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Sample records for violence hiv infection

  1. Association of Violence Victimization with Inconsistent Condom Use in HIV-Infected Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Cynthia H.; Liebschutz, Jane M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    The association of violence victimization with current condom use in HIV-infected persons was examined in this cross-sectional study. The HIV—Alcohol Longitudinal Cohort (HIV-ALC) recruited HIV-infected participants with a history of alcohol problems. Interviews assessed violence histories and current sexual behaviors. Of the 349 participants (79% men), 38% reported inconsistent condom use and 80% reported a violence history. Lifetime sexual violence was reported by 40% and lifetime physical violence (without sexual violence) by 40%. Participants reporting lifetime sexual violence had greater odds of inconsistent condom use than participants without any history of violence. A history of childhood sexual violence was also associated with greater odds of inconsistent condom use than participants without a history of childhood sexual violence. A history of sexual violence may in part explain HIV-infected persons’ greater risk for transmitting HIV through high-risk sexual behaviors. PMID:16609828

  2. Physical and sexual violence and health care utilization in HIV-infected persons with alcohol problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIEBSCHUTZ, J. M.; GEIER, J. L.; HORTON, N. J.; CHUANG, C. H.; SAMET, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    We examined interpersonal violence and its association with health care utilization and substance use severity among a cohort of 349 HIV-infected men and women with histories of alcohol problems assessed biannually up to 36 months. Data included demographics, lifetime interpersonal violence histories, age at first violence exposure, recent violence (prior six months), substance use severity and health care utilization (ambulatory visits, Emergency Department (ED) visits, hospitalizations) and adherence to HIV medication. Kaplan-Meier survival curves estimated the proportion of subjects experiencing recent violence. Generalized estimating equation regression models evaluated the relationship between recent violence, utilization and substance use severity over time, controlling for demographics, CD4 counts and depressive symptoms. Subject characteristics included: 79% male; mean age 41 years; 44% black, 33% white and 23% other. Eighty percent of subjects reported lifetime interpersonal violence: 40% physical violence alone, and 40% sexual violence with or without physical violence. First violence occurred prior to age 13 in 46%. Twenty-four (41%) of subjects reported recent violence by 24 and 36 months, respectively. In multivariate analyses, recent violence was associated with more ambulatory visits, ED visits and hospitalizations and worse substance use severity, but not medication adherence. Due to the high incidence and associated increased health care services utilization, violence prevention interventions should be considered for HIV-infected patients with a history of alcohol problems. PMID:16036243

  3. Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos-Soto, Juan; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; Encrenaz, Gaëlle; Patassi, Akouda; Woronowski, Aurore; Karyiyare, Benjamin; Annette K. Lawson-Evi; Leroy, Valériane; Dabis, François; Didier K Ekouevi; Becquet, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    Background: A substantial proportion of newly diagnosed HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa occur within serodiscordant cohabiting heterosexual couples. Intimate partner violence is a major concern for couple-oriented HIV preventive approaches. This study aimed at estimating the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner physical and sexual violence among HIV-infected and -uninfected women in Togo. We also described the severity and consequences of this violence as well as care-se...

  4. Sex Trafficking and Initiation-Related Violence, Alcohol Use, and HIV Risk Among HIV-Infected Female Sex Workers in Mumbai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Jay G.; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Decker, Michele R; Coleman, Sharon; BRIDDEN, Carly; Pardeshi, Manoj; Saggurti, Niranjan; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2011-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) are the group at greatest risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India. Women and girls trafficked (ie, forced or coerced) into sex work are thought to be at even greater risk because of high exposure to violence and unprotected sex, particularly during the early months of sex work, that is, at initiation. Surveys were completed with HIV-infected FSWs (n = 211) recruited from an HIV-related service organization in Mumbai, India. Approximately 2 in 5...

