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Sample records for violence hiv infection

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of Gender-Based Violence Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women in Three US Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Rebecca M.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Schechter, Gabrielle E.; Connors, Nina C.; Gousse, Yolene; Young, Mary A.; COHEN, MARDGE H.

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among women with and at risk for HIV, yet little is known about the GBV associated psychological factors that could be modifiable through behavioral interventions. The current study examined the associations between some of these psychological factors (i.e., hopelessness, consideration of future consequences, self esteem), mental health symptoms, substance abuse, and GBV among a sample of 736 HIV-infected and sociodemographically similar uninfected partic...

  2. Intimate partner violence and risk of HIV infection in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muazzam Nasrullah

    2011-01-01

    Globally, violence against women is increasing, and is currently recognized as a major public health problem with significant consequences to women’s health. The detrimental health effects such as injury, chronic pain, gastrointestinal, and gynecological signs including sexually-transmitted diseases, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder have been observed in abused women. Violence, like in other Asian countries, is a huge problem in Pakistan.

  3. Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; BRIDDEN, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

  4. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV and HIV infection among women. Methods: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ?15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results: Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries – the US (eight studies, South Africa (four studies, East Africa (10 studies, India (three studies, Brazil (one study and multiple low-income countries (two studies] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.22 (1.01, 1.46] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.28 (1.00, 1.64] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.44 (1.10, 1.87]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 2.00 (1.24, 3.22 and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.41 (1.16, 1.73] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions: Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among individuals of diverse racial/cultural backgrounds and varying levels of HIV risks.

  5. Psychosocial correlates of gender-based violence among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in three US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Rebecca M; Weber, Kathleen M; Schechter, Gabrielle E; Connors, Nina C; Gousse, Yolene; Young, Mary A; Cohen, Mardge H

    2014-05-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is common among women with and at risk for HIV, yet little is known about the GBV associated psychological factors that could be modifiable through behavioral interventions. The current study examined the associations between some of these psychological factors (i.e., hopelessness, consideration of future consequences, self esteem), mental health symptoms, substance abuse, and GBV among a sample of 736 HIV-infected and sociodemographically similar uninfected participants in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Results indicated high rates of lifetime GBV among the sample (58%), as well as high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) (22.2%). HIV-infected women were more likely to be hopeless and to experience lower consideration of future consequences as compared to uninfected women. Multivariable analysis indicated that current non-injection drug use and a history of injection drug use were the main correlates of GBV and CSA, even when other psychosocial variables were included in analytic models. Being born outside of the US reduced the likelihood of GBV and CSA. Future research directions and intervention implications are discussed. PMID:24724987

  6. National cross sectional study of views on sexual violence and risk of HIV infection and AIDS among South African school pupils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Neil; Ho-Foster, Ari; Matthis, Judith; Marokoane, Nobantu; Mashiane, Vincent; Mhatre, Sharmila; Mitchell, Steve; Mokoena, Tamara; Monasta, Lorenzo; Ngxowa, Ncumisa; Salcedo, Manuel Pascual; Sonnekus, Heidi

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the views of school pupils on sexual violence and on the risk of HIV infection and AIDS and their experiences of sexual violence. Design National cross sectional study. Setting 5162 classes in 1418 South African schools. Participants 269 705 school pupils aged 10-19 years in grades 6-11. Main outcome measure Answers to questions about sexual violence and about the risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Results Misconceptions about sexual violence were common among both sexes, but more females held views that would put them at high risk of HIV infection. One third of the respondents thought they might be HIV positive. This was associated with misconceptions about sexual violence and about the risk of HIV infection and AIDS. Around 11% of males and 4% of females claimed to have forced someone else to have sex; 66% of these males and 71% of these females had themselves been forced to have sex. A history of forced sex was a powerful determinant of views on sexual violence and risk of HIV infection. Conclusions The views of South African youth on sexual violence and on the risk of HIV infection and AIDS were compatible with acceptance of sexual coercion and “adaptive” attitudes to survival in a violent society. Views differed little between the sexes. PMID:15485935

  7. Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; ALDROVANDI, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; THEA, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...

  8. Sexual violence and HIV/AIDS transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Klot; Pam DeLargy

    2007-01-01

    The high rates of sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa may help explain the disproportionate rates of infection among young women as compared to men, and also offer a new conceptual framework for understanding HIV transmission.

  9. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Heraclito de Barbosa Carvalho; Sergio Dario Seibel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have b...

  10. Type and severity of intimate partner violence and its relationship with PTSD in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansrod, Fatima; Spies, Georgina; Seedat, Soraya

    2015-01-01

    HIV has an impact on the presence and severity of both intimate partner violence (IPV) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in infected women. However, the relationship of type and severity of IPV with PTSD in this population has not been adequately explored. We focus on the association between the type and severity of IPV and HIV status and PTSD in a sample of South African women. One hundred and sixty-nine women (114 HIV-positive and 55 HIV-negative controls), matched for geographical area, education, and socio-economic status, were recruited from HIV clinics. Clinical and demographic data were collected, including data on childhood trauma, other traumatic life events, IPV, posttraumatic stress symptoms, problematic alcohol use, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive women had significantly more depressive symptoms, alcohol abuse, and childhood trauma exposure as well as significantly higher rates of PTSD (25.4%) when compared with uninfected women (10.9%). No significant group differences in the rate, pattern, and severity of physical, sexual, psychological, injury, and negotiation IPV were found. In logistic regression analysis, the rate and severity category of IPV did not significantly predict PTSD in HIV-positive women when childhood trauma and life events were controlled for. Our results indicate the need for screening for alcohol abuse, PTSD and depressive symptoms at HIV wellness, and ARV clinics. The high rates of PTSD in HIV-positive women indicate the need for specialized programs to manage PTSD and minimize negative sequelae in this population. These results also highlight the need for improved screening and prevention of childhood trauma and IPV both in infected and uninfected women. PMID:25300600

  11. Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    SARKAR, KAMALESH; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 4–5 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymo...

  12. HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Infection with HIV usually leads to 8–10 years of asymptomatic infection before immune function deteriorates and AIDS develops. Without treatment, about 50% of infected people will die of AIDS over 10 years. With treatment, prognosis depends on age, CD4 cell count, and initial viral load.

  13. MANIA IN HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, D.; Patil, P.B.; Gupta, D.; Murali, N.; van de Kar, N; Sharma, P. S. V. N.

    2001-01-01

    Mania in HIV infected individuals is an uncommon clinical presentation. It can, however, complicate any stage of the HIV infection. We herewith report a set of three case reports of patients with HIV infection who developed manic episodes. The cases highlight some aspects of the plausible relationship between HIV infection and mania. HIV infection could be revealed by manic episode, it could itself also be associated with increased cycling in bipolar patients. Mania could be secondary to HIV ...

  14. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Heraclito Barbosa de, Carvalho; Sergio Dario, Seibel.

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related [...] to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2). Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1) of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement). Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.

  15. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.

  16. Social factors related to risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections/HIV among Asian massage parlor workers in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Wong, Serena; Le, Mai Nhung; Operario, Don

    2004-12-01

    Asian women who work at massage parlors in San Francisco have high levels of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and being victims of violence, which jeopardizes their health and wellbeing. On the basis of mapping, the targeted districts in San Francisco where massage parlors were located, 23 massage parlors were identified where commercial sex activity took place. Using snowball-sampling methods, 43 Asian female massage parlor workers were recruited for focus groups; 21 participants were Vietnamese and 22 were Thai. Qualitative analyses revealed frequent exposure to violence including verbal or physical abuse from customers and gang members, as well as persistent HIV risk behaviors associated with multiple daily sex partners, inconsistent condom use with customers, and forced sex. Social factors related to gender, immigration status, and socioeconomic status appeared to be closely tied to the health and wellbeing of Asian masseuses. Study findings suggest that individualized as well as community-level interventions are necessary to improve these women's health and decrease their prolonged exposure to risks for STIs and violence. PMID:15690120

  17. A lifetime of violence: results from an exploratory survey of Mexican women with HIV.

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    Kendall, Tamil; van Dijk, Marieke; Wilson, Katherine S; Picasso, Nizarindandi; Lara, Diana; Garcia, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite recognition that traditional Mexican gender norms can contribute to the twin epidemics of violence against women and HIV, there is an absence of published literature on experiences of violence among Mexican women with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 77 HIV-infected women from 21 of Mexico's 32 states to describe experiences of violence before and after HIV-diagnosis. We measured lifetime physical, sexual, and psychological violence; physical violence from a male partner in the previous 12 months; and physical and psychological violence related to disclosing an HIV diagnosis. Respondents reported ever experiencing physical violence (37.3%) and sexual violence (29.2%). Disclosure of HIV status resulted in physical violence for 7.2% and psychological violence for 26.5% of the respondents. This study underlines the need to identify and address past and current gender-based violence during pre- and post-HIV test counseling and as a systematic and integral part of HIV care. PMID:22512924

  18. Associação entre violência por parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e infecção por HIV Asociación entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja íntima e infección por VIH Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection

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    Claudia Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres e a infecção ou suspeita de infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionários aplicados face-a-face e de prontuários médicos de 2.780 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema único de saúde da Grande São Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usuárias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", com "suspeita de HIV" e aquelas que procuraram os serviços por outros motivos. A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres na vida foi categorizada por gravidade e recorrência dos episódios de violência. A associação com o desfecho foi testada pelo modelo de Poisson com variância robusta e ajustada por variáveis sociodemográficas, sexuais e reprodutivas. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de violência foi de 59,8%. Sofrer violência reiterada e grave apresentou maior associação de infecção confirmada pelo HIV (RP = 1,91. A violência independente da gravidade e da recorrência dos episódios apresentou maior associação para a suspeita de infecção por HIV (RP = 1,29. CONCLUSÕES: A violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres tem papel relevante nas situações de suspeita e confirmação da infecção pelo HIV, sendo essencial incluir sua detecção, controle e prevenção como parte da atenção integral à saúde das mulheres.OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación entre la violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima y la infección o sospecha de infección por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal con base en datos de cuestionarios aplicados cara-a cara y de prontuarios médicos de 2.780 mujeres de 15 a 49 años, atendidas en unidades del sistema único de salud de la Gran Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en 2001-2002. Las mujeres fueron categorizadas en: usuarias en tratamiento por ser "seropositivas para el VIH", con "sospecha de VIH" y aquellas que buscaron los servicios por otros motivos. La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima en la vida fue categorizada por gravedad y recurrencia de los episodios de violencia. La asociación con la infección fue evaluada por el modelo de Poisson con variancia robusta y ajustada por variables sociodemográficas, sexuales y reproductivas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia fue de 59,8%. Sufrir violencia reiterada y grave presentó mayor asociación de infección confirmada por el VIH (RP=1,91. La violencia independiente de la gravedad y de la recurrencia de los episodios presentó mayor asociación para la sospecha de infección por VIH (RP= 1,29. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia contra mujeres por pareja íntima tiene papel relevante en las situaciones de sospecha y confirmación de la infección por el HIV, siendo esencial incluir su detección, control y prevención como parte de la atención integral a la salud de las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health System units of the Greater São Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91.

  19. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  20. Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intimate partner violence reporting an injury as a consequence of this violence. Intimate partner violence and sexual violence can lead to unintended pregnancies, induced abortions, gynaecological problems, and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV. ...

  1. Paediatric HIV infection

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    Sayal S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of HIV infection in children between one to eight years of age are reported. Three were males and the other one female. One child was horn to known HIV infected mother. The female child was victim of sexual abuse and had disseminated tuberculosis with syphilis and gonorrhoea. Other two children were having systemic as well as dermatological disorders for which HIV test was done and found positive.

  2. Paediatric HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sayal S; Bal A; Gupta C

    1997-01-01

    Four cases of HIV infection in children between one to eight years of age are reported. Three were males and the other one female. One child was horn to known HIV infected mother. The female child was victim of sexual abuse and had disseminated tuberculosis with syphilis and gonorrhoea. Other two children were having systemic as well as dermatological disorders for which HIV test was done and found positive.

  3. Aging and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Rakhi; Robert S. Klein; Schoenbaum, Ellie E; ANASTOS, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Sacks, Henry S.

    2006-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in mid-1995, the prognosis for HIV-infected individuals has brightened dramatically. However, the conjunction of potent antiviral therapy and longer life expectancy may engender a variety of health risks that, heretofore, HIV specialists have not had to confront. The long-term effects of HIV infection itself and exposure to antiretroviral agents is unknown. Several aspects of aging, including psychiatric disease, neurocognitive i...

  4. Seronegativity and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lepage, P.; Batungwanayo, J.; perre, P Van de

    1989-01-01

    An African girl born to an HIV seropositive mother was seropositive during the neonatal period, became seronegative, and was again found to be seropositive at 18 and 20 months of age. We suggest that seronegative children born to seropositive mothers should be followed up for months or even years before HIV infection can be ruled out.

  5. Resistance to HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Marmor, M.; Hertzmark, K.; Thomas, S.M.; Halkitis, P. N.; Vogler, M.

    2006-01-01

    The biological correlates of an effective immune response that could contain or prevent HIV infection remain elusive despite substantial scientific accomplishments in understanding the interactions among the virus, the individual and the community. The observation that some individuals appear to possess resistance to HIV infection or its consequences has generated a host of epidemiologic investigations to identify biological or behavioral characteristics of these individuals. These data might...

  6. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes R.; Munoz J; Diaz I; Domingo P; Gurgui M; Clotet B

    2003-01-01

    Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors? personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological c...

  7. Domestic violence, sexual ownership, and HIV risk in women in the American deep south.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Bronwen

    2005-02-01

    Domestic violence and sexual abuse are important correlates of HIV risk in women. This paper examines the links between HIV risk and domestic violence in women in a region with the highest HIV/AIDS rates in the United States. The theoretical framework incorporates Butler's (1993) and (1990) concept of performative gender and Collins' (2000) "controlling images" of African American women as a context for domestic violence in the Deep South. Two focus groups were convened to develop a definition of domestic violence as HIV risk; 50 in-depth individual interviews of HIV-positive women were subsequently conducted for specific information on the topic. A final focus group was conducted for verification and feedback. The interview data revealed that controlling images of women as sexualized bodies were enacted through rape, sexual coercion, and name-calling in intimate relationships. The main finding was that the women lacked the ability to control sexual activities (including condom use) in abusive relationships with HIV-positive men. The women used various strategies to escape abusive partners and to obtain treatment for HIV/AIDS. The study concludes that the links between gender inequity, domestic violence, and HIV transmission should appear in prevention materials to encourage domestic violence screening in health settings, and to provide abused women with information on the not-so-obvious risks of being infected in abusive relationships. PMID:15571889

  8. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors? personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  9. HIV infection and seizures

    OpenAIRE

    GARG, R. K.

    1999-01-01

    New-onset seizures are frequent manifestations of central nervous system disorders in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Seizures are more common in advanced stages of the disease, although they may occur early in the course of illness. In the majority of patients, seizures are of the generalised type. Status epilepticus is also frequent. Associated metabolic abnormalities increase the risk for status epilepticus. Cerebral mass lesions, cryptococcal meningitis, and HIV...

  10. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  11. Pityrosporum Infection In HIV Infected Patients

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    Kaviarasan P K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An increased colonization of Malassezia furfur organism has been reported in patients with HIV infection. Pityriasis versicolour and pityrosporum folliculitis arise from overgrowth of M. furfur. It is also thought to have a significant role in the pathogenesis of seborrhoeic dermatitis and is one of the earliest clinical markers of HIV infection. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The present study was to note the occurrence and significance of these infections in HIV infected patients. The occurrence of pityrosporum infection was 13.5% (25 cases amongst 185 HIV serpositive patients in HIV infected cases in our study. Mean age of the affected patients was 31.7 years and male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The main mode of acquisition of HIV infection was heterosexual (19 cases. Tinea versicolour was seen in 10 (40% cases, seborrhoeic was found to be more explosive in onset and involving extensive areas with severe inflammation. Extensive tinea versicolour and seborrhoeic dermatitis were seen in three cases with pityrosporum infections. Nine of the pityrosporum infections were observed in HIV group IV, which is equivalent of AIDS. To conclude, seborrhoeic dermatitis in patients with HIV/AIDS may have some unique features and may be used as a clinical marker of AIDS.

  12. Partner Violence Perpetration and Victimization and HIV Risk Behaviors in St. Petersburg, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan, Weihai; Hansen, Nathan B; Shaboltas , Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.; Abdala, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Whether intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization are associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors is seldom investigated in Russia. The present study hypothesized that patients from a sexually transmitted infection center in Russia who perpetrated IPV or were victims of IPV would be more likely to have HIV risk behaviors including injection drug use, multiple partners, and inconsistent condom use than those who were not involved with IPV. We used a s...

  13. Lung Cancer in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mani, Deepthi; Haigentz, Missak; Aboulafia, David M

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most prevalent non-AIDS-defining malignancy in the HAART era. Smoking plays a significant role in the development of HIV-associated lung cancer, but the cancer risk is 2–4 times greater in HIV-infected persons than in the general population, even after adjusting for smoking intensity and duration. Lung cancer is typically diagnosed a decade or more earlier among HIV-infected persons (mean age, 46 years) compared to those without HIV infection. Adenocarcinoma is the commones...

  14. [Alcohol abuse in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkina, E V; Beliaeva, V V; PokrovskiÄ­, V V

    1996-01-01

    249 cases of HIV infection (170 males, mean age 30.2 +/- 0.8 years; 79 females, mean age 28.7 +/- 0.9 years) have been analyzed for prevalence of alcoholization. 6 months after the establishment of HIV diagnosis the number of alcoholics in the studied group was greater than in this group before the diagnosis. 22% developed further alcohol addiction. Detrimental effects of alcoholization on mentality, memory and social status of HIV-infected subjects are described. PMID:9045381

  15. Selenium Deficiency and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Di Bella; Elisabetta Grilli; Maria Adriana Cataldo; Nicola Petrosillo

    2010-01-01

    Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected...

  16. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future ...

  17. Selenium deficiency and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Di Bella

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. Larger studies were conducted in countries with poor economic resources and limited access to HAART. According to the majority of published studies low selenium levels appear to have an association with mortality, and selenium supplementation appears to play a beneficial role on survival or on slowing disease progression among HIV infected individuals. The role of selenium supplementation on preventing hospital admission among HIV outpatients was also noticed. The literature suggests an association between selenium deficiency and development of HIV associated cardiomyopathy and furthermore, selenium supplementation appears to improve the cardiac function in HIV infected individuals with cardiomyopathy. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the role selenium in modifying HIV viral load and immune status in HIV infection.

  18. Haematological complications of HIV infection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jessica, Opie.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is in the midst of the world’s largest human immune deficiency virus (HIV) epidemic with an estimated 5.6 million people infected. Haematological manifestations of HIV are common and diverse, occurring at all stages of infection. Haematological emergencies occurring in this setting incl [...] ude the high-grade lymphomas, particularly Burkitt lymphoma, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), opportunistic infections and drug side-effects are also frequent causes of cytopenias. A bone marrow biopsy has a high diagnostic utility in HIV patients presenting with unexplained cytopenias and/or fevers. It is not widely realised that HIV is also a prothrombotic state with an increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is now widely available in South Africa and is a crucial adjunct to therapy of haematological complications. Medical professionals across all disciplines need to be alert to the haematological complications of HIV infection.

  19. Stages of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Get HIV/AIDS? Symptoms of HIV U.S. Statistics Global Statistics HIV/AIDS Timeline Prevention Reduce Your Risk Lower Your Sexual Risk for ... Issues Federal Resources Federal Programs Federal Testing Programs Prevention ... PEPFAR & Global AIDS Global HIV/AIDS Overview PEPFAR U.S. Government ...

  20. Early thrombocytopenia in HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Three children aged between 7 months and 2 years developed thrombocytopenia as an early feature of HIV infection. The prevalence of this condition, possible pathogenesis, and options for treatment are discussed. HIV testing should be considered in the investigation of a child with thrombocytopenia.

  1. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... box above and click "GO" or visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are especially critical for people with chronic health ...

  2. Combined Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Uganda: Design of the SHARE Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jennifer A; King, Elizabeth J; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kiwanuka, Deus; Kairania, Robert; Semanda, John Baptist; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection. Researchers from the Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), an HIV research and services organization in rural Uganda, conducted a combination IPV and HIV prevention intervention called the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone (SHARE) Project between 2005 and 2009. SHARE was associated with significant declines in physical and sexual IPV and overall HIV incidence, and its model could be adopted as a promising practice in other settings. In this article we describe how SHARE's IPV-prevention strategies were integrated into RHSP's existing HIV programming and provide recommendations for replication of the approach. PMID:26086189

  3. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  4. Stages of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bookmarking Social Network Sites Text Messaging Twitter Video Games Video Sharing Sites Webcasts/ Webinars Widgets Wikis Follow Us on New Media News & Events Awareness Days National Black HIV Awareness Day National Women & Girls HIV/AIDS Awareness Day National Native HIV/ ...

  5. Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277

  6. The Relationship between Intimate Partner Violence, Rape and HIV amongst South African Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Morrell, Robert; Dunkle, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations between intimate partner violence, rape and HIV among South African men. Design Cross-sectional study involving a randomly-selected sample of men. Methods We tested hypotheses that perpetration of physical intimate partner violence and rape were associated with prevalent HIV infections in a cross-sectional household study of 1229 South African men aged 18–49. Violence perpetration was elicited in response to a questionnaire administered using an Audio-enhanced Personal Digital Assistant and blood samples were tested for HIV. A multivariable logistic regression model was built to identify factors associated with HIV. Results 18.3% of men had HIV. 29.6% (358/1211) of men disclosed rape perpetration, 5.2% (63/1208) rape in the past year and 30.7% (362/1180) of had been physically violent towards an intimate partner more than once. Overall rape perpetration was not associated with HIV. The model of factors associated with having HIV showed men under 25 years who had been physically violent towards partners were more likely to have HIV than men under 25 who had not (aOR 2.08 95% CI 1.07–4.06, p?=?0.03). We failed to detect any association in older men. Conclusions Perpetration of physical IPV is associated with HIV sero-prevalence in young men, after adjusting for other risk factors. This contributes to our understanding of why women who experience violence have a higher HIV prevalence. Rape perpetration was not associated, but the HIV prevalence among men who had raped was very high. HIV prevention in young men must seek to change ideals of masculinity in which male partner violence is rooted. PMID:21935392

  7. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Melanie Ott; Daniela Boehm; Ryan J. Conrad

    2013-01-01

    Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and bio...

  8. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

  9. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections As a person living with ... Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they are ...

  10. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). PMID:25381267

  11. A violência intrafamiliar e o adolescente que vive com HIV/AIDS por transmissão vertical: análise dos fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade Domestic violence and the adolescent that was infected with HIV through vertical transmission: analysis of protection and vulnerability factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius da Silva Pone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar os fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade à violência intrafamiliar física e/ou psicológica entre adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids por transmissão vertical. Este grupo encontra-se especialmente suscetível por apresentar fatores de vulnerabilidade como doença crônica, orfandade com consequente troca de cuidadores e comprometimento da imagem corporal. A pesquisa foi realizada com adolescentes atendidos em um hospital de referência. A primeira etapa abrangeu a aplicação dos instrumentos Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales e Escala de Violência Psicológica, para aferição do tipo de violência intrafamiliar acometida. A segunda parte, qualitativa, utilizou-se de entrevistas com os adolescentes, com os maiores e os menores escores para violência nos instrumentos quantitativos. Verificou-se uma alta prevalência de violência física e psicológica, bem como nas entrevistas realizadas foram detalhadas as dinâmicas familiares abusivas, corroborando a literatura. Tendo em vista as consequências deste tipo de violência, se torna fundamental que o profissional de saúde esteja atento à identificação das situações de violência, como também ao reconhecimento dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e ao incentivo aos fatores de proteção aos maus-tratos.The scope of this study was to analyze protection and vulnerability factors in physical and psychological domestic violence among adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS through vertical transmission. This group is especially susceptible as they have vulnerability factors such as chronic disease, orphanhood with consequent change of caregivers and impaired body image. The research was conducted in a public hospital. The first stage used the Parent Child Conflict Tactics and the Degree of Psychological Violence Scale to determine what domestic violence occurred. In the second qualitative stage, the adolescents who scored the most or the least for violence in the quantitative instrument were interviewed. The questionnaires and the interviews revealed a high prevalence of physical and psychological violence and abusive domestic dynamics, thereby corroborating the extant literature. In view of the consequences of this kind of violence, it is essential that the health professional should be able to identify violent situations and recognize vulnerability factors and to promote protection factors against ill-treatment.

  12. A violência intrafamiliar e o adolescente que vive com HIV/AIDS por transmissão vertical: análise dos fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade / Domestic violence and the adolescent that was infected with HIV through vertical transmission: analysis of protection and vulnerability factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cláudia Mamede Wiering de, Barros; Olga Maria, Bastos; Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Pone; Suely Ferreira, Deslandes.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar os fatores de proteção e de vulnerabilidade à violência intrafamiliar física e/ou psicológica entre adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids por transmissão vertical. Este grupo encontra-se especialmente suscetível por apresentar fatores de vulnerabilidade como [...] doença crônica, orfandade com consequente troca de cuidadores e comprometimento da imagem corporal. A pesquisa foi realizada com adolescentes atendidos em um hospital de referência. A primeira etapa abrangeu a aplicação dos instrumentos Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales e Escala de Violência Psicológica, para aferição do tipo de violência intrafamiliar acometida. A segunda parte, qualitativa, utilizou-se de entrevistas com os adolescentes, com os maiores e os menores escores para violência nos instrumentos quantitativos. Verificou-se uma alta prevalência de violência física e psicológica, bem como nas entrevistas realizadas foram detalhadas as dinâmicas familiares abusivas, corroborando a literatura. Tendo em vista as consequências deste tipo de violência, se torna fundamental que o profissional de saúde esteja atento à identificação das situações de violência, como também ao reconhecimento dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e ao incentivo aos fatores de proteção aos maus-tratos. Abstract in english The scope of this study was to analyze protection and vulnerability factors in physical and psychological domestic violence among adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS through vertical transmission. This group is especially susceptible as they have vulnerability factors such as chronic disease, orphanh [...] ood with consequent change of caregivers and impaired body image. The research was conducted in a public hospital. The first stage used the Parent Child Conflict Tactics and the Degree of Psychological Violence Scale to determine what domestic violence occurred. In the second qualitative stage, the adolescents who scored the most or the least for violence in the quantitative instrument were interviewed. The questionnaires and the interviews revealed a high prevalence of physical and psychological violence and abusive domestic dynamics, thereby corroborating the extant literature. In view of the consequences of this kind of violence, it is essential that the health professional should be able to identify violent situations and recognize vulnerability factors and to promote protection factors against ill-treatment.

  13. Perceptions fuelling gender-based violence and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Mandangu, G.

    2011-01-01

    The community of the Mudzi district, Zimbabwe is still mired in negative cultural practices, while stigma around HIV is high and gender-based violence (GBV) is commonplace, especially between intimate partners. This article sketches the situation and gives recommendations on how to improve the situation.

  14. Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supporting the development and evaluation of an economic development intervention – a strategy that has been shown to reduce both IPV ... state domestic violence coalitions to implement and evaluate strategies aimed at addressing community and ... a social marketing campaign designed to encourage HIV testing among African ...

  15. Neurologic complications of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudich, Serena S; Ances, Beau M

    2012-01-01

    The effects of HIV-1 in the nervous system are a topic of avid interest to investigators and clinicians focused on HIV, judging by the large and discriminating audience at the oral sessions and poster presentations relating to neuroscience at the 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Major areas of investigation at this year's conference included the use of neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging to assess the state of the central nervous system (CNS) and effects of antiretroviral therapy during HIV infection as well as basic and clinical studies of neuropathogenesis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Numerous important suggestions emerged during the meeting. Among them was the proposition that earlier initiation of therapy might benefit the CNS. Another was that the relationship between HIV and normal aging remains unclear and warrants further study. Still another was that ongoing abnormalities may persist despite treatment with antiretroviral therapy-including measurable brain microglial activation, detectable cerebrospinal fluid HIV, and progression of neurologic impairment. PMID:22710906

  16. Psychosocial and cultural correlates of depression among Hispanic men with HIV infection: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, J P; Gonzalez-Guarda, R M; Vasquez, E P

    2012-12-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition among persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Depression influences quality of life, social relationships and adherence to medication therapy. Little is known about depression among Hispanic men with HIV infection. The purpose of this pilot study was to describe the relationships of depression to other psychosocial factors (self-esteem, Hispanic stress, substance abuse and violence) and cultural factors (familism and Hispanic stress) among a sample of Hispanic men with HIV infection. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive research design a convenience sample of 46 Hispanic men with HIV infection was recruited and surveyed from the South Florida area of the USA. The majority of the participants (65%; n = 30) were depressed. In addition, the majority of participants reported high familism and self-esteem and low Hispanic stress. A history of substance abuse and childhood and adult violence were common. Significant relationships were noted between depression, and self-esteem, Hispanic stress, substance abuse, and adult physical violence. Healthcare providers need to be aware of the high rates of depression, substance abuse and violence that may occur among Hispanic men with HIV infection. More research is needed to further explore the relationship of these factors, as well as to determine the impact that these variables have on adherence to medication therapy among Hispanic men with HIV infection. PMID:22295937

  17. Acyclovir resistant varicella zoster and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyall, E. G.; Ogilvie, M. M.; Smith, N. M.; Burns, S.

    1994-01-01

    A child infected with HIV who developed chronic varicella zoster virus infection resistant to acyclovir is presented. The clinical course of the infection, treatment, virological investigations, and relationship of the infection to the child's immunodeficient state are discussed.

  18. Renal issues in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Kidney disease remains a prominent complication of HIV disease, despite beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HIV-associated nephropathy, and on kidney function in general populations of HIV infected patients. Persons of African descent continue to bear a disproportionate burden of severe kidney disease, as is true for the general population. Recently identified genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene may contribute to this burden. As is also true for the general population, markers of kidney disease, including microalbuminuria, are sensitive predictors of cardiovascular disease and mortality among persons living with HIV. The emerging experience with kidney transplantation also suggests this to be a viable option in selected patients. PMID:21643783

  19. HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of American university students: associations with violence/abuse and covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Gill, Jasmeet K; Hubach, Randolph D; Cayetano, Reggie T; Hilbert, Cary J

    2014-10-01

    Associations linking HIV infection to violence and abuse are well documented; however, little is known about how violence/abuse is related to HIV testing behavior, particularly among undergraduate university students, who test at lower rates compared to non-student peers in the United States. We assessed history of HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates in California (n = 1,210); and examined potential associations between testing and various forms of violence/abuse, while controlling for covariates. Whereas 73.4% of students were sexually active in the past year, only 26.3% had ever tested for HIV. At the bivariate level, testing was associated with experiencing verbal abuse and sexual violence/coercion, and perpetrating verbal abuse. Experiencing verbal abuse remained significant in multivariate analysis. We discuss findings in a syndemics framework, considered in combination with social psychology-based health behavior theories. Enhanced HIV testing scale-up initiatives for undergraduates are needed and should consider integration with violence prevention programs. PMID:24043406

  20. Alcohol use, intimate partner violence, sexual coercion and HIV among women aged 15-24 in Rakai, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, Iryna B; Gray, Ronald H; Koenig, Michael A; Serwadda, David; Nalugoda, Fred; Kigozi, Godfrey; Sewankambo, Nelson; Lutalo, Tom; Wabwire Mangen, Fred; Wawer, Maria

    2009-04-01

    Disinhibition due to alcohol may induce intimate partner violence and sexual coercion and increased risk of HIV infection. In a sample of 3,422 women aged 15-24 from the Rakai cohort, Uganda, we examined the association between self-reported alcohol use before sex, physical violence/sexual coercion in the past and prevalent HIV, using adjusted odds ratios (Adj OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). During the previous year, physical violence (26.9%) and sexual coercion (13.4%) were common, and alcohol use before sex was associated with a higher risk of physical violence/sexual coercion. HIV prevalence was significantly higher with alcohol consumption before sex (Adj OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.06-1.98) and especially when women reported both prior sexual coercion and alcohol use before sex (Adj OR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.25-2.56). Alcohol use before sex was associated with physical violence and sexual coercion, and both are jointly associated with HIV infection risk in young women. PMID:18064556

  1. HIV infection among seafarers in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muli?, Rosanda; Vidan, Pero; Polak, Nikola Kolja

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the magnitude of the HIV problem among seafarers in Croatia. The study is based on data from the AIDS/HIV Registry of the Croatian National Institute of Public Health and data on the number of seafarers in Croatia, from the Croatian Seafarers' Union. All case records of HIV infection among seafarers and the type of their sexual contacts have been analysed retrospectively. During the period between 1985 and the end of October 2009, a total of 784 persons with diagnosed HIV infection were registered, of which 74 were seafarers (9.4%). Only 0.25% of Croatian seafarers are HIV infected. Considering the fact that seafarers are a "bridge" for HIV infection to the population, this article describes the epidemiological characteristics of HIV infection among Croatian seafarers and suggests measures in combating HIV infection in their population. PMID:21348014

  2. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... malignancies: state of the art and therapeutic challenges. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2008; 26(29):4834–4842. [PubMed Abstract] Heard ... of HIV, hepatitis C infection, and alcohol abuse. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2006; 24(31):5005–5009. [PubMed Abstract] Massad ...

  3. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV Infection of Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, HAO; WANG Xu; Chen, Hui; Song, Li; Li YE; Wang, Shi-Hong; Wang, Yan-Jian; ZHOU, LIN; Ho, Wen-zhe

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (meth), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. However, there is a lack of direct evidence that meth promotes HIV infection of target cells. This study examined whether meth is able to enhance HIV infection of macrophages, the primary target site for the virus. Meth treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase of HIV reverse transcriptase activity in huma...

  4. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  5. Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Özbal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a retrovirus and belongs to the family of Lentiviruses. The life cycle of HIV-1 is divided into early and late phases. In the early phase; an HIV-1 virion binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine co-receptors on the human host cell surface, viral and host cell membranes fuse and the viral core is entered into host cell. Viral particle is uncoated. The viral genome is reverse transcribed and the viral preintegration complex (PIC forms. The PIC is transported through the nuclear pore into the nucleoplasm, and the viral reverse transcript is integrated into a host cell DNA. In the late phase, viral RNAs are transcribed from the integrated viral genome and processed to generate viral mRNAs and full-length viral genomic RNAs. The viral RNAs are exported through the nuclear pore into the cytosol. Viral mRNAs are translated and the resulting viral proteins are post-translationally processed, core particles containing viral genomic RNA and envelope proteins assemble at the host cell membrane. Immature viral particles are released by budding. The released particles mature to become infectious.There are three main ways HIV-1 incites cell death in CD4 +TH lymphocytes, namely through the budding process, infected cell-to-cell fusion and through tricking the immune system. The stimulation of CD8 +T lymphocytes and the formation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes depend on the presentation of a peptide together with MHC-I. Cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes are able to recognize and eliminate HIV-1 infected cells. Nef induce downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I molecules from the HIV-1-infected cells, which represent an escape mechanism for the virus to evade an attack mediated by cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes and to avoid recognition by CD4 +TH1 lymphocytes. The spectrum of vaccine strategies against HIV includes HIV-derived peptides or proteins, the use of viral or bacterial vectors, naked DNA, the use of live attenuated HIV strains.

