Counseling-CHTC-affords male couples the opportunity to learn their sero-status together and discuss the realities of their agreement and relationship and should be considered a priority intervention for male couples in the U.S. PMID:25081599
Stephenson, Rob; White, Darcy; Darbes, Lynae; Hoff, Colleen; Sullivan, Patrick
Using microRNA array analyses of in vitro HIV-1-infected CD4+ cells, we find that several host microRNAs are significantly up- or downregulated around the time HIV-1 infection peaks in vitro. While microRNA-223 levels were significantly enriched in HIV-1-infected CD4+CD8? PBMCs, microRNA-29a/b, microRNA-155 and microRNA-21 levels were significantly reduced. Based on the potential for microRNA binding sites in a conserved sequence of the Nef-3?-LTR, several host microRNAs potentially could...
Sun, Guihua; Li, Haitang; Wu, Xiwei; Covarrubias, Maricela; Scherer, Lisa; Meinking, Keith; Luk, Brian; Chomchan, Pritsana; Alluin, Jessica; Gombart, Adrian F.; Rossi, John J.
Full Text Available The replication and pathogenicity of lentiviruses is crucially modulated by ”auxiliary proteins” which are expressed in addition to the canonical retroviral ORFs gag, pol and env. Strategies to inhibit the activity of such proteins are often sought and proposed as possible additions to increase efficacy of the traditional antiretroviral therapy. This requires the acquisition of an in-depth knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying their function.The Nef auxiliary protein is expressed uniquely by primate lentiviruses and plays an important role in virus replication in vivo and the onset of AIDS. Among its several activities Nef enhances the intrinsic infectivity of progeny virions through a mechanism which remains today enigmatic. Here we review the current knowledge surrounding such activity and we discuss its possible role in HIV and SIV biology.
OBJECTIVES--To identify the extent of HIV infection and injecting drug use among female streetworking prostitutes in Glasgow; to estimate the size of the female streetworking prostitute population in the city; and to estimate the number of HIV positive women working as prostitutes on the streets in Glasgow. DESIGN--Observation and interviewing of female prostitutes over seven months in red light district; analysis of saliva samples for presence of antibodies to HIV; capture-recapture approach...
Mckeganey, N.; Barnard, M.; Leyland, A.; Coote, I.; Follet, E.
According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, 34 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2011. Transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from mother to child can occur in utero, during labour or after delivery from breastfeeding. The majority of infants are infected during delivery. Clinical records have found more evidence of an increased rate of preterm delivery in HIV-positive women in low income countries. PMID:24294757
Karamisheva, V; Ivanov, S; Nachev, A; Marinov, B; Jordanova, D; Basheva, S; Maseva, A
AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy....
Gupta, G. D.; Sujatha, N.; Dhanik, Ajay; Rai, N. P.
HIV-1 nonsubtype B variants account for the majority of HIV infections worldwide. Drug resistance in individuals who have never undergone antiretroviral therapy can lead to early failure and limited treatment options and, therefore, is an important concern. Evaluation of reported transmitted drug resistance (TDR) is challenging owing to varying definitions and study designs, and is further complicated by HIV-1 subtype diversity. In this article, we discuss the importance of various mutation l...
Chan, Philip A.; Kantor, Rami
In the Netherlands during 1993–2001, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among newly diagnosed patients was more frequent in those with HIV coinfection (5/308, 1.6%) than in those with no HIV infection (39/646, 0.6%; adjusted odds ratio 3.43, p = 0.015). Four of the 5 patients coinfected with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and HIV were foreign-born. DNA fingerprint analysis suggested that transmission had occurred outside the Netherlands.
Haar, Catharina Hendrika; Cobelens, Frank G. J.; Kalisvaart, Nico A.; Have, Jan J.; Gerven, Paul J. H. J.; Soolingen, Dick
Thirty one homosexual men with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but without major neurological complaints were assessed in a cross sectional study of neurological and neuropsychological function. Eleven patients had AIDS, 10 had persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (PGL), and 10 had HIV infection without PGL (called "well"). Thirteen age matched homosexual men without antibody to HIV acted as controls. Significant abnormalities were found in six on clinical neurological examin...
Carne, C. A.; Stibe, C.; Bronkhurst, A.; Newman, S. P.; Weller, I. V.; Kendall, B. E.; Harrison, M. J.
Full Text Available Objective ?To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods ?Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results ?Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion ?The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.
The high degree of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity in the Cameroonian population indicates a relatively old epidemic in this country. However, studies of pygmy 'hunter-gatherers' show only rare HIV-1 infection, mainly after contact with Bantus rather than from contact with non-human primates.
Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic remains a global health crisis with a high burden of respiratory disease among infected persons. While the early complications of the epidemic were dominated by opportunistic infections, improved survival has led to the emergence of non-infectious conditions that are associated with chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary disability. Obstructive ventilatory defects and reduced diffusing capacity are common findings in adults, and the association between HIV and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is increasingly recognized. There is synergism between viral factors, opportunistic infections, conventional influences like tobacco smoke and biomass fuel exposure, and potentially, the immunological effects of ART on the development of HIV-associated chronic obstructive lung disease. Pulmonary function data for HIV-infected infants and children are scarce, but shows that bronchiectasis and obliterative bronchiolitis with severe airflow limitation are major problems, particularly in the developing world. However, studies from these regions are sorely lacking. There is thus a major unmet need to understand the influences of chronic HIV infection on the lung in both adults and children, and to devise strategies to manage and prevent these diseases in HIV-infected individuals. It is important for clinicians working with HIV-infected individuals to have an appreciation of their effects on measurements of lung function. This review therefore summarizes the lung function abnormalities described in HIV-positive adults and children, with an emphasis on obstructive lung disease, and examines potential pathogenic links between HIV and the development of chronic pulmonary disability. PMID:25251876
Calligaro, Gregory L; Gray, Diane M
Full Text Available Objective. To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994 compared to before implementation.
George D. Wendel
The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and factors associated with genital tract infections among HIV-infected pregnant women from African sites. Participants were recruited from Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Lusaka, Zambia. Genital tract infections were assessed at baseline. Of 2627 eligible women enrolled, 2292 were HIV-infected. Of these, 47.8% had bacterial vaginosis (BV), 22.4% had vaginal candidiasis, 18.8% had trichomoniasis, 8.5% had genital ...
Aboud, S.; Msamanga, G.; Read, J. S.; Mwatha, A.; Chen, Y. Q.; Potter, D.; Valentine, M.; Sharma, U.; Hoffmann, I.; Taha, T. E.; Goldenberg, R. L.; Fawzi, W. W.
Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.
Lynne M Mofenson
Pediatric HIV/AIDS has become less of a problem in resource-rich countries as the number of perinatal infections has reduced dramatically since the advent of antiretrovirals, resulting in the effective prevention of mother-to-child transmission. In resource-limited settings, however, pediatric HIV infection remains a colossal problem; a separate review in this same issue of Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy examines the international aspects of pediatric HIV/AIDS. Treatment of HIV infection in children differs from that in adults in the use of immunologic markers and owing to drug pharmacokinetics and age-related adherence issues. This review, geared for the general pediatrician or family practitioner who may see the HIV-positive child in the clinic or the hospital, summarizes the most recent pediatric data and guidelines for the testing and treatment of HIV, including the US NIH guidelines released in February 2008. Treatment-experienced patients, who should be cared for by pediatric HIV specialists, are not addressed here specifically. Adolescents, infected either perinatally or sexually, with their own unique issues, deserve a separate review. PMID:18380599
McKellar, Mehri S; Callens, Steven F J; Colebunders, Robert
Based on recent reports of antibody-dependent enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in vitro by serum from HIV-1-infected humans, sera from HIV-1 antibody-positive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) was evaluated for enhancing activity in an in vitro infection assay that uses MT-2 cells (a human lymphoblastoid cell line). Although fresh chimpanzee serum was found to have pronounced infection-enhancing properties in the absence of antibody to HIV-1, this effect was ab...
Robinson, W. E.; Montefiori, D. C.; Mitchell, W. M.; Prince, A. M.; Alter, H. J.; Dreesman, G. R.; Eichberg, J. W.
South Africa is in the midst of one of the world’s most devastating HIV/AIDS epidemics and there is a well documented association between violence against women and HIV transmission. Interventions that target men and integrate HIV prevention with gender-based violence prevention may demonstrate synergistic effects. A quasi-experimental field intervention trial was conducted with two communities randomly assigned to receive either: (a) a five session integrated intervention designed to simul...
Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cloete, Allanise; Clayford, Mario; Arnolds, Warda; Mxoli, Mpumi; Smith, Gino; Cherry, Chauncey; Shefer, Tammy; Crawford, Mary; Kalichman, Moira O.
Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I) and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II) were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% an...
Eb, Kia; Hadighi, R.; Zahabian, F.; Mohraz, M.; Rezaian, M.; Ar, Meamar
The very first HIV-1 infected patients who received antiretroviral combination therapy (HAART) were severely ill and had very low CD4+ T cell counts. We describe a group of severely ill HIV- I infected patients monitored for the first two years of their HAART. The patients were subdivided retrospectively into viral responders and viral low responders. Memory and naive T cells increased in both groups and membrane bound activation markers decreased. There were no clinical ...
OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly activ...
Cecilia Zanin Palchetti; Rose Vega Patin; Aída de Fátima Thomé Barbosa Gouvêa; Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld; Regina Célia Menezes Succi; Fernanda Luisa Ceragioli Oliveira
Previous studies of the effect of ART on gene expression in HIV-infected individuals have identified small numbers of modulated genes. Since these studies were underpowered or cross-sectional in design, a paired analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), isolated before and after ART, from a robust number of HIV-infected patients (N=32) was performed. Gene expression was assayed by microarray and 4,157 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified following ART using mult...
Massanell, Marta; Singhania, Akul; Beliakova-bethell, Nadejda; Pier, Rose; Lada, Steven; White, Cory H.; Pe?rez-santiago, Josue?; Blanco, Julia?; Richman, Douglas D.; Little, Susan J.; Woelk, Christopher H.
OBJECTIVE: To examine factors affecting the utilization of formal and informal home care services by people with HIV infection. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING: Study participants are adults with HIV infection receiving services at major providers of medical care in ten U.S. cities. Six interviews were conducted over an 18-month period (March 1991 to September 1992). DATA COLLECTION METHODS: Data on home care utilization, personal background characteristics, insurance status, and functional st...
Fleishman, J. A.
OBJECTIVE. To examine factors affecting the use of inpatient, outpatient, and emergency room services by people with HIV infection. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SETTING. Study participants are adults with HIV infection receiving services at major providers of medical care in ten U.S. cities. Six interviews were conducted over an 18-month period (March 1991 to September 1992). DATA COLLECTION METHODS. Data on service utilization, personal background characteristics, insurance status, and functional ...
Fleishman, J. A.; Hsia, D. C.; Hellinger, F. J.
Adenohypophysis stillborn from HIV-infected mothers had a high functional stress for long periods of fetal devel-opment, leading to inhibition of its functional state, as evidenced by the decrease in the diameter of cells, reducing their se-cretory granules, and increased nuclear-cytoplasmic index. In the antenatal period of development in the adenohypophysis of stillbirths from HIV-infected mothers apparently failed embryo genesis, which appeared violation of a population growth of acidophi...
Sherstiuk S.A.; Sorokina I.V.
Full Text Available We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant born to an HIV infected mother who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM at nine weeks of gestation. We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women.
Maria Letícia Santos Cruz
Intestinal parasitic infection has been a major source of disease in tropical countries especially among HIV patients. The distribution of intestinal parasite among two hundred and fifteen (215) subjects with mean age of 32 years, comprising of 35 HIV-seropositive and 180 HIV seronegative patients was carried out using microscopic method to examine their stool specimens for presence of trophozoites, ova, cysts, larvae and oocysts of intestinal parasites. Overall parasitic infection rate was 2...
Herbert Obi Okpala; Youtchou Mirabeau Tatfeng; Marcellinus Okodua; Oluwaseyi Adegboyega Adeyeba
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267, 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290, and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290. Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001, casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009, injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001, and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05. In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04 and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002. Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009, reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of the present study was to determine the vulnerability of women in prison to HIV infection. The study was carried out from August to October 2000 in a São Paulo State Penitentiary, where 299 female prisoners were serving time. We interviewed and obtained a blood sample from 290 females [...] who agreed to enter the study. Sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis and the odds ratio (OR) was calculated for variables related to HIV positivity on the basis of a questionnaire. The overall prevalence data were: 13.9% for HIV (37 of 267), 22.8% for syphilis (66 of 290), and 16.2% for HCV (47 of 290). Sexual partnership variables were significantly related to HIV infection. These included HIV-positive partners (OR = 7.36, P = 0.0001), casual partners (OR = 8.96, P = 0.009), injectable drug user partners (OR = 4.7, P = 0.0001), and history of sexually transmitted disease (OR = 2.07, P = 0.05). In addition, a relationship was detected between HIV infection and drug use (OR = 2.48, P = 0.04) and injectable drug use (OR = 4.2, P = 0.002). Even women with only one partner presented a significant OR for HIV infection (OR = 2.57, P = 0.009), reflecting their vulnerability due to their trust in their partner, who did not use a condom. Although the use of injectable substances is associated with HIV infection, our results point to sexual behavior as the most important component of HIV transmission in the female prisoner population.
L., Strazza; R.S., Azevedo; H.B., Carvalho; E., Massad.
To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) ...
Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A.; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard
Full Text Available The efficiency of transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of those exposed. Infectiousness is dictated by the concentration of HIV-1 in relevant fluids (regardless of route of transmission and the viral genotype and phenotype. People newly infected with HIV-1 (i.e. acute infection and those with STI co-infections excrete such a large concentration of virus as to be “hyperinfectious.” The actual transmission of HIV likely occurs in the first few hours after exposure. The probability of transmission may be as low as 1/10,000 episodes of intercourse or 1/10 sexual exposures when anal intercourse is practiced. The transmission of HIV is generally limited to one or a small number of founder variants which themselves may be “hyperinfectious.” Synergistic behavioural and biologic HIV prevention strategies have been developed and implemented. Safer sex includes limiting the number of sexual partners, use of male latex condoms, and structural interventions to reduce exposure. These strategies appear to have contributed to reduced HIV incidence in many countries. Biological interventions have proved catalytic: these include treatment of inflammatory cofactors, voluntary male circumcision and use of antiviral agents either for infected people (who can be rendered remarkably less contagious or as pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP and PEP. Ecologic evidence suggests that broader, earlier antiviral treatment of HIV may be reducing incidence in some (but not all populations. However, maximal benefit of HIV “treatment for prevention” and application of PrEP will likely require a program of universal “test and treat,” where many more infected patients are identified, linked to care, and treated very early in disease and for life. Community randomized trials designed to support this approach are under way in Africa. The “test and treat” prevention strategy is resource-intensive and serves to emphasize research that searches for a cure for HIV infection so that people living with HIV can eventually reduce or stop treatment. Likewise, success in HIV prevention emphasizes the importance of development of an HIV vaccine, which remains focused on agents that may evoke CTL responses, antibody dependent cytotoxicity, and (perhaps most important broad neutralizing antibodies. A human clinical trial (RV144 and animal experiments have provided hope, excitement and a roadmap for development of an HIV vaccine.