  5. Intimate partner violence and HIV infection among women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Ying Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To assess evidence of an association between intimate partner violence (IPV and HIV infection among women. Methods: Medline/PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, Ovid, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group's Specialized Register and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to 20 May 2013 to identify studies that examined the association between IPV and HIV infection in women. We included studies on women aged ?15 years, in any form of sexually intimate relationship with a male partner. Results: Twenty-eight studies [(19 cross-sectional, 5 cohorts and 4 case-control studies involving 331,468 individuals in 16 countries the US (eight studies, South Africa (four studies, East Africa (10 studies, India (three studies, Brazil (one study and multiple low-income countries (two studies] were included. Results were pooled using RevMan 5.0. To moderate effect estimates, we analyzed all data using the random effects model, irrespective of heterogeneity level. Pooled results of cohort studies indicated that physical IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.22 (1.01, 1.46] and any type of IPV [pooled RR (95% CI: 1.28 (1.00, 1.64] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Results of cross-sectional studies demonstrated significant associations of physical IPV with HIV infection among women [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.44 (1.10, 1.87]. Similarly, results of cross-sectional studies indicated that combination of physical and sexual IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 2.00 (1.24, 3.22 and any type of IPV [pooled OR (95% CI: 1.41 (1.16, 1.73] were significantly associated with HIV infection among women. Conclusions: Available evidence suggests a moderate statistically significant association between IPV and HIV infection among women. To further elucidate the strength of the association between IPV and HIV infection among women, there is a need for high-quality follow-up studies conducted in different geographical regions of the world, and among individuals of diverse racial/cultural backgrounds and varying levels of HIV risks.

  6. Intimate partner violence among women with HIV infection in rural Uganda: critical implications for policy and practice

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    Osinde Michael O

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV is a major public health problem in Africa and worldwide. HIV infected women face increased IPV risk. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with IPV among HIV infected women attending HIV care in Kabale hospital, Uganda. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 317 HIV infected women attending Kabale regional hospital HIV treatment centre, from March to December 2010. Participants were interviewed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Data was collected on socio-demographic variables, social habits, and IPV (using the abuse assessment screen and the Severity of Violence against Women Scale to identify physical, sexual and psychological violence. Characteristics of the participants who reported IPV were compared with those who did not. Multivariate logistic-regression analysis was conducted to analyze factors that were independently associated with IPV. Results The mean age of 317 respondents was 29.7 years. Twenty two (6.9% were adolescents and 233 (73.5% were married or cohabiting. The mean age of the spouse was 33.0 years. One hundred and eleven (35.0% were currently on antiretroviral therapy. Lifetime prevalence of IPV (physical or sexual was 36.6%. In the preceding 12 months, IPV (any type was reported by 93 respondents (29.3%. This was physical for 55 (17.6%, and sexual /psychological for 38 (12.1%. On multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, there was a significant but inverse association between education level and physical partner violence (adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.50, confidence limits (95% CI 0.31-0.82, p-value = 0.007. There was a significant but inverse association between education level of respondent and sexual/psychological violence (ARR 0.47 95%CI (0.25-0.87, p-value = 0.017 Likewise, there was a significant inverse association between the education level of the spouse and psychological/sexual violence (ARR 0.57, 95% CI 0.25-0.90, p-value = 0.018. Use of antiretroviral therapy was associated with increased prevalence of any type of violence (physical, sexual or psychological with ARR 3.04 (95%CI 1.15-8.45, p-value = 0.032. Conclusion Almost one in three women living with HIV had suffered intimate partner violence in the preceding 12 months. Nearly one in five HIV patients reported physical violence, and about one in every seven HIV patients reported sexual/psychological violence. Likewise, women who were taking antiretroviral drugs for HIV treatment were more likely to report any type of intimate partner violence (physical, sexual or psychological. The implication of these findings is that women living with HIV especially those on antiretroviral drugs should be routinely screened for intimate partner violence.

  7. Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laura K Murray; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; ALDROVANDI, GRACE M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M; Bolton, Paul A.

    2006-01-01

    HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of w...

  8. Sexual violence and HIV/AIDS transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Klot; Pam DeLargy

    2007-01-01

    The high rates of sexual violence in sub-Saharan Africa may help explain the disproportionate rates of infection among young women as compared to men, and also offer a new conceptual framework for understanding HIV transmission.

  9. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Heraclito de Barbosa Carvalho; Sergio Dario Seibel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have b...

  10. Sex-trafficking, Violence, Negotiating Skill, and HIV Infection in Brothel-based Sex Workers of Eastern India, Adjoining Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    SARKAR, KAMALESH; Bal, Baishali; Mukherjee, Rita; CHAKRABORTY, SEKHAR; Saha, Suman; Ghosh, Arundhuti; Parsons, Scott

    2008-01-01

    A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among brothel-based sex workers of West Bengal, eastern India, to understand sex-trafficking, violence, negotiating skills, and HIV infection in them. In total, 580 sex workers from brothels of four districts participated in the study. A pretested questionnaire was introduced to study their sociodemography, sex-trafficking, violence, and negotiating skills. Blood sample of 45 mL was collected from each sex worker using an unlinked anonymo...