  6. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Andersen, Ove

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).

  7. Gendered violence and HIV in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Seckinelgin; Joseph Bigirumwami; Jill Morris

    2010-01-01

    Pre-existing gender relations changed for the worse during the conflict and interventions to promote disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) failed to address the dynamics which shape the spread of HIV.

  8. Effectiveness of an integrated intimate partner violence and HIV prevention intervention in Rakai, Uganda: analysis of an intervention in an existing cluster randomised cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Jennifer A Wagman, PhD; Prof. Ronald H Gray, MD; Prof. Jacquelyn C Campbell, PhD; Marie Thoma, PhD; Anthony Ndyanabo, MSc; Joseph Ssekasanvu, BSc; Fred Nalugoda, PhD; Joseph Kagaayi, PhD; Gertrude Nakigozi, MPH; Prof. David Serwadda, MSc; Heena Brahmbhatt, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with HIV infection. We aimed to assess whether provision of a combination of IPV prevention and HIV services would reduce IPV and HIV incidence in individuals enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), Rakai, Uganda. Methods: We used pre-existing clusters of communities randomised as part of a previous family planning trial in this cohort. Four intervention group clusters from the previous trial were provided standard of c...

  9. Violence against Women Living with HIV: A Cross Sectional Study in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nirmal Aryal; Pramod Raj Regmi; Naba Raj Mudwari

    2012-01-01

    Background: Violence against Women (VAW) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) both constitute major public health issues and there is an increasing evidence of their intersection. Data are sparse on the intersection of VAW and HIV in South Asia region. We aimed to identify different forms and magnitude of violence incurred by women living with HIV, and analyse causes and consequences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 43 HIV positive women in three districts of Nepal, in ...

  10. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; Té, David da Silva; Laursen, Alex Lund; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Wejse, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Oliviera, Ines

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  11. Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients with HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Bakım

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients with AIDS are homosexual men or intravenous drug users. HIV infected individuals are subject to the full Tange of psychiatric syndromes including adjusment disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, alcohol-substance related disorders, delirium, dementia and psychosec. HIV, opportunistic infections, anti-HIV medications, and the psychosocial stress of HIV illness cause substantial psychiatric morbidity over the course of illness. Dementia or milder forms of cognitive impairment are important manifestations of HIV infection with important consequences. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent progression. Fatigue and depressive Symptoms are common in HIV-infection. Depression has a significant impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV and is associated with HIV disease progression and mortality, either poor adherence with antiretroviral regiments or risk for suicide. Personality disorder is also common in the HIV- positive population. Symptoms of anxiety are very common in this patient population under substantial stress, while major anxiety disorders appear to occur with the same frequency as in the general population. Alcohol and substance abuse disorders are common in individuals across HIV risk factors. Psychiatric disorders often predate and are independent problems that interact with HIV infection and treatment. Patients with AIDS have an elevated rate of suicide. This suicidal patients require the same psychological and social Support as other persons at risk for suicide.

  12. Coinfection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, JH

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.

  13. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, ...

  14. ‘Occam's Scissors’: opportunistic infections in advanced HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nirav; Owen, Leah; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the case of a new diagnosis of advanced HIV-1 infection with a blood CD4 cell count of 0.003×109/L (2%), presenting with weight loss, night sweats, diarrhoea and anorexia. Symptoms were due to disseminated histoplasmosis (confirmed pulmonary and colonic disease), Pneumocystis pneumonia and oral candidiasis highlighting the limitations of ‘Occam's razor’ with advanced HIV infection.

  15. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  16. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  17. Mental health aspects of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J.

    1993-01-01

    Of the multiple causes of mental disturbance in HIV infection, it is generally safest to consider organic causes first, including opportunistic infections, tumours, medications, and HIV encephalopathy. The psychological stress of the illness will cause different or overlapping presentations that include anxiety and depression. When managing these situations, one should also pay attention to the effects of stress on the social network of the infected person.

  18. Alterations in the gut microbiota associated with HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lozupone, Catherine A.; Li, Marcella; Campbell, Thomas B.; Flores, Sonia C.; Linderman, Derek; Gebert, Matthew J; Knight, Rob; FONTENOT, ANDREW P.; Palmer, Brent E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding gut microbiota alterations associated with HIV-infection and factors that drive these alterations may help explain gut-linked diseases prevalent with HIV. 16S rRNA sequencing of feces from HIV infected individuals revealed that HIV infection is associated with highly characteristic gut community changes and antiretroviral therapy does not consistently restore the microbiota to an HIV-negative state. Despite the chronic gut inflammation characteristic of HIV infection, the associ...

  19. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  20. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  1. Intimate partner violence and HIV among drug-involved women: contexts linking these two epidemics--challenges and implications for prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Witte, Susan; Wu, Elwin; Chang, Mingway

    2011-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) and HIV are two serious overlapping public health epidemics that disproportionately affect drug-involved women. This article reviews research that has identified a number of contexts that may explain the links between IPV and HIV transmission risks. These contexts include sexual coercion, fear of violence, negotiation of condom use, extradyadic relationships, disclosure of sexually transmitted infections or HIV seropositivity to intimate partners, drug involvement of women and their male partners, low social status of drug-involved women, relationship dependencies, and sex ratio imbalances. The article focuses on how the bidirectional relationship between IPV and HIV risks may be mediated by a history of childhood sexual abuse and post-traumatic stress disorder. Also addressed are the challenges that substance user treatment programs face in dealing with female clients who experience IPV and the implications for HIV prevention. PMID:21303249

  2. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for HIV to avail access to testing and risk-reduction counseling for female victims of sexual violence in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahill, Guitele J; Joshi, Manisha; Hernandez, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Haiti has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Before the 2010 earthquake, Haitian women bore a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS, had lower HIV knowledge, less capacity to negotiate for safer sex, and limited access to HIV testing and risk-reduction (RR) counseling. Since 2010, there has been an increase in sexual violence against women, characterized by deliberate vaginal injuries by non-intimate partners, increasing victims' risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Needed is an adaptation of evidence-based interventions for HIV that include HIV testing and counseling for this stigmatized population. We reviewed several features of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 103 evidence-based interventions for HIV (e.g., measures used, participant risk characteristics, theoretical framework, outcome variables, and evidence tier) in an attempt to seek a feasibly adaptable evidence-based intervention for HIV that could be used for victims of sexual violence (VOSV). RESPECT, one of the reviewed evidence-based HIV interventions, comprises of one-on-one, client-focused HIV prevention/RR counseling, and RAPID HIV testing. Adapting RESPECT can enhance access to testing for Haitian VOSV and can influence their perceptions of HIV risk, and establishment of RR goals for future consensual intimate relations. Adapting and implementing RESPECT can increase uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions among Haitians and positively affect a region with high HIV prevalence and increased rates of sexual violence. PMID:26278002

  3. HIV-1, HIV-2 and other Sexually Transmitted Infections in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Månsson, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    HIV-1 is dominating the global HIV pandemic, while HIV-2 is mainly confined to West Africa. The highest HIV-2 prevalence figures have been reported from Guinea-Bissau. While HIV-1 infection almost invariably leads to progressive immune dysfunction and AIDS, HIV-2 infection is characterised by a smaller proportion of individuals with disease progression to AIDS. In order to monitor the long-term epidemiological trends of HIV-1 and HIV-2, we performed sentinel studies among pregnant women a...

  4. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other......, sometimes less well understood, mechanisms, has been linked to increased CVD risk. HIV infection, especially untreated, is a further contributing factor to increased CVD risk in HIV-positive patients. As the HIV-positive population continues to age, the risk of CVD will continue to increase. Guidelines for...

  5. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in adults. Hence, over the past decade, tuberculosis incidence has increased in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. The association between tuberculosis ...

  6. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Simpson, David M

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...

  7. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanovi? Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  8. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1 replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood leucocytes-SCID reconstituted mice. In addition, a prospective nonrandomized trial of HIV patient series receiving RAPA monotherapy after liver transplantation indicated significantly better control of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication among patients taking RAPA monotherapy. Taken together, the evidence presented in this review suggests that RAPA may be a useful drug that should be evaluated for the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  9. A mark that is no mark? Queer women and violence in HIV discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logie, Carmen H; Gibson, Margaret F

    2013-01-01

    Lesbian, bisexual and queer women are invisible and ignored in HIV discourse, as epidemiological classifications result in their institutionalised exclusion from risk categories. Simultaneously, these women live with HIV, often in situations of societal exclusion and under threat of violence. In this paper, we consider the connections between discourse and violence to examine how both are reproduced through, applied to and dependent upon people. The ways lesbian, bisexual and queer women do (or do not) appear in HIV discourse tells us much about how people and categories operate in the global pandemic. The fault-lines of lesbian, bisexual and queer women's constrained visibility in HIV discourse can be seen in situations where they are exposed to HIV transmission through homophobic sexual assault. In dominant HIV discursive practices, such homophobic assault leaves Judith Butler's 'mark that is no mark', recording neither its violence nor its 'non-heterosexuality'. Structural violence theory offers a means to understand direct and indirect violence as it pertains to HIV and lesbian, bisexual and queer women. We call for forms of modified structural violence theory that better attend to the ways in which discourse connects with material realities. Our theoretical and epidemiological lens must be broadened to examine how anti-lesbian, bisexual and queer-women bias affects transnational understandings of human worth. PMID:23140506

  10. The epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, N-B; Ji, C; Cappuccio, P F; Stones, R W

    2008-08-01

    Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV-sero-status were collected in the 2001 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a very limited set of demographic variables. We utilized this data set to examine associations between HIV prevalence, gender, age and geographical location. We applied the generalized geo-additive semi-parametric model as an alternative to the common linear model, in the context of analyzing the prevalence of HIV infection. This model enabled us to account for spatial auto-correlation, non-linear, location effects on the prevalence of HIV infection at the disaggregated provincial level (nine provinces) and assess temporal and geographical variation in the prevalence of HIV infection, while simultaneously controlling for important risk factors. Of the overall sample of 3950, 54% was female. The overall HIV-positivity rate was 565 (14.3%). The mean age at HIV diagnosis for male was 30.3 (SD=11.2) and 27.7 (SD=9.3) for female respectively. Lusaka and Copperbelt have the first and second highest prevalence of AIDS/HIV (marginal odds ratios of 3.24 and 2.88, respectively) but when the younger age of the urban population and the spatial auto-correlation was taken into account, Lusaka and Copperbelt were no longer among the areas with the highest prevalence. Non-linear effects of age at HIV diagnosis are also discussed and the importance of spatial residual effects and control of confounders on the prevalence of HIV infection. The study was conducted to assess the spatial pattern and the effect of confounding risk factors on AIDS/HIV prevalence and to develop a means of adjusting estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence on the important risk factors. Controlling for important risk factors, such as geographical location (spatial auto-correlation), age structure of the population and gender, gave estimates of prevalence that are statistically robust. Researchers should be encouraged to use all available information in the data to account for important risk factors when reporting AIDS/HIV prevalence. Where this is not possible, correction factors should be applied, particularly where estimates of AIDS/HIV prevalence are pooled in systematic reviews. Our maps can be used for policy planning and management of AIDS/HIV in Zambia. PMID:18608086

  11. Intimate Partner Violence among HIV Positive Persons in an Urban Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Shruti; Yonas, Michael A.; Silvestre, Anthony J.; Burke, Jessica G.

    2010-01-01

    While the intersection of HIV/AIDS and intimate partner violence (IPV) has gained increased attention, little focus has been given to the relationship among minority men and men who have sex with men (MSM). This pilot study, conducted at an urban clinic, explores the IPV experiences of HIV positive persons involved in both heterosexual and homosexual relationships. Fifty-six HIV positive individuals were interviewed to assess for verbal, physical, and sexual IPV, and for HIV-related abuse and...

  12. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C in People With HIV Related Links Hepatitis Mycobacteria Tuberculosis ? Javascript Error Your browser JavaScript is turned ... caused by infection with infectious agents such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteria, hepatitis C, hepatitis, B, ...

  13. Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infection The table below shows which vaccinations you should have to protect your health if ... sure you and your healthcare provider keep your vaccinations up to date. Vaccine Do you need it? ...

  14. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, Caroline A; Lundgren, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection.

  15. Associação entre violência por parceiro íntimo contra a mulher e infecção por HIV Asociación entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja íntima e infección por VIH Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Barros; Lilia Blima Schraiber; Ivan França-Junior

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação entre a violência por parceiro íntimo contra mulheres e a infecção ou suspeita de infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionários aplicados face-a-face e de prontuários médicos de 2.780 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema único de saúde da Grande São Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usuárias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", ...

  16. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4? cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV-infected patients do not achieve optimal immune reconstitution despite suppression of viral replication. These patients are referred to as immunological nonresponders (INRs). INRs present with severel...

  17. Inflammation and Immune Activation in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although widespread availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has markedly enhanced survival in HIV-1 infected individuals, its long-term use and cessation has been linked to an increase in non-AIDS morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of these complications is thought to reflect excessive immune activation and inflammation. The SMART trial showed that in chronic HIV-1 infection, inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers were predictive of all cause mortality, and that stopping ART lead...

  18. Depression in women infected with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Mello Valéria Antakly de; Malbergier André

    2006-01-01

    OBJETIVE:The number of women with HIV infection has been on the rise in recent years, making studies of the psychiatric aspects of this condition very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major depression in women with HIV infection. METHOD: A total of 120 women were studied, 60 symptomatic (with AIDS symptoms) and 60 asymptomatic (without AIDS symptoms). Sociodemographic data were collected, and depressive disorders were identified. The instruments used to evalu...

  19. AIDS/HIV infection and cerebrovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, A.

    2005-01-01

    The occurrence of cerebrovascular disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been reported mainly in advanced stages of the disease and was generally associated with nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis, opportunistic infections, or tumors, although in recent series a large number of cryptogenic strokes were found, probably related to HIV vasculopathy. Recently a population-based study reported a strong association between acquired immunodeficiency syndrom...

  20. The link between HIV/AIDS and violence among young adults: A study in Udupi, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health problem which affects the community and threatens the life of people. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and different forms of violence among HIV positive young adults taking antiretroviral therapy (ART in Udupi district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HIV positive young adults (18-35 years who were aware of their status. The participants were selected from ART Centre of Udupi district adopting convenience sampling. Data were collected from 200 young HIV positive young adults using a predesigned, pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of domestic violence was 14.5% and was found to be more among females (17.6% as compared to males (6.9%. This difference was statistically significant among gender with a P-value <0.05. Among the various forms of violence the prevalence of physical violence was found to be 14.5% with significant difference among gender. Among females who experienced physical violence, husband was perpetrator in 76% cases and among males, parents/relatives as the perpetrator in 75% cases. Around 8.5% of females had experienced sexual violence and husband was perpetrator in 50% of the cases followed by relatives and friend/acquaintance. Conclusion: Physical and sexual violence was found to be more in female HIV positive patients as compared to males. The presence of violence among HIV positive young adults especially among the females demands for the concerted efforts at combating underlying factors leading to violence among this vulnerable group of HIV positive young adults.

  1. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  2. HIV Infection and Cardiovascular Disease in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Julie A.; Chang, Chung?Chou H.; So?Armah, Kaku A.; Alcorn, Charles; Baker, Jason V.; Brown, Sheldon T.; Budoff, Matthew; Butt, Adeel A.; Gibert, Cynthia; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Gottdiener, John; Gottlieb, Stephen; Justice, Amy C.; Leaf, David; McGinnis, Kathleen; Rimland, David; Rodriguez?Barradas, Maria C.; Sico, Jason; Skanderson, Melissa; Tindle, Hilary; Tracy, Russell P.; Warner, Alberta; Freiberg, Matthew S.

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in men. Whether HIV is an independent risk factor for CVD in women has not yet been established. Methods and Results We analyzed data from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study on 2187 women (32% HIV infected [HIV+]) who were free of CVD at baseline. Participants were followed from their first clinical encounter on or after April 01, 2003 until a CVD event, death, or the last follow?up date (December 31, 2009). The primary outcome was CVD (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], unstable angina, ischemic stroke, and heart failure). CVD events were defined using clinical data, International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes, and/or death certificate data. We used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between HIV and incident CVD, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, lipids, smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, renal disease, obesity, hepatitis C, and substance use/abuse. Median follow?up time was 6.0 years. Mean age at baseline of HIV+ and HIV uninfected (HIV?) women was 44.0 versus 43.2 years (PAMI, 13%; unstable angina, 8%; ischemic stroke, 22%; and heart failure, 57%. Incident CVD/1000 person?years was significantly higher among HIV+ (13.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]=10.1, 18.1) than HIV? women (5.3; 95% CI=3.9, 7.3; P<0.001). HIV+ women had an increased risk of CVD, compared to HIV? (hazard ratio=2.8; 95% CI=1.7, 4.6; P<0.001). Conclusions HIV is associated with an increased risk of CVD in women. PMID:25324353

  3. Women with HIV: gender violence and suicidal ideation / Mulheres com HIV: violência de gênero e ideação suicida

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roger Flores, Ceccon; Stela Nazareth, Meneghel; Vania Naomi, Hirakata.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Analisar a relação entre violência de gênero e ideação suicida em mulheres com HIV. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal com 161 usuárias de serviço de atenção especializada em HIV/aids. Investigou-se a presença de violência de gênero por meio da versão brasileira do instrumento World Health Org [...] anization Violence Against Women e a ideação suicida pelo Questionário de Ideação Suicida. A análise estatística foi realizada com o software SPSS utilizando o teste de Qui-quadrado e o modelo de regressão múltipla de Poisson. RESULTADOS Oitenta e duas mulheres com HIV referiram ideação suicida (50,0%), 78 (95,0%) das quais haviam sofrido violência de gênero. Idade da primeira relação sexual Abstract in english OBJECTIVE To analyze the relationship between gender violence and suicidal ideation in women with HIV. METHODS A cross-sectional study with 161 users of specialized HIV/AIDS care services. The study investigated the presence of gender violence through the Brazilian version of the World Health O [...] rganization Violence against Women instrument, and suicidal ideation through the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software, using the Chi-square test and Poisson multiple regression model. RESULTS Eighty-two women with HIV reported suicidal ideation (50.0%), 78 (95.0%) of who had suffered gender violence. Age at first sexual intercourse

  4. HIV Risk Among Pregnant Teenagers With a History of Interpersonal Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline C.; Zlotnick, Caron; RAKER, Christina; Tzilos, Golfo; Phipps, Maureen G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between interpersonal violence, depressive symptoms, and HIV risk behaviors among pregnant teenagers. A sample of 116 pregnant teenagers was recruited in Rhode Island. Multivariate logistic regressions tested whether the relationship between history of interpersonal violence and HIV risk remained after controlling for age and education. Participants reported a young age of sexual debut and low rates of condom use. Multivariate logistic regressions indicate...

  5. The link between HIV/AIDS and violence among young adults: A study in Udupi, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh Yadav; Ramachandra Kamath; Lena Ashok; Bharatesh Shetty; B Mohandas Hegde; Murali Dhar; Varalakshmi Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health problem which affects the community and threatens the life of people. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and different forms of violence among HIV positive young adults taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Udupi district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HIV positive young adults (18-35 years) who were aware of their status. The participants were selected from ART Centre of Udupi district adopting convenie...

  6. Safer disclosure of HIV serostatus for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin E Kennedy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Supporting individuals as they disclose their HIV serostatus may lead to a variety of individual and public health benefits. However, many women living with HIV are hesitant to disclose their HIV status due to fear of negative outcomes such as violence, abandonment, relationship dissolution and stigma. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating interventions to facilitate safer disclosure of HIV status for women living with HIV who experience or fear violence. Articles, conference abstracts and programme reports were included if they reported post-intervention evaluation results and were published before 1 April 2015. Searching was conducted through electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and conference abstracts, reviewing websites of relevant organizations for grey literature, hand searching reference lists of included studies and contacting experts. Systematic methods were used for screening and data abstraction, which was conducted in duplicate. Study quality (rigor was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Two interventions met the inclusion criteria: the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone cluster-randomized trial of combination HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV services in Rakai, Uganda, and the South Africa HIV/AIDS Antenatal Post-Test Support study individual randomized trial of an enhanced counselling intervention for pregnant women undergoing HIV testing and counselling. Both programmes integrated screening for IPV into HIV testing services and trained counsellors to facilitate discussions about disclosure based on a woman's risk of violence. However, both were implemented as part of multiple-component interventions, making it impossible to isolate the impact of the safer disclosure components. Conclusions: The existing evidence base for interventions to facilitate safe HIV serostatus disclosure for women who experience or fear violence is limited. Development and implementation of new approaches and rigorous evaluation of safe disclosure outcomes is needed to guide programme planners and policy makers.

  7. Engendering health sector responses to sexual violence and HIV in Kenya: Results of a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Nduku; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Molyneux, Catherine; Kibaru, Josephine; Kimonji, Virginia; Theobald, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In Kenya many people who have been affected by sexual violence turn to the health sector for clinical treatment and preventive therapies. This interface provides a vital opportunity to impact on the dual epidemics of HIV and sexual violence. Despite this, the uptake of existing post-rape care services was low when the study was commenced and health care providers feel ill-prepared to deal with the consequences of sexual violence. A qualitative study was conducted to better...

  8. Pulmonary infections in HIV-positive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)

  9. Pulmonary infections in HIV-positive children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Theron, Salomine; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town, Tamboerskloof (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Infection of the lungs and airways by viral, bacterial, fungal and protozoal agents, often producing atypical radiographic features, is common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Conventional chest radiography and chest CT remain the most useful imaging modalities for evaluation of the immunocompromised patient presenting with a suspected pulmonary infection. In this review the radiological features of acute lung infections in this population are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Patterns and Correlates of Intimate Partner Violence to Women Living With HIV/AIDS in Osogbo, Southwest Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowookere, Samuel A; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I; Adekanle, Daniel A; Adeleke, Najemdeen A; Abioye-Kuteyi, Emmanuel A

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) to women living with HIV/AIDS in an antiretroviral clinic in Nigeria. Three hundred sixty respondents were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Sixty percent were married, of which 24% had disclosed HIV status to their partner. About a quarter (23.6%) had experienced IPV since HIV diagnosis. Types of violence experienced were physical violence (17%), emotional violence (21%), and sexual violence (2%). Predictors of IPV included having a younger aged partner, disclosing status, and partner's alcohol use (p = .001). Suggestions to prevent IPV include increasing public awareness and family counseling. PMID:26175518

  11. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. RESULTS: Thirty-six patients were included. IL-10 levels increased significantly in patients with primary or second...

  12. Programmatic Implications of Acute and Early HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Granich, Reuben M; Kato, Masaya; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Montaner, Julio S G; Williams, Brian G

    2015-11-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection includes acute, early, chronic, and late stages. Acute HIV infection lasts approximately 3 weeks and early HIV infection, which includes acute HIV infection, lasts approximately 7 weeks. Many testing and blood screening algorithms detect HIV antibodies about 3 weeks after HIV infection. Incidence estimates are based on results of modeling, cohort studies, surveillance, and/or assays. Viral load is the key modifiable risk factor for HIV transmission and peaks during acute and early HIV infection. Empirical evidence characterizing the impact of acute and early HIV infection on the spread of the HIV epidemic are limited. Time trends of HIV prevalence collected from concentrated and generalized epidemics suggest that acute and early HIV infection may have a limited role in population HIV transmission. Collectively, these data suggest that acute and early HIV infection is relatively short and does not currently require fundamentally different programmatic approaches to manage the HIV/AIDS epidemic in most settings. Research and surveillance will inform which epidemic contexts and phases may require tailored strategies for these stages of HIV infection. PMID:26310309

  13. Violence Screening and Viral Load Suppression Among HIV-Positive Women of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, Susan Ryerson; Fletcher, Jason; Gonzalez, Marisol; Precht, Allison; Xavier, Jessica; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measur...

  14. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management.

  15. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  16. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sérgio Monteiro

    2015-07-01

    The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26200059

  17. Bidirectional links between HIV and intimate partner violence in pregnancy: implications for prevention of mother-to-child transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail M Hatcher

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT has the potential to eliminate new HIV infections among infants. Yet in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, PMTCT coverage remains low, leading to unacceptably high rates of morbidity among mothers and new infections among infants. Intimate partner violence (IPV may be a structural driver of poor PMTCT uptake, but has received little attention in the literature to date. Methods: We conducted qualitative research in three Johannesburg antenatal clinics to understand the links between IPV and HIV-related health of pregnant women. We held focus group discussions with pregnant women (n=13 alongside qualitative interviews with health care providers (n=10, district health managers (n=10 and pregnant abused women (n=5. Data were analysed in Nvivo10 using a team-based approach to thematic coding. Findings: We found qualitative evidence of strong bidirectional links between IPV and HIV among pregnant women. HIV diagnosis during pregnancy, and subsequent partner disclosure, were noted as a common trigger of IPV. Disclosure leads to violence because it causes relationship conflict, usually related to perceived infidelity and the notion that women are “bringing” the disease into the relationship. IPV worsened HIV-related health through poor PMTCT adherence, since taking medication or accessing health services might unintentionally alert male partners of the women's HIV status. IPV also impacted on HIV-related health via mental health, as women described feeling depressed and anxious due to the violence. IPV led to secondary HIV risk as women experienced forced sex, often with little power to negotiate condom use. Pregnant women described staying silent about condom negotiation in order to stay physically safe during pregnancy. Conclusions: IPV is a crucial issue in the lives of pregnant women and has bidirectional links with HIV-related health. IPV may worsen access to PMTCT and secondary prevention behaviours, thereby posing a risk of secondary transmission. IPV should be urgently addressed in antenatal care settings to improve uptake of PMTCT and ensure that goals of maternal and child health are met in sub-Saharan African settings.

  18. Screening and assessing violence and mental health disorders in a cohort of inner city HIV-positive youth between 1998-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G; Carleton, Russell A

    2009-06-01

    The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998-2006 (n = 174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CDQ). All youth subsequently had diagnostic interviews conducted by psychologists. Findings of the CDQ and the psychological interviews revealed the following. Violence reported by youth occurred in several forms: physical assault/abuse (24% in childhood; 19% as adolescents), sexual abuse/assault (28% in childhood; 15% as adolescents), dating violence (i.e., physical abuse by sexual partner) (18%), and family violence (44%). Females had higher sexual abuse (p depressive disorders (15%), generalized anxiety disorder (17%); posttraumatic stress disorder (28%); alcohol abuse disorder (19%); and substance abuse disorder (31%). Physically abused youth had higher symptoms of anxiety (p abused youth had higher symptoms of PTSD (p < 0.05). Youth with family violence had higher symptoms of Anxiety Disorder (p < 0.05) and PTSD (p < 0.01). CDQ findings closely correlated with diagnostic assessments of the psychological interview. We conclude that inner city HIV-positive youth present with high prevalence of violence and with psychological disorders. Failure to screen for and treat these psychological disorders may impact successful treatment of their HIV infection. PMID:19519231

  19. Stem-Cell-Based Gene Therapy for HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjie Zhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and advancements in humanized mouse models have allowed rapid developments of gene therapy for HIV treatment. In this review, we will discuss two aspects of HIV gene therapy using human hematopoietic stem cells. The first is to generate immune systems resistant to HIV infection while the second strategy involves enhancing anti-HIV immunity to eliminate HIV infected cells.

  20. Feasibility of an HIV/STI Risk-Reduction Program for Incarcerated Women Who Have Experienced Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Peabody, Marlanea E; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fernandes, Karen; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-11-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and interpersonal violence (IV; e.g., childhood abuse, partner violence, and rape) victimization are significant and interconnected public health problems facing incarcerated women. We adapted a best-evidence HIV-prevention intervention for women (the Women's CoOp) to address sexual safety among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence victimization. The standard Women's CoOp teaches safe sex, substance use harm reduction, and violence prevention information and skills needed to empower women to make more intentional decisions about their safety. We also incorporated strategies to increase affect management, social support, and access to community resources. This resulted in the first trauma-focused HIV-prevention intervention for women that directly addresses the sequelae of IV (such as affect dysregulation in sexual situations) within the context of HIV harm reduction. This manuscript describes the rationale, feasibility, acceptability, and pre-post outcomes of this intervention among 14 women nearing release from prison in two state prison systems. Assessments took place at baseline, prior to release, and at 2-, 5-, and 8 months after release. The intervention overall and each of its components were feasible and acceptable. Participants' number of unprotected sexual occasions, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depressive symptoms decreased significantly from baseline to post-release. Effectiveness in obtaining resources increased significantly from baseline to post-release. Because pre-post measurements of outcomes are confounded with incarceration and subsequent release in this preliminary study, a randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this tailored intervention. PMID:25395223

  1. Plasma Proteomic Profiling in HIV-1 Infected Methamphetamine Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Pottiez, Gwenael; Jagadish, Teena; Yu, Fang; LETENDRE, SCOTT; Ellis, Ronald; Duarte, Nichole A.; GRANT, Igor; GENDELMAN, HOWARD E.; Fox, Howard S; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV i...

  2. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no sig...

  3. Renal pathology and HIV infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praditpornsilpa, K; Napathorn, S; Yenrudi, S; Wankrairot, P; Tungsaga, K; Sitprija, V

    1999-02-01

    The existence of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) as a distinct disease entity characterized by glomerulosclerosis is well established in North America and Western Europe. Although the large number of HIV-infected cases overwhelm the Asian countries, no cases of HIVAN are documented in the literature. We studied 26 cases of HIV-infected Thai patients with proteinuria greater than 1.5 g/d of protein during 1995 and 1996. None of the patients were treated with antiretroviral drugs at the time of renal biopsy. Intravenous drug addiction and sexual transmission were risk factors in 11 and 15 patients, respectively. Pathological examinations were performed by light microscopic and immunoperoxidase study. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 17 cases, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in 2 cases, and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis secondary to cryptococcal infection in 2 cases each. One case each had membranous glomerulopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis secondary to tuberculosis. The renal pathological findings of HIVAN with the unique features described in previous literature were not evident in these patients. Although the data in this study are limited to 26 HIV-infected Thai patients, we believe that HIVAN is uncommon in the Asian HIV-infected population. PMID:10023639

  4. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  5. Genetic correlates influencing immunopathogenesis of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Gaurav; Kaur, Gurvinder; Mehra, Narinder

    2011-01-01

    Variability to HIV infection, its progression as well as responsiveness to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is observed among individuals including viraemia controllers or exposed uninfected, rapid versus slow progressors and ART responders compared to non responders. This differential responsiveness/vulnerability to HIV-1 is governed by multiple host genetic factors that include HLA, cytokines, chemokines, their receptors and others. This review highlights the influence of these genetic factors ...

  6. Characteristics of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hristea, A; C Manciuc; E Zaharia-Kezdi; C Dorobat; Arbune, M; Olaru, I; R Jipa; Niculescu, I.; Streinu-Cercel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has a substantial mortality even with anti-tuberculous treatment, in HIV-non-infected patients. Purpose of the study. The objectives were to describe clinical and laboratory differences of TBM in HIV-infected versus HIV non-infected patients and to assess risk factors of death in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to four infectious diseases hospitals in Romania, between 2001 and 2011, with TBM. Patients were ...

  7. Late diagnosis of HIV infection among prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Mouriño, Andrés; Gallego Castellví, Carlos; García de Olalla, Patricia; Solé Zapata, Neus; Argüelles Fernández, María José; Escribano Ibáñez, Montserrat; Sánchez Roig, Montserrat; Caylà Buqueras, Joan Artur

    2013-01-01

    HIV-risk populations are over-represented in prisons. It is very important to identify late HIV infection diagnosis in this setting from a public health perspective. The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of late diagnosis and identify the predictive factors among inmates of two prisons in Barcelona from 2010 to 2012, and to review late diagnosis in other prisons. A cross-sectional study design was used on inmates with newly-diagnosed HIV infection. Less than 350 CD4 lymphocytes/µl was considered late diagnosis. A Medline search was performed. Of the 3,933 total inmates, 1.2% (n = 47) were diagnosed with HIV infection, 1.7% from Prison A and 0.6% from Prison B (p immigrant population, and among intravenous drug users (p = 0.026, p = 0.007, p = 0.03, respectively). The proportion of late diagnosis decreased from 60% in 2010, to 44.4% in 2011 and 20% in 2012 (p = 0.05). The multivariate analysis confirmed an association between late diagnosis and immigrant status (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.8-34.13) and the declining prevalence (p = 0.032). This is the first study to estimate late diagnosis in a prison population. Late diagnosis occurs mainly among the immigrant inmate population. The prison can serve as an opportunity to identify and treat HIV infection among people who have little contact with health services, thus avoiding further transmission. PMID:24002198

  8. Immune Responses to HIV Vaccines and Potential Impact on Control of Acute HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    McElrath, M Juliana

    2010-01-01

    Unanticipated results from two recent candidate HIV-1 vaccine regimens in large-scale international trials highlight the importance of understanding the optimal earliest immune defense against HIV-1 infection. Presented here are key findings in these vaccine studies that have relevance to the development of future HIV-1 vaccines that can control acute HIV-1 infection.

  9. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Schønning, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W; Benfield, Thomas Lars; Coffin, John M

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  10. Demographics in HIV-infected children in Denmark: results from the Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Herlin, Troels; Christensen, Hans Ole; Nielsen, Henrik Ib; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We present the demographic data on HIV-infected children from the Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study, an observational database on HIV in Denmark. Up to 1 July 2003 a total of 89 children had been diagnosed with HIV infection before the age of 16 y, of which 12 (13.5%) had died, 2 (2.2%) had emig...

  11. Toxoplasma gondii Infection and Self-directed Violence in Mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marianne G; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Norgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Postolache, Teodor T

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT Two studies based on clinical samples have found an association between Toxoplasma gondii infection and history of suicide attempt. To our knowledge, these findings have never been replicated in a prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE To examine whether T gondii-infected mothers have an increased risk of self-directed violence, violent suicide attempts, and suicide and whether the risk depends on the level of T gondii IgG antibodies. DESIGN Register-based prospective cohort study. Women we...