Caveolin 1 (Cav-1) is a major protein of a specific membrane lipid raft known as caveolae. Cav-1 interacts with the gp41 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope, but the role of Cav-1 in HIV replication and pathogenesis is not known. In this report, we demonstrate that HIV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs), THP-1 macrophages, and U87-CD4 cells results in a dramatic upregulation of Cav-1 expression mediated by HIV Tat. The activity of p53 is essential fo...
Lin, Shanshan; Wang, Xiao Mei; Nadeau, Peter E.; Mergia, Ayalew
Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.
Full Text Available An HIV positive patient with severe genital herpes and oral hairy leukoplakia is reported. Lower rate of heterosexual transmission and implications of transimission of HIV in a hospital set up are stressed.
Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004 in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal ( Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml?=?1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.27 and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR?=?3.19; 95% CI 1.46–6.97, and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.54. The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio?=?2.76; 95% CI 1.25–6.08. Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to complement necessary therapeutic and prophylactic antiretroviral interventions.
Macrophages serve as a major reservoir for HIV-1 because a large number of macrophages in the brain and lung are infected with HIV-1 during late stage disease. Recent evidence suggests that those HIV-1-infected macrophages play a key role in contributing to tissue damage in AIDS pathogenesis. Macrophages undergo apoptosis upon HIV-1 infection; however, the mechanisms of this process are not well-defined. Previously, we demonstrated that HIV-1 infection inhibits Akt-1, a critical protein for c...
Cui, Min; Huang, Yunlong; Zhao, Yong; Zheng, Jialin
Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.
Decker, Michele R.; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay Glen; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; Seage, George R.
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author)
Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author).
Adams, M.L.; Houpt, K.R.; Cruz, P.D. Jr. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center
Full Text Available HIV-induced immunosuppression paves the way for several infections, tuberculosis being very common in our country. Female genital tuberculosis (FGTB, presenting as menstrual irregularities, is a diagnostic challenge in an adolescent female when these may be considered normal. The present case is of a young female who presented with menstrual irregularities, diagnosed subsequently as a case of genital tuberculosis. Microbiological relapse after anti-tubercular treatment of six months caused suspicion of a co-existing immunodeficiency and investigations revealed HIV co-infection; thus emphasizing the need of HIV testing in all patients of tuberculosis for timely diagnosis and treatment support thereafter.
Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old hom...
Abdul Wahab, Asrul; Rahman, M. M.; Mohammad, Marlyn; Hussin, Salasawati
Japan has experienced an epidemic of methamphetamine (MAP) abuse three times: The first epidemic was from 1951 to 1957, the second epidemic was from 1970 to 1994, and the third epidemic started in 1995 and continues today. Fortunately, HIV infection is not as serious a problem in Japan as it is in other countries. The major route of HIV infection in Japan has been through male homosexual transmission. In cumulative number, homosexual transmission accounted for 63% of the 11,146 HIV-positive p...
Wada, Kiyoshi; Funada, Masahiko; Shimane, Takuya
Despite progress against intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV/AIDS in the past two decades, both epidemics remain major public health problems, particularly among women of color. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between recent IPV and HIV risk factors (sexual and drug risk behaviors, STIs, condom use and negotiation) among women of African descent. We conducted a comparative case-control study in women’s health clinics in Baltimore, Maryland and St. Thomas and S...
Stockman, Jamila K.; Lucea, Marguerite B.; Draughon, Jessica E.; Sabri, Bushra; Anderson, Jocelyn C.; Bertrand, Desiree; Campbell, Doris W.; Callwood, Gloria B.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.
We have defined human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) serologic reactivity in Brazilians living in an area endemic for tropical diseases. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot (WB) analyses were performed on 342 patients with diseases including Chagas' disease, schistosomiasis, typhoid fever, helminthiasis, and cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Nine percent of the visceral leishmaniasis patients' sera reacted in the HIV-1 ELISA but all were WB negative. All other sera from these patients were HIV negative. A total of 224 HIV-1 ELISA repeatedly positive sera also were HIV-1 WB tested. They were drawn from a total population of 19,230 individuals, including AIDS patients, blood donors, homosexual men, intravenous drug users, pregnant women, individuals with hemophiliac, and tuberculosis and sexually transmitted disease patients. The WB results were analyzed using five different interpretive criteria for WB positivity. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were the most sensitive and specific for identifying HIV-1-infected individuals. The WB pattern was similar to that seen in the United States. Envelope (ENV) protein antibodies were highly predictive of HIV-1 infection; none of the AIDS patients lacked ENV protein reactivity. We conclude that among the tropical diseases studied, only visceral leishmaniasis is associated with false-positive HIV-1 ELISA tests. Current CDC and WHO criteria for interpretation of HIV-1 WB tests are appropriate for Brazil. PMID:8450408
Ribeiro, T T; Brites, C; Moreira, E D; Siller, K; Silva, N; Johnson, W D; Badaro, R
Tuberculosis and HIV have combined to present a major threat to global public health. Each disease has a negative effect on the other, and mortality in patients with both tuberculosis and HIV is higher than that caused by either condition alone. In regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, as many as a third or more of all patients with tuberculosis have concomitant HIV infection. In urban centers in developed nations, HIV co-infection may also be quite common. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection in persons with HIV is successful in preventing many cases of active disease, and newer ultra-short course regimens, such as those consisting of 2 months of rifampin and pyrazinamide, should aid in this effort. Diagnosis and treatment of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients may be difficult. Although treatment of active tuberculosis is generally successful in patients with HIV, drug interactions between anti-tuberculosis medications and antiretrovirals often complicate the matter, and expert guidance should be sought for proper management. PMID:11590540
Schluger, N W; Burzynski, J
Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.
Larsen Carsten S
OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: OR of HIV diagnosis was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.3) among heterosexual individuals with low educational attainments, but no associations between educational attainment and time to HAART initiation, CD4 cell count, or viral suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated with late/very late presentation of HIV, time to HAART initiation, or HAART response. However, low educational attainment substantially increased lifestyle-related mortality, which indicates that increased mortality in HIV-infected patients with low educational attainments stems from risk factors unrelated to HIV.
Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H
The relationship between leprosy and HIV infection is not yet fully understood, as not much is known about the natural history of the co-infected patients. The matter has become more confusing because of conflicting reports. Type-1 lepra reactions and neuritis appear to be severe and more frequent among them. But erythema nodosum leprosum too is not as uncommon among these patients as it was once thought. Management of these co-infected patients is often difficult for want of clear-cut guidelines on clinical care. We report here our experience of treating recurrent, severe erythema nodosum leprosum in a patient concurrently having leprosy and HIV infection. Early institution of antiretroviral therapy appears to provide an edge in improving the therapeutic outcome for him. It also suggests a direct and more complex interplay of HIV and Mycobacterium leprae infection. PMID:16830640
Sharma, Nand Lal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Sharma, Vikas C; Sarin, Sandip; Sharma, Ramesh Chander
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume increases, and in one of these structures-the nucleus accumbens-there appeared to be a larger effect in younger methamphetamine abusers. Neurocognitive impairment was associated with decreased cortical volumes in HIV-positive participants but with increased cortical volumes in methamphetamine-dependent participants. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest significant brain structure alterations associated with both HIV infection and methamphetamine dependence. The regional patterns of the changes associated with these factors were distinct but overlapping, and the effects on brain volumes were opposing. Although the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results have implications for the interpretation of brain morphological findings in methamphetamine-dependent, HIV-positive individuals, a group whose numbers are unfortunately increasing
Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C
Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical assays (<50 to 75 copies/ml) without antiretroviral therapy. Although several recent studies have documented persistent low-grade viremia in HIV-1 controllers at a level not significantly different from that in HIV-1-infected individuals undergoing treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), it is unclear if plasma viruses are undergoing full cycles of replication in vivo or if the infection of new cells is completely blocked by host immune mechanisms. We studied a cohort of 21 HIV-1 controllers with a median level of viremia below 1 copy/ml, followed for a median of 11 years. Less than half of the cohort carried known protective HLA types (B*57/27). By isolating HIV-1 RNA from large volumes of plasma, we amplified single genome sequences of both pro-rt and env longitudinally. This study is the first to document that HIV-1 pro-rt and env evolve in this patient group, albeit at rates somewhat lower than in HIV-1 noncontrollers, in HLA B*57/27-positive, as well as HLA B*57/27-negative, individuals. Viral diversity and adaptive events associated with immune escape were found to be restricted in HIV-1 controllers, suggesting that replication occurs in the face of less overall immune selection.
Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary
Quantitative HIV RNA viral load (QVL) assays (Roche Diagnostics) were sensitive and specific when used to diagnose HIV infection in (i) HIV-exposed infants (sensitivity of 100% [63.1 to 100%] and specificity of 100% [97.9 to 100%]) and (ii) suspected acute HIV infection patients with a negative/indeterminate Western blot (sensitivity of 97.6% [91.6 to 99.7%] and specificity of 100% [96.1 to 100%]). No false-positive QVL results were identified. PMID:22162550
Lee, Bonita E; Plitt, Sabrina S; Jayaraman, Gayatri C; Chui, Linda; Singh, Ameeta E; Preiksaitis, Jutta K
Quantitative HIV RNA viral load (QVL) assays (Roche Diagnostics) were sensitive and specific when used to diagnose HIV infection in (i) HIV-exposed infants (sensitivity of 100% [63.1 to 100%] and specificity of 100% [97.9 to 100%]) and (ii) suspected acute HIV infection patients with a negative/indeterminate Western blot (sensitivity of 97.6% [91.6 to 99.7%] and specificity of 100% [96.1 to 100%]). No false-positive QVL results were identified.
Lee, Bonita E.; Plitt, Sabrina S.; Jayaraman, Gayatri C.; Chui, Linda; Singh, Ameeta E.; Preiksaitis, Jutta K.
Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection. PMID:25397349
Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the course of HIV infection, improving immune function and decreasing dramatically the mortality and morbidity due to the opportunistic complications of the disease. Nonetheless, even with sustained suppression of HIV replication, many HIV-infected persons experience a syndrome characterized by increased T cell activation and evidence of heightened inflammation and coagulation. This residual immune dysregulation syndrome or RIDS is more common in persons who fail to increase circulating CD4+ T cells to normal levels and in several epidemiologic studies it has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. These morbid and fatal events are not the typical opportunistic infections and malignancies seen in the early AIDS era but rather comprise a spectrum of cardiovascular events, liver disease, metabolic disorders, kidney disease, bone disease, and a spectrum of malignant complications distinguishable from the opportunistic malignancies that characterized the earlier days of the AIDS epidemic. While immune activation, inflammation, and coagulopathy are characteristic of untreated HIV infection and improve with drug-induced control of HIV replication, the drivers of RIDS in treated HIV infection are incompletely understood. And while inflammation, immune activation, and coagulopathy are more common in treated persons who fail to restore circulating CD4+ T cells, it is not entirely clear how these two phenomena are linked. PMID:23886064
Lederman, Michael M; Funderburg, Nicholas T; Sekaly, Rafick P; Klatt, Nichole R; Hunt, Peter W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.
Petropoulos Christos J
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the hi [...] gh vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
Busisiwe, Ncama; Gugu, Mchunu; Joanne, Naidoo; Sisana, Majeke; Padmini, Pillay; Thandazile, Myeza; Thandiwe, Ndebele.
Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.
Abstract Background Rhodococcus equi (R.equi) is an acid fast, GRAM + coccobacillus, which is widespread in the soil and causes pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in immunocompromised people. In the context of HIV infection, R.equi infection (rhodococcosis) is regarded as an opportunistic disease, and its outcome is influenced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Case presentation We report two cases of HIV-related rhodococcosi...
Ferretti Francesca; Boschini Antonio; Iabichino Cristiana; Gerevini Simonetta; De Nardi Paola; Guffanti Monica; Balconi Giuseppe; Lazzarin Adriano; Cinque Paola
HCV and HIV co-infection is associated with accelerated hepatic fibrosis progression and higher rates of liver decompensation and death compared to HCV monoinfection, and liver disease is a leading cause of non-AIDS related mortality among HIV-infected patients. New insights have revealed multiple mechanisms by which HCV and HIV lead to accelerated disease progression, specifically that HIV infection increases HCV replication, augments HCV-induced hepatic inflammation, increases hepatocyte apoptosis, increases microbial translocation from the gut, and leads to an impairment of HCV-specific immune responses. Treatment of HIV with antiretroviral therapy and treatment of HCV have independently been shown to delay the progression of fibrosis and reduce complications from end-stage liver disease among co-infected patients. However, rates of sustained virologic response with PEG-IFN and ribavirin have been significantly inferior among co-infected patients compared to HCV monoinfected patients, and treatment uptake has remained low given the limited efficacy and tolerability of current HCV regimens. With multiple direct acting antivirals in development to treat HCV, a unique opportunity exists to redefine the treatment paradigm for co-infected patients, which incorporates data on fibrosis stage as well as potential drug interactions with antiretroviral therapy. PMID:24535328
Chen, Jennifer Y.; Feeney, Eoin R.; Chung, Raymond T.
The number of new HIV-1 infections remains stable in Switzerland over the last years thanks to the effective prevention programs. However, the aim to halve the new HIV infection rate has not been reached. Early identification of patients at risk of acquiring HIV infection and counselling "safer sex" rules as well as treating HIV-infected patients plays a decisive role in this program. Studies are -ongoing to investigate additional preventive measures such as pre-exposure prophylaxis, microbicides and vaccines, but none of those approaches permit omitting "safer sex". Incidences of other sexual transmitted infections are increasing rapidly, in particular the incidence of Syphilis. Transmission occurs more often orally or rectally than vaginally and patients are often asymptomatic. Condoms provide only limited protection. In addition antibiotic resistance emerges complicating the therapy, as for example for gonorrhea. Testing and treatment of infected patients is primordial as well as contact tracing. In this work, we discuss the different elements for preventing STIs with major emphasis on HIV. PMID:25093318
Stoliaroff-Pépin, Anna; Speck, Roberto F; Vernazza, Pietro
The pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (now commonly referred to as PrEP) of HIV infection has gained increased momentum, concomitantly with the successful use of combination drug regimens for the treatment of AIDS. A pivotal component in the current drug combination regimens for the treatment of AIDS as well as the ongoing PrEP trials is tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF, Viread®) and its combination with emtricitabine (FTC). The combination of TDF with FTC has been marketed as Truvada®. TDF and TDF/FTC has proven effective, if orally administered daily or intermittently, in the prevention of rectal simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) infection in macaques. Topical tenofovir gel has proven effective in the prevention of HIV infection in women in South Africa. Oral TDF/FTC has proven effective in the prevention of HIV infection in men having sex with men, and recent press releases divulged that oral TDF/FTC is also effective in preventing HIV infection in serodiscordant couples in Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Other PrEP studies are still ongoing. Available data point to the efficacy and safety of TDF with or without FTC in the prophylaxis of HIV infection (AIDS). PMID:22067069
Clercq, Erik De
A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV-infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family. Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated by non-HIV-related conditions that may have a worse prognosis and therefore become more important than HIV-related conditions. Despite the improvements in antiretroviral therapy, there is still an excess mortality among HIV patients, which appears to be only partially attributable to immunodeficiency, with lifestyle factors potentially playing a pronounced role. Consequently, an effort to further increase survival must target risk factors for both HIV-related and -unrelated mortality. The continuation of the positive trend may be achieved by increased HIV testing, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population.
Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg
Introduction Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. Method This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Conclusion Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women. PMID:24470776
Dhakal, Liladhar; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Aro, Arja R
Full Text Available Dendritic cells initiate and sustain immune responses by migrating to sites of pathogenic insult, transporting antigens to lymphoid tissues and signaling immune specific activation of T cells through the formation of the immunological synapse. Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to CD4 T cells through an analogous structure, the infectious synapse. This replication independent mode of HIV-1 transmission, known as trans-infection, greatly increases T cell infection in vitro and is thought to contribute to viral dissemination in vivo. This review outlines the recent data defining the mechanisms of trans-infection and provides a context for the potential contribution of trans-infection in HIV-1 disease.
To determine current data on HIV infection and to further confirm the presence of HIV-1 group O infection in Nigeria, 2300 samples from five states were tested for the presence of HIV antibody. A convenience sampling was obtained from pregnant women, tuberculosis (TB) patients, commercial sex workers (CSWs), blood donors, patients with sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), patients with skin diseases, male clients of CSWs, outpatients suspected to have AIDS, truck drivers, and community dwellers. With the exception of pregnant women, the HIV prevalences in all these groups were high: 60.6% in CSWs, 16.2% in TB patients, 7.7% in blood donors in some states, and 16% in the rural area of Kano State. Male clients of CSWs, truck drivers, and STD patients had prevalences of 7.8%, 8.6%, and 21.2%, respectively. Regional differences in relation to HIV prevalences were observed; HIV-2 and most of the HIV-1/2 infections were found in the southern states of Nigeria. Higher HIV prevalences were observed in the north-northeast in pregnant women, TB patients, and CSWs, but for blood donors, higher rates were seen in the southeast-southwest. One asymptomatic 50-year-old woman, a community dweller in Kano, was identified to be HIV-1 group O-positive. Compared with data from national surveillance studies in 1991/1992 and 1993/1994, a substantial increase in HIV infection was observed. Our results show a growing incidence of HIV infection in Nigeria and suggest the presence of a rural HIV epidemic. The identification of HIV-1 group O in Kano shows that this virus strain is geographically widespread in Nigeria. PMID:9390573
Esu-Williams, E; Mulanga-Kabeya, C; Takena, H; Zwandor, A; Aminu, K; Adamu, I; Yetunde, O; Akinsete, I; Patrel, D; Peeters, M; Delaporte, E
Human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) has been considered until recently as a contraindication for liver transplantation. This was due to the poor spontaneous prognosis of HIV infection. The advent of highly active antiretroviral drugs (HAART) was a therapeutic breakthrough, and the prognosis has been dramatically improved. 30 % and 10 % of HIV infected patients are coinfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and with hepatitis B virus (HBV), respectively. The progression of chronic hepatitis B and C seems more rapid in coinfected patients, and a high number of patients will develop life-threatening liver cirrhosis. There are numerous potential problems raised by liver transplantation in HIV infected patients: (1) the potential risk of needlestick injury during this type of hemorrhagic surgery at high risk of bleeding; (2) the timing for liver transplantation; (3) the risk of interference between HAART and calcineurin inhibitors; (4) The risk of HBV and HCV recurrence post-transplant. Since 1999, a program of liver transplantation has been started in patients coinfected with HIV and HBV or HCV with the support of the Agence Nationale de Recherche contre le Sida et les Hépatites virales (ANRS). The first results showed that liver transplantation in HIV-HCV and HIV-HBV infected patients is feasible, achieving 2-year survival of 70 % and 100 %, respectively. There was no acceleration of HIV disease after transplantation. HBV recurrence was well prevented by the combination of anti-HBs immunoglobulins plus nucleoside and nucleotide analogues effective against HBV. The main problem is HCV recurrence, which is more rapid and more severe in HIV coinfected patients than in HCV monoinfected patients. Understanding HCV recurrence mechanisms, and preventing and treating of HCV recurrence are major future challenges. PMID:17875290
Duclos-Vallée, Jean-Charles; Teicher, Elina; Vittecoq, Daniel; Samuel, Didier
Serological evidence for Toxoplasma gondii infection in Thai pregnant women was investigated. One thousand six hundred and sixty-nine blood specimens were collected from 838 HIV-seropositive and 831 HIV-seronegative pregnant women attending the antenatal-care clinic at Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, during a two-year period. Toxoplasma IgG antibody was detected, using a solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in which the membrane protein p-30 was the predominant antigen. IgG positive sera were subsequently examined for IgM antibody by the capture antibody enzyme immunoassay. The IgG antibody was found in 450 (53.7%) HIV seropositive women and 44 (5.3%) non-HIV infected women, with a statistically significant difference (p Toxoplasma infection with increase exposure to their offspring. PMID:12009080
Wanachiwanawin, D; Sutthent, R; Chokephaibulkit, K; Mahakittikun, V; Ongrotchanakun, J; Monkong, N
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Protein methylation is recognized as a major protein modification pathway regulating diverse cellular events such as protein trafficking, transcription, and signal transduction. More recently, protein arginine methyltransferase activity has been shown to regulate HIV-1 transcription via Tat. In this study, adenosine periodate (AdOx was used to globally inhibit protein methyltransferase activity so that the effect of protein methylation on HIV-1 infectivity could be assessed. Results: Two cell culture models were used: HIV-1-infected CEM T-cells and HEK293T cells transfected with a proviral DNA plasmid. In both models, AdOx treatment of cells increased the levels of virion in culture supernatant. However, these viruses had increased levels of unprocessed or partially processed Gag-Pol, significantly increased diameter, and displayed reduced infectivity in a MAGI X4 assay. AdOx reduced infectivity equally in both dividing and non-dividing cells. However, infectivity was further reduced if Vpr was deleted suggesting virion proteins, other than Vpr, were affected by protein methylation. Endogenous reverse transcription was not inhibited in AdOx-treated HIV-1, and infectivity could be restored by pseudotyping HIV with VSV-G envelope protein. These experiments suggest that AdOx affects an early event between receptor binding and uncoating, but not reverse transcription. Conclusion: Overall, we have shown for the first time that protein methylation contributes towards maximal virus infectivity. Furthermore, our results also indicate that protein methylation regulates HIV-1 infectivity in a complex manner most likely involving the methylation of multiple viral or cellular proteins and/or multiple steps of replication.
Piller Sabine C
Objectives: Little is known about the impact of HIV infection on biological aging in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to assess biological aging in South African HIV-infected adults and HIV-seronegative individuals using two validated biomarkers, telomere length and CDKN2A expression (a mediator of cellular senescence). Design: Case-control study Methods: 236 HIV-infected adults aged >=30 years and 250 age- and gender frequency-matched HIV-seronegative indi...
Pathai, S; Lawn, S. D.; Gilbert, C. E.; Mcguinness, D.; Mcglynn, L.; Weiss, H. A.; Port, J.; Christ, T.; Barclay, K.; Wood, R.; Bekker, L. -g; Shiels, P. G.
Although both monocytes and macrophages possess essential requirements for HIV-1 entry, peripheral blood monocytes are infrequently infected with HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, tissue macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages in vitro are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 R5 tropic strains. We investigated intracellular anti–HIV-1 factors that contribute to differential susceptibility of monocytes/macrophages to HIV-1 infection. Freshly isolated monocytes from peripher...
Wang, Xu; Ye, Li; Hou, Wei; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yan-jian; Metzger, David S.; Ho, Wen-zhe
HIV-1-infected persons are at higher risk of lower respiratory tract infections than HIV-1-uninfected individuals. This suggests strongly that HIV-infected persons have specific impairment of pulmonary immune responses, but current understanding of how HIV alters pulmonary immunity is incomplete. Alveolar macrophages (AMs), comprising small and large macrophages, are major effectors of innate immunity in the lung. We postulated that HIV-1 impairs pulmonary innate immunity through impairment o...
Jambo, K. C.; Banda, D. H.; Kankwatira, A. M.; Sukumar, N.; Allain, T. J.; Heyderman, R. S.; Russell, D. G.; Mwandumba, H. C.
Summary Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo. PMID:25467409
Baxter, Amy E.; Russell, Rebecca A.; Duncan, Christopher J.A.; Moore, Michael D.; Willberg, Christian B.; Pablos, Jose L.; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C.; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J.
To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).
Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne
Intestinal parasitic diseases were diagnosed in 100 HIV-infected patients at different stages of disease (its asymptomatic form, persistent generalized lymphoadenopathy, pre-AIDS, and AIDS) (Group 1), 100 Tashkent residents (Group 2), and 349 patients with gastrointestinal diseases, allergic dermatoses, and skin depigmentation foci (Group 3). The HIV-infected patients were found to have virtually all parasites, such as Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Chilomastix mesnili, Entamoeba coli, Iodamoeba butschlii, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Endolimax nana, Blastocystis hominis, Enlerobius vermicularis, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana, detectable in the population of Tashkent. The highest infestation with intestinal protozoa, including nonpathogenic amoebas and helmninths, was found in Groups 1 and 3. However, in all the forms of HIV infection, the infestation with E. histolytical/dispar was 10 times greater than that in Groups 2 and 3 (1% and 0.8%, respectively). G. lamblia was detected in 16, 21, and 45.2% in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In all the HIV-infected patients, the content of CD8 lymphocytes was increased, but that of CD20 lymphocytes was normal. Parasites were detectable with different levels of CD4 lymphocytes, but C. parvum was found only if its count was > 200/ml. In the HIV-infected patients, the hyperproduction of IgE was caused mainly by helminths rather than protozoa. In these patients, the increased level of IgE was also noted in the absence of parasites. PMID:16212098
Nurtaev, Kh S; Badalova, N S; Zalialieva, M V; Osipova, S O
Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.
BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide (NO) may be an important component of the host defence against infections. Endogenously produced NO is present in exhaled air and may be representative of respiratory tract production of NO. Since subjects infected with HIV are prone to develop respiratory infections, it was postulated that exhaled NO might be reduced in such individuals. METHODS: The exhaled concentration of NO (nl/l) and minute ventilation (l/min) were measured and exhaled NO release (nl/min/m...
Loveless, M. O.; Phillips, C. R.; Giraud, G. D.; Holden, W. E.
The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a unique opportunity to investigate differences in influenza infection using serology by HIV status. Using serial serum specimens collected from 1 April to 30 September 2009 and the prior 2 years from Women's Interagency HIV study participants, there was no difference in serologic evidence of 2009 H1N1 infection among HIV-infected women with a CD4 cell count at least 350 cells/?l compared with HIV-uninfected women. Owing to evidence showing a greater risk of influenza-related complications, HIV-infected individuals should continue to be a priority group for vaccination. PMID:21505313
Althoff, Keri N; Eichelberger, Maryna; Gange, Stephen J; Sharp, Gerald B; Gao, Jin; Glesby, Marshall J; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; French, Audrey L; Villacres, Maria C; Minkoff, Howard
Abstract In the United States, 20% of HIV-infected persons are unaware of their diagnosis. Improved application of HIV screening recommendations in healthcare settings may facilitate diagnosis. Clinical patient data and previous healthcare visits were reviewed from medical records of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons in Durham County, North Carolina, who initiated HIV care at Duke University Medical Center in 2008–2011. Comparisons were made to similar data from 2002–2004 using the Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression. 101 consecutive newly diagnosed patients were identified: 67 males; 73 black, 20 white, and 8 Hispanic/Latino. Mean age was 39 years (range, 17–69), and 73 had health insurance. Median baseline CD4 count was 313 cells/?L (range, 4–1302), and HIV-1 viral load was 45,700 copies/mL (range, 165–10,000,000). One-third had a baseline CD4 count <50 cells/?L, and 15% presented with opportunistic infections. Compared to patients newly diagnosed in 2002–2004, significantly greater proportions were black and less immunocompromised in 2008–2011. Most had been seen at least once by a healthcare provider in the year prior to HIV diagnosis: 72 had ?1 prior visits, and 47 had ?2 visits. Among those with prior visits, 37/72 (51%) were seen in an emergency department on the first or second visit. Men were three times more likely than women to be diagnosed at their first healthcare encounter (p=0.03, OR=3.2). Despite CDC recommendations for widespread HIV screening in healthcare settings, HIV diagnosis remains delayed, even among those with frequent healthcare encounters. Educating providers and removing barriers to HIV screening may improve this problem. PMID:23802143
Hicks, Charles; Samsa, Gregory; McKellar, Mehri
The use of antiretroviral medications in HIV-negative individuals as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a promising approach to prevent HIV infection. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine exhibit desirable properties for PrEP including: favourable pharmacokinetics that support infrequent dosing; few major drug-drug or drug-food interactions; an excellent clinical safety record; and pre-clinical evidence for efficacy. Several large, randomized, controlled clinical trials are e...
Anderson, Peter L.; Kiser, Jennifer J.; Gardner, Edward M.; Rower, Joseph E.; Meditz, Amie; Grant, Robert M.
HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under $2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or lemon juice has been used for centuries as a traditional contraceptive. The juice can also kill HIV in the laboratory, but clinical trials are needed to ...
Short, R. V.
Prevention of transmission of HIV infection is the most important public health concern of the AIDS epidemic. To date, unfortunately, we have failed to contain the epidemic. The increasingly rapid spread of HIV into the IV drug-abusing population and subsequent heterosexual transmission represent a further failure of the public health system. Current organization of the public health programs, especially the lack of independence and adequate financial and personnel support, is an extremely se...
Kuller, L. H.
Twenty five patients with peripheral neuropathy at different stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are reported. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings were available in 17 cases, electrophysiology in all and a neuromuscular biopsy in 11. Of six otherwise asymptomatic HIV+ patients, five had chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and one acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). CSF showed pleocytosis in all cases. Infiltration of the endoneurium a...
Leger, J. M.; Bouche, P.; Bolgert, F.; Chaunu, M. P.; Rosenheim, M.; Cathala, H. P.; Gentilini, M.; Hauw, J. J.; Brunet, P.