  11. [HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, G C

    1995-01-01

    Questions and answers about HIV infection are explained using a boxing analogy, with T4 and T8 cells attacking the opponent, HIV-antibodies. How B cells and lymph nodes attack the protein exterior of the HIV virus is described. Viral RNA combines with the cell's DNA to allow the virus to reproduce. It remains there until the cell overflows, reappearing in the blood as the victim notices the first symptoms of AIDS. PMID:11363196

  12. Crack cocaine use and its relationship with violence and HIV

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    Heraclito Barbosa de Carvalho

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate crack cocaine use practices, risk behaviors associated with HIV infection among drug users, and their involvement with violence. INTRODUCTION: HIV infections are frequent among drug users due to risky sexual behavior. It is generally accepted that crack cocaine use is related to increased levels of violence. Several reports point to an increase in violence from those involved in drug trafficking. Although HIV infections and risky sexual behavior among drug users have been quite well studied, there are few studies that evaluate violence as it relates to drugs, particularly crack. METHODS: A total of 350 drug users attending drug abuse treatment clinics in São Paulo, Brazil were interviewed about their risky behaviors. Each patient had a serological HIV test done. RESULTS: HIV prevalence was 6.6% (4.0 to 10.2. Violence was reported by 97% (94.7 to 99.1 of the subjects (including cases without personal involvement. Acts of violence such as verbal arguments, physical fights, threats, death threats, theft, and drug trafficking were significantly higher among crack users. A decrease in frequency of sexual intercourse was observed among users of injected drugs, though prostitution was observed as a means of obtaining drugs. A high number of crack cocaine users had a history of previous imprisonment, many for drug-related infractions. DISCUSSION: The data presented are in accordance with other reports in the literature, and they show a correlation between drug use, imprisonment, violence, and drug trafficking. CONCLUSION: A high HIV prevalence and associated risky sexual behaviors were observed among crack cocaine users. The society and the authorities that deal with violence related to crack users and drug trafficking should be aware of these problems.

  13. Social factors related to risk for violence and sexually transmitted infections/HIV among Asian massage parlor workers in San Francisco.

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    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Wong, Serena; Le, Mai Nhung; Operario, Don

    2004-12-01

    Asian women who work at massage parlors in San Francisco have high levels of risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, and being victims of violence, which jeopardizes their health and wellbeing. On the basis of mapping, the targeted districts in San Francisco where massage parlors were located, 23 massage parlors were identified where commercial sex activity took place. Using snowball-sampling methods, 43 Asian female massage parlor workers were recruited for focus groups; 21 participants were Vietnamese and 22 were Thai. Qualitative analyses revealed frequent exposure to violence including verbal or physical abuse from customers and gang members, as well as persistent HIV risk behaviors associated with multiple daily sex partners, inconsistent condom use with customers, and forced sex. Social factors related to gender, immigration status, and socioeconomic status appeared to be closely tied to the health and wellbeing of Asian masseuses. Study findings suggest that individualized as well as community-level interventions are necessary to improve these women's health and decrease their prolonged exposure to risks for STIs and violence. PMID:15690120

  14. A lifetime of violence: results from an exploratory survey of Mexican women with HIV.

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    Kendall, Tamil; van Dijk, Marieke; Wilson, Katherine S; Picasso, Nizarindandi; Lara, Diana; Garcia, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Despite recognition that traditional Mexican gender norms can contribute to the twin epidemics of violence against women and HIV, there is an absence of published literature on experiences of violence among Mexican women with HIV. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 77 HIV-infected women from 21 of Mexico's 32 states to describe experiences of violence before and after HIV-diagnosis. We measured lifetime physical, sexual, and psychological violence; physical violence from a male partner in the previous 12 months; and physical and psychological violence related to disclosing an HIV diagnosis. Respondents reported ever experiencing physical violence (37.3%) and sexual violence (29.2%). Disclosure of HIV status resulted in physical violence for 7.2% and psychological violence for 26.5% of the respondents. This study underlines the need to identify and address past and current gender-based violence during pre- and post-HIV test counseling and as a systematic and integral part of HIV care. PMID:22512924