  12. Tuberculosis-HIV Co-infection in Kiev City, Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Yegorova, Olga B.; Chentsova, Nelly; Chechulin, Yuriy; Hasker, Epco; Petrenko, Vasyl I.; Veen, Jaap; Turchenko, Leonid V.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, we tested all patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) for HIV in Kiev City. The results were compared to information from medical records of 2002, when co-infection prevalence was 6.3%. Of 968 TB patients, 98 (10.1%) were HIV infected. TB-HIV co-infection is increasing, especially in injecting drug users.

  13. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Usmani; Rifat; Rakesh; Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs) which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study...

  14. CNS involvement in pediatric HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the spectrum of abnormalities identified by means of CT in children with HIV infection and correlate them with clinical findings; to provide additional insight into the timing and type of insult occurring in these children. The CT studies of 24 HIV-infected children aged 1 mo--8 y were reviewed. The findings were correlated with the history and physical examination. CT abnormalities were seen in 18/24 children. Among 10 children with normal findings on neurologic study, seven showed one or more CT abnormalities. These included microcephaly (n = 2), intracranial calcification (n = 2), and cerebral atrophy (n = 6)

  15. HIV among men who have sex with men in Malawi: elucidating HIV prevalence and correlates of infection to inform HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Wirtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV prevention services. Results provide a number of priorities for research and prevention programmes for MSM, including providing access to and encouraging regular confidential HIV testing and counselling, and risk reduction counselling related to anal intercourse. Other targets include the provision of condoms and compatible lubricants, HIV prevention information, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection treatment and adherence support. Addressing multiple levels of HIV risk, including structural factors, may help to ensure that programmes have sufficient coverage to impact this HIV epidemic among MSM.

  16. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4? cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution....... Additional treatment to HAART that may improve immune reconstitution has been investigated, but results thus far have proved disappointing. The reason for immunological nonresponse is incompletely understood. This paper summarizes the known and unknown factors regarding the incomplete immune reconstitution...

  17. Influence of smoking on HIV infection among HIV-infected Japanese men

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Fukuko; Naito, Toshio; Oike, Miki; Saita, Mizue; Inui, Akihiro; Uehara, Yuki; Mitsuhashi, Kazunori; Isonuma, Hiroshi; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Shimbo, Takuro

    2012-01-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study that included 100 HIV-infected Japanese men without hemophilia to examine the influence of smoking on HIV infection. History of smoking was obtained using a questionnaire. The percentage of current smokers was 40 % and was the highest (50 %) among men in their forties. The mean Brinkman index (BI, number of cigarettes smoked per day multiplied by years of smoking) was 450. The percentage of patients with a BI ?600 was significantly higher in patients with ...

  18. Women and HIV Infection: The Makings of a Midlife Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Santoro, Nanette; Fan, Maria; Maslow, BatSheva; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2009-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral agents, women with HIV infection can expect to live longer than ever before. This increased survival has led to concerns about the long-term implications of HIV disease and its treatment. Women with HIV infection appear to lose ovarian function earlier in life than women without HIV infection. They also have evidence of reduced bone mineral density and increased cardiovascular risk. Moreover, many of these increases in risk factors are present e...

  19. HIV/AIDS and Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are bacterial infections. Viral infections include cytomegalovirus (CMV) and hepatitis C. Fungi cause thrush (candidiasis), cryptococcal meningitis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and histoplasmosis, and parasites ...

  20. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicul...

  1. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    OpenAIRE

    Schadé Annemiek; van Grootheest Gerard; Smit Johannes H

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problem...

  2. Thrombocytopenia in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Francielle Garcia; Tanaka, Paula Yurie

    2012-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common feature among HIV-positive patients. However, there are few reports about this subject after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) introduction. The authors show a retrospective description of epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment observed in 55 HIV-positive outpatients with thrombocytopenia treated in two reference centers for HIV treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-four (62%) patients were male, 50 (91%) were Caucasian, with median of lymphocytes TCD4 of 394 cells/mm(3). In 63.6% patients, the cause of thrombocytopenia was classified as immune thrombocytopenic purpura and non immune in 25.5%. Regular use of HAART was present in 43.6% of the population studied. In 20% HAART was initiated for thrombocytopenia treatment with improvement in platelets count observed after 3 months. Platelet transfusion was needed in 23.7% of the patients and one patient died due to bleeding. Thrombocytopenia is still common among patients infected with HIV, considered a multifactor disorder, commonly due to immune mechanisms in our cases. In the clinical setting, a diagnostic approach related to the hematological consequences of HIV infection is needed for a better therapy option for this population. PMID:23730018

  3. Macrophage activation in HIV-2 infected patients is less affected by antiretroviral treatment - sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØnge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; MØller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during ...

  4. Lessons from Africa: combating the twin epidemics of domestic violence and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar

    2008-12-01

    Domestic violence and HIV/AIDS have proven a lethal combination, exacting a heavy toll on women's lives, particularly in Africa. In this article, partially based on a presentation made at the human rights networking zone at the conference, Tamar Ezer examines the interrelation between domestic violence and HIV/AIDS, provides an analysis of obligations under human rights law, and describes innovative programs that attempt to address the intersection of these twin epidemics. The author argues for holistic approaches that address the social, economic and legal dimensions of the problem. PMID:19297762

  5. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes?disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  6. Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Martin Roelsgaard; Olagnier, David

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The innate immune system plays a critical role in the control of viral infections. Although the mechanisms involved in sensing and response to viral pathogens has progressed tremendously in the last decade, an understanding of the innate antiviral response to human retroviruses lagged behind. Recent studies now demonstrate that human retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) trigger a type I interferon antiviral response through novel cytosolic sensors that detect DNA intermediates of reverse transcription; in addition, these early host-pathogen interactions may trigger cell death pathways depending on the activation state of the target cell. The purpose of this review is to summarize the recent progress in the understanding of innate immune sensing of human retroviruses. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate immune sensing of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 is influenced by the target cell phenotype, viral replicative intermediates, and host restrictionfactors that limit retroviral replication. Macrophages and dendritic cells detect HIV-DNA intermediates, whereas CD4 T cells differentially sense HIV DNA depending on the level of T-cell activation. Furthermore, the structure of the viral capsid and interplay between innate DNA sensors and host restriction factors all contribute to the magnitude of the ensuing innate immune response. SUMMARY: The interplay between HIV infection and the innate immune system has emerged as an important component of HIV pathogenesis, linked to both induction of innate immunity and stimulation of cell death mechanisms. Ultimately, an in-depth knowledge of the mechanisms of innate immune control of human retrovirus infection may facilitate the development of novel treatment strategies to control retrovirus-induced immunopathology.

  7. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  8. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  9. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  10. Cryptosporidium muris Infection in an HIV-Infected Adult, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gatei, Wangeci; Ashford, Richard W.; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Kamwati, S. Kang'ethe; Greensill, Julie; Hart, C. Anthony

    2002-01-01

    We describe a case of Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult with diarrhea in Kenya. Sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with C. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a C. muris “calf” isolate, 95.5% with C. serpentis, but only 87.8% with C. parvum “human” type.

  11. HIV infection in patients with intraocular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet María Enriquez Puertas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis is the most common form of inflammatory eye disease. It is considered a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in the world so that responsible for 5-25% of legal blindness. Although most cases of uveitis are considered mediated by the immune system disease, infectious disease is the second most important in the etiology of uveal disease. Viruses have a significant role in uveitis, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In Cuba, where uveitis constitute a health problem of great interest, the real magnitude that involvement of HIV in this ocular disorder is unknown. In order to determine the frequency of HIV infection in patients with uveitis and its relationship with the immune status of patients, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with intraocular inflammation examined in the service of uveítis at "Ramón Pando Ferrer" Cuban Ophthalmology Institute between May 2013 and May 2014. Investigation of VIH-1 and VIH-2 serologic status was performed using inmunochromagraphic test (Hexagon HIV,Human, Germany and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Vironostika HIV Ag/Ab, bioMérieux, France; DAVIH VIH-2, Laboratorios DAVIH, Cuba. Seropositive results were confirmed using Western blot test (DAVIH BLOT VIH-1 y 2, Laboratorios DAVIH, Cuba. The sample included 95 patients, of which seven were seropositive for HIV-1 (7.4%. The males (85.7% were more affected than females with ages ranging from 35 to 54 years. In patients with HIV-1, posterior uveitis (57% was the predominant anatomical type of uveitis, followed by panuveitis (43%, and blindness in 57.1% of patients as sequelae of intraocular inflammation. The seven patients infected with HIV had a CD4+ cell count of at least 500 cells/mL at the time of diagnosis; and 57% of patients had CD4 counts less than 100 cells/mL. The ocular syphilis (43% was the most common associated condition with uveitis. Other associated conditions were cytomegalovirus retinitis (28.5% and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (28.5%. Severe intraocular inflammation presented by these patients could be due to the late diagnosis of HIV in patients, as a result of the evaluation of uveitis, when they were an advanced state of immunodeficiency. For the first time a retrovirus screening study was conducted in patients with uveitis and showed the important role of HIV-1 in intraocular inflammatory diseases

  12. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...

  13. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: participant experiences and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  14. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  15. Preventing Opportunistic Infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient information: Vaginal yeast infection (Beyond the Basics)" .) Cryptococcus — Cryptococcus is a fungus that is found in the ... to the HIV-infected patient with pulmonary symptoms Cryptococcus neoformans infection outside the central nervous system Diagnosis ...

  16. HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  17. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; AMARO, HORTENSIA; O’Campo, Patricia; Thomas L. Patterson

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants’ mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among par...

  18. HIV associated high-risk HPV infection among Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N; Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Famooto, Ayotunde O; Dareng, Eileen O; Olaniyan, Olayinka B; Offiong, Richard; Wheeler, Cosette M; ADEBAMOWO, CLEMENT A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In developed countries, the incidence of cervical cancer has remained stable in HIV+ women but the prevalence and multiplicity of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection, a necessary cause of cervical cancer, appears different comparing HIV+ to HIV- women. Little is known about HIV and HPV co-infection in Africa. Methods: We enrolled women presenting at our cervical cancer screening program in Abuja, Nigeria between April and August 2012, and collected information on demographic character...

  19. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor prognosis, it is treated with various therapeutic modalities. Our patient with HIV infection had bone marrow documented aplastic a nemia and responded very well to antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  1. Immunovirological parameters and cytokines in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ingrid Tasca

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Although modern combined antiretroviral therapies (cART result in lower morbidity and mortality and a visible improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters in HIV-infected, it is known that their long-term use contributes to appearance of the many events unrelated to AIDS such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and osteoporosis, comorbidities which have been proposed as some of the most important that deprive the majority of infected to present an even better prognosis. This is because even with a decrease in inflammation and immune activation after drug intervention to the patient, these parameters remain higher than those shown by healthy individuals and the imbalance of cytokine profiles also persists. Therefore, evaluations of other biomarkers in clinical practice are needed to complement the exams already carried out routinely and allow more effective monitoring of HIV patients. This review aims to investigate the role of cytokines as potential markers showing studies on their behavior in various stages of HIV infection, with or without cART.

  2. Depression in women infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Valéria Antakly de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE:The number of women with HIV infection has been on the rise in recent years, making studies of the psychiatric aspects of this condition very important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of major depression in women with HIV infection. METHOD: A total of 120 women were studied, 60 symptomatic (with AIDS symptoms and 60 asymptomatic (without AIDS symptoms. Sociodemographic data were collected, and depressive disorders were identified. The instruments used to evaluate the depressive disorders were the SCID, DSM-IV, 17-item Hamilton depression scale, Hamilton depression scale for nonsomatic symptoms and the Beck depression scale. RESULTS: The prevalence of major depression was 25.8% and was higher in the symptomatic group than in the asymptomatic group (p = 0.002. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of major depressive episodes in women with HIV infection is high, and women with AIDS-related symptoms are more often depressed than are those who have never presented such symptoms.

  3. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  4. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected indi...

  5. Epidermal and mucosal dendritic cells and HIV1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C

    1994-10-01

    The major modes of HIV1 transmission involve circumstances and behavior that promote exchange of blood or body fluids containing HIV virus and/or HIV infected cells. In the second group, semen, vaginal secretions, exudates and occasionally saliva have been documented as sources of transmission. If the skin, protected by the horny layer, does not seem easily infected, the mucous membrane and especially the vaginal, rectal or oral mucosa are the main sites of HIV entry in absence of lesions. In mucosa, a well identified population of dendritic cells may be considered as the first target of HIV1: the Langerhans cells. Originated from the bone marrow, the Langerhans cells migrate into the peripheral epithelia (skin, mucous membranes) and play a key role in the immune surveillance system against foreign antigens. They act as antigenpresenting cells through a specific cooperation with CD4+ lymphocytes after migration to the proximal lymph nodes. As HIV1-susceptible cells, Langerhans cells in genital or rectal mucosa may be the first infected cell type and may be the vectors of infection for CD4 positive T cells. It is clearly demonstrated that LC may be infected in HIV1 seropositive patients. Recently in vitro, experimental infection of Langerhans cells was reproduced using a co-culture assay with HIV1 infected cells. Recent data obtained with transgenic mice containing HIV1 gene underline the key role of Langerhans cells in the pathogenesis process of HIV infection. PMID:7899146

  6. Structural violence and the state: HIV and labour migration from Pakistan to the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities. PMID:23978158

  7. Advances in serology for diagnosing TB in the HIV infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanchu, Ajay

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) affects more than half of all untreated HIV infected patients. Its diagnosis is hampered by the low yield of acid-fast bacilli on smear and culture studies. Advances in the serology for the diagnosis of TB in the HIV infected offers the possibility of an early diagnosis and hence, early initiation of antitubercular therapy. This review provides an update on the progress made in the early serological diagnosis of TB in the HIV infected subjects. PMID:15704713

  8. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma Aman; Sachdeva Ravinder; Wanchu Ajay; Dikshit Byomakesh; Das Reena

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron stu...

  9. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bruna Pasticci; Maurizio Paciaroni; Piero Floridi; Enisia Cecchini; Franco Baldelli

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of ...

  10. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  11. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  12. Mitochondrial functionalism in HIV-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Morén Núñez, Constanza

    2012-01-01

    It is widely known that HIV and ARV drugs trigger mitochondrial impairment in adults. However, their effects in perinatally-infected children have been poorly explored. For this reason, the main hypothesis of the present Thesis was to demonstrate that mitochondrial abnormalities are present in HIV-infected pediatric patients treated with ARV. It is expected to find mitochondrial alterations in asymptomatic perinatally HIV-infected children. This mitochondrial lesion, manifested in a deple...

  13. Short Communication: Adhesion Pathways Utilized by HIV-Infected Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yu-Hua; Liu, Li; Schwartz, Barbara; Harlan, John M.; Schnapp, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a novel adhesion pathway in lymphocytes that is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 activity and mediates lymphocyte interactions with endothelial matrix. We now demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes also use Cdk4 to mediate spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial matrix. We further demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes require Rap-1 activity for phorbol-stimulated adhesion. Understanding adhesion pathways used by HIV-infected lymphocytes may l...

  14. MEAN PLATELET VOLUME IS DECREASED IN HIV INFECTED WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed; Holman, Susan; DeHovitz, Jack; Crystal, Howard; Minkoff, Howard; Lazar, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV infection is associated with higher than expected cardiovascular event rates and lowered platelet counts. These conditions are associated with an elevation of mean platelet volume (MPV). The present study compares MPV in HIV-infected and uninfected women and identifies factors influencing MPV values in HIV-infected women. Methods A total of 234 HIV-infected and 134 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had MPV values obtained. HIV-infected women were older, more likely to have diabetes, and have higher triglyceride levels than HIV-uninfected women. Results The mean platelet count was lower in HIV infected vs. uninfected women (249/µl 95% CI 238, 259 vs. 276/µl 95% CI 265, 287, p<0.01). Adjusted mean MPV values were lower in the HIV- infected than in the uninfected group (8.66 fl 95% CI 8.52, 8.79 vs. 9.05 fl 95% CI 8.87, 9.24). In multiple regression analysis after adjusting for other covariates, MPV was positively associated with platelet count, and negatively with HIV infection (model R2=0.20 p<0.01). In multiple regression analysis confined to HIV-infected women, a lower MPV was independently associated with history of AIDS defining illness (R2=0.28 p=0.03), but not with CD4 nadir count or HAART use. Conclusions HIV-infected women have lower MPV values than-uninfected women suggesting impaired production rather than increased destruction. Higher than expected cardiovascular event rates, cannot be attributed to greater platelet reactivity as measured by MPV. PMID:23738819

  15. Hematological Manifestation in HIV Infected Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the common hematological abnormalities in HIV infected children and any association of these abnormalities with HIV disease severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Regional Pediatric ART centre, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from November 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: Children up to 12 years with confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection were clinically examined and tested for complete hemogram and CD4 count. Bone marrow study was done in selected patient depending on hemogram report. Children were divided in different stages according to WHO clinical staging. Each of the hematological parameters was assessed for any association with progression of disease. Fisher's Exact Test was used for determining the association between WHO clinical staging and abnormal blood parameters. P-value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Sixty nine percent of the study population was anemic; 47.37% (18/38), 66.67% (8/12), 71.43% (15/21) and 93.10% (27/29) of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were anemic in the study population (p=0.001). Leucopenia was present in 34% (34/100) children. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was present in 19% (19/100) and 22% (22/100) children. Lymphopenia was present in 7.89% (3/38), 16.67% (2/12), 19.05% (4/21) and 44.83% (13/29) of patient with stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively (p=0.020). Eosinophilia was present in 17% (17/100) and thrombocytopenia in 11% (11/100) children. 2 patients with stage 4 disease were with hypoplastic bone marrow. Conclusion: Anemia was the most common hematological abnormality in HIV infected children. Anemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with the stage of the disease. (author)

  16. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity in Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Madhavan P. N.; Zainulabedin M. Saiyed; Nair, Narayanan; Nimisha H Gandhi; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Boukli, Nawal; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Malow, Robert M.; Miguez-Burbano, Maria Jose

    2008-01-01

    The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5 amplification. Meth induces increased HIV-1 infection in association with an increase in the HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, and infection ...

  17. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the neoplasm, and mortality is high.

  18. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  19. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S Beattie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods: As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA surveys (four districts (2005 to 2011 and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS (16 districts (2007 to 2011 were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1 changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2 associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results: 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, p<0.001, being arrested in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.57 (0.35, 0.93, p=0.025] and being beaten in the past six months by a non-partner (clients, police, pimps, strangers, rowdies [AOR 0.69 (0.49, 0.95, p=0.024] (IBBA. The proportion drinking alcohol (during the past week also fell significantly (32.5% in 2005, 24.9% in 2008, 16.8% in 2011; p<0.001. Violence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15, p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12, p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53, p<0.001; AOR 2.79 (1.93, 4.04, p<0.001, respectively], reduced condom self-efficacy with clients [AOR 0.36 (0.27, 0.47, p<0.001; AOR 0.62 (0.39, 0.98, p=0.039, respectively], symptomatic STI (during the past year [AOR 2.62 (2.07, 3.30, p<0.001; AOR 2.17 (1.51, 3.13, p<0.001, respectively], gonorrhoea infection [AOR 2.79 (1.51, 5.15, p=0.001; AOR 2.69 (0.96, 7.56, p=0.060, respectively] and syphilis infection [AOR 1.86 (1.04, 3.31, p=0.036; AOR 3.35 (1.78, 6.28, p<0.001, respectively], but not with exposure to peer education, community mobilization or HIV testing uptake. Mediation analysis suggests that alcohol use and STIs may partially mediate the association between violence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Discussion: Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.

  20. Cohort Profile : The Bissau HIV Cohort-a cohort of HIV-1, HIV-2 and co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; HØnge, Bo Langhoff

    2014-01-01

    The West African country Guinea-Bissau is home to the world’s highest prevalence of HIV-2, and its HIV-1 prevalence is rising. Other chronic viral infections like human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and hepatitis B virus are common as well. The Bissau HIV Cohort was started in 2007 to gain new insights into the overall effect of introducing antiretroviral treatment in a treatment-na? ?ve population with concomitant infection with three retroviruses (HIV-1, HIV-2 and HTLV-1) and tuberculosis. The cohort includes patients from the HIV clinic at Hospital Nacional Sima ? o Mendes, the main hos- pital in Bissau, the capital of the country. From July 2007 to June 2013, 3762 HIV-infected patients (69% HIV-1, 18% HIV-2, 11% HIV-1/2 and 2% HIV type unknown) were included in the world’s largest single-centre HIV-2 cohort. Demographic and clinical data are col- lected at baseline and every 6 months, together with CD4 cell count and routine biochem- istry analyses. Plasma and cells are stored in a biobank in Denmark. The Bissau HIV Cohort is administered by the Bissau HIV Cohort study group. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the chair of the cohort study group, Christian Wejse, e-mail: [wejse@dadlnet.dk].

  1. Violence screening and viral load suppression among HIV-positive women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Susan Ryerson; Fletcher, Jason; Gonzalez, Marisol; Precht, Allison; Xavier, Jessica; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measure, and that 43% screened positive using multiple screening tools. Although overall viral load suppression rate was high at 81.4%, women with a history of violence were less likely to be virally suppressed when compared to those without such a history (76.4% versus 93.3%, p<0.05). Our findings suggest using a variety of screening questions at entry and at follow-up care appointments may be key to identifying and supporting women survivors who may not disclose violence when first asked. Future research should foster further development, analysis, and use of a variety of screening tools such as those used in this study. PMID:25561308

  2. [Drug abuse, pregnancy and HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, L; Jahn, K; Bender, H G; Halberstadt, E; Beck, L

    1991-12-01

    It is estimated that there are between 50,000 and 90,000 drug abusers in the former West Germany. IV drug users are the second largest group of AIDS victims after homosexual and bisexual men. From 1989 to 1990, IV drug users up 16.1% of 1425 reported AIDS cases. 52% of 124 female AIDS cases were drug abusers. 4-12 weeks pass from the time of HIV infections to the appearance of HIV antibodies, thus testing is not foolproof. Heroin abuse often leads to oligo- or amenorrhea. yet 593 female IV drug users in New York City had 2289 pregnancies (often detecting their pregnancy too late for abortion), averaging 2.5 live births and 1.3 abortions. Fetal HIV transmission occurs in 20-40% of cases. The effectiveness of azidothymidine (AZT) prophylaxis is not clear. Only 29% of 50 HIV-infected women had complication-free pregnancies: 34% had premature pain and contractions, and 11 of 49 children were born prematurely before the 35th week. Drugs used include opiates, barbiturates, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, LSD, and mescaline. The daily cost of addiction leads to illegal activities. 80% of addicted women turn to prostitution. Methadone has been used for substitution in the US. In Germany, levomethadone (L-Polamidon) is approved and has a half time of 29 hours which is much longer than that of heroin. The heroin substitution regime consists of 4-5 ml of levomethadone and later 1-3 drops/day. Asphyxia of the fetus could occur in unmedicated withdrawal, necessitating the use of levomethadone even during pregnancy. The reduction of .2 ml of this drug every 2 days was well tolerated. Outpatient drug treatment is risky, it should be carried out only in maternal-child care facilities. PMID:1773978

  3. Rates of sexual violence among HIV-positive women: finding a way forward for a holistic service

    OpenAIRE

    R Manners

    2012-01-01

    Rates of sexual violence are high, and several studies have suggested that rates are particularly high among HIV-positive women. Experience of sexual violence can lead to numerous physical and psychological co-morbidities as well as a wide range of social problems. On both a Scottish Government and an international level it has been suggested that routine questioning about sexual violence in vulnerable populations can help to ensure access to appropriate services. This study aimed to assess t...

  4. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  5. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)

  6. Antiretroviral Therapies Associated with Lipoatrophy in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    TIEN, Phyllis C.; BARRÓN, YOLANDA; Justman, Jessica E.; Hyman, Charles; COHEN, MARDGE H.; YOUNG, MARY; KOVACS, ANDREA; Cole, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that HIV infection is associated with peripheral and central lipoatrophy in women. We now describe the association of specific antiretroviral drugs (ARV) with body fat changes over a four-year period from 1999 to 2003. 775 HIV-positive and 205 HIV-negative women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study with anthropometric measurements, weight, bioelectric impedance analysis and ARV collected semiannually were included in analysis. Exposure to ARV was defined as report o...

  7. Pregnancy care in two adolescents perinatally infected with HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, Alessandra; Tuveri, Milena; Floridia, Marco; Zucca, Francesca; Borghero, Grazia; Gariel, Donatella; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...

  8. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  9. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with severe outcomes.

  10. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  11. HIV: primary and secondary prophylaxis for opportunistic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Aberg, Judith; Powderly, William

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic infections can occur in up to 40% of people with HIV infection and a CD4 count less than 250/mm3, although the risks are much lower with use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). HAART has reduced the rate of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmosis, and other opportunistic infections, so the absolute benefits of prophylactic regimens for opportunistic infections are probably smaller in people with HIV who are also taking HAART, and even smaller for ...

  12. Somatic Symptoms and the Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Depression in HIV-infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jeanie C.; Crane, Paul K.; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D.; Kitahata, Mari M; CRANE, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...

  13. Myocardial Infarction Among Danish HIV-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret T; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we identified 3251 HIV-infected individuals and 13 004 population controls matched on age and gender. Data on MI were obtained from the National Hospital Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death. W...

  14. Correlates of Perinatal Depression in HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    KAPETANOVIC, Suad; Christensen, Shawna; Karim, Roksana; Lin, Florence; Mack, Wendy J.; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Spencer, LaShonda; Stek, Alice; Kramer, Francoise; KOVACS, ANDREA

    2009-01-01

    Maternal perinatal depression (PND) may interfere with effective perinatal HIV care. In order to begin examining the prevalence and characteristics of PND in HIV-infected women, we analyzed data from the medical records of all HIV-infected women who had received perinatal care in the Maternal-Child and Adolescent Center for Infectious Diseases and Virology at LAC/USC Medical Center from 1997 through 2006. Data from 273 individual women (328 live births) were analyzed. Demographic, medical his...

  15. Postpartum sterilization choices made by HIV-infected women.

    OpenAIRE

    Wendel, George D.; McIntire, Donald D; Barbara McElwee; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Paula M. Castaño; Stuart, Gretchen S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess if HIV-infected women made different choices for postpartum sterilization after implementation of the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 (November 1, 1994) compared to before implementation. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study in which medical records were reviewed to obtain demographic, obstetric and HIV-related data from January 1993 through December 2002. HIV-infected women who completed a pregnancy by birth or abortion were divided into two compa...

  16. Stroke in a Patient with Tuberculous Meningitis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Floridi, Piero; Cecchini, Enisia; Baldelli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.

  17. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico; Tourret, Jérome; Moreno, Asunción; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Fux, Christoph Andreas; Katlama, Christine; Reiss, Peter; Lundgren, Jens; Gatell, Jose Maria; Kirk, Ole; Miró, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  18. Lung cancer incidence and mortality among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S.; Cole, Stephen R.; Mehta, Shruti H.; Kirk, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the impact of HIV on lung cancer incidence and survival. Design Prospective study of 2,495 HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected injection drug users in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cancer data were obtained from the Maryland Cancer Registry. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer in two strata of packs smoked per day by HIV serostatus, and for mortality by HIV serostatus. Results HIV-infected participants had twice the risk (HR=2.3; 95% CI: 1.1-5.1) of lung cancer. There was no evidence of an interaction between HIV and packs of cigarettes smoked per day (p-interaction=0.18). Compared to participants who smoked <1.43 packs per day, among HIV-uninfected individuals lung cancer risk was six times greater (HR=5.9; 95% CI 2.1-17) and among HIV-infected individuals lung cancer risk was doubled (HR=2.1; 95% CI 0.63-6.8) in persons who smoked ?1.43 per day. Additionally, HIV was associated with four times the risk of death (HR=3.8; 95% CI 0.92-15) in lung cancer cases. Conclusions HIV was associated with increased risk of lung cancer, after adjusting for smoking. However, no evidence was observed for synergistic effects of HIV and smoking. Further, HIV was associated with poorer lung cancer survival, after accounting for cancer stage. PMID:20838223

  19. Laboratory diagnostics for HIV infection / Test di laboratorio per la diagnosi di infezione da HIV

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stefano, Buttò; Barbara, Suligoi; Emanuele, Fanales-Belasio; Mariangela, Raimondo.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is fundamental for detecting and monitoring infection. Many diagnostic tools are available that are based on both detection of HIV-specific antibodies and virus antigen, or nucleic acid. As technology evolves, HIV testing assays ar [...] e being improved providing better sensitivity and specificity. In this short review, we summarize the common and new methodologies that are being used in laboratories, from the HIV antibody-based assays to the new tests for the detection of HIV nucleic acids.

  20. Response of HIV-associated proteinuria to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ira, Shah.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated nephropathy has been found in children with HIV-1 infection as a late manifestation of this disease; it is associated with nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia with microcystic tubular dilatation. This is quite rare in children and no [...] cases have been reported from India. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized for the HIV-induced renal damage. We report on two HIV-infected children with HIV-associated proteinuria and dramatic response to antiretroviral therapy.

  1. Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon D Brewer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.

  2. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Orza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH and human rights (HR, and the implications for policymakers. Methods: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results: In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings. Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations, and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions: Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end-users if lived experiences are used.

  3. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orza, Luisa; Bewley, Susan; Chung, Cecilia; Crone, E Tyler; Nagadya, Hajjarah; Vazquez, Marijo; Welbourn, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and human rights (HR), and the implications for policymakers. Methods A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings). Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations), and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end-users if lived experiences are used. PMID:26643458

  4. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.

  5. Factors Associated with Prevalent Hepatitis C Infection Among HIV-Infected Women with No Reported History of Injection Drug Use: The Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS)

    OpenAIRE

    Frederick, Toni; Burian, Pamela; Terrault, Norah; Cohen, Mardge; Augenbraun, Michael; YOUNG, MARY; Seaberg, Eric; Justman, Jessica; LEVINE, Alexandra M.; Mack, Wendy J.; KOVACS, ANDREA

    2009-01-01

    Although the primary mode of hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission is exposure to blood products or injection drug use (IDU), studies have found varying independent risk factors for HCV infection among persons with no history of IDU or exposure to blood products. For HIV-infected women, sexual transmission may be another potential source of HCV infection. HIV-infected and HIV-negative women at risk for HIV enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) during October 1994 to November 199...

  6. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Watts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion: Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions: There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.

  7. HIV and malaria co-infection in Mumbai, western Indi

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    U. Shankarkumar, A. Shankarkumar & K. Ghosh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Conflicting reports exist regarding the HIV-1 infection on the risk of malaria. Atransient almost one-log elevation in HIV viral load occurs during febrile malaria episodes. We prospectivelystudied malaria patients for HIV infection from Mumbai.Methods: A total of 171 malaria patients and 28,749 normal voluntary blood donors were studied for their HIVstatus. Diagnosis of malaria was done by microscopical examination of blood. HIV screening was done bydetection of HIV-1 & 2 antibodies by micro well ELISA using Enzaids & J Mitra kits followed by confirmationusing western blot (Innogenetics, Belgium analysis.Results: Out of 171 malaria patients 13 (7.6%; Odds ratio= 4.45; p <0.0001 and 521 blood bank donors werefound to be HIV reactive. Among 13 HIV reactive patients, eight patients were Elisa borderline reactive andwestern blot positive (p24, which may be due to cross-reactive antibodies. Five of 13 malaria patients foundto be HIV-1 positive by ELISA and by western blot confirming HIV and malaria co-infection.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HIV-1 and malaria co-infection can’t be ruled out in malaria endemiccountries like India

  8. Dilazep synergistically reactivates latent HIV-1 in latently infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hanxian; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Pengfei; Qu, Xiying; Ji, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Song, Zhishuo; Yang, Xinyi; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2014-11-01

    The long-lived latently infected cells persist in spite of prolonged highly active anti-retroviral therapy and present a major barrier to a cure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Elimination of this reservoir requires reactivation of the latent virus. None of the current agents can safely and effectively reactivate latent HIV-1 reservoirs. Dilazep, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, is used to treat ischemic dysfunction. However, little is known about the effect of dilazep in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells. Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV-1 latency, we found that dilazep effectively reactivates latent HIV-1 gene expression in a dose manner. We observed that dilazep synergistically reactivated latent HIV-1 transcription with valproic acid. We also found that dilazep activates viral latency without inducing cell surface activation markers CD25 and CD69 activation. In summary, dilazep, alone or in combination with VPA, could be useful in future eradication strategies. PMID:25091947

  9. Hemoplasma Infection in HIV-positive Patient, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pires dos Santos, Andrea; Pires dos Santos, Rodrigo; Alexander W. Biondo; Dora, José M.; Goldani, Luciano Z.; Tostes de Oliveira, Simone; de Sá Guimarães, Ana Maárcia; Timenetsky, Jorge; Autran de Morais, Helio; Félix H.D. González; Joanne B. Messick

    2008-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. Although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. We report a case of a Mycoplasma haemofelis–like infection in an HIV-positive patient co-infected with Bartonella henselae.

  10. Hemoplasma infection in HIV-positive patient, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Andrea Pires; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pires; Biondo, Alexander W; Dora, José M; Goldani, Luciano Z; de Oliveira, Simone Tostes; de Sá Guimarães, Ana Marcia; Timenetsky, Jorge; de Morais, Helio Autran; González, Félix H D; Messick, Joanne B

    2008-12-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas infect a variety of mammals. Although infection in humans is rarely reported, an association with an immunocompromised state has been suggested. We report a case of a Mycoplasma haemofelis-like infection in an HIV-positive patient co-infected with Bartonella henselae. PMID:19046522

  11. HIV/Aids e violência: da opressão que cala à participação que acolhe e potencializa / HIV/AIDS and violence: from the oppression that silences to the participation that welcomes and empowers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josicleide Maciel da, Silva; Carlos Roberto de Castro e, Silva.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA) no decorrer de suas vidas, destac [...] ando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA). Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania. Abstract in english This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. [...] We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.