Objective. We hypothesized that HMGB1 in complex with bacterial components, such as flagellin, CpG-ODN, and LPS, promotes HIV-1 replication. Furthermore, we studied the levels of antiflagellin antibodies during HIV-1-infection. Methods. Chronically HIV-1-infected U1 cells were stimulated with necrotic extract/recombinant HMGB1 in complex with TLR ligands or alone. HIV-1 replication was estimated by p24 antigen in culture supernatants 48–72 hours after stimulation. The presence of systemic a...
Nowak, Piotr; Abdurahman, Samir; Lindkvist, Annica; Troseid, Marius; So?nnerborg, Anders
BACKGROUND: In the Zurich Primary HIV infection study (ZPHI), minority drug-resistant HIV-1 variants were detected in some acutely HIV-1-infected patients prior to initiation of early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we investigated the reappearance of minority K103N and M184V HIV-1 variants in these patients who interrupted efficient early ART after 8-27 months according to the study protocol. These mutations are key mutations conferring drug resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibi...
Metzner, K. J.; Leemann, C.; Di Giallonardo, F.; Grube, C.; Scherrer, A. U.; Braun, D.; Kuster, H.; Weber, R.; Guenthard, H. F.
HIV-1 exploits numerous host cellular pathways for productive infection. To identify novel factors involved in HIV-1 replication, HIV-1 integrase and matrix protein complexes were captured at 4 hours post infection for proteomic analysis using an affinity purification system. Leucine-rich PPR-motif containing (LRPPRC) protein, a cellular protein involved in mitochondrial function, cell metabolism, and cell-cycle progression was identified as one of the candidate HIV-1 factors. Co-immunoprecipitation RT-PCR experiments confirmed that LRPPRC associated with HIV-1 nucleic acids during the early steps of virus infection. To establish if LRPPRC was critical for HIV-1 infection, three independent LRPPRC knockdown cell lines were constructed (2.7, 3.6, and 4.1). Subcellular fractionation of these cell lines revealed differential knockdown of LRPPRC in subcellular compartments. LRPPRC was knocked down in the insoluble/cytoskeletal fractions of all three cell lines, but the 3.6 and 4.1 cells also showed a reduction in nuclear LRPPRC. Additionally, several cellular factors were downregulated and/or disrupted by loss of LRPPRC. HIV-1 infection was reduced in all three cell lines, but virus production and RNA encapsidation were unaffected, suggesting that LRPPRC was critical for the afferent stage of virus replication. Two of the three cell lines (3.6, 4.1) were refractory for murine leukemia virus infection, a virus dependent on cellular proliferation for productive infection. Consistent with this, these two cell lines exhibited reduced cellular growth with no loss of cellular viability or change in cell cycle phenotype. The early steps of virus infection were also differentially affected among the cell lines. A reduced level of preintegration complex formation was observed in all three cell lines, but viral DNA nuclear import was reduced only in the 3.6 and 4.1 cells. Combined, these data identify LRPPRC as a HIV-1 factor that is involved in HIV-1 replication through more than one mechanism. PMID:22808186
Schweitzer, Cameron J; Matthews, John M; Madson, Christian J; Donnellan, Meghan R; Cerny, Ronald L; Belshan, Michael
Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies/mL, p =?0.2. There were only 53 patients that presented at the same time HE and HBV infection and the majority, 78.69%, were first infected with HBV. Conclusions: In our studied cohort HBV infection was associated with HE but further studies are needed to prove HBV neurotropic potential. Absolute CD4 nadir count and class C3 are proved to be strong predictors of HE in HIV-infected patients even after several changes in antiretroviral therapy schemes.
: Malaria-specific immune responses are altered in HIV/malaria-coinfected individuals and are associated with higher parasite burdens and more severe clinical disease. Monocyte/macrophage phagocytosis is a major mechanism of malaria parasite clearance. We hypothesized that phagocytosis of malaria-parasitized erythrocytes is impaired in coinfected individuals and could contribute to the increased parasite burdens observed. We show that nonopsonic phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes is impaired in monocytes isolated from HIV-infected individuals. The observed defects in phagocytic capacity were rescued after 6 months of antiretroviral therapy, demonstrating the importance of HIV treatment and immune reconstitution in the context of coinfection. PMID:25415293
Serghides, Lena; Finney, Constance A M; Ayi, Kodjo; Loutfy, Mona; Kain, Kevin C
Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a c...
Liu, Y.; Shen, T.; Zhang, C.; Long, L.; Duan, Z.; Lu, F.
The urogenital tract appears to be the only niche of the human body that shows clear differences in microbiota between men and women. The female reproductive tract has special features in terms of immunological organization, an epithelial barrier, microbiota, and influence by sex hormones such as estrogen. While the upper genital tract is regarded as free of microorganisms, the vagina is colonized by bacteria dominated by Lactobacillus species, although their numbers vary considerably during life. Bacterial vaginosis is a common pathology characterized by dysbiosis, which increases the susceptibility for HIV infection and transmission. On the other hand, HIV infections are often characterized by a disturbed vaginal microbiota. The endogenous vaginal microbiota may protect against HIV by direct production of antiviral compounds, through blocking of adhesion and transmission by ligands such as lectins, and/or by stimulation of immune responses. The potential role of probiotics in the prevention of HIV infections and associated symptoms, by introducing them to the vaginal and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), is also discussed. Of note, the GIT is a site of considerable HIV replication and CD4(+) T-cell destruction, resulting in both local and systemic inflammation. Finally, genetically engineered lactobacilli show promise as new microbicidal agents against HIV. PMID:23789590
Petrova, Mariya I; van den Broek, Marianne; Balzarini, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah
Full Text Available The association of periodontal disease in HIV-infected patients had been initially considered to be the first clinical expression or indication of profound immunodeficiency and stage of HIVdisease as expressed by CD4 –cells in the peripheral blood circulation. Three entities were majorly described and are strongly associated with HIV-infection include (aLinear gingival erythema(LGE, (bAcute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis(ANUG and (cAcute necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (ANUP. Many studies and case reports initially had reported higher prevalence of periodontal disease and also higher severity and rapid progression of existing gingivitis or periodontitis which was clinically assessed by measuring periodontal pockets and attachment loss. The prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in HIV-seropositve or AIDS patients is due to severe immune suppression expressed by rapid depletion of CD4-cells/ T- helper cells.HIV –infected patients are more prone to get periodontal disease when the CD4-cell count falls below 200 cells/ ?L or the stage of HIV-infection progresses to AIDS. In contrast, considerable variation has been observed in recent studies that there were less severity of progression and prevalence of periodontal disease in AIDS patients whose CD4-cell is below 200 cells/?L compared to HIV-infected patients whose CD4 cell count is above 200 cells/?L. The aim of this article is to review old and present concepts based on studies and case reports and also to encourage researchers to explore the changing face of disease progression in HIV-positive individuals
Hemachandra Babu C
Objective: This study reports the clinical characteristics and outcome of HIV-associated Penicilliummarneffei infection in northern Vietnam. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with laboratory confirmed Penicilliummarneffei infection admitted to the National Hospital for Tropical Diseases in Hanoi, Vietnam, between July 2006 and September 2009. Results: 127 patients with P. marneffei infection were identified. ...
Larsson, M.; Nguyen, Lh; Wertheim, Hf; Dao, Tt; Taylor, W.; Horby, P.; Nguyen, Tv; Nguyen, Mh; Le, T.; Nguyen, Kv
Osteoporosis is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons. The etiology of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients is likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors such as low body weight, hypogonadism, and smoking, as well as direct effects of chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons translates into a higher risk of fracture, likely leading to excess morb...
Walker Harris, Vanessa; Brown, Todd T.
Abstract Background Swallowing disorders, well recognised in adults, contribute to HIV-infection morbidity. Little data however is available for HIV-infected children. The purpose of this study is to describe swallowing disorders in a group of HIV-infected children in Africa after the introduction of combined anti-retroviral therapy. Methods We describe 25 HIV-infected children referred for possible swallowing disorders. Clinical and videofluoroscopic assessment...
Nel Etienne D; Ellis Alida
Injection drug use contributes to considerable global morbidity and mortality associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and AIDS and other infections due to blood-borne pathogens through the direct sharing of needles, syringes, and other injection equipment. Of ~16 million injection drug users (IDUs) worldwide, an estimated 3 million are HIV infected. The prevalence of HIV infection among IDUs is high in many countries in Asia and eastern Europe and could exacerbate the HIV...
Vlahov, David; Robertson, Angela M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.
Full Text Available Epidemic of HIV-infection began in Sumy region in 1996. Rapid growth of morbidity appeared in the early ??I century, so it raised up to 18,5 cases per 100 thousand population in 2010. Nowadays certain stabilization is pointed like, 14,7 cases per 100 thousand population with the growth rate -12,7% in 2012. The widest HIV-infection prevalence is observed in Shostka, Romesky and Krolovetsky districts. This is cased by the high traffic network of these districts and closeness to deprived territories of the other regions. If majority of the infected was male in the epidemic beginning, so nowadays number of the new infected by gender is roughly equal. The number of children and persons of ripe years have dramatically increased (up to 27% and 31% respectively. During ten years HIV-infection transferred from infected drug addicts to general human population and these have cardinally turned the viral transmission of sexual and parenteral routes (51,8% and 18,2% respectively in 2012. The problem may occur because of the unregistered HIV-carriers accumulation.
Grabovyy S. L.
Cerebellar complications of HIV infection primarily manifested in ataxia, usually arise as the result of cerebellar lesions due to opportunistic infections, vasculitis or neoplastic processes. A 28 year old female known to have HIV infection for last four years, presented to our hospital with progressive unsteadiness in walking, slurring of speech and intention tremors for the last two months. There was no family history of similar complaints, and she was on Anti retroviral treatment for last one and a half years. The results of examination were notable for severe dysarthria, slow saccades, a conspicuous dysmetria and dysdiadokokinesia. She had no cognitive, sensory or motor deficits. MRI revealed diffuse cerebellar atrophy. Extensive laboratory work up failed to disclose a cause for subacute ataxia. Isolated cerebellar degeneration in an HIV patient is rare and should prompt a diagnostic work up. PMID:24759449
Anand, Kuljeet Singh; Wadhwa, Ankur; Garg, Jyoti
The World Health Organization guideline recommends informing children of their HIV status between the ages of 6-12 years. Primary caregivers of perinatal HIV-infected Thai children ?6 years were interviewed in order to assess the HIV status disclosure rate. In addition, pill counts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were performed every three months. CD4 and HIV-RNA were performed every six months. Of the 260 children/adolescents included, the median age of disclosure was 14.8 years. The disclosure rate among those from 6 to 12 years was 21% and for those greater than 12 years of age was 84%. When comparing children aged 6-12 years whose HIV status had been disclosed to them, to children whose HIV had yet to be disclosed, no difference was noted in median ART adherence by pill count, CD4 count, or proportion of HIV-RNA 0.05). Factors associated with HIV disclosure were an age of ?12 years (OR 17.8, 95% CI 8.86-35.79) and a current CD4 ? 30% (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.20-3.62). In conclusion, although the majority of adolescents ?12 years were aware of their HIV status only one-fifth of children aged 6-12 years were aware. Moreover, the child's/adolescent's disclosure status had no bearing on ART adherence by pill count or immunological and virological outcomes. PMID:24625136
Sirikum, Chompoonoot; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Chuanjaroen, Thongsuai; Lakonphon, Sudrak; Srimuan, Amornrat; Chusut, Patcharaporn; Do, Tanya C; Prasitsuebsai, Wasana; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Bunupuradah, Torsak
Plasma viral load predicts genital tract human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) shedding in HIV-infected women. We investigated whether local mucosal T-cell activation (HLA-DR, CD38, CCR5, and Ki67) contributed to HIV shedding in the genital tracts of HIV-infected women. We showed that cervical cytobrush-derived T cells expressed higher frequencies of T-cell activation markers (CD38+ and HLA-DR+) than blood-derived T cells. Expression was significantly higher in HIV-infected women than in uninfec...
Jaspan, Heather B.; Liebenberg, Lenine; Hanekom, Willem; Burgers, Wendy; Coetzee, David; Williamson, Anna-lise; Little, Francesca; Myer, Landon; Coombs, Robert W.; Sodora, Don; Passmore, Jo-ann
P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)
P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au).
Hansen, M. (Department of Haematology L, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Gimsing, P. (Department of Haematology L, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Ingeberg, S.; Jans, H. (Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark)); Nexoe, E. (Department of Clinical Chemistry, Central Hospital, Hilleroed and KH University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))
Objective Brain involvement is a serious complication of HIV infection. The earliest changes in the brain, which represents an anatomic site for viral persistence, are largely unknown. Methods This investigation used quantitative Magnetic Resonance methodologies, including high resolution and diffusion tensor (DTI) imaging, to evaluate the brain in 15 HIV and 20 seronegative subjects. All HIV subjects were antibody nonreactive with assay-estimated infection duration of less than 100 days. Results Brain volumetric analysis revealed reduced parenchyma with enlargement of the third ventricle and brainstem. DTI quantified loss of white matter integrity in the corpus callosum and diffusion alterations in caudate. Cognitive differences were indicated in psychomotor speed and visual recall. There were no differences between antiretroviral-initiated and naïve HIV subgroups. Interpretation These findings, quantified within 100 days of infection, shed light on the earliest brain changes in HIV infection. Onset of neural injury may date to initial viral invasion and the transient early period of unchecked viremia and marked immunosuppression of the seroconversion period.
Ragin, Ann B; Wu, Ying; Gao, Yi; Keating, Sheila; Du, Hongyan; Sammet, Christina; Kettering, Casey S; Epstein, Leon G
Full Text Available Background & objectives: The present study was designed to determine possible contributory impact of malaria infection on some biochemical markers in subjects with HIV co-infection in order to know if they are adverse or protective.Methods: Participants were recruited at the Voluntary Counseling and Testing Unit, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria and grouped into: (i Malaria and HIV co-infection group (n = 45; and (ii HIV infected group without concurrent malaria infection (n = 57. Standard laboratory methods were used for the HIV and Plasmodium falciparum antigen screening, malaria parasite density, CD4+ T-cell count, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, serum iron and albumin concentrations.Results: The results showed that serum iron and albumin were significantly reduced and raised respectively in ‘Malaria–HIV co-infection group’ compared with ‘HIV infection group’ (p <0.05 and p <0.05. A positive association was observed between age and serum iron concentration in malaria and HIV co-infected group (r = 0.580; p <0.05 while negative associations were observed between PCV and serum iron (r = – 0.388; p <0.05 and between CD4+ T-cells and serum iron concentration (r = – 0.362; p<0.05 in malaria and HIV co-infected group. The CD4+ T-cell count, WBC count, PCV were not significantly different between the Malaria-HIV co-infection group and HIV infection group.Interpretation & conclusion: In the present study serum iron and albumin concentrations were the most sensitive indicators that showed the contributory impact of malaria infection on biochemical index in HIV co-infected subjects. The findings suggest that at the defined stage of HIV infection in the present study, malaria co-infection may moderate the impact of HIV infection on iron metabolism and hepatic synthesis of albumin.