  15. Associao entre violncia por parceiro ntimo contra a mulher e infeco por HIV Asociacin entre violencia contra la mujer por pareja ntima e infeccin por VIH Association between intimate partner violence against women and HIV infection

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    Claudia Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associao entre a violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres e a infeco ou suspeita de infeco pelo vrus da imunodeficincia humana (HIV. MTODOS: Estudo transversal com base em dados de questionrios aplicados face-a-face e de pronturios mdicos de 2.780 mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, atendidas em unidades do sistema nico de sade da Grande So Paulo, SP, em 2001-2002. As mulheres foram categorizadas em: usurias em tratamento por serem "soropositivas para o HIV", com "suspeita de HIV" e aquelas que procuraram os servios por outros motivos. A violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres na vida foi categorizada por gravidade e recorrncia dos episdios de violncia. A associao com o desfecho foi testada pelo modelo de Poisson com varincia robusta e ajustada por variveis sociodemogrficas, sexuais e reprodutivas. RESULTADOS: A prevalncia de violncia foi de 59,8%. Sofrer violncia reiterada e grave apresentou maior associao de infeco confirmada pelo HIV (RP = 1,91. A violncia independente da gravidade e da recorrncia dos episdios apresentou maior associao para a suspeita de infeco por HIV (RP = 1,29. CONCLUSES: A violncia por parceiro ntimo contra mulheres tem papel relevante nas situaes de suspeita e confirmao da infeco pelo HIV, sendo essencial incluir sua deteco, controle e preveno como parte da ateno integral sade das mulheres.OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociacin entre la violencia contra mujeres por pareja ntima y la infeccin o sospecha de infeccin por el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. MTODOS: Estudio transversal con base en datos de cuestionarios aplicados cara-a cara y de prontuarios mdicos de 2.780 mujeres de 15 a 49 aos, atendidas en unidades del sistema nico de salud de la Gran Sao Paulo, Sureste de Brasil, en 2001-2002. Las mujeres fueron categorizadas en: usuarias en tratamiento por ser "seropositivas para el VIH", con "sospecha de VIH" y aquellas que buscaron los servicios por otros motivos. La violencia contra mujeres por pareja ntima en la vida fue categorizada por gravedad y recurrencia de los episodios de violencia. La asociacin con la infeccin fue evaluada por el modelo de Poisson con variancia robusta y ajustada por variables sociodemogrficas, sexuales y reproductivas. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de violencia fue de 59,8%. Sufrir violencia reiterada y grave present mayor asociacin de infeccin confirmada por el VIH (RP=1,91. La violencia independiente de la gravedad y de la recurrencia de los episodios present mayor asociacin para la sospecha de infeccin por VIH (RP= 1,29. CONCLUSIONES: La violencia contra mujeres por pareja ntima tiene papel relevante en las situaciones de sospecha y confirmacin de la infeccin por el HIV, siendo esencial incluir su deteccin, control y prevencin como parte de la atencin integral a la salud de las mujeres.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between intimate partner violence against women and infection or suspected infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted, based on data from questionnaires applied face-to-face and medical records of 2,780 women aged between 15 and 49 years, cared for in Sistema nico de Sade (Unified Health System units of the Greater So Paulo area, Southeastern Brazil, in 2001-2002. Women were categorized into: users in treatment because they are "HIV seropositive", those "suspected of having HIV" and others who sought health services for different reasons. Intimate partner violence against women throughout life was categorized according to the severity and recurrence of episodes of violence. The association with the outcome was tested using the Poisson model with robust and adjusted variance for sociodemographic, sexual and reproductive variables. RESULTS: The prevalence of violence was 59.8%. Suffering repeated and severe violence was more closely associated with confirmed HIV infection (PR = 1.91.

  16. Microbiome in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Salas, January T; Chang, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    HIV primary infection occurs at mucosa tissues, suggesting an intricate interplay between microbiome and HIV infection. Recent advanced technologies of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics allow researchers to explore nonculturable microbes including bacteria, virus and fungi and their association with diseases. HIV/SIV infection is associated with microbiome shifts and immune activation that may affect the outcome of disease progression. Similarly, altered microbiome and inflammatio...