  12. HIV/Aids e violência: da opressão que cala à participação que acolhe e potencializa HIV/AIDS and violence: from the oppression that silences to the participation that welcomes and empowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josicleide Maciel da Silva

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo exploratório e descritivo visou investigar a aproximação entre violência e vulnerabilidade à infecção ao HIV/Aids, especificamente a contribuição de ONGs/Aids no enfrentamento de situações de violência sofridas por pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA no decorrer de suas vidas, destacando formas distintas de violência, dentre elas o abuso sexual. Consideramos que vivências de várias formas e graus de violência na infância e adolescência tornam as pessoas mais vulneráveis à infecção a DST/HIV/Aids, principalmente as pessoas que vivem situações de exclusão social. Além disso, é necessário que existam redes de suporte psicossociais mais fortalecidas e preparadas para atender as demandas das pessoas que vivem com o HIV/Aids (PVHA. Foram realizadas entrevistas semidirigidas com profissionais de uma entidade e entrevistas em profundidade com jovens, além da realização de observação participante. Os resultados indicaram que a história de vida das PVHA, permeada pela violência, traz marcas indeléveis, principalmente pelo esfacelamento de laços familiares e comunitários, difíceis de serem refeitos, tendo o abuso sexual aparecido nos relatos como consequência insofismável de um contexto marcado por diversas formas de opressão social. Por sua vez, a participação em uma ONG/Aids proporcionou um espaço para a elaboração de aspectos da violência sofrida na medida em que o acolhimento possibilitou a troca de experiências entre seus pares e o diálogo com profissionais e voluntários. Dessa forma, em um espaço que pretende a politização da doença, o silêncio, o terror e o isolamento social podem ser substituídos por experiências referenciadas pela autonomia, dignidade e cidadania.This exploratory and descriptive study aimed at investigating the relation between violence and vulnerability to HIV-AIDS infection, specifically, how NGOs/AIDS help individuals infected with HIV-AIDS face situations of violence. Different forms of violence are pointed out, among them, sexual abuse. We consider that the various ways, forms and degrees of violence experienced in infancy and adolescence make people more vulnerable to STD/HIV/AIDS, especially those who experience social exclusion situations. Moreover, there must be strong and well-prepared psychosocial supporting networks to meet the demands of people who live with HIV/AIDS. We conducted semi-directed interviews with professionals of one organization and in-depth interviews with young people, in addition to participant observation. The results indicated that the life history of persons infected with HIV-AIDS is permeated by violence, which leaves indelible consequences, especially to the family and community ties, making the recovering process very difficult. In the interviews, sexual abuse emerged as the consequence of a context marked by various forms of social oppression. On the other hand, the participation of one NGO/AIDS has been instrumental in creating a space to facilitate the understanding of the various aspects of violence. We point out the NGO's welcoming service, which facilitated the exchange of experiences and dialogue among infected people, professionals and volunteers. Thus, in an environment which tries to politicize the problem, silence, terror and social isolation can be replaced by experiences of empowerment, autonomy, dignity and citizenship.

  13. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virus–acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patient’s resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  14. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688

  15. HIV and TB co-infection in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyoub, E M; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Agarwal, Paras; Gupta, V K; Gupta, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic and TB center of a tertiary level hospital to find out socio-demographic correlates of HIV/TB individuals and risk factors of HIV/TB co-infection in Indian context. It is a case-control study comprising 420 subjects, 3 groups of 140 each. For a case group of HIV-TB co-infected subjects, two control groups, one comprising HIV patients (not having TB), and the other TB patients (not having HIV). Majority 267 (63.6%) males, 100 (71.4%) in case group (HIV/ TB), 74 (52.9%) in control group 1 (TB) and 93 (66.4%) in control group 2 (HIV). Mean (+/-SD) age of case-group was 34.91 (+/- 8.57) years. New TB cases were 213 (76.1%), more among control-group 1, compared to case-group. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of co-infection was 1.94 times higher among individuals aged >35 years. Difference statistically significant amongst those who were not on ART than who were on ART (p class. Current history of smoking significantly associated with co-infection. HIV status during TB infection was detected in 1/4th of study subjects. History of TB symptoms in family significantly associated with co-infection. PMID:25141551

  16. Rates of sexual violence among HIV-positive women: finding a way forward for a holistic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Manners

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rates of sexual violence are high, and several studies have suggested that rates are particularly high among HIV-positive women. Experience of sexual violence can lead to numerous physical and psychological co-morbidities as well as a wide range of social problems. On both a Scottish Government and an international level it has been suggested that routine questioning about sexual violence in vulnerable populations can help to ensure access to appropriate services. This study aimed to assess the level of engagement around sexual violence in one HIV centre looking specifically at how often it was discussed, rate of disclosure, advice given and the demographics of the population disclosing sexual violence. Through this the aim was to assess the prevalence of disclosed sexual violence, and how it was being dealt with, in order to improve service provision. This was achieved by undertaking a case note review of 50 female patients of 394 number being cared for by the genito-urinary physicians. Sexual violence was discussed at least once in 63% of cases, most commonly at time of diagnosis in a GUM clinic or other centre. 50% of those women disclosed experience of sexual violence, of while 60% (n=28 were from sub-Saharan Africa and 44% (n=21 had entered the country as asylum seekers or refugees. These results show that a large number of HIV-positive women within this city have experienced sexual violence, in particular in the asylum seeking population. As such, if services for HIV-positive women are to take account of the psychological and social needs of their service users they will need to be aware of this and make appropriate provisions. This could take the form of routine questioning around gender-based violence and/or providing good information about internal and external support services.

  17. Short Communication: Neutralizing Antibodies in HIV-1-Infected Brazilian Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Dalziza Victalina; Morgado, Mariza Gonçalvez; Côrtes, Fernanda Heloise; Guimarães, Monick Lindermeyer; de Mendonça-Lima, Leila; PILOTTO, JOSE HENRIQUE; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdiléa Gonçalves; Bongertz, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Tests for the detection of the humoral immune response to HIV-1 have to be standardized and established, demanding regional efforts. For this purpose the neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells was introduced in Brazil. Twenty plasma samples from HIV-1-infected individuals were assayed: 10 progressors and 10 long-term nonprogressors. These were tested against eight env-pseudotyped viruses (psVs) in the TZM-bl NAb assay and against HIV-1 strain HTLV/IIIB (HIV-1 IIIB) in pri...

  18. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thailand. Each patient was examined for CD4 count and screened for diarrheal symptoms. Results The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among the HIV-infected patients in this study was 50 %. Non- opportunistic intestinal parasite infections such as hookworms, Opisthorchis viverrini and Ascaris lumbricoides were commonly found in HIV-infected people regardless of immune status with or without diarrheal symptoms. Opportunistic intestinal parasites such as Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia and Strongyloides stercoralis infection were significantly more frequent in the low immunity group with diarrhea. Conclusion Therefore, opportunistic intestinal parasite infection should be suspected in any HIV infected patient with advanced disease presenting with diarrhea. The importance of tropical epidemic non-opportunistic intestinal parasite infections among HIV-infected patients should not be neglected.

  19. Anolunula in Fingernails among Patients Infected with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Pratik Gahalaut; Nitin Mishra; Sandhya Chauhan; Mir Mubashir Ali; Madhur Kant Rastogi; Richa Thakur

    2014-01-01

    Lunula is the white, half-moon shaped area seen in proximal ends of some nails. Though a few studies have described the nail changes that can occur in association with HIV infection, none of these paid much attention to lunula. Aims and Objectives. To study the lunula in fingernails among HIV infected patients. Materials and Methods. An observational, cross-sectional study to record presence of lunula in 168 HIV-positive patients and compare it with age and sex matched 168 healthy HIV-negativ...

  20. Interaction between Endogenous Bacterial Flora and Latent HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Victoriano, Ann Florence B.; Imai, Kenichi; Okamoto, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Human commensal bacteria do not normally cause any diseases. However, in certain pathological conditions, they exhibit a number of curious behaviors. In HIV infection, these bacteria exhibit bidirectional relationships: whereas they cause opportunistic infections based on immunological deterioration, they also augment HIV replication, in particular, viral replication from latently infected cells, which is attributable to the effect of butyric acid produced by certain anaerobic bacteria by mod...

  1. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Larke, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and hum...

  2. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. PMID:24592936

  3. Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus infection in HIV-infected populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Toft; Tolstrup, Martin; Storgaard, Merete; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Søgaard, Ole S

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Background Men and women with HIV infection are at increased risk of developing cancers associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The two licensed prophylactic HPV vaccines protect against de novo infection with HPV-16 and HPV-18, which cause the majority of HPV-associated cancers. Currently, no vaccine efficacy data are available for persons with HIV infection. Nevertheless, some countries have implemented specific HPV vaccination recommendations for HIV-positive populations. To s...

  4. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, William W; Huang, Ming Bo; Addae Konadu, Kateena; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients. PMID:26703692

  5. Choice-Disability and HIV Infection: A Cross Sectional Study of HIV Status in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Interpersonal power gradients may prevent people implementing HIV prevention decisions. Among 7,464 youth aged 15–29 years in Botswana, Namibia and Swaziland we documented indicators of choice-disability (low education, educational disparity with partner, experience of sexual violence, experience of intimate partner violence (IPV), poverty, partner income disparity, willingness to have sex without a condom despite believing partner at risk of HIV), and risk behaviours like inconsistent use of...

  6. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  7. Risk factors for acquisition and clearance of oral human papillomavirus infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachler, Daniel C; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Margolick, Joseph B; Weber, Kathleen M; Strickler, Howard D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Burk, Robert D; Minkoff, Howard; Reddy, Susheel; Xiao, Weihong; Guo, Yingshi; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2015-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) causes the majority of oropharyngeal cancers in the United States, yet the risk factors for and natural history of oral HPV infection are largely unknown. In 2010-2011, a US-based longitudinal cohort study of 761 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and 469 at-risk HIV-uninfected participants from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study and the Women's Interagency HIV Study was initiated. Semiannually collected oral rinses were evaluated for 37 HPV genotypes using the Roche LINEAR ARRAY HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Molecular Systems, Pleasanton, California), and factors associated with oral HPV incidence and clearance were explored using adjusted Wei-Lin-Weissfeld modeling. Through 2013, the 2-year cumulative incidence of any type of oral HPV infection was 34% in HIV-infected persons and 19% in HIV-uninfected persons. However, many of these infections cleared. Seven percent of incident infections and 35% of prevalent infections persisted for at least 2 years. After adjustment for other risk factors, HIV infection (adjusted hazard ratio = 2.3, 95% confidence interval: 1.7, 3.2), reduced current CD4 cell count, and increased numbers of oral sex and "rimming" partners increased the risk of incident oral HPV infection, whereas male sex, older age, and current smoking increased the risk of oral HPV persistence (each P < 0.05). This helps explain the consistent associations observed between these factors and prevalent oral HPV infection in previous cross-sectional studies. PMID:25480823

  8. Possible transmission of HIV Infection due to human bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandivdekar Atmaram H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential risk of HIV-1 infection following human bite although epidemiologically insignificant, but it is biologically possible. There are anecdotal reports of HIV transmission by human bites particularly if saliva is mixed with blood. The oral tissues support HIV replication and may serve as a previously unrecognized HIV reservoir. The HIV infected individuals have more viruses in blood than saliva, possibly due to the potent HIV-inhibitory properties of saliva. The case presented here is of a primary HIV infections following a human bite where in the saliva was not blood stained but it got smeared on a raw nail bed of a recipient. The blood and saliva of the source and blood of the recipient showed a detectable viral load with 91% sequence homology of C2-V3 region of HIV gp120 between the two individuals. The recipient did not receive PEP [post exposure prophylaxis] as his family physician was unaware of salivary transmission. The family physician should have taken PEP decision after proper evaluation of the severe and bleeding bite. Hence it is necessary to treat the HIV infected human bites with post exposure prophylaxis.

  9. Targeting TNF-Alpha in HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Coquard, Laurie; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically extended the lifespan and quality of life of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HAART comprises of a cocktail of various pharmacological inhibitors which interfere with almost every stages of HIV-1 life cycle. However, constant application of drugs often results in the evolution of hostpathogen relationship resulting in the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. Drug resistant HIV-1 is a potent threat for the humankind. Therefore, there is a constant need to search for novel therapeutic molecules. HIV-1 infection results in the depletion of CD4+/CD8+T cells and alters the cytokine network in the infected individuals. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. HIV-1 utilizes the TNF-alpha signaling pathway for expanding its reservoir. Several HIV-1 proteins mimic and regulate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. TNF-alpha inhibitors have been used in several inflammatory pathologies with success to some extent. In the present mini review we will discuss the role of TNF-alpha in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Furthermore we will evaluate the TNF-alpha inhibitors as an additional therapeutic option for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26073859

  10. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Gerstoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients with chronic HIV/HCV and syphilis co-infection were identified by their treating physicians from 1 October 2010 to 31 December 2013. Stored plasma samples obtained before, during, and after syphilis infection we...

  11. Lentiviral vectors for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Mario R

    2002-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors based on HIV-1, HIV-2, or SIV have the ability to transduce dividing and non-dividing T cells, dendritic cells, hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages, which are the main target cells for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection. Besides their function as gene delivery vehicles, lentiviral vector backbones containing the cis-acting sequences necessary to perform a complete replication cycle in the presence of viral proteins provided in trans, have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication by several mechanisms that include sequestration of the regulatory proteins Tat and Rev, competition for packaging into virions and possibly by inhibition of reverse transcription in heterodimeric virions. Expression of anti-HIV-1 genes in these vectors would strengthen the potency of this inhibition. To avoid self-inhibition of the vector packaging system, lentiviral vectors have to be modified to become resistant to the anti-HIV-1 genes encoded by them. This review discusses the different genetic intervention strategies for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection focusing in the use of lentiviral vectors as the main agents to mediate inhibition of HIV-1 replication. It also discusses possible strategies to adapt HIV-1 or HIV-2 vectors to express the different classes of anti-HIV-1 genes and approaches to improve in vivo vector mobilization. PMID:12108972

  12. Examining the Relationship between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. Conclusions/Significance Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis, is an important public health priority. Our findings call attention to this pressing yet neglected public health issue and the potential added benefit of scaling up coverage of schistosomal treatment for populations in whom HIV infection is prevalent. PMID:22163056

  13. HIV/STD prevalence among MSM in Chengdu, China and associated risk factors for HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuji; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger; Qin, Guangming; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Linglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of HIV and selected STDs among MSM in Chengdu, China and the risk factors associated with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study using a snowball sampling method was conducted from March to July, 2007. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about sexual history, high risk behaviors, STD infection history, HIV knowledge and testing, and an assessment of depression. Blood samples were taken for antibody testing for HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis. Results A total of 538 MSM were recruited and 513 (95.4%) consented to complete the questionnaire. HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis prevalence were 9.1%, 24.7%, and 28.1%, respectively. The rate of consistent condom use was low and varied by types of sexual partners. The highest was with casual male partners (38.6%) and the lowest was with wife or girl friend (17.8%). Money boys (MB) were 6 times more likely to be infected with HIV compare to clerks/students. Infection with either HSV or syphilis increased the risk of HIV infection more than 4 fold. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV and STDs were high among MSM in Chengdu. To prevent HIV/STDs, campaigns promoting condom use are needed not only to boost the frequency of condom use, but also to educate MSM about proper condom use. PMID:20104114

  14. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abdi-Liae

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis (TB is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR of the ascitic fluid. With anti-TB treatment signs and symptoms improved.

  15. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi-Liae, Zahra; Moradnejad, Pardis; Alijani, Neda; Khazraiyan, Hamide; Mansoori, Sedigeh; Mohammadi, Naseh

    2013-01-01

    Disseminated tuberculosis (TB) is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR) of the ascitic fluid. With anti-TB treatment signs and symptoms improved. PMID:24026999

  16. Sexual Relationship Power as a Mediator between Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Infections among College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelna, Christina; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Ulibarri, Monica D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relationship power as a possible mediator of the relationship between dating violence and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The proposed mediation model was based on the theory of gender and power as well as previous research on intimate partner violence and STI risk. Survey results from a sample of 290 single,…

  17. A Case of HIV Infection with Thrombocytopenia: Assosiation of HIV, Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura and Brucellosis

    OpenAIRE

    KURTARAN, Behice; Oto, Ozgur Akin; Candevir, Aslihan; Inal, Ayse Seza; Sirin, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    To report a case of HIV infection presenting with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and brucellosis that responded well to plasmapheresis and anti-infective therapy. A 64-year-old woman with moderate confusion, fever and pancytopenia was admitted. HIV infection history was taken from her family and she was not receiving antiretroviral therapy last one year. She had generalized purpuric skin lesions. Wright tube agglutination test was found positive with a 1:160 dilution and the patien...

  18. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Q; Abdool Karim, S S; Singh, B; Short, R; Ngxongo, S

    1992-12-01

    As part of a population-based malaria surveillance program in late 1990, surveillance agents took blood samples from 979 people who had had a fever within the last 2 weeks and from 4044 healthy people during regular house-to-house visits in rural northern Natal/KwaZulu, South Africa, to determine HIV seroprevalence and risk factors of HIV infection. 60 (1.2%) people were HIV-1 seropositive. No one had HIV-2 infection. Febrile people had a 30% higher sex-adjusted relative risk (RR) of HIV-1 infection than healthy individuals, but this increase was insignificant. Women were at greater risk of HIV-1 infection than men (1.6% vs. 0.4%; age-adjusted RR = 3.8). In fact, this risk still existed when the researchers controlled for fever (RR = 3.75) and migrancy (RR = 3.2). The fall in the RR for women from 3.8 to 3.2 when controlled for migrancy suggested an underrepresentation of migrant male workers in the study sample. 2.3% of the women in their childbearing years (15-44) were HIV-1 seropositive, indicating an increased likelihood of transmission of HIV-1 to newborns. The youngest person afflicted with HIV-1 was a 12-year-old female and the oldest was a 66-year-old woman. No 10-to-19-year-old males tested HIV-1 positive, while 1.7% of the 10-to-19-year-old females did, suggesting that the young females had sex with older men. This may have indicated teenage prostitution and sexual abuse. 2.9% of the people who changed their place of residence within the last year (migrancy) had HIV-1 infection. For women it was linked to a 2.4 times higher RR (age-adjusted) of HIV-1 infection. For men, the age-adjusted RR was even greater (7.3). Even though HIV-1 seroprevalence was about 45% greater in areas crossed by the main national road than it was in other areas (1.3% vs. 0.9%), the difference was not significant. Since migrants were a key source of HIV-1 infection, improvement in social conditions, allowing families to live together and to settle in their communities, may reduce HIV-1 transmission. PMID:1492937

  19. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Inhibits de novo HIV-1 Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Kasper L; Tolstrup, Martin; Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Kjær, Kathrine; Laustsen, Anders; Andersen, Morten N; Rasmussen, Thomas A; Søgaard, Ole S; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Denton, Paul W; Jakobsen, Martin R

    2015-01-01

    Adjunct therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin increases plasma viremia in HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a potential concern is that reversing HIV latency with an HDACi may reactivate the virus in anatomical compartments with sub-optimal cART concentrations leading to de novo infection of susceptible cells in these sites. We tested physiologically relevant romidepsin concentrations known to reactivate latent HIV in order to definit...

  20. Condom distribution in jail to prevent HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Arleen A; Harawa, Nina; Sylla, Mary; Hallstrom, Christopher C; Kerndt, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men's Central Jail MSM unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not. Input data came from a 2007 survey of inmates, the literature and intervention program records. Base case estimates showed that condom distribution averted 1/4 of HIV transmissions. We predict .8 new infections monthly among 69 HIV-negative, sexually active inmates without condom distribution, but .6 new infections with condom availability. The discounted future medical costs averted due to fewer HIV transmissions exceed program costs, so condom distribution in jail reduces total costs. Cost savings were sensitive to the proportion of anal sex acts protected by condoms, thus allowing inmates more than one condom per week could potentially increase the program's effectiveness. PMID:22555381

  1. Circulating HIV DNA Correlates With Neurocognitive Impairment in Older HIV-infected Adults on Suppressive ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (22–40 years) and 26 older (50–71 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p?=?0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p?>?0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568

  2. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV virus in HIV-infected subjects in the Gambia. Methods Plasma samples from HIV infected patients (190 individuals with clinically defined AIDS and 382 individuals without AIDS were tested retrospectively for the presence of HBV sero-markers and for serum HBV DNA, screened for HCV infection by testing for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA. Results HBsAg prevalence in HIV-positive individuals is 12.2%. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with CD4 count of Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg carriage in HIV- infected Gambians is similar to that obtained in the general population. However co-infected individuals with reduced CD4 levels, indicative of AIDS had higher prevalence of HBeAg retention and elevated HBV DNA levels compared to non-AIDS patients with higher CD4 count.

  3. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Lakhashe; Madhuri Thakar; Sheela Godbole; Srikanth Tripathy; Ramesh Paranjape

    2008-11-01

    The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naïve patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection. However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.

  4. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/106 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 106 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 ?32, but CCR5 expression on CD4+ T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4+ T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4+ T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFN? after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  5. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  6. Mucosal immunology and models of mucosal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GE Griffin

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The mucosa associated lymphoid tissue regulates and coordinates immune responses against mucosal pathogens. Mucosal tissues are the major targets exposed to HIV during transmission. In this paper we describe in vitro models of HIV mucosal infection using human explants to investigate target cells within this tissue.

  7. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has on...... the excretion of schistosome eggs in a large cohort of coinfected individuals....

  8. Exposure to Wild Primates among HIV-infected Persons

    OpenAIRE

    Lebreton, Matthew; Yang, Otto; Tamoufe, Ubald; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Torimiro, Judith N; Djoko, Cyrille F; Carr, Jean K.; Prosser, A. Tassy; Rimoin, Anne W.; Birx, Deborah L; Burke, Donald S.; Nathan D. Wolfe

    2007-01-01

    HIV-1 is an immunosuppressive pathogen. Our behavioral data for 191 HIV-1–infected rural Cameroonians show frequent exposure to nonhuman primates through activities such as hunting and butchering. Immunosuppression among persons exposed to body fluids of wild nonhuman primates could favor the process of adaptation and subsequent emergence of zoonotic pathogens.

  9. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has ...

  10. Challenging new targets for CNS-HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MarioGanau

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system represents an important target for HIV infection during multiple stages of the disease: early, after invasion of the host, acting as a viral reservoir; lately, subverting its function and causing peripheral neuropathies and neurocognitive disorders; and lastly, during the final stage of NeuroAIDS, triggering opportunistic infections, cancers and dementia. Highly active antiretroviral therapy, a combination of drugs that inhibits enzymes essential for HIV replication, can reduce the viremia and the onset of opportunistic infections in most patients and prolong the survival. Among the limits of the current treatments the most noticeable is the inability to eradicate HIV-infected cells, both, limiting the time frame in which antiretroviral therapies initiated after exposure to HIV can prevent infection, and allowing replication-competent virus that persists in infected cells to emerge rapidly after the cessation of treatments. Many strategies are currently under evaluation to improve HIV treatment, unfortunately more than 98% of drug candidates for CNS disorders never make it to the clinic; herein we report how nanoformulated strategies might be adapted and applied to the field of CNS-HIV infection.

  11. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Kevany; Godfrey Woelk; Starley B. Shade; Michal Kulich; Janet M Turan; Alfred Chingono; Stephen F. Morin

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and b...

  12. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, wer...

  13. Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

    1990-09-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

  14. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  15. Sexual Relationship Power and Depression among HIV-Infected Women in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Tsai, Alexander Chung-Yu; Kumbakumba, Elias; Dworkin, Shari L.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N; Clark, Gina; Bangsberg, David Roy; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women. Methods: Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ...

  16. Short Communication: New HIV Infections at Southern New England Academic Institutions: Implications for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Philip A Chan; Kazi, Shahzeb; Rana, Amaad; Blazar, Ilyse; Dejong, Colette C.; MAYER, Kenneth H.; Huard, Thomas K.; Carleton, Kim; Gillani, Fizza; Alexander, Nicole; Parillo, Zoanne; Flanigan, Timothy P; Kantor, Rami

    2013-01-01

    New HIV infections among younger men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States are escalating. Data on HIV infections in college students are limited. In 2010, three MSM college students presented to our clinic with primary HIV infection (PHI) in a single month. To determine the number of college students among new HIV diagnoses, we reviewed clinical characteristics and molecular epidemiology of HIV-diagnosed individuals from January to December 2010 at the largest HIV clinic in Southe...

  17. Intestinal parasitic infections in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immunity status

    OpenAIRE

    Wiwanitkit Viroj

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Background One of the major health problems among HIV seropositive patients is superimposed infection due to the defect of immunity. Furthermore, intestinal parasite infection, which is also one of the basic health problems in tropical region, is common in these patients. In this study, a cross sectional study to document the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in Thai HIV-infected patients with different immune status was performed. Methods A study of stool samples from 60 ...

  18. Clinicopathological study of itchy folliculitis in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Annam Vamseedhar; Yelikar B; Inamadar Arun; Palit Aparna; Arathi P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Itchy folliculitis are pruritic, folliculo-papular lesions seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Previous studies have shown that it was impossible to clinically differentiate between eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) and infective folliculitis (IF). Also, attempts to suppress the intense itch of EF were ineffective. Aims: The present study is aimed at correlating clinical, histopathological and immunological features of itchy folliculitis in HIV patients a...

  19. Predictors of disease progression in HIV infection: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ananworanich Jintanat; Langford Simone E; Cooper David A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract During the extended clinically latent period associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection the virus itself is far from latent. This phase of infection generally comes to an end with the development of symptomatic illness. Understanding the factors affecting disease progression can aid treatment commencement and therapeutic monitoring decisions. An example of this is the clear utility of CD4+ T-cell count and HIV-RNA for disease stage and progression assessment. Elemen...

  20. Renal transplantation in an HIV-infected patient: Pharmacokinetic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Karen; Kangas, Ida; Laursen, Alex Lund; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and progression to AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection has now turned into a chronic disease with improved survival and prognosis. Hence, patients with well-controlled HIV infection are no longer prevented from receiving transplants, but treatment must be based on knowledge of pharmacokinetics for the drugs involved. The common approach measuring the cyclo...

  1. Psiconeuroimunologia e infecção por HIV: realidade ou ficção? / Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV infection: fact or fiction?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sara, Ulla; Eduardo Augusto, Remor.

    Full Text Available Existem importantes evidências empíricas sobre a relação entre sistema imunológico, sistema nervoso e fatores psicossociais em pessoas sadias e aquelas que apresentam alguma infecção, como por exemplo, a infecção por HIV. Estudos atuais sugerem que aspectos comportamentais (hábitos e estilos de vida [...] ), psicológicos (estresse e estratégias de enfrentamento) e sociais (apoio social) podem influir na progressão da infecção por HIV. Esta revisão bibliográfica pretende apresentar uma compilação de trabalhos relevantes dentro deste âmbito que apóiam a perspectiva psiconeuroimunológica. Abstract in english There is substantial empirical evidence from both healthy populations as well as individual with HIV infection, about the relationship among immune system, nervous system and psychological aspects. Current studies suggest that behavioral aspects (life styles), psychological aspects (stress control a [...] nd coping strategies) and social aspects (social support) may influence the progression of HIV infection. This article presents a compilation of main issues related to HIV infection that contribute and support the psychoneuroimmunological approach.

  2. Psiconeuroimunologia e infecção por HIV: realidade ou ficção? Psychoneuroimmunology and HIV infection: fact or fiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ulla

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Existem importantes evidências empíricas sobre a relação entre sistema imunológico, sistema nervoso e fatores psicossociais em pessoas sadias e aquelas que apresentam alguma infecção, como por exemplo, a infecção por HIV. Estudos atuais sugerem que aspectos comportamentais (hábitos e estilos de vida, psicológicos (estresse e estratégias de enfrentamento e sociais (apoio social podem influir na progressão da infecção por HIV. Esta revisão bibliográfica pretende apresentar uma compilação de trabalhos relevantes dentro deste âmbito que apóiam a perspectiva psiconeuroimunológica.There is substantial empirical evidence from both healthy populations as well as individual with HIV infection, about the relationship among immune system, nervous system and psychological aspects. Current studies suggest that behavioral aspects (life styles, psychological aspects (stress control and coping strategies and social aspects (social support may influence the progression of HIV infection. This article presents a compilation of main issues related to HIV infection that contribute and support the psychoneuroimmunological approach.

  3. AIDS Prevention Guide. The Facts about HIV Infection and AIDS. Putting the Facts to Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    Many teenagers engage in behaviors that increase their risk of becoming infected with HIV. This document is a compilation of information about AIDS and HIV Infection, and provides suggestions for parents and other adults in discussing AIDS/HIV with young people. Basic facts are outlined, including what AIDS is and how HIV infection causes AIDS;…

  4. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human ?-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART? PMID:25639844

  5. Psychometric properties of a short version of the HIV stigma scale, adapted for children with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklander, M.; Rydström, L.-L.; Ygge, B.-M.; Navér, L.; Wettergren, L.; Eriksson, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapt...

  6. Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

  7. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004 in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal ( Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml?=?1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10–3.27 and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR?=?3.19; 95% CI 1.46–6.97, and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.02–1.54. The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio?=?2.76; 95% CI 1.25–6.08. Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to complement necessary therapeutic and prophylactic antiretroviral interventions.

  8. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Romidepsin Inhibits de novo HIV-1 Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØnsson, Kasper L; Tolstrup, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Adjunct therapy with the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) romidepsin increases plasma viremia in HIV patients on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, a potential concern is that reversing HIV latency with an HDACi may reactivate the virus in anatomical compartments with sub-optimal cART concentrations leading to de novo infection of susceptible cells in these sites. We tested physiologically relevant romidepsin concentrations known to reactivate latent HIV in order to definitively address this concern. We found that romidepsin significantly inhibited HIV infection in PBMCs and CD4+ T cells, but not in monocyte-derived-macrophages. In addition, romidepsin impaired HIV spreading in CD4+ T cell cultures. When we evaluated the impact of romidepsin on quantitative viral outgrowth assays with primary resting CD4+ T cells, we found that resting CD4+ T cells exposed to romidepsin exhibited reduced proliferation and viability. This significantly lowered assay sensitivity when measuring the efficacyof romidepsin as an HIV latency reversal agent. All together our data indicate that romidepsin-based HIV eradication strategies are unlikely to reseed a latent T cell reservoir, even under sub-optimal cART conditions, because romidepsin profoundly restricts de novo HIV infections.

  9. Risk of Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Silverberg, Michael J.; Lau, Bryan; Justice, Amy C.; Engels, Eric; Gill, M.John; Goedert, James J; Kirk, Gregory D.; D’Souza, Gypsyamber; Bosch, Ronald J; Brooks, John T.; Napravnik, Sonia; HESSOL, NANCY A.; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Kitahata, Mari M; Klein, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    In a large North American cohort study, anal cancer incidence rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected men who have sex with men, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Rates increased from 1996–1999 to 2000–2003 but plateaued by 2004–2007.

  10. Combination effect on HIV infection in vitro of soluble CD4 and HIV-neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Sørensen, A M; Olofsson, S; Osinaga, E; Roseto, A

    1994-01-01

    In combination with HIV gp120 V3-loop antibody, two carbohydrate specific neutralizing antibodies (83D4 and 2G12) had a synergistic neutralizing effect on HIV infection. However, sCD4 and an antibody which blocks gp 120/CD4 binding (1B1) both displayed antagonism.

  11. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author)

  12. Condom Distribution in Jail to Prevent HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    LEIBOWITZ, Arleen A.; Harawa, Nina; Sylla, Mary; Hallstrom, Christopher C.; Kerndt, Peter R

    2012-01-01

    To determine if a structural intervention of providing one condom a week to inmates in the Los Angeles County Men’s Central Jail MSM unit reduces HIV transmissions and net social cost, we estimated numbers of new HIV infections (1) when condoms are available; and (2) when they are not. Input data came from a 2007 survey of inmates, the literature and intervention program records. Base case estimates showed that condom distribution averted 1/4 of HIV transmissions. We predict .8 new infections...

  13. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV-infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can ...

  14. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Houpt, K.R.; Cruz, P.D. Jr. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center

    1996-08-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author).

  15. Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay Glen; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; SEAGE, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.

  16. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  17. Screening and Assessing Violence and Mental Health Disorders in a Cohort of Inner City HIV-Positive Youth between 1998–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Jaime; HOSEK, SYBIL G.; Carleton, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998–2006 (n?=?174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CD...

  18. Providing HIV care in the aftermath of Kenya's post-election violence Medecins Sans Frontieres' lessons learned January – March 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telfer Barbara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kenya's post-election violence in early 2008 created considerable problems for health services, and in particular, those providing HIV care. It was feared that the disruptions in services would lead to widespread treatment interruption. MSF had been working in the Kibera slum for 10 years and was providing antiretroviral therapy to 1800 patients when the violence broke out. MSF responded to the crisis in a number of ways and managed to keep HIV services going. Treatment interruption was less than expected, and MSF profited from a number of "lessons learned" that could be applied to similar contexts where a stable situation suddenly deteriorates.

  19. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: OR of HIV diagnosis was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.3) among heterosexual individuals with low educational attainments, but no associations between educational attainment and time to HAART initiation, CD4 cell count, or viral suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV-infected patients and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.4) for population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. CONCLUSION: With free and equal access to healthcare, low educational attainment might increase risk of HIV infection among heterosexual individuals, but was not associated with late/very late presentation of HIV, time to HAART initiation, or HAART response. However, low educational attainment substantially increased lifestyle-related mortality, which indicates that increased mortality in HIV-infected patients with low educational attainments stems from risk factors unrelated to HIV.

  20. The relationship between physical intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infection among women in India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Rae; Afifi, Tracie O; Halli, Shiva; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia; Sareen, Jitender

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) and sexually transmitted infection (STI) in two national samples. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions Wave 2 (n=34,653) and the National Family Health Survey-3 (n=124 385). Ever-married women between the ages of 20 and 49 were asked if they had experienced physical violence by their partner in the past year. Outcomes were presence of doctor confirmed HIV and self-reported STI. Age at first intercourse was examined as a mediator of the relationship between IPV and STI. Logistic regression examined associations between IPV, age at first intercourse and STI. Compared to individuals with no physical IPV, risk for STI was higher for individuals who experienced past year IPV living in the United States and India, however once controlling for age at first intercourse, age, education, household wealth/income and past year sexual violence, the relationship between IPV, and STI was significant in the American sample [(AOR)=1.65, 95% (CI)=1.21-2.26], however not for individuals living in India [(AOR)=1.75, 95% (CI)=0.84-3.65]. Individuals with exposure to physical IPV are at increased odds for STI. Age at first intercourse although a marker of risk, may not be an accurate marker of risky sexual behavior in both samples. PMID:23778315

  1. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  2. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  3. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Abramsky Tanya; Devries Karen; Kiss Ligia; Francisco Leilani; Nakuti Janet; Musuya Tina; Kyegombe Nambusi; Starmann Elizabeth; Kaye Dan; Michau Lori; Watts Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact ...