Previous studies have suggested high rates of HIV infection and other sexually transmitted infections in theU.S.-Mexico border region. However, no information is available on the risk for HIV infection among Mexican adolescents living in this geographic area. This study examines the prevalence of HIV risk practices and psychosocial correlates…
Martinez-Donate, Ana P.; Blumberg, Elaine J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Sipan, Carol L.; Zellner, Jennifer A.; Hughes, Suzanne
The Gen-Probe Aptima HIV-1 RNA qualitative assay was evaluated as an alternative to Western blot analysis for the confirmation of HIV infection using serum samples that were repeatedly reactive for HIV antibodies. The Aptima HIV assay readily discriminated between HIV-1-infected and -uninfected individuals and effectively reduced the number of indeterminate results relative to Western blot analysis.
Pierce, Virginia M.; Neide, Brandy; Hodinka, Richard L.
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has n [...] ot been documented in children. METHODS: A prospective convenience sample of 50 children aged between 3 months and 12 years attending the Tshwane District Hospital Paediatric HIV clinic in Pretoria was recruited. Their personal and family histories of atopy, World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical staging and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immunological staging with CD4 counts were documented. An age- and sex-matched control group of 50 HIV-negative children was included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) to identify common aeroallergens were conducted on all patients. RESULTS: One hundred children were enrolled, with 50 in each group. Ten per cent of the HIV-infected patients compared with 16% of controls had positive SPTs to aeroallergens. A higher percentage of the HIV-infected patients had chronic rhinitis and eczema (60% and 68%, respectively). There was no relationship between CD4 count and positive SPTs (p=0.61), mean log CD4 count and presence of reported asthma (p=0.71), and CD4 count and presence of reported dermatitis (p=0.84). The CD4 count was not statistically different between children with and without a family history of atopy (p=0.68). CONCLUSION: It appears that the stage of HIV disease does not influence the development or expression of allergy. There is a high prevalence of dermatitis and chronic rhinitis in HIVinfected children, probably not atopic in origin.
R, Masekela; T, Moodley; N, Mahlaba; D F, Wittenberg; P, Becker; O, Kitchin; R J, Green.
The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpr...
Siberry, George K.; Thanyawee Puthanakit
Impact of HIV infection on bone is now well established, with a high prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia and an increase of fracture risk, up to 5 fold for hip fractures. Beyond the usual risk factors frequently reported in this population, HIV infection itself and antiretroviral treatment, especially tenofovir, are involved in the pathophysiology of bone loss. Vitamin D deficiency is frequent and should be corrected. Fracture risk can be assessed based on clinical risk factors, the FRAX tool and bone mineral density measurement by DXA. Treatment in patients at increased risk of fracture is based on the same principles as in the general population, with mainly bisphosphonates. PMID:23821841
Biver, E; Ciaffi, L; Rizzoli, R; Calmy, A
Osteoporosis has emerged as an important co-morbidity of HIV infection and a modest increase in fracture risk has been documented. Bone loss from the spine and hip occurs after initiation of antiretroviral therapy but most data indicate that bone mineral density is stable in HIV-infected individuals established on long-term antiretroviral therapy. Assessment of fracture probability should be performed in individuals who have clinical risk factors for fracture. Adequate dietary calcium intake and vitamin D status should be ensured and in individuals with a high fracture probability, bisphosphonate therapy may be appropriate. PMID:25169566
pDC are the most potent IFN-?-producing cells in the body and serve as a vital link between innate and adaptive immunity. Deficiencies in pDC function were among the earliest observations of immune dysfunction in HIV-1 infection. Herein, we review the status of pDC in individuals with HIV-1 infection and the potential role of these cells in pathogenesis. We begin by reviewing the basic properties of pDC and then discuss the compromise in circulating pDC numbers and function in early and vire...
Fitzgerald-bocarsly, Patricia; Jacobs, Evan S.
Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and progression to AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection has now turned into a chronic disease with improved survival and prognosis. Hence, patients with well-controlled HIV infection are no longer prevented from receiving transplants, but treatment must be based on knowledge of pharmacokinetics for the drugs involved. The common approach measuring the cyclosporine level after 2 h or trough level is misleading and it was necessary to determine the area under the curve.
Alstrup, Karen; Kangas, Ida
Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For q...
Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi
Methods: A Medline search was performed using the key words "HIV," "pneumonitis," and "lymphocytes." A further search was performed with the MESH heading "interstitial lung disorders." Related articles were also searched using Pubmed.
Das, S.; Miller, R.
A deterministic compartmental model was explored that relaxed the unrealistic assumption in most HIV transmission models that behaviors of individuals are constant over time. A simple model was formulated to better explain the effects observed. Individuals had a high and a low contact rate and went back and forth between them. This episodic risk behavior interacted with the short period of high transmissibility during acute HIV infection to cause dramatic increases in prevalence as the differ...
Zhang, Xinyu; Zhong, Lin; Romero-severson, Ethan; Alam, Shah Jamal; Henry, Christopher J.; Volz, Erik M.; Koopman, James S.
Full Text Available Background: Genital ulcerative disease is one of the risk factors for acquisition of HIV. As HSV-2 infection is currently the most common cause of genital ulcerative disease, it acts as a potential risk factor for HIV infection. The present study was undertaken to know the seroprevalence of antibodies to HSV-2 in HIV seropositive individuals and in the general population, and to ascertain if HSV-2 is a risk factor for developing HIV infection. Methods: The study group included one hundred new HIV seropositive persons irrespective of active genital herpes or history of genital herpes. Fifty age- and sex- matched healthy volunteers were included as controls. In all patients and controls, diagnostic serology was done for HSV-2 using HSV-2-specific glycoprotein IgG2 by indirect immunoassay using the ELISA test. Statistical value ?P? was calculated using the Chi-squared test. Results: Out of the 100 HIV seropositives, 66 were males and 34 were females with an age range of 20-54 years. In only 22 (19 males and 3 females of these, positive history of genital herpes was obtained. In 49 out of the 100 HIV seropositives, IgG2 antibodies against HSV-2 were detected. In the control group, 11 out of 50 controls were seropositive for HSV-2 IgG2 antibody. There was a statistically significant association between HSV-2 and HIV seropositivity with ?P? value < 0.005. Conclusion: The high prevalence of HSV-2 seropositivity in the HIV-infected group (49% as compared to normal controls (22% was statistically significant. Prior HSV-2 infection could be an important risk factor for acquisition of HIV in our patients.
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) provide an important link between innate and acquired immunity, mediating their action mainly through IFN-? production. pDC suppress HIV-1 replication, but there is increasing evidence suggesting they may also contribute to the increased levels of cell apoptosis and pan-immune activation associated with disease progression. Although having the same clinical spectrum, HIV-2 infection is characterized by a strikingly lower viremia and a much slower rate of CD...
Cavaleiro, Rita; Baptista, Anto?nio P.; Soares, Rui S.; Tendeiro, Rita; Foxall, Russell B.; Gomes, Perpe?tua; Victorino, Rui M. M.; Sousa, Ana E.
Full Text Available Introduction: Different types of allergic conditions develop in the half of patients infected withHIV due to the immune system dysfunction. Increased prevalence of allergic conditions in HIVinfected patients lead us to conduct the study of allegro reactivity by carrying out skin tests todifferent types of allergens including an allergen to Candida.Objective: To study the immediate type skin reaction in response to subcutaneous injection ofdifferent allergens including Candida allergen in patients infected with HIV at different stages ofthe disease.Method: One hundred HIV infected patients were investigated. The control group consisted of10 healthy individuals and 10 patients with different clinical forms of atopic allergy.Subcutaneous tests were done in the patients forearm.Results: Allergic skin test results to different allergens were characterized by wide variability atall clinical stages: from absence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a strong positivereaction. The patients at the 4th stage of the disease despite the high level of IgE had immediatehypersensitivity reaction of the less intense compared to HIV infected patients at the 2nd stage ofthe disease. Test results to Candida allergen showed a positive reaction in patients with a rapidprogression of HIV/AIDS before the development of the clinical picture of candidiasis.Conclusion: Development and extent of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction changes withthe progression of HIV/AIDS. Analysis of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Candidaallergen may be used as an indicator of development and progression of candidiasis in HIVinfection. The skin test results should be taken into consideration before initiating theantiretroviral therapy in order to avoid the development of allergic drug reactions to this class ofmedications. Results of allergotests may help in prediction of HIV progression.
Abstract Background Kenya experienced a political and humanitarian crisis following presidential elections on 27 December 2007. Over 1,200 people were killed and 300,000 displaced, with disproportionate violence in western Kenya. We sought to describe the immediate impact of this conflict on return to clinic and medication adherence for HIV-infected children cared for within the USAID-Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) in western Kenya. Methods ...
Sang Edwin; Nyandiko Winstone M; Vreeman Rachel C; Musick Beverly S; Braitstein Paula; Wiehe Sarah E
Abstract Background The application of serological methods in HIV/AIDS routine surveillance systems to identify persons with recently acquired HIV infection has been proposed as a tool which may provide an accurate description of the current transmission patterns of HIV. Using the information about recent infection it is possible to estimate HIV incidence, according to the model proposed by Karon et al. in 2008, that accounts for the effect of testing practices on the number ...
Mammone Alessia; Pezzotti Patrizio; Angeletti Claudio; Orchi Nicoletta; Carboni Angela; Navarra Assunta; Sciarrone Maria R; Sias Catia; Puro Vincenzo; Guasticchi Gabriella; Ippolito Giuseppe; Borgia Piero; Girardi Enrico
Voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) is recommended to facilitate early identification of HIV infection. Data from VCT centers in Goiás and Federal District, Central Brazil, evaluated HIV prevalence and identified risk factors for HIV among individuals ages 13 years and older. Results indicated a 1.5% overall prevalence of HIV. Factors independently associated with HIV infection were: getting tested in a large city, being illiterate, having had a previous HIV test, living with an HIV-infected sexual partner, and being a noninjection illicit drug user. Being referred by friends was strongly associated with HIV infection. For men, being a health care worker, sex worker, man who has sex with men, or injection drug user were significant. In Central Brazil, HIV remains concentrated in males and subpopulations with known risk behaviors. Higher prevalence among individuals referred to VCT by friends highlights the importance of social network-based HIV prevention interventions in Brazil. PMID:23465400
de Souza, Sandra Maria Brunini; Teles, Sheila Araújo; Rezza, Giovanni; Pezzotti, Patrizio; Gir, Elucir
Background: Data on knowledge, attitudes, behaviour and practices (KABP) of persons with recent HIV infection compared to controls with negative HIV test result provide information on current risk patterns and can help to re-focus HIV prevention strategies. Methods: From March 2008 through May 2010, persons newly diagnosed with HIV (cases) and HIV-negative controls were recruited by physicians in Germany. To distinguish recent (?5 m...
Santos-ho?vener, Claudia; Zimmermann, Ruth; Ku?cherer, Claudia; Ba?tzing-feigenbaum, Jo?rg; Wildner, Stephan; Hamouda, Osamah; Marcus, Ulrich
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2, the second AIDS-associated human retrovirus, differs from HIV-1 in its natural history, infectivity, and pathogenicity, as well as in details of its genomic structure and molecular behavior. We report here that HIV-2 inhibits the replication of HIV-1 at the molecular level. This inhibition was selective, dose-dependent, and nonreciprocal. The closely related simian immunodeficiency provirus also inhibited HIV-1. The selectivity of inhibition was show...
Arya, S. K.; Gallo, R. C.
HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.
Okeoma Mmeje; Cohen, Craig R.; Deborah Cohan
Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.
Infective endocarditis (IE) is one of the most severe complications of parenteral drug abuse. The incidence of IE in intravenous drug abusers (IVDAs) is 2% to 5% per year, being responsible for 5% to 10% of the overall death rate. The prevalence of HIV infection among IVDAs with IE ranges between 30% and 70% in developed countries and HIV-infection by itself increases the risk of IE in IVDAs. The incidence of IE in IVDAs is currently decreasing in some areas, probably due to changes in drug administration habits by addicts to avoid HIV transmission. Overall, Staphylococcus aureus is the most common etiological agent, being usually sensitive to methicillin (MSSA). The tricuspid valve is the most frequently affected (60% to 70%), followed by the mitral and aortic valves (20% to 30%). HIV-positive IVDAs have a higher ratio of right-sided IE and S aureus IE than HIV-negative IVDAs. Response to antibiotic therapy is similar. Drug addicts with non-complicated MSSA right-sided IE can be treated with an i.v. short-course regimen of nafcillin or cloxacillin for 2 weeks, with or without addition of an aminoglycoside during the first 3 to 7 days. The prognosis of right-sided endocarditis is generally good; overall mortality is less than 5%, and with surgery is less than 2%. In contrast, the prognosis of left-sided IE is less favorable; mortality is 20% to 30%, and even with surgery is 15% to 25%. IE caused by GNB or fungi has the worst prognosis. Mortality between HIV-infected or non-HIV-infected IVDAs with IE is similar. However, among HIV-infected IVDAs, mortality is significantly higher in those who are most severely immunosuppressed, with CD4+ cell count patients who are not drug abusers is rare. The epidemiology of cardiac surgery in IVDAs and/or HIV-infected patients has changed in recent years. There is a decrease in IE and an increase of patients undergoing surgery (CABS) for coronary artery disease secondary to the hyperlipidemia and lipodystrophy induced by highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Cardiac surgery in HIV-infected patients with or without IE does not worsen the prognosis because extracorporeal circulation did not affect the immune status after surgery. Morbidity and mortality seems to stay within the same range as the non-infected patients. In our experience, in the IE in HIV-infected IVDA group, the 1-year survival is 65% and the 5 and 10-year actuarial survival is 35%. For patients operated on for coronary artery disease, the 5-year survival is 100%. PMID:12874891
Miró, José M; del Río, Ana; Mestres, Carlos A
Full Text Available Cytomegalovirus is considered as one among the long list of latent infections in humans that although normally controlled by the cellular immune response, gets activated after HIV infection takes its role on infecting the T4 lymphocytes. Clinical disease due to Cytomegalovirus has been recognized in up to 40% of patients with advanced HIV disease. The clinical syndromes most commonly associated include chorioretinitis, esophagitis, colitis, pneumonitis, adrenalitis and neurological disorders. Cytomegalovirus infections are usually diagnosed clinically and by serological tests for CMV immunoglobulin. Chemotherapy using systemic agents, including ganciclovir, intravenous foscarnet and intravenous cidofovir is effective. New agents, as for example an anti-sense agent against cytomegalovirus, appear promising.