  17. Paediatric HIV infection

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    Sayal S

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of HIV infection in children between one to eight years of age are reported. Three were males and the other one female. One child was horn to known HIV infected mother. The female child was victim of sexual abuse and had disseminated tuberculosis with syphilis and gonorrhoea. Other two children were having systemic as well as dermatological disorders for which HIV test was done and found positive.

  18. Experience of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions after voluntary HIV counselling and testing: a qualitative critical incident study in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Emusu, Donath; Ivankova, Nataliya; Jolly, Pauline; Kirby, Russell; Foushee, Herman; Wabwire-Mangen, Fred; Katongole, Drake; Ehiri, John

    2009-01-01

    HIV-serodiscordant relationships are those in which one partner is infected with HIV while the other is not. We investigated experiences of sexual violence among women in HIV discordant unions attending HIV post-test club services in Uganda. A volunteer sample of 26 women from three AIDS Information Centres in Uganda who reported having experienced sexual violence in a larger epidemiological study were interviewed, using the qualitative critical incident technique. Data were analysed using TE...

  19. Leishmaniasis in HIV infection.

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    Paredes R

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein we review the particular aspects of leishmaniasis associated with HIV infection. The data in this review are mainly from papers identified from PubMed searches and from papers in reference lists of reviewed articles and from the authors? personal archives. Epidemiological data of HIV/Leishmania co-infection is discussed, with special focus on the influence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART on incidence of leishmaniasis and transmission modalities. Microbiological characteristics, pathogenesis, clinical presentation and specific treatment of the co-infection are also presented.

  20. Immunology of Pediatric HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tobin, Nicole H.; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2013-01-01

    Most infants born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women escape HIV infection. Infants evade infection despite an immature immune system and, in the case of breastfeeding, prolonged repetitive, exposure. If infants become infected, the course of their infection and response to treatment differs dramatically depending upon the timing (in utero, intrapartum, or during breastfeeding) and potentially the route of their infection. Perinatally acquired HIV infection occurs during a cr...

  1. Gender inequality and domestic violence: implications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are problems of great public health worldwide, especially sub-Saharan Africa and much of the developing countries. This is due to their far reaching social, economic and public health consequences. The two problems have gender inequality and gender power imbalances as the driving force behind the “epidemics”. HIV infection is mainly acquired through heterosexual relations, which themselves are greatly influenced by socio-cultu...

  2. HIV infection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseniou, Stylianos; Arvaniti, Aikaterini; Samakouri, Maria

    2014-02-01

    Major depression is highly prevalent among HIV-positive patients (HIVpp). The prevalence of depression ranges between 18% and 81%, depending on the population studied and the methodology of the study. The etiology of depression in HIVpp is likely determined by: (i) biological factors (alterations in the white matter structure, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid dysfunction, Tat-protein-induced depressive behavior); (ii) psychosocial factors (HIV stigma, occupational disability, body image changes, isolation and debilitation); (iii) history or comorbidity of psychiatric illness; and (iv) the perinatal period in HIVpp women. Symptomatology of depression differs between HIVpp and HIV-negative patients (HIVnp). Depression may also alter the function of lymphocytes in HIVpp and decrease natural killer cell activity, contributing to the increased mortality in these patients. Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors are considered the first-line treatment. Treatment of depression can improve quality of life and lead to a better prognosis of HIV infection. PMID:24552630

  3. Preventing HIV infection.

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    Coates, T J; Collins, C

    1998-07-01

    The primary way of preventing HIV infections is to change behaviors that enable transmission of the virus, specifically those behaviors relating to sex and drug injection. Realistic public health workers have focused on encouraging adoption of safer sexual practices, primarily condom use. The fundamental way to persuade people to engage in preventive practices is through targeted education aimed at particularly at-risk communities. Other effective behavioral interventions against HIV infections are: testing and follow-up counseling; comprehensive sex education; peer influence and community action; advertising and marketing; easing access to condoms; physician-patient dialogue; drug treatment; access to clean needles; and direct outreach. On the contrary, interventions that do not work are the following: one-time exposure to information; delivering a single message; abstinence-only programs; and coercive measures to identify people with HIV or their sexual partners. PMID:9648304

  4. HIV INFECTION AND CARDIOVASCULAR COMPLICATIONS

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    S. S. Yakushin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing number of HIV-infected patients and duration of their survival value for cardiovascular disease complications in the structure of HIV is increasing. The article describes the most common complication, developing in this group of patients. Focuses on the tactics of dilated cardiomyopathy and pericardial effusion in HIV-infected patients. Coronary heart disease and its relation to use of antiretroviral drugs and HIV infection are also described.