  4. [Prevalence of HIV-TB co-infection and impact of HIV infection on pulmonary tuberculosis outcome in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnra, A Y; Adjoh, K; Tchaptchet Heunda, S; Patassi, A A; Sadzo Hetsu, D; Awokou, F; Tidjani, O

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in tuberculosis patients and its impact on the TB treatment. We enrolled 569 pulmonary TB patients in four diagnosis and treatment centres in Togo. All patients were new TB cases and received the first-line TB drugs: two months of rifampicin-pyrazinamide-isoniazid-ethambutol and six months of isoniazid-ethambutol. HIV testing was done according to the national guidelines, using rapid diagnosis tests. The CD4 lymphocyte counting was performed by Facscalibur (BD, Sciences) for all HIV-positive patients. Of the 569 TB patients enrolled, 135 (23.7%) were HIV positive (TB/HIV+). HIV prevalence was 22.4% (76 of 339) among men and 25.6% (59 of 230) among women without statistical difference. The global rate of treatment success was 82.2%. The rate of treatment success was lower (64.3%) in TB/HIV+ patients than in TB/HIV- patients (87.5%) (p TCD4 lymphocyte counts above 200/µl (84.4%). TB program in Togo must take into account HIV infection to improve its performance. PMID:20821178

  5. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  6. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  7. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... odds ratios (ORs) and mortality rate ratios (MRRs). RESULTS: OR of HIV diagnosis was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.3-2.3) among heterosexual individuals with low educational attainments, but no associations between educational attainment and time to HAART initiation, CD4 cell count, or viral...... associated with late/very late presentation of HIV, time to HAART initiation, or HAART response. However, low educational attainment substantially increased lifestyle-related mortality, which indicates that increased mortality in HIV-infected patients with low educational attainments stems from risk factors...

  8. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  9. Using Elecsys® HIV Combi PT assay to identify acute and early HIV infection in a teaching hospital of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siyuan; Li, Dongdong; An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-03-01

    This study is the first attempt to evaluate the use of the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay in identifying acute and early HIV infection in southwest China. We also analyzed the extent of cutoff ratios overlap between false-positive and true-positive results to aid the identification of HIV infection, using samples from the West China Hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province from April 2012 to December 2013. Reactive results from a screening test were retested and all repeatedly reactive samples - if available - were confirmed with Western blot, HIV-1 p24 antigen, or HIV-1 RNA. Of 241,840 samples screened, the Elecsys® HIV combi PT assay identified 54 patients with acute and early HIV infection; 99.8% cases with cutoff index ratios ?50 were proved to be true-positive HIV infection and 95.6% cases with cutoff index ratios HIV combi PT assay can identify acute and early HIV infection, including those who might have been missed by third-generation HIV screening assays and Western blot. However, cutoff index ratios HIV-1 nucleic acid test may be unaffordable, detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen can be an alternative strategy to diagnose HIV infection in individuals with a negative or indeterminate Western blot. PMID:25824151

  10. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  11. Cardiac structure and function in fetuses of mothers infected with HIV: The prospective P2C2HIV multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Lisa K.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk A.; Colan, Steven D.; Schwartz, Marcy; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J.; Ayres, Nancy A.; Lai, Wyman W.; Moodie, Douglas S.; Kasten-Sportes, Carol; Sanders, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to determine if vertically transmitted HIV infection and maternal infection with HIV are associated with altered cardiovascular structure and function in utero. Methods Fetal echocardiography was performed in 173 fetuses of 169 HIV-infected mothers (mean gestational age, 33.0 weeks; SD = 3.7 weeks) at 5 centers. Biparietal diameter, femur length, cardiovascular dimensions, and Doppler velocities through atrioventricular and semilunar valves and the umbilical artery were measured. Measurements were converted to z scores based on published normal data. Results Fetuses determined after birth to be HIV-infected had similar echocardiographic findings as fetuses later determined to be HIV-uninfected except for slightly smaller left ventricular diastolic dimensions (P = .01). The femur length (P = .03) was also smaller in the fetuses postnatally identified as HIV-infected. Differences in cardiovascular dimensions and Doppler velocities were identified between fetuses of HIV-infected women and previously published normal fetal data. The reason for the differences may be a result of maternal HIV infection, maternal risk factors, or selection bias in the external control data. Conclusions Vertically transmitted HIV infection may be associated with reduced left ventricular size but not with altered cardiac function in utero. Fetuses of HIV-infected mothers may have abnormal cardiovascular structure and function and increased placental vascular resistance, regardless of whether the fetuses are subsequently found to be infected with HIV. PMID:11011330

  12. Development of Human Dendritic Cells and their Role in HIV Infection: Antiviral Immunity vs HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YasukoTsunetsugu-Yokota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although dendritc cells (DC represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing AIDS vaccines. However, HIV not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC-T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC-T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology and discuss what needs to be known in order to successfully manipulate DC for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future.

  13. Short communication: high cellular iron levels are associated with increased HIV infection and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Bayeva, Marina; Taiwo, Babafemi; Palella, Frank J; Hope, Thomas J; Ardehali, Hossein

    2015-03-01

    HIV is a pandemic disease, and many cellular and systemic factors are known to alter its infectivity and replication. Earlier studies had suggested that anemia is common in HIV-infected patients; however, higher iron was also observed in AIDS patients prior to the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Therefore, the relationship between iron and viral infection is not well delineated. To address this issue, we altered the levels of cellular iron in primary CD4(+) T cells and showed that higher iron is associated with increased HIV infection and replication. In addition, HIV infection alone leads to increased cellular iron, and several ART drugs increase cellular iron independent of HIV infection. Finally, HIV infection is associated with increased serum iron in HIV-positive patients regardless of treatment with ART. These results establish a relationship between iron and HIV infection and suggest that iron homeostasis may be a viable therapeutic target for HIV. PMID:25291189

  14. Recreational Drug Use and T Lymphocyte Subpopulations in HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected Men

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Chun; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Tashkin, Donald; Martínez-Maza, Otoniel; Roth, Michael D.; Margolick, Joseph B.; Joan S. Chmiel; Rinaldo, Charles; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Detels, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The effects of recreational drugs on CD4 and CD8 T cells in humans are not well understood. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study to define associations between self-reported use of marijuana, cocaine, poppers and amphetamines, and CD4 and CD8 T cell parameters in both HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected MSM. For the HIV-infected MSM, we used clinical and laboratory data collected semiannually before 1996 to avoid pot...

  15. Minibus taxi drivers' sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Busisiwe, Ncama; Gugu, Mchunu; Joanne, Naidoo; Sisana, Majeke; Padmini, Pillay; Thandazile, Myeza; Thandiwe, Ndebele.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the hi [...] gh vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  16. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  17. Computerized and traditional stroop task dysfunction in HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkin, C H; Castellon, S A; Hardy, D J; Granholm, E; Siegle, G

    1999-04-01

    Controlled processing, response inhibition, and set adoption were examined in 51 HIV-1 infected participants and 21 uninfected controls who were administered a vocal reaction time (RT) version of the Stroop task (Stroop-RT; J. R. Stroop, 1935) as well as the traditional 100 item paper-and-pencil version. Response set expectancies on the Stroop-RT were manipulated by presenting 50% of trials in homogenous blocks and randomly varying the stimulus type during the remaining trials. As hypothesized, HIV seropositive (HIV+) participants were significantly slower than HIV seronegative controls on both versions of the Stroop. Significant interference effects were apparent on the paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop, but were not as prominent on the Stroop-RT. The HIV+ participants did profit from the blocking manipulation on the Stroop-RT, suggesting that set adoption is retained in HIV infection. These data suggest that HIV infection may result in deficient response inhibition, possibly secondary to frontostriatal dysfunction and dopaminergic alterations. PMID:10353380

  18. Widespread Colonization of the Lung by Tropheryma whipplei in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lozupone, Catherine; Cota-Gomez, Adela; Palmer, Brent E.; Linderman, Derek J.; Charlson, Emily S.; Sodergren, Erica; Mitreva, Makedonka; Abubucker, Sahar; Martin, John; Yao, Guohui; Campbell, Thomas B.; Flores, Sonia C.; Ackerman, Gail; Stombaugh, Jesse; Ursell, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Lung infections caused by opportunistic or virulent pathogens are a principal cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV infection. It is unknown whether HIV infection leads to changes in basal lung microflora, which may contribute to chronic pulmonary complications that increasingly are being recognized in individuals infected with HIV.

  19. Rate of Comorbidities Not Related to HIV Infection or AIDS among HIV-Infected Patients, by CD4 Cell Count and HAART Use Status

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A; Lucas, Gregory M.; Keruly, Jeanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of comorbidities not related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among HIV-infected patients may be higher than expected. We assessed the incidence of comorbidities not related to HIV infection or AIDS by CD4 cell count and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use status in an HIV clinical practice. A total of 2824 patients contributed 9172 person-years of longitudinal data during the period 1997–2006. HAART receipt was...

  20. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; NORMAN, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among th...

  1. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of publi...

  2. Thrombocytopenia in HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Francielle Garcia; Tanaka, Paula Yurie

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common feature among HIV-positive patients. However, there are few reports about this subject after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) introduction. The authors show a retrospective description of epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment observed in 55 HIV-positive outpatients with thrombocytopenia treated in two reference centers for HIV treatment in São Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-four (62%) patients were male, 50 (91%) were Caucasian, with median of lymphocyt...

  3. The Epidemiology of HIV infection in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Kandala, Ngianga-bakwin; Ji, Chen; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Stones, William

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Population surveys of health and fertility are an important source of information about demographic trends and their likely impact on the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In contrast to groups sampled at health facilities they can provide nationally and regionally representative estimates of a range of variables. Data on HIV sero-status were collected in the 2001-2 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) and made available in a separate data file in which HIV status was linked to a ...

  4. Sexual risk behaviors and risk of HIV infection among adult male in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Khatiwada, Sudip Raj

    2013-01-01

    Background: The HIV infection among adult male is high in Nepal. The chances of HIV infection from heterosexual route and infecting close partners are high due to their risky sexual behaviors. This study aimed to assess the risk of HIV Infection and risk factors associated with high risk of HIV infection among adult male in Nepal. Methodology: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from the data of Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Out of 4121 adult men aged between (15-...

  5. Impact of human Staufen-1 on the particle production and infectivity of HIV-2

    OpenAIRE

    Amler, Anna-Klara

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, there are 35 million people currently infected with HIV worldwide. Untreated infection with the virus leads to a decline of the CD4+ cell number and weakening of the immune system, resulting in the development of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). This enables opportunistic infections to arise, which may end in death of the infected person. HIV infections are mostly caused by HIV-1, whereas distribution of HIV-2 is more restricted. Due...

  6. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    -infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family...

  7. Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of previously unknown HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of primary Nocardia osteomyelitis in the setting of HIV infection. The clinical and radiographic manifestations of musculoskeletal nocardiosis are nonspecific and resemble those of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. To our knowledge no other cases of Nocardia osteomyelitis have been reported in the radiology literature. (orig.)

  8. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Larry; Ocque, Rebecca Z; Daly, Ivonne

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis) is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed "twisted ribbon" appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improtant because treatment is different than that for more common mycoses such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. We present an informative and illustrative case of zygomycosis in a patient with HIV infection and liver transplantation. PMID:21331168

  9. Heroin inhibits HIV-restriction miRNAs and enhances HIV infection of macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Tong-Cui; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Geller, Ellen B.; Adler, Martin W.; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhou, Wang; Zhou, Dun-Jin; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-01-01

    Although opioids have been extensively studied for their impact on the immune system, limited information is available about the specific actions of opioids on intracellular antiviral innate immunity against HIV infection. Thus, we investigated whether heroin, one of the most abused drugs, inhibits the expression of intracellular HIV restriction microRNA (miRNA) and facilitates HIV replication in macrophages. Heroin treatment of macrophages enhanced HIV replication, which was associated with the downregulation of several HIV restriction miRNAs. These heroin-mediated actions on the miRNAs and HIV could be antagonized by naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the in vitro negative impact of heroin on HIV-associated miRNAs was confirmed by the in vivo observation that heroin addicts had significantly lower levels of macrophage-derived HIV restriction miRNAs than those in the control subjects. These in vitro and in vivo findings indicate that heroin use compromises intracellular anti-HIV innate immunity, providing a favorable microenvironment for HIV survival in the target cells.

  10. Gender-transformative interventions to reduce HIV risks and violence with heterosexually-active men: a review of the global evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Shari L; Treves-Kagan, Sarah; Lippman, Sheri A

    2013-11-01

    Emerging out of increased attention to gender equality within HIV and violence prevention programming has been an intensified focus on masculinities. A new generation of health interventions has attempted to shift norms of masculinity to be more gender equitable and has been termed "gender-transformative." We carried out a systematic review of gender-transformative HIV and violence prevention programs with heterosexually-active men in order to assess the efficacy of this programming. After reviewing over 2,500 abstracts in a systematic search, a total of 15 articles matched review criteria. The evidence suggests that gender-transformative interventions can increase protective sexual behaviors, prevent partner violence, modify inequitable attitudes, and reduce STI/HIV, though further trials are warranted, particularly in establishing STI/HIV impacts. In the conclusion, we discuss the promises and limitations of gender-transformative work with men and make suggestions for future research focused on HIV and/or violence prevention. PMID:23934267

  11. Prevalence and determinants of unemployment among ageing HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Reiss

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: People living with HIV (PLWH appear to be at increased risk for earlier onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidity (AANCC and declines in physical and mental capacities, compared to the general population [1]. This earlier onset of AANCC in the setting of HIV infection is likely to negatively affect work participation and quality of life. Present study investigates prevalence and determinants of unemployment among older HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Methods: Data were collected (Oct. 2010–Jan. 2012 within the ongoing prospective AGEhIV Cohort Study, recruiting HIV-1-infected patients >45 years from a tertiary care HIV outpatient clinic, and HIV-uninfected Public Health Service attendants, comparable regarding age, gender and ethnicity. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, quality of life, AANCC and unemployment were collected, using a self-administered questionnaire and through medical examination. Current analysis was restricted to participants in the working age (45–65 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to study determinants of unemployment. Summary of results: The majority from the first enrolled 277 HIV-1-infected and 251 HIV-uninfected subjects was male (88%, Dutch (76% and homosexual (74%. About 50% was highly educated and the median age was 52 [IQR: 48–57]. Almost all (94% HIV-1-infected individuals were on cART, median time since first ART was 11 years [IQR: 4–15], median time since HIV-diagnosis was 12 years [IQR: 7–18] and they had been diagnosed with more AANCC than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.01. Unemployment was higher among HIV-1-infected (36.5% compared to HIV-uninfected participants (21.9% (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, being HIV-infected (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3–3.3], experiencing >2 AANCC (ORadj 3.1 [95% CI: 1.4–6.8], lower physical health status (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.6–2.6], being unmarried (ORadj 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3–3.2] and older age (ORadj 60-65 yrs: 9.1 [95% CI: 4.5–18] were independently associated with higher levels of unemployment. Conclusions: Unemployment among HIV-1-infected individuals is higher compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, independent of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, quality of life or number of concomitantly diagnosed AANCC. This suggests that, apart from these factors, specific HIV-related determinants, such as stage of HIV disease, but also experienced stigma, work related conditions, influence unemployment.

  12. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination. PMID:25853184

  13. Pregnancy among HIV-infected refugees in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood, Erica; Beckwith, Curt; Bazerman, Lauri; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Mitty, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    In 1999, immigration laws lifted previous barriers, allowing more HIV-infected refugees entrance to the US. Many of these refugees are women of reproductive age. At our center in Providence, RI, a significant number of HIV-infected refugees have become pregnant since resettling in the US. We describe the pregnancies seen among these predominantly West African HIV-infected refugees. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all HIV-infected female refugees who established care from 2000-2006. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population at this site. We found that between 2000 and 2006, 28 HIV-infected female refugees established care. Liberia was the country of origin of 79% (22) of the women. There were 20 pregnancies among 14 women between 2000-2006. The median time from resettlement in the US to first pregnancy was 16 (<1-69) months. The median age at time of first pregnancy was 29 years (19-39). At time of pregnancy, the median CD4 count was 506 cells/mL and the median plasma viral load (PVL) was 3.36 log10 copies/ml. There were nine deliveries, one current pregnancy and one loss to follow-up. Other pregnancy outcomes included five terminations and three spontaneous abortions. All women received antiretroviral therapy during their pregnancy. At the time of delivery the median PVL was <1.88 log. There was one HIV transmission from mother to child. Two women became pregnant while on efavirenz, which was subsequently discontinued. One of the women delivered a normal term infant; the other relocated and transferred her care. Among this cohort of HIV-infected refugees, there is a high rate of pregnancy, highlighting the need for timely initiation of medical care, including comprehensive preconception counseling, upon resettlement in the US. It is important to gain a better understanding of this unique and growing population in order to provide the best possible care for these women. PMID:19229690

  14. Accelerated biological ageing in HIV-infected individuals in South Africa: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pathai, S.; Lawn, S D; Gilbert, C. E.; McGuinness, D.; McGlynn, L.; Weiss, H A; Port, J; Christ, T; Barclay, K.; Wood, R.; Bekker, L.-G.; Shiels, P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Little is known about the impact of HIV infection on biological aging in sub-Saharan Africa. The study aimed to assess biological aging in South African HIV-infected adults and HIV-seronegative individuals using two validated biomarkers, telomere length and CDKN2A expression (a mediator of cellular senescence). Design: Case-control study Methods: 236 HIV-infected adults aged >=30 years and 250 age- and gender frequency-matched HIV-seronegative individuals were recruited...

  15. Involvement of claudin-7 in HIV infection of CD4(-) cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Otto O; Berenson James; Chiu Robert; Razi Miriam; Massachi Samira; Song Jun; Campbell Richard; Xie Yiming; Zheng Junying; Chen Irvin SY; Pang Shen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection of CD4(-) cells has been demonstrated, and this may be an important mechanism for HIV transmission. Results We demonstrated that a membrane protein, claudin-7 (CLDN-7), is involved in HIV infection of CD4(-) cells. A significant increase in HIV susceptibility (2- to 100-fold) was demonstrated when CLDN-7 was transfected into a CD4(-) cell line, 293T. In addition, antibodies against CLDN-7 significantly decreased HIV infection of...

  16. Spatial Epidemiology of Recently Acquired HIV Infections across Rural and Urban Areas of North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Carrel, Margaret; Eron, Joseph J.; Emch, Michael; HURT, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission of HIV continues in the United States (US), despite prevention efforts aimed at education and treatment. Concurrently, drug resistance in HIV, particularly in patients being infected with HIV for the first time, poses a threat to the continued success of treatment for HIV positive individuals. In North Carolina, nearly one in five individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) is infected with a drug-resistant strain, a phenomenon known as transmitted drug resistance (TDR). Few studi...

  17. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  18. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    , including cardiovascular disease (CVD). It is suggested that CVD occurs earlier among HIV-positive patients compared with HIV-negative patients, and at a higher rate. Several factors have been proposed to contribute to this. First, the traditional CVD risk factors are highly prevalent in this population...

  19. Clostridium difficile infection in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Paul J; Kuijper, Ed; Dockrell, David H

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) affects significant numbers of hospitalized patients and is an increasing problem in the community. It is also among the most commonly isolated pathogens in HIV patients with diarrheal illness and is ?2 fold more common in HIV-seropositive individuals. This association is stronger in those with low absolute CD4 T cell counts or meeting clinical criteria for an AIDS diagnosis, and was most pronounced before the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The presentation and outcome of CDI in HIV appears similar to the general population. The increased risk can in part be attributed to increased hospitalization and antimicrobial use, but HIV related alterations in fecal microbiota, gut mucosal integrity, and humoral and cell mediated immunity are also likely to play a role. Here we review the evidence for these observations and the relevance of recent advances in the diagnosis and management of CDI for the HIV clinician. PMID:23657793

  20. Syphilis and HIV co-infection (PhD-afhandling)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    HIV has been substantial, ranging from one third to almost two thirds of patients diagnosed with syphilis some years. Given that syphilis facilitates transmission and acquisition of HIV the two sexually transmitted diseases are of major public health concern. Further, syphilis has a negative impact on...... from the Copenhagen area, we observed that syphilis was diagnosed in the primary, secondary, early and late latent stage. These patients were treated with either doxycycline or penicillin and the rate of treatment failure was similar in the two groups, indicating that doxycycline can be used as a...... with nine different strains types and a difference by HIV status was not observed indicating that HIV-infected patients did not belong to separate sexual networks. In conclusion, concurrent HIV remains common in patients diagnosed with syphilis in Denmark, both in those diagnosed by serological testing...

  1. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  2. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients : Impact of HIV, Lifestyle, Body Composition, and Demography - A Cross Sectional Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).

  3. Transplante renal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV / Kidney transplantation in HIV infected patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carina Nilsen, Moreno; Raquel Cruzeiro de, Siqueira; Irene L, Noronha.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as principais considerações sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na última década, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART), a evolução dos pacientes infectados pelo [...] vírus da imunodeficiência humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV) mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta população. Neste contexto, o número de pacientes HIV positivos com doença renal crônica com necessidade de terapia dialítica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicação absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da função renal. Questões sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possível ação aumentando a replicação do HIV, além do risco de infecções oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, são amplamente discutidas. Porém, a experiência clínica nessa área mostra que a utilização dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ação antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta população. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critérios de seleção dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituição renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Abstract in english This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has significantly improved, showing a marked decrea [...] se in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  4. Transplante renal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV Kidney transplantation in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Nilsen Moreno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de revisão tem como objetivo apresentar as principais considerações sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na última década, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART, a evolução dos pacientes infectados pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuição das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta população. Neste contexto, o número de pacientes HIV positivos com doença renal crônica com necessidade de terapia dialítica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicação absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da função renal. Questões sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possível ação aumentando a replicação do HIV, além do risco de infecções oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, são amplamente discutidas. Porém, a experiência clínica nessa área mostra que a utilização dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ação antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta população. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critérios de seleção dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituição renal em pacientes HIV positivos.This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has significantly improved, showing a marked decrease in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  6. Attitude of HIV patients to herbal remedy for HIV infection in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onifade, A A; Ajeigbe, K O; Omotosho, I O; Rahamon, S K; Oladeinde, B H

    2013-01-01

    World Health Organisation estimated that about 80% of Africans use herbal remedies for illness. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which was believed to have no cure led many HIV patients to source for alternative or complementary therapy. A structured questionnaire was administered to 640 HIV patients in selected Nigerian HIV/AIDS clinics from 2009 to 2011 to assess their attitudes to the use of herbal remedy. Six hundred and ten (610) of the respondents were diagnosed by medical doctor and 6.3% (40) had lived with HIV for 4 years and above. Twenty (20) respondents had sought for medical therapy after diagnosis, 310 applied herbal remedy and 180 of the respondents opted for spiritual solutions. Although, majority (73.4%) would denied the use of herbal remedy when asked by a medical practitioner, 100 respondents combines herbal remedy with HAART and 67.2% of the entire respondents are of the opinion that herbal therapy is effective in HIV infection management. 64.1% of the respondents wanted herbal remedy as complementary therapy and 54.7% concluded that non availability of herbs could stop them from using herbal remedy. This study concluded that the use of herbal remedy for HIV infection is high despite advice by medical doctors thus there is a need for caution when prescribing orthodox medicines that could interfere with hepatic metabolism. PMID:23955417

  7. New ways of preventing HIV infection: thinking simply, simply thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Short, R. V.

    2006-01-01

    HIV infection is the greatest health crisis in human history. It continues to spread unchecked among the poor in the developing world because we have failed to design simple preventative methods that are available and affordable to those living on under $2 a day. Five new methods are discussed. (i) A natural microbicide. Intravaginal lime or lemon juice has been used for centuries as a traditional contraceptive. The juice can also kill HIV in the laboratory, but clinical trials are needed to ...

  8. GYNECOLOGIC ISSUES IN THE HIV-INFECTED WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Cejtin, Helen E.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), women living with HIV can now enjoy longer lifespans in relative good health as well as the prospect of bearing children with an overwhelmingly low risk of vertical transmission. Thus, increasingly, seropositive women are now facing issues around longevity as well as those associated with fertility. The clinician caring for the HIV-infected woman must be alert to the gynecologic issues that are prevalent in this population. Amon...

  9. Epidemiology of HIV Infection and Risk in Adolescents and Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Craig M; Wright, Peter F.; Safrit, Jeffrey T.; Rudy, Bret

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents and youth ages 15–24 are one of the populations most impacted by the global HIV epidemic with an estimated 50% of new infections occurring in this age group. They are thus one of the prime populations for targeting behavioral and biomedical preventions. However, the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in youth vary widely by geographic region as well as risk behavior profiles. There are also biological and neurodevelopmental considerations that must be considered in the development, test...

  10. Psychosocial aspects of HIV infection: I Love You (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Meštrovi?, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Since the discovery of HIV and AIDS, considerable progress has been made in understanding biology of the virus and disease, and also in developing effective treatments. Never the less, this infection still has very profound effects on psychological, social, and economic level. Some important examples of stigma and psychosocial aspects of the disease are depicted in this movie. Common bias where HIV is associated exclusively with the gay community and deviant behaviour is emph...

  11. Is Prospective Memory a Dissociable Cognitive Function in HIV infection?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Saurabh; WOODS, Steven Paul; Weber, Erica; Dawson, Matthew S.; GRANT, Igor

    2010-01-01

    An emerging literature indicates that HIV infection is associated with deficits in prospective memory (ProM), or the ability to execute a future intention. This literature offers evidence of neurobiological dissociability of ProM from other cognitive abilities and its incremental ecological validity as a predictor of poorer everyday functioning outcomes (e.g., medication non-adherence). The present study evaluated the hypothesis that ProM represents a unique cognitive construct in HIV disease...

  12. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Losada Marcos; Orsega Susan; Metcalf Julia A; Hirschfeld Steven; Imamichi Hiromi; Tazi Loubna; Posada David; Lane H Clifford; Crandall Keith A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from ...

  13. Seroincidence of 2009 H1N1 infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women prior to vaccine availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Keri N; Eichelberger, Maryna; Gange, Stephen J; Sharp, Gerald B; Gao, Jin; Glesby, Marshall J; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth M; French, Audrey L; Villacres, Maria C; Minkoff, Howard

    2011-06-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a unique opportunity to investigate differences in influenza infection using serology by HIV status. Using serial serum specimens collected from 1 April to 30 September 2009 and the prior 2 years from Women's Interagency HIV study participants, there was no difference in serologic evidence of 2009 H1N1 infection among HIV-infected women with a CD4 cell count at least 350 cells/?l compared with HIV-uninfected women. Owing to evidence showing a greater risk of influenza-related complications, HIV-infected individuals should continue to be a priority group for vaccination. PMID:21505313

  14. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only way to decrease its burden in the society. Health education, safe sex, and creating awareness among the people are the main tools in preventing HIV transmission. Treating physicians should have knowledge of spectrum of opportunistic infection in HIV patients.

  15. HIV Infection and Fertility Preferences in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Yeatman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV-prevalence and fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, little is known about how HIV infection affects the fertility preferences of men and women in the region. A quasi-experimental design and in-depth interviews conducted in rural Malawi are employed to examine how and through what pathways learning that one is HIV positive alters a person’s childbearing desires. Among rural Malawians, particularly men, the desire to have more children decreases...

  16. Short Communication: High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Allison Ross; Leong, Traci; Avery, Ann; Castillo, Marina Duran; Bonilla, Hector; Storer, Norma; Labbato, Danielle; Khaitan, Alka; Tangpricha, Vin; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV-infected populations. In resource-limited settings, vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect HIV disease progression and mortality in pregnant women, and also increases mother-to-child HIV transmission and mortality in their infants. This study sought to investigate vitamin D status in HIV-infected women compared to healthy controls in a high-income country setting and determine variables associated with vitamin D deficiency. We prospectively enrolle...

  17. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies/mL, p =?0.2. There were only 53 patients that presented at the same time HE and HBV infection and the majority, 78.69%, were first infected with HBV. Conclusions: In our studied cohort HBV infection was associated with HE but further studies are needed to prove HBV neurotropic potential. Absolute CD4 nadir count and class C3 are proved to be strong predictors of HE in HIV-infected patients even after several changes in antiretroviral therapy schemes.

  18. DMPD: Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18178131 Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven disease? Herbein G, Khan KA. Trends I ... eptor signalling-driven disease? PubmedID 18178131 Title ... Is HIV infection a TNF receptor signalling-driven ...

  19. [Incidence and etiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D

    1995-05-01

    There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818

  20. Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient?s HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of the cytologic evaluation. Case 1 involved the fine needle aspiration (FNA of a painful 3 cm unilateral neck mass in a 38-year-old female with generalized lymphadenopathy. Her aspirate revealed a spindle cell proliferation devoid of mycobacteria that was immunoreactive for S-100 and macrophage markers (KP-1, PGM1. Multiple noncontributory repeat procedures were performed until a final excision revealed a schwannoma. Case 2 was a CT-guided FNA of a positron emission tomography positive lung mass in a 53-year-old man. The acellular aspirate in this case contained structures resembling fungal spore forms that were negative for mucicarmine and GMS stains, as well as cryptococcal antigen immunocytochemistry. A Von Kossa stain confirmed that these pseudo-fungal structures were calcified debris. Follow up revealed multiple calcified lung and hilar node based granulomata. Case 3 involved the cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid from a 47-year-old man with Kaposi sarcoma and recurrent chylous pleural effusions. Large atypical cells identified in his effusion were concerning for primary effusion lymphoma. Subsequent pleural biopsy revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis, documenting these atypical cells as megakaryocytes. These cases demonstrate that knowledge of a patient?s HIV status can be misleading in the evaluation of cytology specimens, with potential for misdiagnosis and/or multiple procedures. To avoid this pitfall in the setting of HIV infection, common entities unrelated to HIV infection and artifacts should always be included in the differential diagnosis.

  1. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Krohn

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97% were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–76 years. Charts were abstracted for 157 (124 (79% with ?1 year of follow-up. At initial presentation, two of 74 (3% women were pregnant; 27% became pregnant during follow-up. HIV clinical stage varied (59%, asymptomatic; 11%, mild symptoms; 10%, advanced symptoms; 3%, severe symptoms; 17%, unknown; coinfections were common (51 tuberculosis, 13 hepatitis B, 13 parasites, four syphilis. Prior to arrival 4% had received antiretrovirals. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed among 13%; 2% died from AIDS-related causes. Arrival screening may be needed to identify these HIV-infected refugees and prevent HIV-related morbidity and mortality.

  2. HIV co-infection accelerates decay of humoral responses in spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.; Shen, T; Zhang, C.; Long, L.; Duan, Z.; Lu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a c...

  3. [Lines of research in the treatment of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidani, Maryline; Lelièvre, Jean-Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment have completely modified the face of HIV infection. Research of new therapeutic approaches during infection focus on the use of antiretroviral drugs and on new targets, treatment of immune activation and viral eradication. Recommendations for c-ART initiation are now broader. Future development in the area of antiretroviral therapy concern their use for prevention and the design of long-acting drugs. Extensive research efforts have led to the proposal of strategies that aim to treat immune activation which favor the occurrence of non AIDS defining disease and to eradicate HIV through the use of several different strategies (therapeutic vaccines, anti latency compounds). Results of these new approaches remain preliminary and antiretroviral treatment remain the only weapon to fight HIV infection. PMID:25510135

  4. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    -infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family....... Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated......A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV...

  5. CURRENT SCENARIO OF HIV-INFECTION EPIDEMIC IN SUMY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovyy S. L.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic of HIV-infection began in Sumy region in 1996. Rapid growth of morbidity appeared in the early ??I century, so it raised up to 18,5 cases per 100 thousand population in 2010. Nowadays certain stabilization is pointed like, 14,7 cases per 100 thousand population with the growth rate -12,7% in 2012. The widest HIV-infection prevalence is observed in Shostka, Romesky and Krolovetsky districts. This is cased by the high traffic network of these districts and closeness to deprived territories of the other regions. If majority of the infected was male in the epidemic beginning, so nowadays number of the new infected by gender is roughly equal. The number of children and persons of ripe years have dramatically increased (up to 27% and 31% respectively. During ten years HIV-infection transferred from infected drug addicts to general human population and these have cardinally turned the viral transmission of sexual and parenteral routes (51,8% and 18,2% respectively in 2012. The problem may occur because of the unregistered HIV-carriers accumulation.

  6. Assessment of nutritional status of HIV-infected patients at a tertiary centre in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Sunita; Wanchu, Ajay; Khurana, Sudha

    2007-07-01

    Infection with HIV has an adverse effect on nutritional status, and can result in progressive involuntary weight loss. We assessed the nutritional status of our patients with HIV infection and found that HIV-infected patients had significantly low nutrient intake and body mass index as compared with controls. Involuntary weight loss, altered body composition and reduced nutritional status were present throughout the stages of HIV infection. PMID:17716508

  7. Sexual risk behaviour among subgroups of heterosexual HIV infected patients in an urban setting.

    OpenAIRE

    DeHovitz, J. A.; J. Feldman; Brown, L S; Minkoff, H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of characteristics associated with unprotected heterosexual intercourse in HIV infected adults in an urban area. DESIGN: Retrospective comparison of sexual risk transmission behaviour between HIV infected men and women from a drug treatment site and between women from the drug site and HIV infected women from an urban medical centre. METHODS: HIV infected women and men were asked questions on sexual behaviour for a 1 year period before enrollment. The out...

  8. Impaired distensibility of ascending aorta in patients with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zormpala Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to investigate the aortic distensibility (AD of the ascending aorta and carotid artery intima-media thickness (c-IMT in HIV-infected patients compared to healthy controls. Methods One hundred and five HIV-infected patients (86 males [82%], mean age 41?±?0.92 years, and 124 age and sex matched HIV-1 uninfected controls (104 males [84%], mean age 39.2?±?1.03 years were evaluated by high-resolution ultrasonography to determine AD and c-IMT. For all patients and controls clinical and laboratory factors associated with atherosclerosis were recorded. Results HIV- infected patients had reduced AD compared to controls: 2.2?±?0.01 vs. 2.62?±?0.01 10-6 cm2 dyn-1, respectively (p?-6 cm2 dyn-1, p?=?0.01]. In multiadjusted analysis, increasing age and exposure to HAART were independently associated with decreased AD. Conclusion HIV infection is independently associated with decreased distensibility of the ascending aorta, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Increasing age and duration of exposure to HAART are factors further contributing to decreased AD.

  9. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Losada Marcos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.