Sundar Isaac Kirubakaran
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of quantitatively rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and social support dimensions in a sample of 562 Polish HIV+ adults. Possible moderating effects of social support on the relationship between the average HIV infection duration and the level of PTSD symptoms were also analysed. The results of this study suggest that the average HIV infection duration may intensify PTSD symptoms and deteriorate the perceived availability of social support in HIV+ individuals. However, a positive relationship between HIV infection duration and the level of trauma symptoms was observed only in the group of HIV+ individuals with low perceived available social support, but not in the group of HIV-infected individuals with high perceived available social support. This research provided some new insight into the psychological and social aspects of living with HIV. In particular, our results suggest that although HIV infection duration may intensify trauma symptoms and deteriorate social support, perceived available social support may act as a buffer against HIV-related trauma symptoms. PMID:25296635
Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, W?odzimierz; ?ebrowska, Magdalena; Firl?g-Burkacka, Ewa
Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years? duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ?flail arm-like syndrome.? The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.
Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.
AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy. The development of new drugs and strategies and exploring alternative systems of medicine for antiviral herbs or drugs is the need of the age to improve treatment outcomes. Ayurveda describes many diseases which incorporate HIV like illness e.g. Rajayakshma, Ojo Kshaya, Sannipata jwara etc. HIV infection affects multisystems, chiefly the Immune System which can be correlated to Ojo Kshaya. Rasayana Chikitsa is the frontline therapy employed to treat Ojus disorders. Therefore Shilajatu (Mineral pitch), Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), well known for their Immuno-modulator and antioxidant properties were selected to evaluate their role on immune system. The study was carried on 20 patients from OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa, S.S.Hospital, IMS, BHU and was randomly allocated into Treated group (Shilajatu+ART) and Control group (ART). Treated Group responded better to ART both clinically and biochemically. The results show that Shilajatu decreases the recurrent resistance of HIV virus to ART and improves the outcome of the therapy. PMID:22131681
Gupta, G D; Sujatha, N; Dhanik, Ajay; Rai, N P
The aims of this article were to explore the relationship between depressive symptoms and neuropsychological performance in a sample of HIV-infected women, and to examine the contribution of demographic, HIV-related variables, and depressive symptoms to neurocognitive performance. In this cross-sectional study, a sample of 103 HIV-infected women, recruited from February to December 2010, were assessed for depressive symptoms (with the Beck Depression Inventory) and neurocognitive performance (with the HIV Dementia Scale). Severe depressive symptoms were reported by 31.1% of the women. Findings indicated that severe levels of depressive symptoms were significantly associated with reduced cognitive functioning in HIV-infected women, particularly in domains of attention, psychomotor speed, and construction. Older age and low education level were significantly associated with neurocognitive impairment in univariate analyses. In the multivariate model, only depressive symptoms were significantly related to neurocognitive impairment. Compared to participants with none/minimal depressive symptoms, those with moderate and severe depressive symptoms had odds ratios for neurocognitive impairment of 5.03 (95% CI, 1.33-18.99) and 3.22 (95% CI, 1.15-9.06), respectively. These findings support continued investigation of the presence of neurocognitive impairment, particularly among women, and may help mental health providers with early detection, planning, and implementation of more effective interventions. The current study was supported by Abbott Laboratories, Portugal. PMID:23517511
Fialho, Renata Margalho; Pereira, Marco; Mendonça, Nuno; Ouakinin, Sílvia
The aim of this study was determine the prevalence of Mycoplasma hominis, M. genitalium, M. fermentans, M. pirum, M. penetrans and Ureaplasma urealyticum in HIV-infected patients. Culture and PCR were used to detect six species of Mycoplasma in first-void urine of HIV-1 infected men. A total of 497 HIV/AIDS patients (age range 5-75 years, mean 37 years) were screened in the study. All presented positive for at least one kind of mycoplasma, especially U. urealyticum and M. hominis. Six mycoplasmas were significant in the homosexual contact and heterosexual contact groups. The distribution of M. hominis, M. penetrans, and M. pirum were significantly different in this four-transmission category. CD4+ cell count levels were lower in the AIDS-associated Mycoplasma-positive group than in the Mycoplasma-negative group (Pfermentans are prevalent in HIV-1-infected male patients. This may be an indication of whether mycoplasmas are co-factors in the progression of HIV disease. PMID:21791147
Jian-Ru, W; Bei, W; Hao, C; Jin-Shui, X; Xi-Ping, H
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam um caso de actinomicetoma em pacientes HIV positivo. Apesar das infecções fúngicas oportunistas serem freqüentemente observadas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV, a associação com micetoma nunca foi descrita. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame micolígico direto de grãos obtido [...] s da secreção e de exame anátomo-patológico. Não foi possível identificar o agente, mas as características sugerem tratar-se de actinomiceto. Os autores acreditam que a localização no membro superior possa estar relacionada com o uso de seringas e agulhas contaminadas para injeção de drogas EV. Abstract in english Although oportunistic fungal infections occur commonly in immunocompromised hosts, mycetoma has never been reported in association with HIV infection. The authors present a case that to their knowledge is the first reported case of mycetoma associated with HIV infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by d [...] irect examination of grains and histologic examination. Precise identification of the agent, an actinomycete, was not possible. The unusual site of infection may probably be related to the use of contaminated needless and sirynges for HIV drug injection.
Luiz G. M., Castro; Neusa Y. S., Valente; José Antônio M., Germano; Elisabeth M. Heins, Vaccari; Carlos da Silva, Lacaz.
Full Text Available Although oportunistic fungal infections occur commonly in immunocompromised hosts, mycetoma has never been reported in association with HIV infection. The authors present a case that to their knowledge is the first reported case of mycetoma associated with HIV infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct examination of grains and histologic examination. Precise identification of the agent, an actinomycete, was not possible. The unusual site of infection may probably be related to the use of contaminated needless and sirynges for HIV drug injection.Os autores relatam um caso de actinomicetoma em pacientes HIV positivo. Apesar das infecções fúngicas oportunistas serem freqüentemente observadas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV, a associação com micetoma nunca foi descrita. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame micolígico direto de grãos obtidos da secreção e de exame anátomo-patológico. Não foi possível identificar o agente, mas as características sugerem tratar-se de actinomiceto. Os autores acreditam que a localização no membro superior possa estar relacionada com o uso de seringas e agulhas contaminadas para injeção de drogas EV.
Luiz G. M. Castro
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition with significant associated morbidity and mortality. DM diagnosis and management among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is a particularly relevant topic as the HIV-infected population ages and more HIV-infected individuals live with chronic medical comorbidities. Although there is mixed evidence regarding HIV as an independent risk factor for DM, multiple factors related to HIV and its treatment are associated with DM. This review covers the epidemiology of DM in HIV-infected patients, and diagnosis, management, and treatment goals for DM in HIV-infected patients. We highlight the most recent DM treatment guidelines from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes, emphasizing individualization of DM medication therapy and treatment goals. Finally, we review a comprehensive approach to cardiovascular disease risk reduction in HIV-infected patients with DM and measures to prevent other complications of DM. PMID:25313249
Monroe, Anne K; Glesby, Marshall J; Brown, Todd T
Upon HIV infection, cells become activated and cell surface thiols are present in increased number. Earlier we demonstrated in vitro anti-HIV effect of thiolated pyrimidine nucleotide UD29, which interferes thiol function. To further analyse the redox processes required for HIV-1 entry and infection, toxicity assays were performed using HIV-1 infected monolayer HeLaCD4-LTR/ ?-gal cells and suspension H9 T cells treated with several thiolated nucleotide derivatives of UD29. Selective cytotoxicity of thiolated pyrimidines on HIV-1 infected cells were observed. Results indicate that thiolated pyrimidine derivates may interfere with -SH (thiol) groups concentrated in lipid rafts of cell membrane and interacts HIV-1 infected (activated) cells resulting in a selective cytotoxicity of HIV-1 infected cells, and reducing HIV-1 entry. PMID:25496973
Kanizsai, Szilvia; Ongrádi, Joseph; Aradi, János; Nagy, Károly
ABSTRACT Candida infection is one of the very prominent disease in HIV-infected individuL. Whether this infection associated with damaged immune cells or specifically associated with wide range species found in HIV-infected patient need to study. Due to some research report about epidemiologically shifting and changing in distribution pattern of Candida species, this study then aimed to identify candida species in HIV-infected patients. 14 subject, 9 men and 5 women, mean age 29,1...
Marlina, Erni; Sumintarti, Sumintarti; Harlina, Harlina; Nazaruddin, Zohra
Severe Oxidative stress has been reported in Tuberculosis infected individuals as a result of tissue inflammation, poor nutrition and poor immunity and this stress becomes more severe in those co-infected with HIV. Therefore the present study was designed to assess the antioxidant status of HIV infected participants with or without tuberculosis co-infections and in HIV seronegative participants infected with tuberculosis. 193 participants were randomly recruited for the study and groupe...
Ezeani Michael; Ahaneku Joseph Ebere; Ifeanyichukwu Martins Ositadinma; Onyenekwe Charles Chinedu; Osuji Faustina Nkechi; Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, one of the major health priorities, accounts approximately for 350 million chronic cases and a global total of 33 million people were living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the world.Co-infection with HIV and the HBV presents a significant challenge to health care providers, with different prevalence rates in different parts of the world. It is important to screen all HIV infected individuals for HBV infection and reverse. Infection with HBV becom...
Ranjbar, R.; Davari, A.; Izadi, M.; Jonaidi, N.; Alavian, S. M.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are major health problems world-wide. As both viruses partially share routes of transmission, co-infection is common. This is especially the case in patients infected through intravenous drug use. It has been shown that HIV accelerates HCV progression to cirrhosis. The influence of HCV infection on the natural history of HIV disease remains highly controversial. It is also known that HCV co-infection increases the risk ...
Michielsen, P.; Bottieau, E.
Data on influenza epidemiology in HIV-infected persons are limited, particularly for sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV infection is widespread. We tested respiratory and blood samples from patients with acute lower respiratory tract infections hospitalized in South Africa during 2009-2011 for viral and pneumococcal infections. Influenza was identified in 9% (1,056/11,925) of patients enrolled; among influenza case-patients, 358 (44%) of the 819 who were tested were infected with HIV. Influenza-as...
Cohen, Cheryl; Moyes, Jocelyn; Tempia, Stefano; Groom, Michelle; Walaza, Sibongile; Pretorius, Marthi; Dawood, Halima; Chhagan, Meera; Haffejee, Summaya; Variava, Ebrahim; Kahn, Kathleen; Tshangela, Akhona; Von Gottberg, Anne; Wolter, Nicole; Cohen, Adam L.
Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assesse...
Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert
BACKGROUND: Detection and treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) in HIV infected individuals is strongly recommended to decrease morbidity and mortality in countries with high levels of HIV. OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of a newly developed in-house ELISPOT interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for the detection of LTBI amongst HIV infected individuals, in comparison with the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ESAT6/CFP10 (EC) ELISPOT assays were performed, toge...
Karam, F.; Mbow, F.; Fletcher, H.; Senghor, Cs; Coulibaly, Kd; Lefevre, Am; Ngom Gueye, Nf; Dieye, T.; Sow, Ps; Mboup, S.; Lienhardt, C.
Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.
Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (EGSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in EGSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial EGSH (approximately -310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (EGSH more than -240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular EGSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ?25 mV in EGSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular EGSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321
Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit
Redox signaling plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). The majority of HIV redox research relies on measuring redox stress using invasive technologies, which are unreliable and do not provide information about the contributions of subcellular compartments. A major technological leap emerges from the development of genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent proteins (roGFPs), which provide sensitive and compartment-specific insights into redox homeostasis. Here, we exploited a roGFP-based specific bioprobe of glutathione redox potential (EGSH; Grx1-roGFP2) and measured subcellular changes in EGSH during various phases of HIV-1 infection using U1 monocytic cells (latently infected U937 cells with HIV-1). We show that although U937 and U1 cells demonstrate significantly reduced cytosolic and mitochondrial EGSH (approximately ?310 mV), active viral replication induces substantial oxidative stress (EGSH more than ?240 mV). Furthermore, exposure to a physiologically relevant oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), induces significant deviations in subcellular EGSH between U937 and U1, which distinctly modulates susceptibility to apoptosis. Using Grx1-roGFP2, we demonstrate that a marginal increase of about ?25 mV in EGSH is sufficient to switch HIV-1 from latency to reactivation, raising the possibility of purging HIV-1 by redox modulators without triggering detrimental changes in cellular physiology. Importantly, we show that bioactive lipids synthesized by clinical drug-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis reactivate HIV-1 through modulation of intracellular EGSH. Finally, the expression analysis of U1 and patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells demonstrated a major recalibration of cellular redox homeostatic pathways during persistence and active replication of HIV. PMID:25406321
Bhaskar, Ashima; Munshi, MohamedHusen; Khan, Sohrab Zafar; Fatima, Sadaf; Arya, Rahul; Jameel, Shahid; Singh, Amit
In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population, including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population. High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other, sometimes less well understood, mechanisms, has been linked to increased CVD risk. HIV infection, especially untreated, is a further contributing factor to increased CVD risk in HIV-positive patients. As the HIV-positive population continues to age, the risk of CVD will continue to increase. Guidelines for the management and prevention of CVD risk have been developed, and are largely modelled on those used in the general population. However, the data currently suggest that these interventions, such as the use of lipid-lowering medications and smoking cessation programs, remain quite low. A better understanding the mechanisms of CVD risk in this aging population and further efforts in improving uptake of prevention strategies will remain an important research area.
Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.
Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.
Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral
A retrospective case-control study was undertaken among patients followed at the Texas Children's Hospital Retrovirology Clinic to determine the risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus infection. A total of 28 episodes of S. aureus infection were identified from 20 patients. Case patients had more advanced HIV disease as measured by CD4 T-cell counts, log10 human immunodeficiency viral load, and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category of disease, than controls. PMID:22016081
McNeil, J Chase; Hulten, Kristina G; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Schwarzwald, Heidi L; Mason, Edward O
The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood. PMID:23782476
Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Siberry, George K
Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.
George K Siberry
We report a case of Coccidioides thyroiditis in an HIV-infected patient with a history of recent Coccidioides pneumonia but with negative Coccidioides serology determined by enzyme immunoassay at presentation. Diagnosis of Coccidioides thyroiditis was made based on histopathologic examination and culture of thyroid abscess material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
Jinno, Sadao; Chang, Shelley; Jacobs, Michael R.
HIV infection remains a major problem of public health in Belgium as well as globally. The number of new diagnosies of HIV infection in Belgium remains between two and three daily. Given the dramatic effect of antiretroviral therapy on the mortality due to HIV infection, the number of patients is constantly increasing. The different problems related to HIV care are also changing. Aging of the patients and chronic exposure to antiretroviral medications have induced new complications. We will p...