  5. [Oral manifestations in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsvoll, Svein; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad

    2006-04-27

    In this review article, oral lesions in relation to HIV infection are presented and discussed. Lesions such as oral candidiasis, hairy leukoplakia and necrotising gingivitis or periodontitis may be the first sign of an HIV infection or of its progression. Almost all HIV-infected patients will contract oral diseases. Dentists and physicians play an essential role in early recognition of signs and symptoms of HIV disease or of its progression. Only through such recognition can appropriate definitive diagnostic testing be conducted and appropriate therapeutic intervention for the condition be considered. It is pivotal that both dentists and physicians are familiar with the most frequently occurring oral symptoms of HIV infection. PMID:16670745

  6. 77 FR 20277 - Establishing a Working Group on the Intersection of HIV/AIDS, Violence Against Women and Girls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... aimed at addressing risks that influence women's and girls' vulnerability to HIV infection and violence.... (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE Washington, March 30, 2012 [FR Doc. 2012-8164 Filed 4-2-12; 11:15 am..., Violence Against Women and Girls, and Gender-related Health Disparities Memorandum for the Heads...

  7. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shobhana A; Guha Subhasish; Neogi D

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvem...

  8. Stages of HIV Infection

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    ... Day National Youth HIV & AIDS Awareness Day National Transgender HIV Testing Day HIV Vaccine Awareness Day National ... transmitting HIV to your sexual or drug using partners because the levels of HIV in your blood ...

  9. 'That pregnancy can bring noise into the family': exploring intimate partner sexual violence during pregnancy in the context of HIV in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Shamu, Simukai; Abrahams, Naeemah; Temmerman, Marleen; Shefer, Tamara; Zarowsky, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background: Globally, studies report a high prevalence of intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) and an association with HIV infection. Despite the criminalisation of IPSV and deliberate sexual HIV infection in Zimbabwe, IPSV remains common. This study explored women's and health workers' perspectives and experiences of sexuality and sexual violence in pregnancy, including in relation to HIV testing. Methods: This qualitative study was part of a larger study of the dynamics of intimate p...

  10. History of Violence as a Predictor of HIV Risk among Multi-Ethnic, Urban Youth in the Southwest

    OpenAIRE

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; NIERI, TANYA; Valdez, Elizabeth; Gurrola, Maria; Marrs, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    This community-based exploratory study examined the effects of a history of violence, ethnic identification, and acculturation status on HIV risk among a majority Latino sample of youth living in a large metropolitan area of the Southwest in the United States. The participants reported high rates of violence and attitudes that put them at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. They participated in 1 of 2 prevention interventions offered by a local non-governmental organization. The first intervention w...

  11. Mucosal Immunology of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Huanbin; Wang, Xiaolei; Veazey, Ronald S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in the immunology, pathogenesis, and prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continue to reveal clues to the mechanisms involved in the progressive immunodeficiency attributed to infection but more importantly have shed light on the correlates of immunity to infection and disease progression. HIV selectively infects, eliminates, and/or dysregulates several key cells of the human immune system, thwarting multiple arms of the host immune response, and inflicti...

  12. Gender-based Violence and HIV Sexual Risk Behavior: Alcohol Use and Mental Health Problems as Mediators among Women in Drinking Venues, Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Kalichman, Seth C.; Eaton, Lisa A.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Watt, Melissa H.; Skinner, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence is a key determinant of HIV infection among women in South Africa as elsewhere. However, research has not examined potential mediating processes to explain the link between experiencing abuse and engaging in HIV sexual risk behavior. Previous studies suggest that alcohol use and mental health problems may explain how gender-based violence predicts sexual risk. In a prospective study, we examined whether lifetime history of gender-based violence indirectly affects future ...

  13. Selenium Deficiency and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Di Bella; Elisabetta Grilli; Maria Adriana Cataldo; Nicola Petrosillo

    2010-01-01

    Selenium is a non-metallic chemical element of great important to human health. Low selenium levels in humans are associated with several pathological conditions and are a common finding in HIV infected individuals. We conducted a review of the literature to assess if selenium deficiency or selenium supplementation could play a role in modifying the clinical course of HIV disease. Several studies investigated the role of selenium in disease progression, morbidity and mortality in HIV infected...