  10. Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)

  11. Atopy in HIV-infected children in pretoria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Masekela; T, Moodley; N, Mahlaba; D F, Wittenberg; P, Becker; O, Kitchin; R J, Green.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has n [...] ot been documented in children. METHODS: A prospective convenience sample of 50 children aged between 3 months and 12 years attending the Tshwane District Hospital Paediatric HIV clinic in Pretoria was recruited. Their personal and family histories of atopy, World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical staging and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immunological staging with CD4 counts were documented. An age- and sex-matched control group of 50 HIV-negative children was included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) to identify common aeroallergens were conducted on all patients. RESULTS: One hundred children were enrolled, with 50 in each group. Ten per cent of the HIV-infected patients compared with 16% of controls had positive SPTs to aeroallergens. A higher percentage of the HIV-infected patients had chronic rhinitis and eczema (60% and 68%, respectively). There was no relationship between CD4 count and positive SPTs (p=0.61), mean log CD4 count and presence of reported asthma (p=0.71), and CD4 count and presence of reported dermatitis (p=0.84). The CD4 count was not statistically different between children with and without a family history of atopy (p=0.68). CONCLUSION: It appears that the stage of HIV disease does not influence the development or expression of allergy. There is a high prevalence of dermatitis and chronic rhinitis in HIVinfected children, probably not atopic in origin.

  12. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Mohey, Rajesh; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  13. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Mohey, Rajesh; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ? 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  14. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Siberry, George K; Thanyawee Puthanakit

    2013-01-01

    The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD) appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpr...

  15. Fatal haemorrhage following liver biopsy in patients with HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Churchill, D R; Mann, D.; Coker, R J; Miller, R. F.; Glazer, G; Goldin, R. D.; Lucas, S. B.; Weber, J N; De Cock, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    A retrospective review of all 248 liver biopsies performed in patients with HIV infection at two referral centres in London over a 12 year period revealed five cases of major bleeding following biopsy, with four deaths. The risk of major bleeding was 2.0%, and mortality was 1.6% following liver biopsy. The risk of bleeding as much higher than in published series of biopsies done in patients without HIV infection, owing in part to the high prevalence of thrombocytopaenia and clotting abnormali...

  16. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Stauffert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  17. Proteomic Characterization of Exosomes from HIV-1-Infected Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Ramratnam, Bharat

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics has increasingly become an invaluable tool to characterize proteomes from various subcellular compartments. Here, we describe a quantitative proteomics method using the technique of Stable Isotope Labeling by Amino acids in Cell culture (SILAC) to analyze the effects of HIV infection on host exosomal proteomes. The procedure, described below, involves differential isotope labeling of cells, exosome purification, mass spectrometric quantification, and various bioinformatic analyses/verifications. Although this chapter focuses on analyzing the effects of HIV-1 infection on the exosomal proteome, the protocol can easily be adapted to other subcellular compartments under different stress conditions. PMID:26714721

  18. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dulce, Stauffert; Mariângela Freitas da, Silveira; Marilia Arndt, Mesenburg; Thiago, Gaspar; Adriane Brod, Manta; Guilherme Lucas de Oliveira, Bicca; Marcos Marreiro, Villela.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obt [...] ained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  19. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For q...

  20. Allergoreactivity as a Predictor of the Severity of HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedjanova Z.I.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different types of allergic conditions develop in the half of patients infected withHIV due to the immune system dysfunction. Increased prevalence of allergic conditions in HIVinfected patients lead us to conduct the study of allegro reactivity by carrying out skin tests todifferent types of allergens including an allergen to Candida.Objective: To study the immediate type skin reaction in response to subcutaneous injection ofdifferent allergens including Candida allergen in patients infected with HIV at different stages ofthe disease.Method: One hundred HIV infected patients were investigated. The control group consisted of10 healthy individuals and 10 patients with different clinical forms of atopic allergy.Subcutaneous tests were done in the patients forearm.Results: Allergic skin test results to different allergens were characterized by wide variability atall clinical stages: from absence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a strong positivereaction. The patients at the 4th stage of the disease despite the high level of IgE had immediatehypersensitivity reaction of the less intense compared to HIV infected patients at the 2nd stage ofthe disease. Test results to Candida allergen showed a positive reaction in patients with a rapidprogression of HIV/AIDS before the development of the clinical picture of candidiasis.Conclusion: Development and extent of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction changes withthe progression of HIV/AIDS. Analysis of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Candidaallergen may be used as an indicator of development and progression of candidiasis in HIVinfection. The skin test results should be taken into consideration before initiating theantiretroviral therapy in order to avoid the development of allergic drug reactions to this class ofmedications. Results of allergotests may help in prediction of HIV progression.

  1. Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison with HIV-unrelated mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, Martin; Boulle, Andrew; Weigel, Ralf; Messou, Eugène; Mathers, Colin; Orrell, Catherine; Dabis, François; Pascoe, Margaret; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since 1981 and more than 30 million people (22 million in sub-Saharan Africa alone) are now infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. HIV destroys immune system cells (including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte), leaving infected individuals susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-positive people died within ten years of infec...

  2. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male): A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Okeoma Mmeje; Cohen, Craig R.; Deborah Cohan

    2012-01-01

    HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  3. Elevated NT-pro-BNP Levels Are Associated with Comorbidities among HIV-Infected Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoor, Ather; Althoff, Keri; Gange, Stephen; ANASTOS, Kathryn; Dehovitz, Jack; Minkoff, Howard; Kaplan, Robert; Holman, Susan; Jason M. Lazar

    2009-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and accelerated atherosclerosis. These conditions result in elevation of plasma natriuretic peptide (NP) levels. The present study compares N-terminal-pro-BNP (NT-pro-BNP) levels in HIV-infected and -uninfected women and identifies factors influencingNT-pro-BNP levels in HIV-infected women. A total of 454 HIV-infected and 200 HIV-uninfected participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) had NT-pro-BNP determination...

  4. Dynamics of immunoglobulin sequence diversity in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Kenneth B; Gall, Astrid; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Fidler, S J; Kaye, S; Weber, J N; McClure, M O; Kellam, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-09-01

    Advances in immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing technology are leading to new perspectives on immune system dynamics. Much research in this nascent field has focused on resolving immune responses to viral infection. However, the dynamics of B-cell diversity in early HIV infection, and in response to anti-retroviral therapy, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate these dynamics through bulk Ig sequencing of samples collected over 2 years from a group of eight HIV-1 infected patients, five of whom received anti-retroviral therapy during the first half of the study period. We applied previously published methods for visualizing and quantifying B-cell sequence diversity, including the Gini index, and compared their efficacy to alternative measures. While we found significantly greater clonal structure in HIV-infected patients versus healthy controls, within HIV patients, we observed no significant relationships between statistics of B-cell clonal expansion and clinical variables such as viral load and CD4(+) count. Although there are many potential explanations for this, we suggest that important factors include poor sampling resolution and complex B-cell dynamics that are difficult to summarize using simple summary statistics. Importantly, we find a significant association between observed Gini indices and sequencing read depth, and we conclude that more robust analytical methods and a closer integration of experimental and theoretical work is needed to further our understanding of B-cell repertoire diversity during viral infection. PMID:26194755

  5. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  6. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aditi; Brown, C. Titus; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Adami, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these “functional” pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit. PMID:26426037

  7. Cryptosporidiosis in Colombian children with HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Velasco

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Enteric cryptosporidiosis in children with HIV/AIDS is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.Objective: To determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in feces, via the Ziehl Neelsen modified technique,among Colombian children with HIV/AIDS and to determine possible associations.Methodology: Prevalence study in 131 children with HIV/AIDS at the Hospital Universitario del Valle in Cali, Colombia.We evaluated clinical records, laboratory results, environmental factors, and socio-demographic variables. Statisticalanalysis included the estimation of prevalence of infection in children and the corresponding 95% confidence interval;estimation of other descriptive conditions of interest and the association analyses by multiple logistic regression.Results: In this group of children with a mean age of 57 months, we found a prevalence of infection of 29%, morefrequently among male children and among those with vertical HIV transmission. The infection was also associated withabdominal pain, having pets inside the house and C stage for HIV, with >100,000 copies/ml of viral load and CD4 percentage>25%. Association analysis showed a larger risk of Cryptosporidium infection with older age, and among patients not livingin Cali, with more severe status of HIV disease, previous hospitalizations, and dried oral mucosa. Factors found finallyassociated were older age, chronic undernutrition, living in day-care institutions and having previous hospitalizations.Conclusion: Almost a third of these children patients had Cryptosporidium infection, and it was found associated withage, previous hospitalizations, chronic undernutrition and living in day-care institutions.

  8. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years? duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ?flail arm-like syndrome.? The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  9. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  10. Lp-PLA2 levels in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Díaz-Pollán

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: HIV-infected patients show an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. In the general population, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2 appears to be an independent predictor of CVD. We aimed to study associations between Lp-PLA2 plasma levels and other risk factors for CVD in HIV patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, comparative study of two series of cases (HIV patients, n=116 and age-matched non-HIV healthy controls, n=113 was conducted. Eighty-seven percent HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART, 72.4% with HIV-1 viral load <50 cop/mL. Inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Lp-PLA2 and internal carotid intima-media thickness (IMT were measured and CVD risk (Framingham and SCORE algorithms was calculated. Univariate and multivariable associations between these variables were performed. Results: HIV patients presented higher Lp-PLA2 levels [276.81 ng/mL (209.71–356.58] than uninfected healthy controls [220.80 ng/mL (172.70–256.90], p?0.01. In univariate analysis of the global sample, only cigarette smoking was associated with higher Lp-PLA2 levels, p?0.001. In HIV group, female and smoker patients showed higher Lp-PLA2 levels, p?0.05. No significant association was found between Lp-PLA2 levels and another CVD risk factors, carotid IMT, Framingham and SCORE algorithms, ART, HIV-1 viral load neither and CD4+ T lymphocyte count. In multivariate analysis, cigarette smoking remained significantly associated with Lp-PLA2 levels [?=64.8 (95% CI 10.8–118.9 ng/mL, p=0.020]. Conclusions: HIV-infected patients present higher Lp-PLA2 levels than healthy controls, and in this population, tobacco smoking is significantly associated with increased Lp-PLA2 levels. Smoking cessation should be a priority in CVD prevention in HIV-infected patients.

  11. Antiretroviral Treatment and Resistance Patterns in HIV-Infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Atibioke, Oluyemi; Balogun, Tolulope; Oluwasanu, Mojisola

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric HIV-infected patients have higher risk of developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs, and from public health perspective, drug resistance remains a limiting factor for effective management of HIV infection in children. We reviewed the current evidences available on the antiretroviral treatment and resistance patterns in HIV-infected children. Prevalence of HIV drug resistance varied among the three main classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in both treatment naïve and treatment-experienced children in different countries. Most of the patients with extensive triple-class drug-resistant mutations were found to be considerably exposed to the three main classes of antiretroviral agents. Identification of genetic factors linked with susceptibility to perinatal transmission of HIV may be key in understanding the development of resistance due to waning antiviral effectiveness. Children who were less likely to achieve viral re-suppression were more likely to have resistance mutations. Newer drugs such as etravirine can be used as alternatives in case of resistance to efavirenz while newly developed diagnostic method such as next-generation sequencing is a platform for improving quality of detections especially minor variant drug resistance mutations. PMID:26319052

  12. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  13. Postmortem findings and opportunistic infections in HIV-positive patients from a public hospital in Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Eza, Dominique; Cerrillo, Gustavo; Moore, David A J; Castro, Cecilia; TICONA, EDUARDO; Morales, Domingo; Cabanillas, Jose; Barrantes, Fernando; Alfaro, Alejandro; Benavides, Alejandro; Rafael, Arturo; Valladares, Gilberto; Arevalo, Fernando; EVANS, CARLTON A.; Robert H. Gilman

    2006-01-01

    There is a paucity of HIV autopsy data from South America and none that document the postmortem findings in patients with HIV/AIDS in Peru. The purpose of this autopsy study was to determine the spectrum of opportunistic infections and the causes of mortality in HIV-positive patients at a public hospital in Lima. Clinico-epidemiological information regarding HIV infection in Peru is also reviewed. Sixteen HIV-related hospital postmortems, performed between 1999 and 2004, were included in this...

  14. Multiple sclerosis and HIV-1 infection: case report of a HIV controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jerome H

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has been infrequently described in association with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Underreporting, missed diagnoses or a true negative association between MS and HIV infection are all possible explanations for the paucity of published cases. Since MS involves inflammation and demyelination of the central nervous system by autoreactive T cells, immunosuppression caused by HIV infection would be expected to confer a reduced risk of MS. This report describes a case of relapsing-remitting MS in a woman with non-progressive HIV-1 infection for 5 years. The patient has stable normal CD4+ cell counts and a low viral load in the absence of combination antitretroviral treatment (cART). She experienced typical neurological symptoms of MS including optic neuritis, trigeminal neuralgia, and transverse myelitis. MRI of the spinal cord demonstrated multiple lesions on T2-weighted images. Immune mechanisms associated with HIV control that may have contributed to the development and relapses of MS in this patient are discussed. PMID:25801686

  15. Mycetoma in an HIV-infected patient / Mycetoma em paciente HIV positivo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz G. M., Castro; Neusa Y. S., Valente; José Antônio M., Germano; Elisabeth M. Heins, Vaccari; Carlos da Silva, Lacaz.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam um caso de actinomicetoma em pacientes HIV positivo. Apesar das infecções fúngicas oportunistas serem freqüentemente observadas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV, a associação com micetoma nunca foi descrita. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame micolígico direto de grãos obtido [...] s da secreção e de exame anátomo-patológico. Não foi possível identificar o agente, mas as características sugerem tratar-se de actinomiceto. Os autores acreditam que a localização no membro superior possa estar relacionada com o uso de seringas e agulhas contaminadas para injeção de drogas EV. Abstract in english Although oportunistic fungal infections occur commonly in immunocompromised hosts, mycetoma has never been reported in association with HIV infection. The authors present a case that to their knowledge is the first reported case of mycetoma associated with HIV infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by d [...] irect examination of grains and histologic examination. Precise identification of the agent, an actinomycete, was not possible. The unusual site of infection may probably be related to the use of contaminated needless and sirynges for HIV drug injection.

  16. Mycetoma in an HIV-infected patient Mycetoma em paciente HIV positivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz G. M. Castro

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Although oportunistic fungal infections occur commonly in immunocompromised hosts, mycetoma has never been reported in association with HIV infection. The authors present a case that to their knowledge is the first reported case of mycetoma associated with HIV infection. Diagnosis was confirmed by direct examination of grains and histologic examination. Precise identification of the agent, an actinomycete, was not possible. The unusual site of infection may probably be related to the use of contaminated needless and sirynges for HIV drug injection.Os autores relatam um caso de actinomicetoma em pacientes HIV positivo. Apesar das infecções fúngicas oportunistas serem freqüentemente observadas em pacientes infectados pelo HIV, a associação com micetoma nunca foi descrita. O diagnóstico foi confirmado pelo exame micolígico direto de grãos obtidos da secreção e de exame anátomo-patológico. Não foi possível identificar o agente, mas as características sugerem tratar-se de actinomiceto. Os autores acreditam que a localização no membro superior possa estar relacionada com o uso de seringas e agulhas contaminadas para injeção de drogas EV.

  17. Disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N P, Govender; R E, Magobo; T G, Zulu; M, du Plooy; C, Corcoran.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 [...] h of admission. Intracellular yeast-like bodies were observed on the peripheral blood smear. A serum cryptococcal antigen test was negative. Blood cultures flagged positive after 2 days; on direct microscopy, yeast-like bodies were observed and a thermally dimorphic fungus, confirmed as T. marneffei, was cultured after 5 days. The clinical features of HIV-associated disseminated penicilliosis overlap with those of tuberculosis and endemic deep fungal infections. In the southern African context, where systemic opportunistic fungal infections such as cryptococcosis are more common among HIV-infected patients with a CD4+ count of

  18. On the Dynamics of the Evolution of the HIV Infection

    CERN Document Server

    Zorenos dos Santos, R M; Zorzenon dos Santos, Rita M; Coutinho, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    We use a cellular automata model to study the evolution of HIV infection and the onset of AIDS. The model takes into account the global features of the immune response to any pathogen, the fast mutation rate of the HIV and a fair amount of spatial localization. Our results reproduce quite well the three-phase pattern observed in T cell and virus counts of infected patients, namely, the primary response, the clinical latency period and the onset of AIDS. We have also found that the infected cells may organize themselves into special spatial structures since the primary infection, leading to a decrease on the concentration of uninfected cells. Our results suggest that these cell aggregations, which can be associated to syncytia, leads to AIDS.

  19. Gene therapy of HIV-1 infection using lentiviral vectors expressing anti-HIV-1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Mario R; Morgan, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    The use of vectors based on primate lentiviruses for gene therapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has many potential advantages over the previous murine retroviral vectors used for delivery of genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1. First, lentiviral vectors have the ability to transduce dividing and nondividing cells that constitute the targets of HIV-1 infection such as resting T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Lentiviral vectors can also transfer genes to hematopoietic stem cells with a superior gene transfer efficiency and without affecting the repopulating capacity of these cells. Second, these vectors could be potentially mobilized in vivo by the wild-type virus to secondary target cells, thus expanding the protection to previously untransduced cells. And finally, lentiviral vector backbones have the ability to block HIV-1 replication by several mechanisms that include sequestration of the regulatory proteins Tat and Rev, competition for packaging into virions, and by inhibition of reverse transcription in heterodimeric virions with possible generation of nonfunctional recombinants between the vector and viral genomes. The inhibitory ability of lentiviral vectors can be further increased by expression of anti-HIV-1 genes. In this case, the lentiviral vector packaging system has to be modified to become resistant to the anti-HIV-1 genes expressed by the vector in order to avoid self-inhibition of the vector packaging system during vector production. This review focuses on the use of lentiviral vectors as the main agents to mediate inhibition of HIV-1 replication and discusses the different genetic intervention strategies for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection. PMID:11839215

  20. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NathalieDauphinMckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  1. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  2. Frequency and subtype of BK virus infection in Iranian patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Shahla; Mohraz, Minoo; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Jozpanahi, Manizheh; Banifazl, Mohammad; Bavand, Anahita; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-02-01

    Human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects approximately 90 % of the general population as a subclinical or mild infection. In immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases, BKV may be reactivated resulting hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BKV in Iran. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtypes of BKV in Iranian HIV patients. A total of 99 patients with HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Presence of BKV DNA in plasma was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. BKV DNA was detected in 8.08 % of HIV patients. BKV viremia presented in 4 out of 25 patients (16 %) not receiving antiretroviral therapy in comparison with 4 out 74 of HAART-treated patients (5.4 %) (P = 0.023). In patients with CD4 counts ?200 cells/mm(3), viremia was found more commonly (7/80 = 8.8 %) than in those with lower counts (1/19 = 5.2 %) (not significant). All sequenced BKV isolates belonged to subtype Ib-2. Our findings indicated that the prevalence of BKV viremia is relatively prevalent in patients with HIV infection and significantly higher in naïve than HAART-treated cases. Therefore, HAART can eliminate BKV infection from plasma and reduce viremia although the actual implication of BKV viremia in HIV patients is not clear. PMID:26141042

  3. Bronchoalveolar lavage in HIV infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Blic, J; Blanche, S.; Danel, C; Le Bourgeois, M.; Caniglia, M; Scheinmann, P.

    1989-01-01

    The value of taking microbiological and cytological specimens by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage under local anaesthesia was assessed on 43 occasions in 35 HIV infected children, aged 3 months to 16 years, with interstitial pneumonitis. In acute interstitial pneumonitis (n = 22, 26 specimens from bronchoalveolar lavages) the microbiological yield was 73%, Pneumocystis carinii being the commonest infective agent (n = 14). P carinii pneumonia was found only in children with def...

  4. Lues maligna in an HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.

  5. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Ivonne Daly; Rebecca Z. Ocque; Larry Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis) is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed “twisted ribbon” appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improta...

  6. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  7. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3 had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV

  8. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Claus; Gerstoft, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  9. Diabetes mellitus in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    D, Moyo; G, Tanthuma; O, Mushisha; G, Kwadiba; F, Chikuse; M S, Cary; A P, Steenhoff; M J A, Reid.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is little in the literature on HIV and diabetes mellitus (DM) in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE: To assess the characteristics of HIV and DM in patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Botswana. METHODS: A retrospective case-control study was conducted at 4 sites. Each HIV [...] -infected patient with DM (n=48) was matched with 2 HIV-infected controls (n=108) by age (±2 years) and sex. Primary analysis was conditional logistic regression to estimate univariate odds and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each characteristic. RESULTS: There was no significant association between co-morbid diseases, tuberculosis, hypertension or cancer and risk of diabetes. DM patients were more likely to have higher pre-ART weight (odds ratio (OR) 1.09; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.14). HIV-infected adults >70 kg were significantly more likely to have DM (OR 12.30; 95% CI 1.40 - 107.98). Participants receiving efavirenz (OR 4.58; 95% CI 1.44 - 14.57) or protease inhibitor therapy (OR 20.7; 95% CI 1.79 - 240.02) were more likely to have DM. Neither mean pre-ART CD4 cell count (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.99 - 1.01) nor pre-ART viral load >100 000 copies/ml (OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.21 - 2.43) were associated with a significant risk of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a complex interrelation among traditional host factors and treatment-related metabolic changes in the pathogenesis of DM inpatients receiving ART. Notably, pre-ART weight, particularly if >70 kg, is associated with the diagnosis of diabetes in HIV-infected patients in Botswana.

  10. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.; Malenganisho, W.; Changalucha, J.; Temu, M.M.; Mngara, J.; Krarup, H.; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Ã….B.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy...

  11. Bone health in children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George K Siberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term impact on bone health of lifelong HIV infection and prolonged ART in growing and developing children is not yet known. Measures of bone health in youth must be interpreted in the context of expected developmental and physiologic changes in bone mass, size, density and strength that occur from fetal through adult life. Low bone mineral density (BMD appears to be common in perinatally HIV-infected youth, especially outside of high-income settings, but data are limited and interpretation complicated by the need for better pediatric norms. The potential negative effects of tenofovir on BMD and bone mass accrual are of particular concern as this drug may be used more widely in younger children. Emphasizing good nutrition, calcium and vitamin D sufficiency, weight-bearing exercise and avoidance of alcohol and smoking are effective and available approaches to maintain and improve bone health in all settings. More data are needed to inform therapies and monitoring for HIV-infected youth with proven bone fragility. While very limited data suggest lack of marked increase in fracture risk for youth with perinatal HIV infection, the looming concern for these children is that they may fail to attain their expected peak bone mass in early adulthood which could increase their risk for fractures and osteoporosis later in adulthood.

  12. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico; Tourret, Jérome; Moreno, Asunción; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Fux, Christoph Andreas; Katlama, Christine; Reiss, Peter; Lundgren, Jens; Gatell, Jose Maria; Kirk, Ole; Miró, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122 pati...

  13. Macronutrient intake and malabsorption in HIV infection: a comparison with other malabsorptive states

    OpenAIRE

    CARBONNEL, F; Beaugerie, L.; Rached, A; d'Almagne, H; Rozenbaum, W.; Le Quintrec, Y; Gendre, J; Cosnes, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Wasting is a major complication of HIV infection. The role of malabsorption in wasting is controversial. 
Aims—To assess oral intake and malabsorption in a cohort of weight losing HIV infected patients, with or without chronic diarrhoea. 
Methods—A prospective study using a predefined protocol for HIV infected patients was performed in a gastroenterology and nutrition unit in a university hospital. A retrospective comparison was made with HIV negative patients with mala...

  14. Anemia and growth failure among HIV-infected children in India: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shet Anita; Mehta Saurabh; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Dinakar Chitra; Ramesh Elango; Samuel NM; Indumathi CK; Fawzi Wafaie W; Kurpad Anura V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia and poor nutrition have been previously described as independent risk factors for death among HIV-infected children. We sought to describe nutritional status, anemia burden and HIV disease correlates among infected children in India. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from 248 HIV-infected children aged 1–12 years attending three outpatient clinics in South India (2004–2006). Standard WHO definitions were used for anemia, HIV staging and growth parameters. Stati...

  15. Cerebrovascular risk factors and brain microstructural abnormalities on diffusion tensor images in HIV-infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamoto, Beau K; Jahanshad, Neda; McMurtray, Aaron; Kalpana J. Kallianpur; Dominic C Chow; Valcour, Victor G.; Robert H Paul; Marotz, Liron; Paul M Thompson; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2012-01-01

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals despite effective antiretroviral therapy. As these individuals age, comorbid cerebrovascular disease will likely impact cognitive function. Effective tools to study this impact are needed. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to characterize brain microstructural changes in HIV-infected individuals with and without cerebrovascular risk factors. Diffusion-weighted MRIs were obtained in 22 HIV-infecte...

  16. Successful treatment of psoriasis-like lesions in HIV infected patients in Uganda with chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Shihab, H.M.; Feld, J J; Lutwama, F.; Piloya, T.; Colebunders, R

    2009-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine in the treatment of psoriasis remains controversial. Treatment of psoriasis in HIV infection is not well described. Chloroquine has been shown to have direct effects on both the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and on the psoriasis disease process. The effect of chloroquine in HIV infected patients with psoriasis has not been well studied. We report on the effect of chloroquine on psoriasis-like lesions in three HIV infected patients who were not on antiretrovi...

  17. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways. PMID:26848681

  18. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  19. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  20. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided into 3 groups, according to whether their cell-associated HIV DNA load was or = 2,500 DNA copies/10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Clinical progression rates differed significantly between the groups (p <0.005). Cell-associated HIV DNA load had prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA (p <0.02). However, when HIV DNA, HIV RNA and CD4 cell counts were all included in a Cox model, only serum HIV RNA had independent prognostic value. Patients heterozygous for the CCR5 delta 32 allele had significantly lower HIV DNA loads than those homozygous for the normal allele (p <0.05). The interplay between HIV RNA and DNA levels is discussed, together with the possibility that cell-associated HIV DNA load is a marker of the HIV RNA peak seen shortly after primary HIV infection.

  1. How do national strategic plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa address gender-based violence? A women's rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Mushinga, Mildred; Crone, E Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant human rights violation and a key driver of the HIV epidemic in southern and eastern Africa. We frame GBV from a broad human rights approach that includes intimate partner violence and structural violence. We use this broader definition to review how National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) in southern and eastern Africa address GBV. NSPs for HIV and AIDS provide the national-level framework that shapes government, business, donor, and non-governmental responses to HIV within a country. Our review of these plans for HIV and AIDS suggests that attention to GBV is poorly integrated; few recognize GBV and program around GBV. The programming, policies, and interventions that do exist privilege responses that support survivors of violence, rather than seeking to prevent it. Furthermore, the subject who is targeted is narrowly constructed as a heterosexual woman in a monogamous relationship. There is little consideration of GBV targeting women who have non-conforming sexual or gender identities, or of the need to tackle structural violence in the response to HIV and AIDS. We suggest that NSPs are not sufficiently addressing the human rights challenge of tackling GBV in the response to HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa. It is critical that they do so. PMID:23568943

  2. Sex Differences in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swordy, Alice; Mori, Luisa; Laker, Leana; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Matthews, Philippa C.; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Lavandier, Nora; van Zyl, Anriette; Hurst, Jacob; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Prendergast, Andrew; Goulder, Philip; Jooste, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of infections in childhood is typically greater in males. The basis for these observed sex differences is not well understood, and potentially may facilitate novel approaches to reducing disease from a range of conditions. We here investigated sex differences in HIV-infected children in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and post-treatment outcome. In a South African cohort of 2,101 HIV-infected children, we observed that absolute CD4+ count and CD4% were significantly higher in ART-naïve female, compared to age-matched male, HIV-infected children. Absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in HIV-uninfected female versus male neonates. We next showed that significantly more male than female children were initiated on ART (47% female); and children not meeting criteria to start ART by >5yrs were more frequently female (59%; p<0.001). Among ART-treated children, immune reconstitution of CD4 T-cells was more rapid and more complete in female children, even after adjustment for pre-ART absolute CD4 count or CD4% (p=0.011, p=0.030, respectively). However, while ART was initiated as a result of meeting CD4 criteria less often in females (45%), ART initiation as a result of clinical disease in children whose CD4 counts were above treatment thresholds occurred more often in females (57%, p<0.001). The main sex difference in morbidity observed in children initiating ART above CD4 thresholds, above that of TB disease, was as a result of wasting and stunting observed in females with above-threshold CD4 counts (p=0.002). These findings suggest the possibility that optimal treatment of HIV-infected children might incorporate differential CD4 treatment thresholds for ART initiation according to sex. PMID:26151555

  3. Tratamento de depressão em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV Treatment of depression in HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Malbergier

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A infecção pelo HIV/Aids é freqüentemente associada a transtornos psiquiátricos. Dentre eles, a depressão é o mais comum. O diagnóstico e o tratamento dos transtornos depressivos são fundamentais para melhorar a qualidade de vida desses pacientes. Esta revisão tem como objetivo sintetizar e discutir os resultados mais importantes da literatura a respeito das particularidades do tratamento dos transtornos depressivos em indivíduos infectados pelo HIV. São discutidos a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico, a influência da depressão na evolução da infecção, o tratamento farmacológico com antidepressivos, testosterona e psicoestimulantes e a interação farmacológica entre os antidepressivos e benzodiazepínicos e as drogas antivirais. Conclui-se que o tratamento antidepressivo nessa população é eficaz, seguro e não promove imunossupressão nos indivíduos afetados.HIV/AIDS infection is frequently associated with psychiatric disorders, especially depression. The diagnosis and treatment of depression are essential to improve quality of life in these individuals. This review intends to summarize and discuss the most important results in the literature about the treatment of depression in HIV-infected individuals. The epidemiology, clinical presentation, contribution of depression on HIV infection, pharmacological treatment with antidepressants, testosterone, and psychostimulant drugs, and pharmacological interactions between antidepressants, benzodiazepines, and antiviral medications are discussed. The conclusion drawn from this study is that the treatment of depression in this population is effective, safe and does not promote immunosupression.

  4. Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo G. Bottaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors. We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

  5. Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV / Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edgardo G., Bottaro; Raúl H., Figueroa; Pablo G., Scapellato; Gabriela I., Vidal; María T., Rodríguez Brieschke; Silvia, da Representaçao; María B., Seoane; Marcelo F., Laurido; Diego, Caiafa; Gustavo, Lopardo; Fabián, Herrera; Isabel, Cassetti.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores [...] de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa). Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes. Abstract in english Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individu [...] als that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors). We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

  6. HIV prevalence and factors associated with HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Ju Nyeong Park; Erin Papworth; Sethson Kassegne; Laure Moukam; Serge Clotaire Billong; Issac Macauley; Yves Roger Yomb; Nathalie Nkoume; Valentin Mondoleba; Jules Eloundou; Matthew LeBreton; Ubald Tamoufe; Ashley Grosso; Stefan D Baral

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite men who have sex with men (MSM) being a key population for HIV programming globally, HIV epidemiologic data on MSM in Central Africa are sparse. We measured HIV and syphilis prevalence and the factors associated with HIV infection among MSM in Cameroon. Methods: Two hundred and seventy-two and 239 MSM aged ?18 from Douala and Yaoundé, respectively, were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) for this cross-sectional surveillance study in 2011. Par...

  7. Pediatric HIV: School-Based Sequelae and Curricular Interventions for Infection Prevention and Social Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Steven; Pryor, John B.; Haefli, Katrine

    1995-01-01

    In response to the rising number of adolescents and infants who are infected with HIV, school psychologists must become experts in issues pertaining to pediatric HIV/AIDS. This article describes medical consequences of HIV and psychosocial sequalea. Discusses recommendations for school-based AIDS-education programs designed to prevent HIV

  8. Dietary intakes of HIV-infected adults in urban UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, K; Goff, L M

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a good nutritional status is important for immune health and for managing metabolic comorbidities in adults with HIV infection. Little is known about the dietary habits of adults living with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to characterise their dietary intakes, and to identify subgroups of patients who may require nutritional counselling and/or food support services. An observational study of adults attending a London HIV out-patient clinic who completed a demographics questionnaire and a structured 24 h diet recall interview was conducted. In all, 196 (162 men, 34 women) adults participated. Forty-three percent (n=66) of men and thirty-six percent (n=11) of women did not consume enough energy to meet their basal metabolic requirements and activity factor. The majority of both men (64%) and women (56%) consumed more than the recommended amount of saturated fat. Self-report of lipodystrophy (B coefficient -2.27 (95% CI -3.92 to -0.61), P=0.008) was associated with lower dietary fibre intake/1000 kcal per day, and a more recent diagnosis of HIV (B coefficient -0.11 (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02), P=0.013) was associated with a higher dietary fibre/1000 kcal intake per day. Recreational drug use was associated with a higher overall calorie (P=0.003) and protein (P=0.001) intake than non-usage after adjusting for basal metabolic requirements and weight, respectively. Our data describe the dietary intakes of a diverse group of adults with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. These dietary habits may have an impact on their overall health and development of other metabolic comorbidities common in people with HIV. PMID:23820340

  9. CMV Arthritis in a HIV Infected Teenage Girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The disease with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the immuno depressed patients is determined either by the reactivation of a latent infection or by the primary infection at a seronegative receptor from a seropositive blood donor. The CMV infection is an important co-factor of the progress of the HIV infection. Some clinical forms are mode frequently met: the CMV pneumonia, the CMV gastrointestinal infection, the CMV retinitis and the central nervous system condition as CMV meningitis. Other locations such as carditis, myositis, or arthritis are very seldom mentioned. Objectives: The presentation of a clinical case of CMV polyarthritis. Material And Method: A retrospective study of the medical record of an HIV infected teenage girl. Results: A teenage girl of 16 diagnosed with HIV for 10 years was hospitalized twice in 2 months. At the first hospitalization she presented abdominal pain, vomiting, pyrosis and severe asthenia. A gastro-duodenal radiography was performed which showed gastroduodenitis lesions. The serology for CMV IgG was positive, at a high titre and a diagnose of gastrointestinal infection was given. At the second episode of hospitalization the patient presented myalgia and polyarthralgia. A bone scintigraphy was performed which showed inflammations of the spinal column joints in the T6-L3 area, sacro-illiac joint (bilateral), scapulo-humeral joint and coxo-femural joint and also in the left knee joint area. Based on clinical and para clinical data, the diagnose was CMV polyarthritis. After this episode the patient underwent etiological treatment for CMV with Ganciclovyr with a good progress and no other localizations of the infection. Conclusions: We consider the bone scintigraphy useful for the CMV arthritis diagnose. In order to settle which are the most affected joints in this infection we find the screening by bone scintigraphy very significant for the patients with clinical and laboratory suspicion of CMV polyarthritis. (author)

  10. Robustness of a cellular automata model for the HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirêdo, P. H.; Coutinho, S.; Zorzenon dos Santos, R. M.