Chandrika, K.; Dellot, Patricia; Frippiat, Fre?de?ric; Giot, Jean-baptiste; Leonard, Philippe; Mare?e, Raphae?l; Mayasi, N.; Meuris, Christelle; Mukeba Tshialala, D.; Rahmouni, Souad; Uurlings, Franc?oise; Vaira, Dolore?s; Wehenkel, Louis; Demonty, Jean; Moutschen, Michel
Loneliness is common in persons living with HIV (PLWH). Lonely people smoke at higher rates than the general population, and loneliness is a likely contributor to the ongoing smoking epidemic among PLWH. We explored factors associated with loneliness in a cohort of 272 PLWH smokers enrolled in two separate tobacco treatment trials. Loneliness was independently associated with lack of a spouse or partner, lower educational attainment, "other or unknown" HIV exposure category, depression, anxiety, recent alcohol consumption, and higher daily cigarette consumption. Referral to group therapy reduced loneliness, whereas referral to an individual web-based tobacco treatment did not. PMID:25298196
Stanton, Cassandra A; Moadel, Alyson B; Kim, Ryung S; Weinberger, Andrea H; Shuter, Jonathan
Objectives To investigate the effects of aging and smoking on carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) among patients with and without HIV. Methods Data from a community sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants were analyzed. Carotid intima-media thickness was measured via carotid ultrasound and smoking history was obtained via patient interview. Results Data on 166male and female participants with stable HIV-infection and 152 healthy HIV-uninfected participants were analyzed. Among the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants, a significant association was observed between age and cIMT [r=0.51, P<0.0001 (HIV), r=0.39, P<0.0001, (non-HIV)], and between smoking burden and cIMT [r=0.42, P<0.0001 (HIV), r=0.24, P=0.003 (non-HIV)]. In multivariate regression modeling among all participants (HIV and non-HIV), a significant three-way interaction was observed between age, smoking burden, and HIV status with respect to cIMT (P<0.010), controlling for gender, race and traditional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, such that increased cIMT was associated with increased smoking burden and age to a greater degree among HIV-infected vs. HIV-uninfected participants. Among HIV-infected participants a significant interaction between smoking burden and age with respect to cIMT was seen (P=0.027), controlling for race, gender, CVD risk factors, immunological function and antiretroviral therapy use. Conclusion A significant interaction between HIV, age and smoking on cIMT was observed, suggesting that HIV-infection modifies the relationship of age and smoking on cIMT in this population. These findings emphasize the need to encourage smoking cessation in this population, due to its deleterious effect on subclinical atherosclerosis in older HIV-infected patients. PMID:22874518
FITCH, Kathleen V.; LOOBY, Sara E.; ROPE, Alison; ENEH, Peace; HEMPHILL, Linda; LEE, Hang; GRINSPOON, Steven K.
Full Text Available Nearly one fourth of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection have hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in the US and Western Europe. With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the consequent reduction in opportunistic infections, resulting in the prolongation of the life span of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection has emerged as a significant factor influencing the survival of HIV patients. Patients with HIV/HCV co-infection have a faster rate of fibrosis progression resulting in more frequent occurrences of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism of interaction between the two viruses is not completely understood. The treatment for HCV in co-infected patients is similar to that of HCV mono-infection; i.e., a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The presence of any barriers to anti-HCV therapy should be identified and eliminated in order to recruit all eligible patients. The response to treatment in co-infected patients is inferior compared to the response in patients with HCV mono-infection. The sustained virologic response rate is only 38% for genotype-1 and 75% for genotype-2 and -3 infections. Liver transplantation is no longer considered a contraindication for end-stage liver disease in co-infected patients. However, the 5 year survival rate is lower in co-infected patients compared to patients with HCV mono-infection (33% vs 72%, P = 0.07. A better understanding of liver disease in co-infected patients is needed to derive new strategies for improving outcome and survival.
Ashwani K Singal, Bhupinderjit S Anand
Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.
HIV infection is associated with depletion of CD4(+) T cells. The mechanisms of this phenomenon remain to be understood. In particular, it remains controversial whether and to what extent uninfected ("bystander") CD4(+) T cells die in HIV-infected individuals. We address this question using a system of human lymphoid tissue ex vivo. Tissue blocks were inoculated with HIV-1. After productive infection was established, they were treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine to protect from infection those CD4(+) T cells that had not yet been infected. These CD4(+) T cells residing in HIV-infected tissue are by definition bystanders. Our results demonstrate that after nevirapine application the number of bystander CD4(+) T cells is conserved. Thus, in the context of HIV-infected human lymphoid tissue, productive HIV infection kills infected cells but is not sufficient to cause the death of a significant number of uninfected CD4(+) T cells.
Grivel, Jean-Charles; Biancotto, Angelique; Ito, Yoshinori; Lima, Rosangela G.; Margolis, Leonid B.
Background and Aims: There are limited data on the prevalence of viral hepatitis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals. Comorbid illnesses in patients infected with HIV are of great interest due to their association with poor outcomes and failure of antiretroviral therapy. This study evaluated the prevalence of coinfection by HIV and viral hepatitis D in an endemic area for HIV and hepatitis B in Kermanshah.Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study in which serologica...
Manoochehr Karami; Alireza Janbakhsh; Mandana Afsharian; Babak Sayad; Feizollah Mansouri; Siavash Vaziri
We describe here several African isolates of HIV, compare them to U.S.-European prototype isolates and to each other, correlate the number of isolates with serological results, and provide insights into the disease spectrum associated with HIV infection in Africa. Three of 25 healthy Zairian donors and 54 of 87 Zairian patients selected for specific pathology and hospitalized in the internal medicine department of the University Clinic of Kinshasa, Zaire, were HIV positive over a six month period in 1985 either by serum antibody (42 cases) or virus isolation (40 cases). The virus positive cases showed a decrease in number of T4 cells and interleukin-2 (IL2) production by mononuclear cells. Restriction endonuclease analysis of HIV sequences from these isolates showed that genomic diversity is also observed in the Zairian isolates but closely related viruses could also be found, similar to the spectrum of diversity among isolates obtained from the U.S. and Europe. A number of isolates (12 of 40) were obtained from serum antibody negative adults. These results are difficult to explain by viral antigenic diversity alone since hybridization with a HTLV-III-B (clone BH10) probe under stringent conditions indicated an overall high degree of relatedness. Rather, these results indicate that some African HIV infected patients fail to make detectable antibodies to HIV or the antibodies were bound in immune complexes not detectable by current techniques. PMID:2451928
Laure, F; Leonard, R; Mbayo, K; Lurhuma, Z; Kayembe, N; Brechot, C; Sarin, P S; Sarngadharan, M; Wong-Staal, F; Gallo, R C
Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p < 0.005). Cell-associated HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA (p < 0.02). However, when HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p < 0.05). The interplay between HIV RNA and DNA levels is discussed, together with the possibility that cell-associated HIV DNA load is a marker of the HIV RNA peak seen shortly after primary HIV infection.
Katzenstein, TL; Oliveri, RS
Alcohol consumption or alcohol abuse is common among pregnant HIV(+) women and has been identified as a potential behavioral risk factor for the transmission of HIV. In this study, we examined the impact of alcohol on HIV infection of cord blood monocyte-derived macrophages (CBMDM). We demonstrated that alcohol treatment of CBMDM significantly enhanced HIV infection of CBMDM. Investigation of the mechanisms of alcohol action on HIV demonstrated that alcohol inhibited the expression of several HIV restriction factors, including anti-HIV microRNAs, APOBEC3G and APOBEC3H. Additionally, alcohol also suppressed the expression of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), an intracellular sensor of viral infection. The suppression of these IFN regulatory factors was associated with reduced expression of type I IFN. These experimental findings suggest that maternal alcohol consumption may facilitate HIV infection, promoting vertical transmission of HIV. PMID:25053361
Mastrogiannis, Dimitrios S; Wang, Xu; Dai, Min; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Yizhong; Zhou, Yu; Sakarcan, Selin; Pena, Juliet Crystal; Ho, Wenzhe
Background There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms) and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs). A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage. PMID:25491040
Nyamhanga, Tumaini M.; Frumence, Gasto
Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mongolia is low, it could increase without strategic prevention strategies. Female sex workers (FSWs) often experience barriers to prevention, including interpersonal violence. This study investigated if childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or recent physical or sexual violence was associated with HIV sexual risk behaviours and if CSA modified associations between recent violence and HIV sexual risk behaviours. Two-hundred twenty-two women who (1) were at least 18 years old and clients at the National AIDS Foundation; (2) reported vaginal or anal sex in the past 90 days in exchange for money or goods and (3) met criteria for harmful alcohol use in the past year were enrolled. In-person interviews assessed sexual risk behaviours and violence in childhood and adulthood. Negative binomial regression, ordinary least squares regression and modified Poisson regression were performed. Sexual risk with paying partners was associated with penetrative CSA and sexual violence by paying partners. CSA and recent violence were not associated with sexual risk behaviours with intimate partners. CSA modified the association between recent sexual violence and unprotected sex with intimate partners. Findings highlight the need for integrated violence and sexual risk reduction services to ensure safe and effective prevention for FSWs. PMID:25383593
Parcesepe, Angela M; Toivgoo, Aira; Chang, Mingway; Riedel, Marion; Carlson, Catherine; DiBennardo, Rebecca; Witte, Susan S
Full Text Available A high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV infections is observed in Brazil. These viruses are causatives of significant morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. This work, shows the application of a PCR on determination of CMV load in the buffy coat and plasma. We analyzed the samples of 247 HIV infected patients in order to diagnose CMV infection and disease. We developed a semi-quantitative PCR that amplifies part of the glycoprotein B (gB gene of CMV. The semi-quantitative PCR was carried out only in positive clinical samples in a qualitative PCR confirmed by a nested-PCR. CD4 lymphocyte count, HIV viral load and CMV disease symptom were correlated with CMV load. CMV genome was detected in the buffy coat of 82 of 237 (34.6% patients, in 10 of these the CMV load was determined varying between 928 and 332 880 viral copies/mug DNA. None of these 237 patients developed any suggestive manifestation of CMV disease. For the other 10 HIV infected patients selected based on the suspicion of CMV disease, CMV genome was detected in only one case. This patient presented a high CMV load, 8 000 000 copies/mug DNA, and developed a disseminated form of CMV disease including hepatitis and retinitis. Our results were greatly influenced by the impact of the highly active antiretroviral therapy that reduced incidence of CMV viremia and occurrence of CMV disease in the HIV infected patients.
CUNHA Aldo de Albuquerque
Full Text Available Purpose of the study: To identify and primarily characterize the elite controllers (EC in Moscow Regional HIV Living People Cohort (Russia. Methods: 2682 HIV-1-positive individuals with A1 (asymptomatic stage of HIV infection were under regular physician observation continuously for at least 5 years. Verification antibody testing was performed with “New Love Blot” and “Autoblot 2000” (Biorad. Patients underwent scheduled HIV viral load and T-lymphocyte subpopulation measurement (twice a year and did not have indications to HAART (viral load less then 5 log10/ml, CD4+ counts more then 500 cells/mm3. HIV viral load was detected by PCR m2000rt Abbott Biosystems analyzer, “RealTime HIV-1” sets with 20 copies per ml sensitivity and major subpopulation of T-lymphocytes were analyzed by flow cytometer BD FACSCount, sets of antibodies ÑD3/CD4/CD8/CD45 . Summary of results: Average log10 viral load was defined in each patient for 5-year period, and the distribution appeared to have a bimodal character (Figure 1. 106 EC were primarily identified as having average viral load less then 1.7 log10 (50 HIV copies/ml.The incidence of EC appeared to be 3.95% (95% CI: 3.2%; 4.7% of population with A1 (asymptomatic disease with no indications to HAART, that corresponds to literary data . Belonging to EC was then proved by laboratory dynamics. In EC 3 types of viral load dynamics were identified: 1 absence of detectable viremia, 2 single spikes, 3 episodic temporary elevation(s (at mean 500-900 copies lasting half a year. All these emphasize the control of virus. In EC 3 types of ÑD4+ T-lymphocyte dynamics were defined: 1 CD4+ elevation (in case beginning from the acute stage of the disease, 2 stable ÑD4+ cells, 3 CD4+ cell depletion with very small velocity. 12 EC had “minimal change disease” defined additionally by the absence or trace appearance of pol 68/66, 52/51, 34/31 antibodies (Table 1 and non-detectable PCR levels in all measurements. These represent 11.32% (95% CI: 5.17%; 17.47% from EC and 0.45% (95% CI: 0.19%; 0.71% from population with A1 (asymptomatic HIV-disease. Conclusions: Among EC patients with “minimal change disease” were identified. They may represent: (i primarily persistent HIV infection (with reduced productive cycle, (ii low dose (localized HIV-infection, (iii rare successful immune-mediated elimination of HIV that could be the model for novel elimination strategies.
Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors. We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.
Edgardo G. Bottaro
We reviewed HIV-1 genotypes from 200 of 979 (20%) HIV-infected children in the U.K. Collaborative HIV in Pediatric Study (CHIPS) cohort (343 resistance tests). Three of 44 samples had major primary resistance mutations before antiretroviral therapy. Three-class resistance was noted in 42 samples (14.1%). Our study also highlighted underutilization of testing and the need for prompt genotyping after drug discontinuation which may have lead to an underestimation of HIV-1 resistance. PMID:18382385
Chakraborty, Rana; Smith, Colette J; Dunn, David; Green, Hannah; Duong, Trinh; Doerholt, Katja; Riordon, Andrew; Lyall, Hermione; Tookey, Pat; Butler, Karina; Sabin, Caroline A; Gibb, Di; Pillay, Deenan
Introduction: Despite men who have sex with men (MSM) being a key population for HIV programming globally, HIV epidemiologic data on MSM in Central Africa are sparse. We measured HIV and syphilis prevalence and the factors associated with HIV infection among MSM in Cameroon. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two and 239 MSM aged ?18 from Douala and Yaoundé, respectively, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) for this cross-sectional surveillance study in 2011. Par...
Ju Nyeong Park; Erin Papworth; Sethson Kassegne; Laure Moukam; Serge Clotaire Billong; Issac Macauley; Yves Roger Yomb; Nathalie Nkoume; Valentin Mondoleba; Jules Eloundou; Matthew LeBreton; Ubald Tamoufe; Ashley Grosso; Baral, Stefan D.
Human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs), which are remnants of ancestral retroviruses integrated into the human genome, are defective in viral replication. Because activation of HERV-K and coexpression of this virus with HIV-1 have been observed during HIV-1 infection, it is conceivable that HERV-K could affect HIV-1 replication, either by competition or by cooperation, in cells expressing both viruses. In this study, we found that the release efficiency of HIV-1 Gag was 3-fold reduced upon ove...