  14. [Alcohol abuse in HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchkina, E V; Beliaeva, V V; Pokrovskiĭ, V V

    1996-01-01

    249 cases of HIV infection (170 males, mean age 30.2 +/- 0.8 years; 79 females, mean age 28.7 +/- 0.9 years) have been analyzed for prevalence of alcoholization. 6 months after the establishment of HIV diagnosis the number of alcoholics in the studied group was greater than in this group before the diagnosis. 22% developed further alcohol addiction. Detrimental effects of alcoholization on mentality, memory and social status of HIV-infected subjects are described. PMID:9045381

  15. Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Topics Labs & Scientific Resources Funding About NIAID News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > HIV/AIDS > Understanding > Treatment HIV/AIDS Understanding Overview Causes Prevention Transmission ...

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Matthew Carl

    Mathematical models of the dynamics of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have contributed to tremendous advances over the past 20 years. This thesis extends this previous work by exploring the importance of spatial heterogeneity in HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo in patients treated with highly-active antiretroviral therapy. Viral infections propagate locally in space, yet HIV infection has been widely regarded as equilibrated over the entire body of an infected patient. This dissertation constructs and explores a cellular automata model of viral spread at the cellular level. Coupling the automata to a blood compartment represented by a differential equation leads to a whole-body model of HIV infection that explicitly includes spatial effects at both the cellular and tissue levels. These models are tested by comparison with experimental data. A central prediction of the spatial model is that, due to competition between Brownian motion and viral lability, HIV infectivity increases with target cell density. This production is verified in a series of in vitro experiments in cell culture. The predicted independence of inhibitory concentrations of antiretoviral agents is verified for nevirapine, but azidothymidine inhibits HIV replication less efficiently in more dense cultures. These in vitro results suggest that systems allowing cell concentrations closer to tissue densities would better reflect virus replication kinetics, although standard measures of relative drug susceptibility may accurately reflect in vivo conditions. The coupled spatial model of in vivo dynamics is compared with novel mathematical analysis of experiments in HIV-infected patients. These analyses indicate that HIV DNA provides a useful marker of the size of long-lived cellular reservoirs of HIV. Levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood are predictive of the average rate of residual virus production after years of treatment, regardless of whether patients initiate therapy during the primary or chronic stages of HIV infection. The nonlinear clearance of HIV DNA therefore predicts lifelong virus production, even in treated patients. Collectively, these results demonstrate that important features of the spatiotemporal dynamics of HIV infection both in vitro and in vivo are best explained with explicit spatial models.

  17. Brucella Infection in HIV Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the possible correlation between Brucella and HIV infections. Iran is a country where HIV infection is expanding and Brucellosis is prevalent. In the present study, 184 HIV infected patients were assigned and for all of them HIV infection was confirmed by western blot test. In order to identify the prevalence rate of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis in these subjects, sera samples were obtained and Brucella specific serological tests were performed to reveal antibody titers. Detailed history was taken and physical examination was carried out for all of patients. 11 (6% subjects had high titers but only 3 of them were symptomatic. Most of these subjects were injection drug user (IDU men and one was a rural woman. Considering both prevalence rates of Brucella infection (3% and symptomatic brucellosis (0.1% in Iran, our HIV positive patients show higher rates of Brucella infection and systemic brucellosis. Preserved cellular immunity of participants and retention of granulocytes activity may explain this poor association; whereas other explanations such as immunological state difference and non-overlapping geographical distribution of the 2 pathogens have been mentioned by various authors.

  18. Combined Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/AIDS Prevention in Rural Uganda: Design of the SHARE Intervention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagman, Jennifer A; King, Elizabeth J; Namatovu, Fredinah; Kiwanuka, Deus; Kairania, Robert; Semanda, John Baptist; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J; Gray, Ronald; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has a bidirectional relationship with HIV infection. Researchers from the Rakai Health Sciences Program (RHSP), an HIV research and services organization in rural Uganda, conducted a combination IPV and HIV prevention intervention called the Safe Homes and Respect for Everyone (SHARE) Project between 2005 and 2009. SHARE was associated with significant declines in physical and sexual IPV and overall HIV incidence, and its model could be adopted as a promising practice in other settings. In this article we describe how SHARE's IPV-prevention strategies were integrated into RHSP's existing HIV programming and provide recommendations for replication of the approach. PMID:26086189

  19. HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... visit Healthmap Vaccine Finder . HIV Infection and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Vaccines are ... percentage is less than 15%. Learn about adult vaccination and other health conditions Asplenia Diabetes Type 1 ...