    2008-11-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the robustness of the results obtained from the cellular automata model which describes the spread of the HIV infection within lymphoid tissues [R.M. Zorzenon dos Santos, S. Coutinho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 168102]. The analysis focused on the dynamic behavior of the model when defined in lattices with different symmetries and dimensionalities. The results illustrated that the three-phase dynamics of the planar models suffered minor changes in relation to lattice symmetry variations and, while differences were observed regarding dimensionality changes, qualitative behavior was preserved. A further investigation was conducted into primary infection and sensitiveness of the latency period to variations of the model’s stochastic parameters over wide ranging values. The variables characterizing primary infection and the latency period exhibited power-law behavior when the stochastic parameters varied over a few orders of magnitude. The power-law exponents were approximately the same when lattice symmetry varied, but there was a significant variation when dimensionality changed from two to three. The dynamics of the three-dimensional model was also shown to be insensitive to variations of the deterministic parameters related to cell resistance to the infection, and the necessary time lag to mount the specific immune response to HIV variants. The robustness of the model demonstrated in this work reinforce that its basic hypothesis are consistent with the three-stage dynamic of the HIV infection observed in patients.

  11. Educational software for simulating risk of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.

    1994-03-01

    The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.

  12. [Improvement of parodontitis therapy of patients with HIV-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Oseeva, A O; Shul'diakov, A A; Bulkina, N V

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose to determine the clinic-pathogenetic efficacy of cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of periodontitis of patients with subclinical stage of HIV-infection medical examination and treatment of 40 patients was carried out. It was established that use of liniment cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with subclinical stage of HIV-infection allowed to accelerate process of normalization of lipid peroxidation parameters and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infection load (herpes symplex virus I, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus) in parodontal recess and evidence of local inflammation with reduction of activity of the tumours necrosis factor and interleukin 1beta, what provided acceleration of recuperation processes, lowering the frequency of parodontitis relapses. PMID:20517247

  13. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D; Dedes, N; Ellefson, M; Gatell, J; Girardi, E; Johnson, M; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Mocroft, A; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Phillips, A; Raben, Dorthe; Rockstroh, J K; Sabin, C; Sönnerborg, A; de Wolf, F

    2010-01-01

    : persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 200 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Conclusion The European Late Presenter Consensus working group believe it would be beneficial if all national health agencies, institutions, and researchers were......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of...

  14. Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlid Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.

  15. HIV infection associated with Strongyloides stercoralis colitis resulting in Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, T; Raychaudhuri, M; Poulton, M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the case of an HIV infected patient with Streptococcus bovis bacteraemia and meningitis associated with gastrointestinal Strongyloides stercoralis infection. To our knowledge, this has been reported once previously and serves as a reminder to actively exclude asymptomatic S stercoralis infection in HIV infected individuals presenting with bacteraemia.

  16. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  17. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  18. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  19. CD4 cell count recovery in HIV/TB co-infected patients versus TB uninfected HIV patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wanchu A; Kuttiatt V; Sharma A.; Singh S; Varma S

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is lack of data comparing the improvement in CD4 count following antitubercular (ATT) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) in patients presenting with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Tuberculosis (HIV/TB) dual infection compared with CD4 matched cohort of TB uninfected HIV patients initiated on ART. We sought to test the hypothesis; TB additionally contributes to reduction in CD4 count in HIV/TB co-infected patients and this would result in greater improvement in count following tr...

  20. Association of hepatitis C virus and HIV infection with subclinical atherosclerosis in the women’s interagency HIV study

    OpenAIRE

    TIEN, Phyllis C.; Schneider, Michael F.; Cole, Stephen R.; COHEN, MARDGE H.; Glesby, Marshall J; Lazar, Jason; YOUNG, MARY; Mack, Wendy; Hodis, Howard N.; Kaplan, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Whether hepatitis C virus coinfection might accelerate atherosclerosis in HIV-infected individuals is unclear. We examined the relationship of HIV and hepatitis C virus with carotid artery intima media thickness and the presence of carotid plaques in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Hepatitis C virus infection was not associated with greater carotid artery intima media thickness after adjustment for demographic and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Further follow-up is needed to clar...

  1. HCV/HIV co-infection: time to re-evaluate the role of HIV in the liver?

    OpenAIRE

    Blackard, J.T.; Sherman, K E

    2008-01-01

    Because of major advances in the treatment of HIV /AIDS, HIV-positive persons now live longer, healthier lives; however, hepatitis C virus (HCV) is increasingly recognized as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. Among HCV-infected persons, HIV co-infection is associated with increased HCV RNA levels, increased hepatic inflammation and fibrosis, and more rapid progression to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Compounding this problem are reduced HCV treatment respon...

  2. HIV Infection among Civilian Applicants for Nigeria Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Itsifinus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth?s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 195-200

  3. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results...

  4. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  5. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Pett, Sarah; Vjecha, Michael J; French, Martyn A; Lundgren, Jens D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking and...

  6. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C; Lundgren, J D; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found ...

  7. HIV infection in refugees: a case–control analysis of refugees in Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckwith, Curt G.; DeLong, Allison K.; Desjardins, Simon F.; Gillani, Fizza; Bazerman, Lauri; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Ross, Heather; Cu-Uvin, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives: The number of HIV-infected refugees entering the USA is increasing. There is little data describing the HIV-infected refugee population and the challenges encountered when caring for them. We performed a retrospective case–control analysis of HIV-infected refugees in order to characterize their co-morbidities, baseline HIV characteristics, and longitudinal care compared to HIV-infected non-refugees. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed of HIV-infected refugees and non-refugees who were matched for gender, age, and time of establishment of initial HIV care. Results: The refugee population studied was largely from West Africa. Refugees were more likely than non-refugees to have heterosexual risk for HIV infection, latent tuberculosis infection, and active hepatitis B. Refugees were less likely than non-refugees to have a history of substance use, start antiretrovirals, and be enrolled in a clinical study. The baseline CD4 counts and HIV plasma viral loads were similar between the two groups. Conclusions: Clinicians caring for West African HIV-infected refugees should be knowledgeable about likely co-morbidities and the impact of cultural differences on HIV care. Further studies are needed to develop culturally competent HIV treatment, education, and prevention programs for refugees who are beginning a new life in the USA. PMID:18771943

  8. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Mohey, Rajesh; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ? 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older, when compared to an individually-matched cohort from the background population. METHODS: Population-based cohort-study including HIV-infected individuals ? 50 years, who were alive one year after HIV-di...

  9. Accessory cell dependent NK cell mediated PBMC IFN-? production is defective in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yonkers, Nicole L.; Kimberly A. Milkovich; Rodriguez, Benigno; Post, Anthony B.; ASAAD, ROBERT; Heinzel, Frederick P.; Valdez, Hernan; Tary-Lehmann, Magdalena; Anthony, Donald D

    2009-01-01

    HCV and HIV infections impair dendritic cell function. We evaluated the impact of HCV, HIV, and HCV-HIV infection on MDC–NK interactions by analyzing CD3 depleted PBMC for NK cell IFN-? in response to IL-12 or poly (I:C). Purified MDC and NK cells were analyzed for TLR ligand-dependent, MDC-dependent NK activity. In HIV infection, IFN-? production by CD3 depleted PBMC was reduced in response to poly (I:C), while response to IL-12 was intact in HCV and HIV infections. Poly (I:C) induced activi...

  10. Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

    2007-03-01

    High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571

  11. The influence of different helminth infection phenotypes on immune responses against HIV in co-infected adults in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mabaso Musawenkosi LH; Jooste Pieter; Taylor Myra; Mkhize-Kwitshana Zilungile L; Walzl Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The convergent distribution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and helminth infections has led to the suggestion that infection with helminths exacerbates the HIV epidemic in developing countries. In South Africa, it is estimated that 57% of the population lives in poverty and carries the highest burden of both HIV and helmith infections, however, the disease interactions are under-researched. Methods We employed both coproscopy and Ascaris lumbricoides-specific ser...

  12. Incidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among HIV-uninfected individuals at high risk for sexually transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Palamara Guido; Di Carlo Aldo; Castilletti Concetta; Cordiali-Fei Paola; Giuliani Massimo; Boros Stefano; Rezza Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinants of HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly attending an urban STI clinic. Methods Sera from consecutive HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly tested for HIV-1 antibodies were a...

  13. HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, is a strong risk factor for anorectal condyloma in Asian population: A prospective colonoscopy screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, was identified as a strong risk for anorectal condyloma. Anal HPV 16/18 was highly prevalent in patients with HIV-1 infection, especially in those with condyloma.

  14. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  15. Anti-HIV-1 activity of flavonoid myricetin on HIV-1 infection in a dual-chamber in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Silvana; Pardi, Vanessa; Murata, Ramiro Mendonça

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection by sexual transmission remains an enormous global health concern. More than 1 million new infections among women occur annually. Microbicides represent a promising prevention strategy that women can easily control. Among emerging therapies, natural small molecules such as flavonoids are an important source of new active substances. In this study we report the in vitro cytotoxicity and anti-HIV-1 and microbicide activity of the following flavonoids: Myricetin, Quercetin and Pinocembrin. Cytotoxicity tests were conducted on TZM-bl, HeLa, PBMC, and H9 cell cultures using 0.01-100 µM concentrations. Myricetin presented the lowest toxic effect, with Quercetin and Pinocembrin relatively more toxic. The anti-HIV-1 activity was tested with TZM-bl cell plus HIV-1 BaL (R5 tropic), H9 and PBMC cells plus HIV-1 MN (X4 tropic), and the dual tropic (X4R5) HIV-1 89.6. All flavonoids showed anti-HIV activity, although Myricetin was more effective than Quercetin or Pinocembrin. In TZM-bl cells, Myricetin inhibited ?90% of HIV-1 BaL infection. The results were confirmed by quantification of HIV-1 p24 antigen in supernatant from H9 and PBMC cells following flavonoid treatment. In H9 and PBMC cells infected by HIV-1 MN and HIV-1 89.6, Myricetin showed more than 80% anti-HIV activity. Quercetin and Pinocembrin presented modest anti-HIV activity in all experiments. Myricetin activity was tested against HIV-RT and inhibited the enzyme by 49%. Microbicide activities were evaluated using a dual-chamber female genital tract model. In the in vitro microbicide activity model, Myricetin showed promising results against different strains of HIV-1 while also showing insignificant cytotoxic effects. Further studies of Myricetin should be performed to identify its molecular targets in order to provide a solid biological foundation for translational research. PMID:25546350

  16. Reproductive tract infections in HIV positive women: A case control study

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    Sharma Archana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024. Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs were found in 47 (57% HIV positive women and 30 (34% HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34% in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64% HIV positive women compared to 27 (31% HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023. Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5% HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs.

  17. Clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Braga Eduardo Lorens; Lyra André Castro; Ney-Oliveira Fabrizio; Nascimento Lourianne; Silva Adriano; Brites Carlos; Marbak Rosicreuza; Lyra Luiz Guilherme Costa; Ribeiro Neto Manuel L.; Shah Koonj Asvin

    2006-01-01

    Co-infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is increasingly common and affects the clinical course of chronic hepatitis C. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the life expectancy of HIV infected patients, but, by extending survival, it permits the development of HCV cirrhosis. This study tried to evaluate clinical and epidemiological features of patients with chronic hepatitis C co-infected with HIV. We evaluated 134 HCV-infected patients: i)...

  18. HIV Infection Among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Des Jarlais, Don C; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that among persons who inject drugs, racial and ethnic minorities were twice as likely to acquire an HIV infection, though there was great variation across...

  19. High rate of seronegative HCV infection in HIV-positive patients

    OpenAIRE

    JUNIASTUTI; Utsumi, Takako; NASRONUDIN,; ALIMSARDJONO, LINDAWATI; Amin, Mochamad; Adianti, Myrna; Yano, Yoshihiko; SOETJIPTO,; HAYASHI, YOSHITAKE; Hotta, Hak; LUSIDA, MARIA INGE

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a significant global health problem. The two viruses are transmitted with high efficacy via blood-to-blood contact, mainly intravenous drug use (IVDU), whereas HCV is less easily transmitted sexually. Antibody testing is the main screening method for HCV infection, although it may not be the optimal option for HIV infection. The aim of this study was to investigate HCV infection in HIV-positive patients, with ...

  20. Progress in efforts to prevent the spread of HIV infection among youth.

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, J.R.; Daily, L; Collins, J; Kann, L; Dalmat, M; Truman, B I; Kolbe, L J

    1991-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that causes AIDS will continue to threaten public health for years to come. Despite some popular misperceptions, adolescents are at risk of infection. Twenty percent of persons reported with AIDS have been ages 20 through 29. Given the long incubation period between HIV infection and AIDS, some of these young adults probably were infected while they were teenagers. Young people must develop the skills they will need to avoid HIV infection and other relat...

  1. Modulation of HIV immune responses in natural infection and after genetic immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Calarota, Sandra Amelia

    1999-01-01

    Identification and treatment of HIV-1 infection are both urgent, in view of the continued spread of the infection. We developed easy and inexpensive serological methods for the diagnosis and follow-up of children born to HIV-1-infected mothers. A quantitative immunofluorescence method replaced the cumbersome Western blot. The possibility of titrating antibodies made discrimination between HIV-infected and noninfected children feasible. In addition, we showed that an anti-...

  2. Short Communication: Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Children and Young Adults Infected with HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Ashok; Seifried, Steven; Zhu, Liang; Bitar, Wally; Srivastava, Deo K.; Shenep, Jerry L.; Bankowski, Matthew J.; Flynn, Patricia M.; Hayden, Randall T.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections, in particular with Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive strains, has not been well characterized in children and young adults with HIV infection. It is not known if PVL-positive strains of MRSA cause an increased morbidity in this population compared to PVL-negative strains. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology of PVL-positive and PVL-negative MRSA infections in childr...

  3. HIV-Specific CD8+ T Lymphocytes in Blood of Long-Term HIV-Infected Hemophilia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Sabine; Sadeghi, Mahmoud; Terness, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Opelz, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Hemophilia patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 30 years ago show increased proportions of activated CD8+DR+ blood lymphocytes. We hypothesized that this might indicate a cellular immune response directed against HIV and might be the reason for long-term clinical stability of these patients. CD8+ peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) reactive with six HIV and two cytomegalovirus (CMV) pentamers were determined in heparinized whole blood. Additional lymphocyte subsets as well as plasma cytokines and HIV-1 load were studied. Long-term HIV-infected hemophilia patients with (n=15) or without (n=33) currently detectable HIV-1 load in the plasma showed higher proportions of CD8+ lymphocytes reactive with HIV (p<0.001) and CMV pentamers (p=0.010) than healthy individuals. The cellular anti-HIV response tended to be stronger and more polyclonal in patients during periods of viral replication than in patients with retroviral quiescence (p=0.077). Anti-HIV CD8+ lymphocyte responses were strongest in patients with high counts of activated CD8+DR+ T (r=0.353; p=0.014) and low CD19+ B lymphocyte counts (r=−0.472; p=0.001). Patients with or without HIV-1 viral load showed normal Th1 and Th2 plasma cytokine levels and high plasma interleukin-6 (versus healthy controls, p=0.001) and tumor necrosis factor-α (p=0.020). Hemophilia patients who have been living with HIV for more than 30 years showed a polyclonal CD8+ T-cell response against HIV and CMV. This cellular antiviral immune response was strongest during periods of HIV-1 replication and remained detectable during periods of HIV-1 quiescence. We hypothesize that the consistent cellular anti-HIV-1 response in combination with highly active antiretroviral therapy ensures stability and survival of these chronically HIV-1–infected hemophilia patients. PMID:24380050

  4. M. tuberculosis genotypic diversity and drug susceptibility pattern in HIV- infected and non-HIV-infected patients in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Soolingen Dick

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tuberculosis (TB is a major health problem and HIV is the major cause of the increase in TB. Sub-Saharan Africa is endemic for both TB and HIV infection. Determination of the prevalence of M. tuberculosis strains and their drug susceptibility is important for TB control. TB positive culture, BAL fluid or sputum samples from 130 patients were collected and genotyped. The spoligotypes were correlated with anti-tuberculous drug susceptibility in HIV-infected and non-HIV patients from Tanzania. Results One-third of patients were TB/HIV co-infected. Forty-seven spoligotypes were identified. Fourteen isolates (10.8% had new and unique spoligotypes while 116 isolates (89.2% belonged to 33 known spoligotypes. The major spoligotypes contained nine clusters: CAS1-Kili 30.0%, LAM11- ZWE 14.6%, ND 9.2%, EAI 6.2%, Beijing 5.4%, T-undefined 4.6%, CAS1-Delhi 3.8%, T1 3.8% and LAM9 3.8%. Twelve (10.8% of the 111 phenotypically tested strains were resistant to anti-TB drugs. Eight (7.2% were monoresistant strains: 7 to isoniazid (INH and one to streptomycin. Four strains (3.5% were resistant to multiple drugs: one (0.9% was resistant to INH and streptomycin and the other three (2.7% were MDR strains: one was resistant to INH, rifampicin and ethambutol and two were resistant to all four anti-TB drugs. Mutation in the katG gene codon 315 and the rpoB hotspot region showed a low and high sensitivity, respectively, as predictor of phenotypic drug resistance. Conclusion CAS1-Kili and LAM11-ZWE were the most common families. Strains of the Beijing family and CAS1-Kili were not or least often associated with resistance, respectively. HIV status was not associated with spoligotypes, resistance or previous TB treatment.

  5. HTLV-1/-2 and HIV-1 Co-infections: Retroviral Interference On Host Immune Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ElisabettaPilotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The human retroviruses HIV-1 and HTLV-1/HTLV-2 share similar routes of transmission but cause significantly different diseases. In this review we have outlined the immune mediated mechanisms by which HTLVs affect HIV-1 disease in co-infected hosts. During co-infection with HIV-1, HTLV-2 modulates the cellular microenvironment favoring its own viability and inhibiting HIV-1 progression. This is achieved when the HTLV-2 proviral load is higher than that of HIV-1, and thanks to the ability of HTLV-2 to: i up-regulate viral suppressive CCL3L1 chemokine expression; ii overcome HIV-1 capacity to activate the JAK/STAT pathway; iii reduce the activation of T and NK cells; iv modulate the host miRNA profiles. These alterations of immune functions have been mainly attributed to the effects of the HTLV-2 regulatory protein Tax and suggest that HTLV-2 exerts a protective role against HIV-1 infection. Contrary to HIV-1/HTLV-2, the effect of HIV-1/HTLV-1 co-infection on immunological and pathological conditions is still controversial. There is evidence that indicate a worsening of HIV-1 infection, while other evidence does not show clinically relevant effects in HIV-positive people. Possible differences on innate immune mechanisms and a particularly impact on NK cells are becoming evident. The differences between the two HIV-1/HTLV-1 and HIV-1/HTLV-2 co-infections are highlighted and further discussed.

  6. Therapeutic doses of irradiation activate viral transcription and induce apoptosis in HIV-1 infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordanskiy, Sergey; Van Duyne, Rachel; Sampey, Gavin C; Woodson, Caitlin M; Fry, Kelsi; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao; Romerio, Fabio; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2015-11-01

    The highly active antiretroviral therapy reduces HIV-1 RNA in plasma to undetectable levels. However, the virus continues to persist in the long-lived resting CD4(+) T cells, macrophages and astrocytes which form a viral reservoir in infected individuals. Reactivation of viral transcription is critical since the host immune response in combination with antiretroviral therapy may eradicate the virus. Using the chronically HIV-1 infected T lymphoblastoid and monocytic cell lines, primary quiescent CD4(+) T cells and humanized mice infected with dual-tropic HIV-1 89.6, we examined the effect of various X-ray irradiation (IR) doses (used for HIV-related lymphoma treatment and lower doses) on HIV-1 transcription and viability of infected cells. Treatment of both T cells and monocytes with IR, a well-defined stress signal, led to increase of HIV-1 transcription, as evidenced by the presence of RNA polymerase II and reduction of HDAC1 and methyl transferase SUV39H1 on the HIV-1 promoter. This correlated with the increased GFP signal and elevated level of intracellular HIV-1 RNA in the IR-treated quiescent CD4(+) T cells infected with GFP-encoding HIV-1. Exposition of latently HIV-1infected monocytes treated with PKC agonist bryostatin 1 to IR enhanced transcription activation effect of this latency-reversing agent. Increased HIV-1 replication after IR correlated with higher cell death: the level of phosphorylated Ser46 in p53, responsible for apoptosis induction, was markedly higher in the HIV-1 infected cells following IR treatment. Exposure of HIV-1 infected humanized mice with undetectable viral RNA level to IR resulted in a significant increase of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, lung and brain tissues. Collectively, these data point to the use of low to moderate dose of IR alone or in combination with HIV-1 transcription activators as a potential application for the "Shock and Kill" strategy for latently HIV-1 infected cells. PMID:26184775

  7. The incidence of complications after cesarean section in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Shevchenko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of HIV infection in Ukraine is 1.6% overall, with antenatal prevalence of 0.52%, the highest in Europe. According to national protocol, cesarean section has been recommended for women with viral load above 50 copies/mL to further prevent vertical transmission of HIV. The aim of our study was to compare the infectious complication rates after cesarean delivery in HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease who received HAART, and HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on data derived from 150 HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease (group I and 150 HIV-infected women with I or II WHO stages (group II, who underwent cesarean delivery. Postoperative infectious morbidity in both groups was analyzed according to whether the cesarean section was an elective or emergent delivery. Descriptive, comparison analyses were performed. Results: There was no significant difference between the both groups in terms of gravidity, parity, number of previous cesarean sections, estimated gestational age at time of delivery. It has been shown that HIV-infected women from the group I have 2 times more factors for the appearance of postpartum infectious complications, such as anemia, the urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infections. Both groups of women were statistically more likely to experience postpartum endometritis when being delivered by emergent cesarean section than by elective cesarean section (14.6% versus 4.6%, respectively in the group I and 5.3% versus 0.5%, respectively, in the group II, superficial or deep wound breakdown (22.6% versus 4.6%, respectively, in the first group and 5.3% versus 2.6%, respectively, in the second group. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis was only in 2% of HIV-infected women from the group I. Urinary tract infection had 25% HIV-infected women in the both groups. Overall, the rate of postpartum infectious complications in the first group consist 28%, which was 2 times higher compared the second group. Conclusion: According to our study, there was no significant difference in infectious postoperative morbidity in HIV-infected women who delivered by elective cesarean section in the both groups. But HIV-infected women with advanced WHO stages of HIV disease undergoing emergency cesarean section are at increased risk for post-operative infectious complications.

  8. Is Antiretroviral Therapy Causing Long-Term Liver Damage? A Comparative Analysis of HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/Hepatitis C Co-Infected Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Moodie, Erica E M; Pant Pai, Nitika; Klein, Marina B

    2009-01-01

    The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on progression of hepatic fibrosis in HIV-hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection are not well understood. Deaths from liver diseases have risen in the post-HAART era, yet some cross-sectional studies have suggested that HAART use is associated with improved fibrosis rates. In a retrospective cohort of 533 HIV mono-infected and 127 HIV/HCV co-infected patients, followed between January 1991 and July 2005 at a university-based HIV clinic...

  9. Seroincidence of 2009 H1N1 infection in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women prior to vaccine availability

    OpenAIRE

    Althoff, Keri N.; Eichelberger, Maryna; Gange, Stephen J.; Sharp, Gerald B; Gao, Jin; Glesby, Marshall J; YOUNG, MARY; Ruth M. Greenblatt; French, Audrey L; Villacres, Maria C.; Minkoff, Howard

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was a unique opportunity to investigate differences in influenza infection using serology by HIV status. Using serial serum specimens collected from 1 April to 30 September 2009 and the prior 2 years from Women’s Interagency HIV study participants, there was no difference in serologic evidence of 2009 H1N1 infection among HIV-infected women with a CD4 cell count at least 350 cells/µl compared with HIV-uninfected women. Owing to evidence showing a greater risk of influen...

  10. Understanding HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among HIV-Infected South Africans Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy: An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Model Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kiene, Susan M.; Fisher, William A.; Shuper, Paul A; Deborah H. Cornman; Christie, Sarah; MacDONALD, Susan; Pillay, Sandy; Mahlase, Gethwana; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    The current study applied the Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills (IMB) model (J. D. Fisher & Fisher, 1992; W. A. Fisher & Fisher, 1993) to identify factors associated with HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV-infected South Africans receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), a population of considerable significance for curtailing, or maintaining, South Africa’s generalized HIV epidemic. HIV prevention information, HIV prevention motivation, HIV prevention behavioral skills, and HIV tr...

  11. [Guidelines for the management of women with HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, C D; Romaguera, J; Díaz, C

    1993-04-01

    During the second decade of AIDS the spread of this disease has encompassed most areas of the world. In Puerto Rico the epidemic has been different than in the mainland USA. Our initial cases were mostly associated to intravenous drug use and subsequently heterosexual transmission. Sexual transmission of HIV is the principal cause of AIDS for women in Puerto Rico. AIDS is also the principal cause of death in young women in Puerto Rico (ages 25-40). Therefore the counselling to women has to include the universality of the risk. Data from seroprevalence studies show a high prenatal seroprevalence (1%) in the San Juan Metropolitan Health Region. In view of the high prenatal seroprevalence, universal offering of HIV counselling and testing is recommended. Gynecologic evaluation is essential in the follow-up of women with HIV infection and should include frequent evaluations to determine the frequent occurrence of premalignant lesions in the cervix that may be associated to immunosuppression. PMID:8511248

  12. Saliva and inhibition of HIV-1 infection: molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugars, D C; Sweet, S P; Malamud, D; Kazmi, S H; Page-Shafer, K; Challacombe, S J

    2002-01-01

    Oral fluids are rarely a vehicle for HIV-1 infection in vivo, unlike other mucosal secretions. This unique property raises questions regarding (1) the molecular mechanisms responsible for the lack of salivary transmission, (2) the extent to which oral immunological responses mirror responses at other mucosal sites, (3) the use of promising salivary markers of HIV-1 disease progression, (4) the relationship between oral and blood viral loads, (5) cofactors that influence oro-genital transmission, and (6) the feasibility of oral-based antibody testing for HIV-1 diagnosis in the home. This paper discusses these questions and provides background summaries, findings from new studies, consensus opinions, practical relevance to developing countries, and suggestions for future research agenda on each of the key topics. PMID:12164652

  13. In vitro separation and expansion of CD4 lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals without activation of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1997-01-01

    In order to offer a gene therapy-based treatment against AIDS, it is likely to be necessary to harvest and culture CD4 cells from HIV-positive patients without activating the HIV infection. We have used a magnetic cell sorting (MACS) system to enrich CD4 cells. Using positive selection, CD4 cells from a total of 14 patients were enriched from a mean percentage of CD4 cells in PBMC of 18% to 91% CD4 cells in the enriched cell fraction. Furthermore, we found that this separation did not lead to an...

  14. Altered distribution of mucosal NK cells during HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sips, M; Sciaranghella, G; Diefenbach, T; Dugast, A-S; Berger, C T; Liu, Q; Kwon, D; Ghebremichael, M; Estes, J D; Carrington, M; Martin, J N; Deeks, S G; Hunt, P W; Alter, G

    2012-01-01

    The human gut mucosa is a major site of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and infection-associated pathogenesis. Increasing evidence shows that natural killer (NK) cells have an important role in control of HIV infection, but the mechanism(s) by which they mediate antiviral activity in the gut is unclear. Here, we show that two distinct subsets of NK cells exist in the gut, one localized to intraepithelial spaces (intraepithelial lymphocytes, IELs) and the other to the lamina propria (LP). The frequency of both subsets of NK cells was reduced in chronic infection, whereas IEL NK cells remained stable in spontaneous controllers with protective killer immunoglobulin-like receptor/human leukocyte antigen genotypes. Both IEL and LP NK cells were significantly expanded in immunological non-responsive patients, who incompletely recovered CD4+ T cells on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). These data suggest that both IEL and LP NK cells may expand in the gut in an effort to compensate for compromised CD4+ T-cell recovery, but that only IEL NK cells may be involved in providing durable control of HIV in the gut. PMID:21993602

  15. The role of unintegrated DNA in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainberg Mark A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integration of the reverse transcribed viral genome into host chromatin is the hallmark of retroviral replication. Yet, during natural HIV infection, various unintegrated viral DNA forms exist in abundance. Though linear viral cDNA is the precursor to an integrated provirus, increasing evidence suggests that transcription and translation of unintegrated DNAs prior to integration may aid productive infection through the expression of early viral genes. Additionally, unintegrated DNA has the capacity to result in preintegration latency, or to be rescued and yield productive infection and so unintegrated DNA, in some circumstances, may be considered to be a viral reservoir. Recently, there has been interest in further defining the role and function of unintegrated viral DNAs, in part because the use of anti-HIV integrase inhibitors leads to an abundance of unintegrated DNA, but also because of the potential use of non-integrating lentiviral vectors in gene therapy and vaccines. There is now increased understanding that unintegrated viral DNA can either arise from, or be degraded through, interactions with host DNA repair enzymes that may represent a form of host antiviral defence. This review focuses on the role of unintegrated DNA in HIV infection and additionally considers the potential implications for antiviral therapy.

  16. Frequency of human immunodeficiency virus type-2 in hiv infected patients in Maputo City, Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt Nilesh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The HIV/AIDS pandemic is primarily caused by HIV-1. Another virus type, HIV-2, is found mainly in West African countries. We hypothesized that population migration and mobility in Africa may have facilitated the introduction and spreading of HIV-2 in Mozambique. The presence of HIV-2 has important implications for diagnosis and choice of treatment of HIV infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HIV-2 infection and its genotype in Maputo, Mozambique. HIV-infected individuals (N = 1,200 were consecutively enrolled and screened for IgG antibodies against HIV-1 gp41 and HIV-2 gp36 using peptide-based enzyme immunoassays (pepEIA. Specimens showing reactivity on the HIV-2 pepEIA were further tested using the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay and HIV-2 PCR targeting RT and PR genes. Subtype analysis of HIV-2 was based on the protease gene. After screening with HIV-2 pepEIA 1,168 were non-reactive and 32 were reactive to HIV-2 gp36 peptide. Of this total, 30 specimens were simultaneously reactive to gp41 and gp36 pepEIA while two samples reacted solely to gp36 peptide. Only three specimens containing antibodies against gp36 and gp105 on the INNO-LIA immunoblot assay were found to be positive by PCR to HIV-2 subtype A. The proportion of HIV-2 in Maputo City was 0.25% (90%CI 0.01-0.49. The HIV epidemic in Southern Mozambique is driven by HIV-1, with HIV-2 also circulating at a marginal rate. Surveillance program need to improve HIV-2 diagnosis and consider periodical survey aiming to monitor HIV-2 prevalence in the country.

  17. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  18. Risk of cancer among HIV-infected individuals compared to the background population : impact of smoking and HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, Marie; Gerstoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relative impact of immune deficiency and lifestyle-related factors on risk of cancer in the HIV-infected population is controversial. We aimed to estimate the population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with smoking, being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency. METHODS: In a Danish, nationwide, population-based cohort study (1995-2011), incidences of cancer were compared between an HIV-infected cohort and a population-based matched cohort in analyses stratified on cancer category, smoking status and for HIV patients: low CD4 cell count. RESULTS: We included 3503 HIV patients [baseline CD4+ 450 cells/?l (inter-quartile range 310-630)] and 12,979 population controls. Smoking-related and virological cancers accounted for 23 and 43% of cancers in the HIV-infected population. The risk of these cancers were higher among HIV patients compared to controls [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-4.9; and IRR 11.5, 95% CI 6.5-20.5], whereas the risk of other cancersdid not differ (IRR 1.0, 95% CI 0.7-1.3). Non-smoking HIV patients did not have increased risk of non-virological cancers compared to non-smoking controls (IRR 1.2, 95% CI 0.7-2.1). The PAFs of cancer associated with smoking and with being HIV-infected were 27 and 49%, respectively. For cancers not strongly related to smoking or viral infections, the PAFs associated with being HIV-infected and with immune deficiency were 0%. CONCLUSION: The risk of cancer is increased in HIV patients compared to the background population. In absence of smoking, the increase in risk is confined to cancers related to viral infections, whereas the risk of other cancers is not elevated and does not seem to be associated with immune deficiency.

  19. Projected Lifetime Healthcare Costs Associated with HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakagawa, Fumiyo; Miners, Alec

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Estimates of healthcare costs associated with HIV infection would provide valuable insight for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of possible prevention interventions. We evaluate the additional lifetime healthcare cost incurred due to living with HIV. METHODS: We used a stochastic computer simulation model to project the distribution of lifetime outcomes and costs of men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM) infected with HIV in 2013 aged 30, over 10,000 simulations. We assumed a resource-rich setting with no loss to follow-up, and that standards and costs of healthcare management remain as now. RESULTS: Based on a median (interquartile range) life expectancy of 71.5 (45.0-81.5) years for MSM in such a setting, the estimated mean lifetime cost of treating one person was £ 360,800 ($567,000 or € 480,000). With 3.5% discounting, it was £ 185,200 ($291,000 or € 246,000). The largest proportion (68%) of these costs was attributed to antiretroviral drugs. If patented drugs are replaced by generic versions (at 20% cost of patented prices), estimated mean lifetime costs reduced to £ 179,000 ($ 281,000 or € 238,000) and £ 101,200 ($ 158,900 or € 134,600) discounted. CONCLUSIONS: If 3,000 MSM had been infected in 2013, then future lifetime costs relating to HIV care is likely to be in excess of £ 1 billion. It is imperative for investment into prevention programmes to be continued or scaled-up in settings with good access to HIV care services. Costs would be reduced considerably with use of generic antiretroviral drugs.