Monde, Kazuaki; Contreras-galindo, Rafael; Kaplan, Mark H.; Markovitz, David M.; Ono, Akira
Combined p24 antigen-HIV antibody fourth-generation assays that identify most of the early HIV infections have been used extensively worldwide for several years. This poses challenges for the traditional algorithm of line immunoassay (LIA) confirmation. LIA tests are useful methods with their high specificity and their ability to differentiate HIV-1 from HIV-2, but they are reactive days after the fourth generation enzyme immunoassays. With acute HIV infection, high levels of infectious virus are detectable in serum and genital secretions. The rate of transmission during acute HIV infection is higher than the established HIV infection, for this reason, new HIV testing strategies need to focus on sensitivity, especially for this highly contagious phase immediately after infection. Serum sample of a patient sent to Ege University Hospital Clinical Virology Laboratory was repeatedly reactive with low signal/cutoff ratios with two different commercial fourth generation enzyme immunoassays (Architect HIV Ag/Ab Combo Reagent Kit, Abbott, Germany and Vidas HIV Duo Quick, Biomerieux, France). The sample was non-reactive with the LIA (INNO-LIA HIV I/II Score, Innogenetics, Belgium) and HIV RNA (RealTime HIV-I Amplification Reagent Kit, Abbott, USA) result was positive (4.1 x 10(5) copies/ml). With the presentation of this case, the role of LIA in the diagnosis of early HIV infection and its place in test algorithms were questioned. PMID:23971936
Soylar, Muhammed; Altu?lu, Imre; Sertöz, Rüçhan; Gökengin, Deniz
Full Text Available The HIV epidemic has dramatically changed the paradigm for the development of drug therapy in the last 15 years. The goal is now not only to provide an effective reduction of plasma viremia , but also to reconstitute the immune deficiency due to the progression of the disease. Significant problems with the metabolism of sugars and lipids lead to the appearance of well-documented disorders such as insulin resistance, abnormalities in lipid metabolism and lipodystrophy in those patients on prolonged therapy with antiretrovirals. The question of whether or not HAART-associated lipid disorders contribute to the premature development of coronary artery disease is of major importance for the HIV community. Endothelial injury is associated with disease-related biochemical abnormalities that are implicated in HIV pathogenesis. The exploration of endothelial function began in the early 1980s at the start of the epidemic. The study of endothelial function in HIV infection and its modifications by HAART is an exciting new field in clinical research; in this review the available information on cardiovascular diseases associated with HIV infection and its treatment are discussed.
Ana Cristina O. Andrade
This paper defines the components of gender-specific interventions for HIV infections for women, i.e. negotiation skills with male partners for condom use, integration of strategies against HIV and other STD infections and for contraception, the urgent need for female controlled methods, the importance of the inclusion of heterosexual men and an expansion to couples in prevention programs. This paper also presents a critical update in HIV prevention articles for women since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic through March 1996. All reviewed interventions were conducted in the U.S., Canada or Puerto Rico and described a psychological, behavioral, or educational component that addressed sexual risk reduction and included a behavioral evaluation. Manual and computer searches identified 47 studies that targeted women and provided a female-specific analysis of intervention effects. Overall, the findings demonstrate that HIV prevention programs can be effective in reducing risky sexual behavior among women. Program effectiveness varied by intervention type, session duration, and whether studies included women alone or both men and women. The most efficacious HIV prevention programs were specifically directed toward women, focused on relationship and negotiation skills, and involved multiple, sustained contacts. Evidence also indicated that community-level interventions hold promise. It is recommended that outcomes for women be expanded to include strategies beyond the male condom, such as refusing or avoiding unsafe sex or using the female condom. PMID:11061642
Ehrhardt, A A; Exner, T M
We report the case of an HIV infected patient with Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and meningitis associated with gastrointestinal Strongyloides stercoralis infection. To our knowledge, this has been reported once previously and serves as a reminder to actively exclude asymptomatic S stercoralis infection in HIV infected individuals presenting with bacteraemia.
Silva, T.; Raychaudhuri, M.; Poulton, M.
Full text: Introduction: The disease with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the immuno depressed patients is determined either by the reactivation of a latent infection or by the primary infection at a seronegative receptor from a seropositive blood donor. The CMV infection is an important co-factor of the progress of the HIV infection. Some clinical forms are mode frequently met: the CMV pneumonia, the CMV gastrointestinal infection, the CMV retinitis and the central nervous system condition as CMV meningitis. Other locations such as carditis, myositis, or arthritis are very seldom mentioned. Objectives: The presentation of a clinical case of CMV polyarthritis. Material And Method: A retrospective study of the medical record of an HIV infected teenage girl. Results: A teenage girl of 16 diagnosed with HIV for 10 years was hospitalized twice in 2 months. At the first hospitalization she presented abdominal pain, vomiting, pyrosis and severe asthenia. A gastro-duodenal radiography was performed which showed gastroduodenitis lesions. The serology for CMV IgG was positive, at a high titre and a diagnose of gastrointestinal infection was given. At the second episode of hospitalization the patient presented myalgia and polyarthralgia. A bone scintigraphy was performed which showed inflammations of the spinal column joints in the T6-L3 area, sacro-illiac joint (bilateral), scapulo-humeral joint and coxo-femural joint and also in the left knee joint area. Based on clinical and para ce joint area. Based on clinical and para clinical data, the diagnose was CMV polyarthritis. After this episode the patient underwent etiological treatment for CMV with Ganciclovyr with a good progress and no other localizations of the infection. Conclusions: We consider the bone scintigraphy useful for the CMV arthritis diagnose. In order to settle which are the most affected joints in this infection we find the screening by bone scintigraphy very significant for the patients with clinical and laboratory suspicion of CMV polyarthritis. (author)
The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.
Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.
Background: South Africa has one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in the world and new infections may often result from people who have tested HIV positive. This study examined the sexual practices and risk behaviours of men and women living with HIV/AIDS being treated for a co-occurring sexually transmitted infection (STI). Methods: A sample of men and women receiving services at three South African STI clinics completed a computer administered behavioural assessment. Results: Among the ...
Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Cain, Demetria
Adherence counseling can improve antiretroviral adherence and related health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about how much counseling is necessary to achieve clinically significant effects. We investigated antiretroviral adherence and HIV viral load relative to the number of hours of adherence counseling received by 60 HIV-infected drug users participating in a trial of directly observed antiretroviral therapy delivered in methadone clinics. Our adherence couns...
Cooperman, Nina A.; Heo, Moonseong; Berg, Karina M.; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Nahvi, Shadi; Arnsten, Julia H.
Seventy-one asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) -infected individuals who underwent colonoscopy for detection of diseases other than amebiasis were included in this study. Ulcerative lesions caused by Entamoeba histolytica were identified by colonoscopy and biopsy in 11.3% (8 of 71) of individuals. Stool microscopic examination hardly identified Entamoeba, whereas serum antibody against E. histolytica was often elevated in patients with subclinical intestinal amebiasis. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II allele against E. histolytica infection (DQB1*06:01) was frequently identified in these patients. This study emphasizes the endemic nature of E. histolytica infection in our cohort and the difficulties in epidemiological control. PMID:25048374
Watanabe, Koji; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sekine, Katsunori; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Igari, Toru; Tanuma, Junko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine, from the perspectives of both HIV-infected children and such children's primary guardians, the barriers children face in adhering to combination antiretroviral therapies. Nine HIV-infected young children and 14 guardians of HIV-positive children were interviewed about what the children's lives…
Roberts, Kathleen Johnston
Since viral hepatitis is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV, it is critical to recognize and treat these patients appropriately. Hepatitis B infection is particularly difficult to manage as it changes with shifts in immune status. Inactive infection may flare up with restoration of CD4 cell count. In addition, many drugs used to treat HIV are also active against hepatitis B. Thus, patients may require therapy for both diseases or only for hepatitis B. The practicing physician must be aware of which drug to use with antiretrovirals and which can be used for hepatitis B alone. Current therapies for HIV that have hepatitis B activity include lamivudine, emtricitabine, and tenofovir. Therapies for hepatitis B without HIV activity are adefovir and entecavir. The major advances in the past year include emerging data on epidemiology, occult infection, genotypes, and newer therapies. Long-term management of hepatitis B includes monitoring for hepatocellular carcinoma. Two recent consensus conferences have provided excellent reviews of management of coinfection . PMID:16091258
Peters, Marion G
Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipi [...] demia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia) and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.
Marcos Almeida, Matos; Rafael Watt de, Alencar; Simone Souza da Rocha, Matos.
Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.
Marcos Almeida Matos
It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)
Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)
Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) prevents tuberculosis (TB) in immunocompetent children [...] sk for TB in HIV-infected children, especially when started early in infancy. In HIV-infected children, as in HIV-uninfected children, we recommend post-exposure IPT after each TB exposure episode; but in HIV-infected children, this should be given irrespective of age or antiretroviral therapy. However, evidence for routine IPT without known exposure to TB in HIV-infected children is not convincing and is therefore not recommended.
H S, Schaaf; M F, Cotton; G P G, Boon; P M, Jeena.
HCV and HIV infections impair dendritic cell function. We evaluated the impact of HCV, HIV, and HCV-HIV infection on MDC–NK interactions by analyzing CD3 depleted PBMC for NK cell IFN-? in response to IL-12 or poly (I:C). Purified MDC and NK cells were analyzed for TLR ligand-dependent, MDC-dependent NK activity. In HIV infection, IFN-? production by CD3 depleted PBMC was reduced in response to poly (I:C), while response to IL-12 was intact in HCV and HIV infections. Poly (I:C) induced ac...
Yonkers, Nicole L.; Milkovich, Kimberly A.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Post, Anthony B.; Asaad, Robert; Heinzel, Frederick P.; Valdez, Hernan; Tary-lehmann, Magdalena; Anthony, Donald D.
Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their ts (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of respiratory quotient (RQ), a surrogate marker of substrate oxidation, as well as body composition and dietary intake to resting energy expenditure (REE) among HIV-infected patients in the current era of HAART and among non HIV-infected control subjects. Resting energy expenditure (REE) is increased in HIV-infected patients, but little is known regarding the potential contribution of altered substrate metabolism, body composition an...
Fitch, Kathleen V.; Guggina, Lauren M.; Keough, Hester M.; Dolan Looby, Sara E.; Hadigan, Colleen; Anderson, Ellen J.; Hubbard, Jane; Liebau, James G.; Johnsen, Stine; Wei, Jeffery; Makimura, Hideo; Stanley, Takara L.; Lo, Janet; Grinspoon, Steven K.
Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth?s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 195-200
Joshua A. Itsifinus
Objectives Persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The HIV epidemic has the potential to affect its biology. Immunisation protocols established in the pre-HIV era are based upon data showing predominantly horizontal infant transmission. This study aimed to determine whether HIV co-infection will change the epidemiology of HBV both by increasing infectivity and by favouring the escape of viruses bearing phenotypically altered HBsAg. Methods This retrospective cross-sectional study used antenatal samples from the 2008 Antenatal Sentinel HIV and Syphilis Prevalence Survey in the Western Cape, South Africa. All HIV-infected women were age and race-matched to HIV-uninfected women. Samples were tested for serological markers of HBV and HDV infection. HBV viral load, consensus sequencing and genotyping were performed. Luminex technology was used to determine HBsAg phenotype. All samples from HIV-infected women were tested for traces of antiretroviral drugs by mass spectrometry. Results This study showed a trend toward loss of immune control of HBV in HIV-infected women with 3.4% of samples containing HBsAg, 18.9% contained HBeAg. In contrast, 2.9% of samples from HIV-uninfected women contained HBsAg and 17.1% of these HBeAg. The median HBV load in the HIV-infected group was 9.72 × 107 IU/ml and in the HIV-uninfected group 1.19 × 106 IU/ml. Genotyping showed 63/68 samples belonged to genotype A and the remainder genotype D. Mutations in the precore region were found in 35% and 33% of samples from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected respectively. Although no major epitope ablation was found, marked variation in HBsAg profiles in HIV-infected group was demonstrated. No HDV infection was detected. Conclusion HIV-HBV co-infected women exhibit a degree of immune escape. One in six HBV-infected pregnant women, irrespective of HIV status is HBeAg seropositive. HBV immunization of newborns in sub-Saharan Africa should be implemented. PMID:23973500
Andersson, M.I.; Maponga, T.G.; Ijaz, S.; Barnes, J.; Theron, G.B.; Meredith, S.A.; Preiser, W.; Tedder, R.S.
Full Text Available Liladhar Dhakal, Gabriele Berg-Beckhoff, Arja R AroUnit of Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkIntroduction: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections.Method: This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15–49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis.Results: Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence.Conclusion: Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.Keywords: intimate partner violence, socio-demographic, sexually transmitted disease, Nepal
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS will continue to threaten public health for years to come. Despite some popular misperceptions, adolescents are at risk of infection. Twenty percent of persons reported with AIDS have been ages 20 through 29. Given the long incubation period between HIV infection and AIDS, some of these young adults probably were infected while they were teenagers. Young people must develop the skills they will need to avoid HIV infection and other relat...
Moore, J. R.; Daily, L.; Collins, J.; Kann, L.; Dalmat, M.; Truman, B. I.; Kolbe, L. J.
Viral replication and latently infected cellular reservoirs persist in HIV-infected patients achieving undetectable plasma virus levels with potent antiretroviral therapy. We exploited a predictable drug resistance mutation in the HIV reverse transcriptase to label and track cells infected during defined intervals of treatment and to identify cells replenished by ongoing replication. Decay rates of subsets of latently HIV-infected cells paradoxically decreased with time since establishment, r...
Strain, M. C.; Gu?nthard, H. F.; Havlir, D. V.; Ignacio, C. C.; Smith, D. M.; Leigh-brown, A. J.; Macaranas, T. R.; Lam, R. Y.; Daly, O. A.; Fischer, M.; Opravil, M.; Levine, H.; Bacheler, L.; Spina, C. A.; Richman, D. D.
Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024. Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs were found in 47 (57% HIV positive women and 30 (34% HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34% in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64% HIV positive women compared to 27 (31% HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023. Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5% HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs.
HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic), H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic), and the dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ?90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research. PMID:25546350
Pasetto, Silvana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça
The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of detection of HIV-1 RNA in plasma of neonates born to HIV-1-seropositive mothers and to determine the diagnostic value of this method in the neonatal period. The study involved 96 infants among those enrolled in the French National Prospective Study. HIV-1 RNA was detected in the first 10 days of life by nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in 12 of 48 plasma samples of infected infants and in 39 of 39 of the second samples taken before the age of 3 months. On the same samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or viral culture that had been routinely performed were found to be positive in 11 of 48 samples taken in the first 10 days of life and 39 of 39 second samples. For the noninfected infants, HIV-1 RNA was never detected in the 48 samples taken in the first 10 days of life and was detected in one of the 48 samples taken before the age of 3 months. HIV-1 RNA detection in plasma by NASBA has sensitivity and specificity equal to those of DNA PCR and culture on PBMC for the diagnosis of infection in infants with the clade B virus. This standardized method gives rapid results on a small volume of plasma and seems well suited for diagnosis on a large scale. PMID:9241110
Delamare, C; Burgard, M; Mayaux, M J; Blanche, S; Doussin, A; Ivanoff, S; Chaix, M L; Khan, C; Rouzioux, C
Background: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. Methods: Patients with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013