  20. HIV infection and HIV-associated behaviors among persons who inject drugs--20 cities, United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, Michael W; Broz, Dita; Wejnert, Cyprian; Nerlander, Lina; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2015-03-20

    In the United States, an estimated 7% of new diagnoses of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in 2012 were attributed to injection drug use, and an additional 3% to male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use. To monitor HIV prevalence and behaviors associated with HIV risk and prevention among persons who inject drugs (PWID), CDC's National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system conducts interviews and HIV testing in selected cities. This report summarizes HIV prevalence and behaviors among PWID interviewed and tested in 20 cities in 2012. Of the 10,002 PWID tested, 11% had a positive HIV test result. Among 9,425 PWID included in the behavioral analysis, 30% receptively shared syringes, 70% had vaginal sex without a condom, 25% had heterosexual anal sex without a condom, and 5% of males had male-to-male sexual contact without a condom in the previous 12 months. Fifty-one percent of PWID included in the behavioral analysis had been tested for HIV, 25% participated in an HIV behavioral intervention, and 39% participated in substance abuse treatment in the previous 12 months. Additional efforts are needed to reduce risk behaviors and increase access to HIV testing, drug treatment, and other HIV prevention programs to further reduce HIV infections among PWID. PMID:25789742

  1. Prior HIV Testing among STD Patients in Guangdong Province, China: Opportunities for Expanding Detection of Sexually Transmitted HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph D; Yang, Li-Gang; Yang, Bin; Young, Darwin; Henderson, Gail E; Huang, Shu-Jie; Lu, He-Kun; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Cohen, Myron S

    2011-01-01

    Background Expanding HIV testing is important among individuals at increased risk for sexual HIV transmission in China, but little is known about prior HIV testing experiences among sexually transmitted disease (STD) patients. Methods This cross-sectional study of 1792 outpatients from six public sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Guangdong Province recorded detailed information about ever having been tested for HIV infection in addition to socio-demographic variables, health seeking, clinical STD history, and HIV stigma using a validated survey instrument. Results 456 (25.4%) of the STD patients in this sample had ever been tested for HIV infection. STD patients who were male, had higher income, more education, were at City A and City C, received STD services at public facilities, had used intravenous drugs, and had a history of an STD were more likely to ever receive an HIV test in multivariate analysis. Low perceived HIV risk was the most common reason for not receiving an HIV test. Only 7.7% of the sample reported fear of discrimination or loss of face as influencing their lack of HIV testing. Conclusion Incomplete prior HIV screening among STD patients in China suggests the need for broadening HIV testing opportunities at STD clinics and similar clinical settings attended by those with increased sexual risk. PMID:22337103

  2. Prevalence of anal human papillomavirus infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Latini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is responsible for 85% of anal cancers. Recently, anal cancer incidence has been increasing, particularly in men who have sex with men (MSM. Cytology may be a useful tool for the detection of anal precancerous lesions. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities among HIV-infected and -uninfected MSM. Materials and Methods: MSM ?18-year-old attending an STI clinic in Rome (Italy were enrolled. Anal cytologic samples were collected in PreservCyt (Hologic using a Dacron swab. The Linear Array HPV Genotyping Test (Roche Diagnostics was used for the detection and genotyping of 37 mucosal HPV types. Liquid-based cytological slides were obtained using a ThinPrep2000 processor (Hologic. The morphology of the anal pap-test was classified following the Bethesda 2001 guidelines. Results: We enrolled 180 HIV-infected (median age 41 years, IQR 33–47 and 438 HIV-uninfected MSM (median age 32 years, IQR: 27–39. Most of the individuals were Caucasian (92.2% and 97.0%, respectively. HPV prevalence, both overall (93.3% vs 72.4%, p<.001 and by high-risk (HR HPV types (80.5% vs 56.0%, p<.001, was significantly higher among HIV-infected than HIV-uninfected individuals. HPV-multiple infections were evidenced in 48.2% of the HIV-uninfected and 76.1% of the HIV-infected MSM (p<.001. HPV16 was the most prevalent genotype in both groups (23.3% in HIV-positive and 17.6% in HIV-negative MSM. HPV6 and 84 were the most frequent low-risk types in both cohorts. Anal cytologic abnormalities were found in a significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected MSM (46.1% vs 27.9%, p<.001. H-SILs (high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were exclusively observed among the HIV-infected individuals, although at a low prevalence (1.2%. Conclusions: A high prevalence of anal HPV infection and cytologic abnormalities was evidenced in both populations. Nonetheless, HIV-infected MSM showed a significantly higher rate of HPV infection and abnormal cytology, confirming that HIV-1 infection poses a significant risk for anal HPV infection as well as for anal cellular abnormalities. Screening for anal cancer, which is currently the most frequent non-AIDS-defining cancer in HIV-positive MSM, should be considered for this population. Moreover, vaccination strategies for the prevention of HPV infection should be taken into account.

  3. Studies on Emergence of Drug Resistance in HIV Associated Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections

    OpenAIRE

    S. D. Deokar; M. G. Bodhankar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: This study was designed to document the prevalence of HIV associated urinary tract infections in Barshi Tahsil. Such studies had not been researched out before in this region. Approach: The study included samples from 123 HIV reactive and 40 HIV non-reactive patients. In both, mid stream samples were collected and processed to examine for bacterial opportunistic pathogens. The antibiogram of selected urinary isolates in HIV reactive as well as HIV non-reactive patients was ...

  4. Mortality after myocardial infarction in HIV-infected patients who have initiated HAART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Gerstoft, Jan; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; pedersen, Gitte; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    We identified all Danish HIV patients registered with myocardial infarction (MI) when on HAART (44 patients) and compared their mortality with that of matched patients with MI and no HIV and patients with HIV and no MI. Mortality in HIV-infected MI patients was not significantly different to that...... of MI only patients in the first 90 days post-MI and thereafter was not significantly different to that of HIV patients without MI....

  5. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    TrØseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers of microbial translocation are closely associated with several cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hypertension, coagulation abnormalities, endothelial dysfunction, and carotid atherosclerosis. Future studies should investigate whether associations between microbial translocation and cardiovascular risk factors will translate into increased risk of acute events, and whether strategies to target gut microbiota and microbial translocation might reduce such a risk.

  6. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  7. HIV Infection and Risk Characteristics Among Female Sex Workers in Hanoi, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Trung Nam; Detels, Roger; Long, Hoang Thuy; Van Phung, Le; Lan, Hoang Phuong

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence of HIV/sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) was determined, the risk characteristics examined, and factors associated with HIV infection identified among noninstitutionalized female sex workers (FSWs), using a cross-sectional survey with 2-stage cluster sampling. Four hundred FSWs were interviewed face to face using a structured questionnaire and tested for HIV, syphilis, Chlamydia infection, and gonorrhea. HIV seroprevalence was 12%, syphilis 17% (using the treponemal pallidum...

  8. The Neurocognitive Assessment of HIV-Infected School-Aged Nigerian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gbemisola O. Boyede; Lesi, Foluso E A; Chinyere V. Ezeaka; Charles S. Umeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Studies available on cognitive function among school-aged HIV-infected African and in particular Nigerian children are few. The purpose of the study was to assess the neurocognitive function of a group of HIV-infected schoolaged (6 - 15 years) children using the Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices (RPM). Method: Cognitive assessments of 69 HIV positive children and 69 age- and sex-matched apparently healthy HIV negative control children were performed using the Raven’s Standard ...

  9. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kevany

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and behavioral variables that might be associated with physical domestic violence based on a review of the literature. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out, and odds ratios (OR were computed using logistic regression. Women reporting physical domestic violence were significantly more likely to report (i a history of childhood domestic violence (OR=2.96, P<0.001, (ii two or more lifetime partners (OR=1.94, P<0.001, (iii some form of sexual abuse as a child (OR=1.82, not significant, and (iv low or medium socio-economic status as measured by type of homestead (OR=1.4, P=0.04 than women who reported no experience of physical domestic violence. Married women were less likely to experience physical domestic violence than unmarried women (OR=0.65, P=0.011. Women at greatest risk of domestic violence include those with a personal history of violence or sexual abuse, multiple lifetime partners, and low or medium socio-economic status. Risk assessments and joint interventions for both domestic violence reduction and HIV prevention should target these population groups, which are effective both on the public health and global heath diplomacy levels.

  10. An integrated structural intervention to reduce vulnerability to HIV and sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isac Shajy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural factors are known to affect individual risk and vulnerability to HIV. In the context of an HIV prevention programme for over 60,000 female sex workers (FSWs in south India, we developed structural interventions involving policy makers, secondary stakeholders (police, government officials, lawyers, media and primary stakeholders (FSWs themselves. The purpose of the interventions was to address context-specific factors (social inequity, violence and harassment, and stigma and discrimination contributing to HIV vulnerability. We advocated with government authorities for HIV/AIDS as an economic, social and developmental issue, and solicited political leadership to embed HIV/AIDS issues throughout governmental programmes. We mobilised FSWs and appraised them of their legal rights, and worked with FSWs and people with HIV/AIDS to implement sensitization and awareness training for more than 175 government officials, 13,500 police and 950 journalists. Methods Standardised, routine programme monitoring indicators on service provision, service uptake, and community activities were collected monthly from 18 districts in Karnataka between 2007 and 2009. Daily tracking of news articles concerning HIV/AIDS and FSWs was undertaken manually in selected districts between 2005 and 2008. Results The HIV prevention programme is now operating at scale, with over 60,000 FSWs regularly contacted by peer educators, and over 17,000 FSWs accessing project services for sexually transmitted infections monthly. FSW membership in community-based organisations has increased from 8,000 to 37,000, and over 46,000 FSWs have now been referred for government-sponsored social entitlements. FSWs were supported to redress > 90% of the 4,600 reported incidents of violence and harassment reported between 2007-2009, and monitoring of news stories has shown a 50% increase in the number of positive media reports on HIV/AIDS and FSWs. Conclusions Stigma, discrimination, violence, harassment and social equity issues are critical concerns of FSWs. This report demonstrates that it is possible to address these broader structural factors as part of large-scale HIV prevention programming. Although assessing the impact of the various components of a structural intervention on reducing HIV vulnerability is difficult, addressing the broader structural factors contributing to FSW vulnerability is critical to enable these vulnerable women to become sufficiently empowered to adopt the safer sexual behaviours which are required to respond effectively to the HIV epidemic.

  11. [Problem aspects of the medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimkin, V G; Parshin, M Zh; Zemliakov, S V

    2010-08-01

    The article is concerned with the verification of the medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age. Negative epidemiologic situation with HIV-infection and drug habituation increases the number of draftees unfitted for service for reasons of health. The data of analysis of structure and dynamics of detection of HIV positive people of conscription age during 1999-2008 was quoted: the main contingent was people from the territorial subject of Russian Federation with the highest index of HIV-infection prevalence. Introduction of obligatory medical examination for HIV-infection in the youth of conscription age can successfully prevent its spread among the military personnel. In this case expenses for the laboratory examination for HIV-infection of the whole draft contingent of Russian Federation will be lower than for alimentation, treatment and the following discharge of HIV positive servicemen. PMID:21089431

  12. Survival of persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark, 1995-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Pedersen, Gitte; Kronborg, Gitte; Gerstoft, Jan; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Vaeth, Michael; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The expected survival of HIV-infected patients is of major public health interest. OBJECTIVE: To estimate survival time and age-specific mortality rates of an HIV-infected population compared with that of the general population. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: All HIV......-infected persons receiving care in Denmark from 1995 to 2005. PATIENTS: Each member of the nationwide Danish HIV Cohort Study was matched with as many as 99 persons from the general population according to sex, date of birth, and municipality of residence. MEASUREMENTS: The authors computed Kaplan-Meier life...... tables with age as the time scale to estimate survival from age 25 years. Patients with HIV infection and corresponding persons from the general population were observed from the date of the patient's HIV diagnosis until death, emigration, or 1 May 2005. RESULTS: 3990 HIV-infected patients and 379...

  13. Neuroradiological findings in perinatally HIV-infected children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neuroradiological studies (CT, MRI, angiography) in 21 children with perinatal HIV infection were reviewed retrospectively. No patient showed an intracranial mass lesion; after intravenous contrast medium application there was no case with disturbed blood-brain barrier. Common non-specific findings were atrophy and delayed myelination. In 7 cases atrophy was combined with multifocal nearly symmetric white matter lesions, which characteristically spared the U-fibres. Further findings included an intramedullary ring-shaped structure in the cervical cord, an AIDS-associated vasculopathy and symmetric calcifications in the basal ganglia. The spectrum of neuroradiological findings in paediatric AIDS patients differs from that in adults. Knowledge of these age-specific findings is important because the number of HIV-infected children is rising. (orig.)

  14. Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Matos Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is the second most common vaginal infection. HIV-infection is a risk factor for this infection. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of VVC and to describe the main Candida species isolated and their susceptibility to antifungal drugs in HIV-infected patients, compared to HIV-uninfected women in Salvador, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including a group of 64 HIV-infected women and 76 uninfected women, followed up at the AIDS reference center and at the Gynecological Clinic of Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública (Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. RESULTS: Frequency of Candida spp. was higher in HIV-infected women (29.7% than in HIV-uninfected controls (14.5% (p = 0.02. The odds ratio value for vulvovaginal candidiasis in HIV-infected patients was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.07 - 6.32 p = 0.03. Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species in both HIV-infected (52.3% and uninfected women (85.7%, followed by C. parapsolis in 17.6% and 14.3%, respectively. In HIV-infected women, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, and a coinfection of C. albicans and C. glabrata were also identified. There was no significant difference between Candida species isolated from the vaginal mucosa of women with VVC and colonization of the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women. One C. glabrata isolate from an HIV-infected patient was resistant to fluconazole and other two isolates exhibited a dose-dependent susceptibility. CONCLUSION: Our results confirm a higher frequency of Candida spp. isolated from the vaginal mucosa of HIV-infected women and a broader spectrum of species involved. Only Candida glabrata isolates showed decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

  15. The association of perceived stress and verbal memory is greater in HIV-infected versus HIV-uninfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Cook, Judith A; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Martin, Eileen; Valcour, Victor; Milam, Joel; Anastos, Kathryn; Young, Mary A; Alden, Christine; Gustafson, Deborah R; Maki, Pauline M

    2015-08-01

    In contrast to findings from cohorts comprised primarily of HIV-infected men, verbal memory deficits are the largest cognitive deficit found in HIV-infected women from the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), and this deficit is not explained by depressive symptoms or substance abuse. HIV-infected women may be at greater risk for verbal memory deficits due to a higher prevalence of cognitive risk factors such as high psychosocial stress and lower socioeconomic status. Here, we investigate the association between perceived stress using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10) and verbal memory performance using the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test (HVLT) in 1009 HIV-infected and 496 at-risk HIV-uninfected WIHS participants. Participants completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery which yielded seven cognitive domain scores, including a primary outcome of verbal memory. HIV infection was not associated with a higher prevalence of high perceived stress (i.e., PSS-10 score in the top tertile) but was associated with worse performance on verbal learning (p?verbal memory domain (p?=?0.02); among HIV-infected women only, high stress was associated with lower performance (p's?verbal memory measure in particular. These findings suggest that high levels of perceived stress contribute to the deficits in verbal memory observed in WIHS women. PMID:25791344

  16. A Comparative Analysis of Intestinal Parasitic Infections between HIV+/AIDS Patients and Non-HIV Infected Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of intestinal parasitic infections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS patients in Iran in comparison with non-HIV individuals. Methods: A total of HIV+/AIDS patients (Group I and 1220 clinically healthy individuals (Group II were submitted to coproparasitological examination from 2003 to 2005. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in group I and group II was 11.4% and 11.6%, respectively, without significant difference between two groups. The prevalence of infection for each helminth and pathogenic protozoan, in every group, was as follows: Group I: Blastocystis hominis (6.1%; Giardia lamblia (4.2%; Cryptosporidium spp. (0.9%; Isospora belli (0.26%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.26%; Hymenolepis nana (0.13%; and Rhabditis axei (0.13%. Group II: Blastocystis hominis (6.5%; Giardia lamblia (4.1%; Strongyloides stercoralis (0.33%; Hymenolepis nana (0.16%; and Trichostrongylus sp. (0.16%. Although the prevalence of infection for extracellular parasites was not statistically different between two groups, however, the infection rates for enteric coccidians including Cryptosporidium spp. and I. belli were significantly higher in patients at AIDS stage than Group II. Conclusion: The results emphasize the needs for especial consideration of enteropathogenic intracellular coccidians in immunocompromised patients.

  17. High prevalence of giardiasis and strongyloidiasis among HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Giovana, Feitosa; Antônio C., Bandeira; Diana P., Sampaio; Roberto, Badaró; Carlos, Brites.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea due to intestinal microbial infections is a frequent manifestation among HIV-infected patients. It has been postulated that HIV-infected patients may have special types of intestinal infections, and that immune activation from such parasites may affect the progression of HIV disease. To eva [...] luate these associations, the frequency of infections was examined in HIV-infected patients in Bahia, Brazil. To determine the potential impact of the presence of intestinal parasitic infections on HIV disease progression, a retrospective study approach was used. The medical charts of 365 HIV-infected patients who had been treated at the AIDS Clinic of the Federal University of Bahia Hospital were reviewed, and the prevalence of parasites was compared with 5,243 HIV-negative patients who had attended the hospital during the same period of time. Among HIV-infected subjects, CD4 count, RNA plasma viral load (VL), and number of eosinophils were compared according to their stool examination results. The overall prevalence of each parasite was similar for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. However, the prevalence of S. stercoralis (p

  18. Immunity to Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in Children with Chronic HIV Infection Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Adriana; Pott, Gregory B.

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was to describe the CD4-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and its virologic and immunologic correlates in children with chronic HIV infection on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Twelve HIV-infected children on stable antiretroviral therapy with a median level of CD4+ lymphocytes (CD4%) of 25.5% and a median viral load (VL) of 786 HIV RNA copies/ml were enrolled in this study. Nine of these children were also cytomegalo...

  19. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1994-01-01

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infe...

  20. Nutrition Issues in Chronic Drug Users Living With HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Kristy; Gorbach, Sherwood

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and chronic drug abuse both compromise nutritional status. For individuals with both disorders, the combined effects on wasting, the nutritional consequence that is most closely linked to mortality, appear to be synergistic. Substance abuse clinicians can improve and extend patients’ lives by recommending healthy diets; observing and assessing for food insecurity, nutritional deficits, signs of weight loss and wasting, body composition changes, and...

  1. Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to preserved CD4+ cell counts had very low or even undetectable viral replication. They were therefore termed controllers, while those with viral replication were termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Geneti...

  2. Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H; Tracy, Russell; Otvos, James; Cooper, David A; Hoy, Jennifer; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Paton, Nicholas I; Friis-Møller, Nina; Lampe, Fiona; Liappis, Angelike P; Neaton, James D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of lipoprotein particles with CVD in a subgroup of HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) study. SMART was a trial of intermittent use of ART (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous of ART (viral suppression [VS]). METHODS: In a nested case-control study, lipoprotein particles (p) by nuclear magnetic resonance were measured at baseline and at the visit prior to the CVD event (latest levels...

  3. Inflammation, coagulation and cardiovascular disease in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Kuller, Lewis H; Tracy, Russell; Belloso, Waldo; De Wit, Stephane; Drummond, Fraser; Lane, H Clifford; Ledergerber, Bruno; Lundgren, Jens; Nixon, Daniel; Paton, Nicholas I; Prineas, Ronald J; Neaton, James D

    2012-01-01

    The SMART study was a trial of intermittent use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous use of ART (viral suppression [VS]) as a strategy to reduce toxicities, including cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We studied the predictive value of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and D-dimer with CVD morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in SMART beyond other measured CVD risk factors.

  4. AIDS and HIV infection: ethical problems for general practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Morris

    1988-01-01

    AIDS and HIV infection raise a number of important ethical issues and problems for general practitioners. The ethical issues which impinge most directly on the personal relationship between patient and practitioner are duty to care, consent and confidentiality. These issues, and some practical problems which are likely to be encountered by practitioners, are discussed with the help of case studies and by applying fundamental ethical principles.

  5. Vaginal Cleansing Practices in HIV Infected Zambian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Maria L Alcaide; Mumbi, Miriam; Chitalu, Ndashi; Jones, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal practices are a variety of behavioral techniques that women use to manage their sexual life and personal hygiene. Women perceive vaginal practices as a beneficial practice. However, vaginal cleansing has been identified as one of the main risk factors for bacterial vaginosis and is potentially implicated in Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) and sexually transmitted infection transmission. This study examined the prevalence of vaginal practices and the types of practices used among a...

  6. Risk behaviours for HIV infection among drug users in prison.

    OpenAIRE

    Carvell, A L; Hart, G. J.

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To study a group of injecting drug users to establish the degree of illicit drug use in prisons, the prevalence of risk behaviours for HIV infection, and the uptake of treatment for drug dependency with drugs within the prison system. DESIGN--Anonymous, self administered, questionnaire. SETTING--Two drug agencies in central London; one operating a scheme for exchanging needles, and the other offering drug advice and information. SUBJECTS--50 (42 Men, eight women) self selected inje...

  7. Cardiac Dysfunction and Mortality in HIV-Infected Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipshultz, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk A.; Orav, E. John; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J.; Bricker, J. Timothy; Lai, Wyman W.; Moodie, Douglas S.; Sopko, George; Colan, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is common in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but its clinical importance is unclear. Our objective was to determine whether abnormalities of LV structure and function independently predict all-cause mortality in HIV-infected children. Methods and Results Baseline echocardiograms were obtained on 193 children with vertically transmitted HIV infection (median age, 2.1 years). Children were followed up for a median of 5 years. Cox regression was used to identify measures of LV structure and function predictive of mortality after adjustment for other important demographic and baseline clinical risk factors. The time course of cardiac variables before mortality was also examined. The 5-year cumulative survival was 64%. Mortality was higher in children who, at baseline, had depressed LV fractional shortening (FS) or contractility; increased LV dimension, thickness, mass, or wall stress; or increased heart rate or blood pressure (P≤0.02 for each). Decreased LV FS (P<0.001) and increased wall thickness (P=0.004) were also predictive of increased mortality after adjustment for CD4 count (P<0.001), clinical center (P<0.001), and encephalopathy (P<0.001). FS showed abnormalities for up to 3 years before death, whereas wall thickness identified a population at risk only 18 to 24 months before death. Conclusions Depressed LV FS and increased wall thickness are risk factors for mortality in HIV-infected children independent of depressed CD4 cell count and neurological disease. FS may be useful as a long-term predictor and wall thickness as a short-term predictor of mortality. PMID:11182983

  8. Profile of hematological abnormalities of Indian HIV infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Aman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection. These abnormalities increase as the disease advances. Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection. Methods Two hundred HIV infected individual were screened for hematological abnormalities from March 2007–March 2008. Absolute CD4 cell count analysis was carried out by flowcytometry. Depending on the results of the primary screening further investigations were performed, like iron studies, hemolytic work up, PNH work up and bone marrow evaluation. Other investigations included coagulation profile, urine analysis, blood culture (bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial, serology for Epstein Barr virus (EBV, Cytomegalovirus (CMV, Hepatitis B and C, and Parvo B19 infection. Results The most common hematological abnormality was anemia, seen in 65.5% (131/200 patients. Iron deficiency anemia was seen in 49.2% (/200 cases while anemia of chronic disease occurred in 50.7% (/200 cases. Bone marrow evaluation was carried out in 14 patients out of which staging marrow was performed in 2 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL and did not show any bone marrow infiltration. In remaining12 cases bone marrow was done for evaluation of pancytopenia. Among patients with pancytopenia 50% (6/12 showed granulomas (4 were positive for AFB, 2 were positive for fungal cryptococci, 25% (3/12 showed hemophagocytosis. There was a strong negative correlation between anemia and CD4 counts in this study. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 7% (14/200 cases and had no significant correlation with CD4 counts. No patient had absolute neutrophil count (ANC Conclusion Anemia in HIV patients can be a good clinical indicator to predict and access the underlying immune status. Patients should be investigated for hematological manifestations and appropriate steps should be taken to identify and treat the reversible factors.

  9. Broad and Potent Neutralizing Antibody Responses Elicited in Natural HIV-2 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Rui KONG; LI, HUI; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Decker, Julie M.; Zheng, Natalie N.; Gottlieb, Geoffrey S.; KIVIAT, Nancy B.; Sow, Papa Salif; Georgiev, Ivelin; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Kwong, Peter D.; Robinson, James E.; Shaw, George M.

    2012-01-01

    Compared with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), little is known about the susceptibility of HIV-2 to antibody neutralization. We characterized the potency and breadth of neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses in 64 subjects chronically infected with HIV-2 against three primary HIV-2 strains: HIV-27312A, HIV-2ST, and HIV-2UC1. Surprisingly, we observed in a single-cycle JC53bl-13/TZM-bl virus entry assay median reciprocal 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) NAb titers of 1.7 × 105, 2...

  10. Cardiovascular status of infants and children of women infected with HIV-1 (P2C2 HIV): a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipshultz, Steven E; Easley, Kirk A; Orav, E John; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J; Bricker, J Timothy; Lai, Wyman W; Moodie, Douglas S; Sopko, George; Schluchter, Mark D; Colan, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Data from cross-sectional and short-term longitudinal studies have suggested that children infected with HIV-1 might have cardiovascular abnormalities. We aimed to investigate this hypothesis in a long-term cohort study. Methods We measured cardiovascular function every 4–6 months for up to 5 years in a birth cohort of 600 infants born to women infected with HIV-1. We included 93 infants infected with HIV-1 and 463 uninfected infants (internal controls) from the same cohort. We also included a cross-sectionally measured comparison group of 195 healthy children born to mothers who were not infected with HIV-1 (external controls). Findings Children infected with HIV-1 had a significantly higher heart rate at all ages (mean difference 10 bpm, 95% CI 8–13) than internal controls. At birth, both cohort groups of children had similar low left ventricular (LV) fractional shortening. At 8 months, fractional shortening was similar in internal and external controls, whereas in children infected with HIV-1, fractional shortening remained significantly lower than in controls for the first 20 months of life (mean difference from internal controls at 8 months 3·7%, 2·3–5·1). LV mass was similar at birth in both cohort groups, but became significantly higher in children with HIV-1 from 4–30 months (mean difference 2·4 g at 8 months, 0·9–3·9). Conclusions Vertically-transmitted HIV-1 infection is associated with persistent cardiovascular abnormalities identifiable shortly after birth. Irrespective of their HIV-1 status, infants born to women infected with HIV-1 have significantly worse cardiac function than other infants, suggesting that the uterine environment has an important role in postnatal cardiovascular abnormalities. PMID:12241776

  11. Elimination of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Timothée; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Amraoui, Sonia; Malbec, Marine; Richard, Léa; Bourdic, Katia; Donahue, Daniel Aaron; Lorin, Valérie; Casartelli, Nicoletta; Noël, Nicolas; Lambotte, Olivier; Mouquet, Hugo; Schwartz, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Fc region of HIV-1 Env-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is required for suppressing viraemia, through mechanisms which remain poorly understood. Here, we identify bNAbs that exert antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in cell culture and kill HIV-1-infected lymphocytes through natural killer (NK) engagement. These antibodies target the CD4-binding site, the glycans/V3 and V1/V2 loops on gp120, or the gp41 moiety. The landscape of Env epitope exposure at the surface and the sensitivity of infected cells to ADCC vary considerably between viral strains. Efficient ADCC requires sustained cell surface binding of bNAbs to Env, and combining bNAbs allows a potent killing activity. Furthermore, reactivated infected cells from HIV-positive individuals expose heterogeneous Env epitope patterns, with levels that are often but not always sufficient to trigger killing by bNAbs. Our study delineates the parameters controlling ADCC activity of bNAbs, and supports the use of the most potent antibodies to clear the viral reservoir. PMID:26936020

  12. Hepatitis C seroconversions in HIV infection across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesecke, Christoph; Grint, Daniel; Soriano, Vincent; Lundgren, Jens D; d'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Mitsura, Victor M; Chentsova, Nelly; Hadziosmanovic, Vesnadarjan; Kirk, Ole; Mocroft, Amanda; Peters, Lars; Rockstroh, Jürgen K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In the last decade, several outbreaks of sexually acquired acute hepatitis C (HCV) infection have been described in HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). The aims of this study were to determine whether there has been an increase in the number of acute HCV infections in different parts of Europe. METHODS: HCV seroconversion was defined as an HCV-antibody test change from negative to positive within the observation period in EuroSIDA. Binomial regression was performed t...

  13. Quality of life among women living with HIV: the importance violence, social support, and self care behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, A C; McDonnell, K A; Wu, A W; O'Campo, P; Faden, R

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the relationship between psychosocial factors and health related quality of life among 287 HIV-positive women using items from the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey to measure physical functioning, mental health and overall quality of life. Multivariate models tested the relative importance of sociodemographic characteristics, HIV-related factors and psychosocial variables in explaining these quality of life outcomes. A history of child sexual abuse and adult abuse, social support and health promoting self-care behaviors were the psychosocial factors studied. Women in the sample were on average 33 years old and had known they were HIV-positive for 41 months; 39% had been hospitalized at least once due to their HIV; 83% had children; 19% had a main sex partner who was also HIV-positive. More than one-half of the women (55%) had a history of injection drug use and 63% reported having been physically or sexually assaulted at least once as an adult. A history of childhood sexual abuse. reported by 41% of the sample, was significantly related to mental health after controlling for sociodemographic and HIV-related characteristics. Women with larger social support networks reported better mental health and overall quality of life. Women who practiced more self-care behaviors (healthy diet and vitamins, adequate sleep and exercise, and stress management) reported better physical and mental health and overall quality of life. The high prevalence of physical abuse and child sexual abuse reported by this sample underscores the importance of screening for domestic violence when providing services to HIV-positive women. That such potentially modifiable factors as social support and self care behaviors are strongly associated with health-related quality of life suggests a new opportunity to improve the lives of women living with HIV. PMID:11144787

  14. Employment status in persons with and without HIV infection in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars Haukali; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    , compared with 5.1-7.2% in the comparison cohorts. CONCLUSION: After the introduction of HAART, employment rates have increased profoundly among HIV-infected individuals, but have remained lower than in the background population. During the same period, DRRs decreased among HIV-infected individuals, but......OBJECTIVE: To estimate annual employment rates and disability retirement rates (DRRs) among HIV-infected individuals and population controls during the period 1996-2011. DESIGN: A population-based cohort study including all HIV-infected individuals born in Denmark and not reporting intravenous (i.......v.) drug abuse as a route of HIV infection or diagnosed with hepatitis C infection (n = 2799) and 22,369 individually matched persons from the background population. Study inclusion was 1 January 1996 or HIV diagnosis, which ever came last. METHODS: Data on employment status and disability pension were...

  15. Cardiac, aortic, and pulmonary arteriopathy in HIV-infected children: the Prospective P2C2 HIV Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Atayde, A R; Kearney, D I; Bricker, J T; Colan, S D; Easley, K A; Kaplan, S; Lai, W W; Lipshultz, S E; Moodie, D S; Sopko, G; Starc, T J

    2004-01-01

    Arteriopathy in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients is being increasingly recognized, especially in children. However, few studies have histologically evaluated the coronary arteries in HIV-infected children, and none have systematically assessed the aorta and pulmonary arteries. The coronary arteries, thoracic aorta, and the main and branch pulmonary arteries from the postmortem hearts of 14 HIV-infected children were systematically reviewed for vasculopathic lesions and compared with 14 age-matched controls. Findings from the HIV-infected children were compared with clinical, laboratory, and other postmortem findings. Coronary arteriopathy, seen in seven (50%) of the HIV-infected children, was primarily calcific, and it was associated with decreased CD3 and CD4 peripheral blood counts. Large vessel arteriopathy, seen in 9 (64%) of the 14 HIV-infected children, was primarily centered on the vasa vasorum and consisted mainly of medial hypertrophy and chronic inflammation. Large vessel lesions were associated with increased left ventricular mass z-scores (P = 0.02), and 78% of patients with large vessel arteriopathy had postmortem cardiomegaly. Coronary and large vessel arteriopathies are common in pediatric HIV-infection and have different clinicopathologic features suggesting different pathogenesis. PMID:15255036

  16. Differential Clinical Outcome of Dengue Infection among Patients with and without HIV Infection: A Matched Case–Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Junxiong; Thein, Tun-Linn; David C. Lye; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2015-01-01

    Clinical characteristics and outcome among dengue patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remain elusive. A total of 10 dengue virus (DENV)–HIV Chinese patients were compared with 40 Chinese dengue patients without HIV, who were matched for age, gender, type of care received, methods, and year of dengue diagnosis from 2005 to 2008. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistics regression were applied. DENV-HIV patients were significantly associated with the ...

  17. HIV Infection among People Who Inject Drugs: The Challenge of Racial/Ethnic Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Jarlais, Don C.; McCarty, Dennis; Vega, William A.; Bramson, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in HIV infection, with minority groups typically having higher rates of infection, are a formidable public health challenge. In the United States, among both men and women who inject drugs, HIV infection rates are elevated among Hispanics and non-Hispanic Blacks. A meta-analysis of international research concluded that…

  18. Burkitt's lymphoma mimicking EBV disease as first sign of vertical HIV infection in an adolescent

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi Alessandra; De Vito Rita; Pontrelli Giuseppe; Tchidjou Hyppolite K; Aquilani Angela; Mora Nadia; Santilli Veronica; Bernardi Stefania; Palma Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Burkitt's Lymphoma (BL) rarely represents the first clinical manifestation of vertical HIV infection in adolescent in Western Europe. We report the case of a 17 year-old boy with two week history of fever and enlarged cervical lymph nodes firstly misdiagnosed as EBV infection, subsequently diagnosed as Burkitt's Lymphoma and vertical HIV infection.

  19. Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petz LD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence D Petz,1 John C Burnett,2 Haitang Li,3 Shirley Li,3 Richard Tonai,1 Milena Bakalinskaya,4 Elizabeth J Shpall,5 Sue Armitage,6 Joanne Kurtzberg,7 Donna M Regan,8 Pamela Clark,9 Sergio Querol,10 Jonathan A Gutman,11 Stephen R Spellman,12 Loren Gragert,13 John J Rossi2 1StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 2Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Irell and Manella Graduate School of Biological Sciences, 3Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope, Duarte, CA, USA; 4CCR5-?32/?32 Research Department, StemCyte International Cord Blood Center, Baldwin Park, CA, USA; 5Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 6MD Anderson Cord Blood Bank, Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 7Carolinas Cord Blood Bank, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 8St Louis Cord Blood Bank, SSM Cardinal Glennon Children's Medical Center, St Louis, MO, USA; 9Enhance Quality Consulting Inc., Oviedo, FL, USA; 10Cell Therapy Service and Cord Blood Bank, Banc de Sang i Teixits, Barcelona, Spain; 11BMT/Hematologic Malignancies, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA; 12Immunobiology and Observational Research, CIBMTR, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 13National Marrow Donor Program/Be The Match, Minneapolis, MN, USA Abstract: HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-?32/?32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-?32/?32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-?32/?32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood. Keywords: curing HIV infection, hematopoietic cell transplantation, genetic modification of stem cells, CCR5 mutation, CCR5-?32/?32 cord blood inventory

  20. Ability to Work and Employment Rates in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1-Infected Individuals Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy: The Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzi, Luigia; Conen, Anna; Patzen, Annalea; Fehr, Jan; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra; Schmid, Patrick; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Battegay, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Limited data exist on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals' ability to work after receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). We aimed to investigate predictors of regaining full ability to work at 1 year after starting cART. Methods.  Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected individuals reintegration of persons infected with HIV. PMID:26955645