  20. Approved Antiretroviral Drugs Used for Pediatric Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Condition Information HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Treatment Approved antiretroviral drugs for pediatric treatment of HIV infection Share Tweet ... in HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS Related Therapies Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Approved ...

  1. Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. PMID:23790277

  2. Bromodomain Proteins in HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Ott

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromodomains are conserved protein modules of ~110 amino acids that bind acetylated lysine residues in histone and non-histone proteins. Bromodomains are present in many chromatin-associated transcriptional regulators and have been linked to diverse aspects of the HIV life cycle, including transcription and integration. Here, we review the role of bromodomain-containing proteins in HIV infection. We begin with a focus on acetylated viral factors, followed by a discussion of structural and biological studies defining the involvement of bromodomain proteins in the HIV life cycle. We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency.

  3. Bloodstream infections in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taramasso, Lucia; Tatarelli, Paola; Di Biagio, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy era, HIV-infected patients remain a vulnerable population for the onset of bloodstream infections (BSI). Worldwide, nontyphoid salmonellae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative staphylococci are the most important pathogens. Intravenous catheter associated infection, skin-soft tissue infection and endocarditis are associated with Gram-positive bacteremia. Among the Gram-negative, nontyphoidal Salmonella have been previously correlated to sepsis. Other causes of BSI in HIV-infected patients are mycobacteria and fungi. Mycobacteria constitute a major cause of BSI in limited resource countries. Fungal BSI are not frequent and among them Cryptococcus neoformans is the most common life-threatening infection. The degree of immunosuppression remains the key prognostic factor leading to the development of BSI. PMID:26950194

  4. [Oral manifestations of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascones, Antonio; Serrano, Carlos; Campo, Julián

    2003-03-29

    Oral manifestations of HIV infection are sometimes the first sign of the disease and often indicate its progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), thus it is important for health professionals (physicians and dentist) to possess adequate knowledge of these lesions. Improvements in antiretroviral treatments, especially with the incorporation of HAART therapy, have produced a gradual reduction in the prevalence of HIV-associated oral lesions. On the other hand, the increased life expectancy of HIV-positive patients has led to their greater presence at our clinics, implying the need for continuous updating in the diagnosis and treatment of these processes. Using the consensus classification (EEC-Clearinghouse, 1993) we reviewed the diagnostic criteria and current treatment protocols for the different HIV infection related oral lesions in both adults and children. PMID:12681223

  5. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]). PMID:25381267

  6. A violncia intrafamiliar e o adolescente que vive com HIV/AIDS por transmisso vertical: anlise dos fatores de proteo e de vulnerabilidade / Domestic violence and the adolescent that was infected with HIV through vertical transmission: analysis of protection and vulnerability factors

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cludia Mamede Wiering de, Barros; Olga Maria, Bastos; Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Pone; Suely Ferreira, Deslandes.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi o de analisar os fatores de proteo e de vulnerabilidade violncia intrafamiliar fsica e/ou psicolgica entre adolescentes que vivem com HIV/Aids por transmisso vertical. Este grupo encontra-se especialmente suscetvel por apresentar fatores de vulnerabilidade como [...] doena crnica, orfandade com consequente troca de cuidadores e comprometimento da imagem corporal. A pesquisa foi realizada com adolescentes atendidos em um hospital de referncia. A primeira etapa abrangeu a aplicao dos instrumentos Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scales e Escala de Violncia Psicolgica, para aferio do tipo de violncia intrafamiliar acometida. A segunda parte, qualitativa, utilizou-se de entrevistas com os adolescentes, com os maiores e os menores escores para violncia nos instrumentos quantitativos. Verificou-se uma alta prevalncia de violncia fsica e psicolgica, bem como nas entrevistas realizadas foram detalhadas as dinmicas familiares abusivas, corroborando a literatura. Tendo em vista as consequncias deste tipo de violncia, se torna fundamental que o profissional de sade esteja atento identificao das situaes de violncia, como tambm ao reconhecimento dos fatores de vulnerabilidade e ao incentivo aos fatores de proteo aos maus-tratos. Abstract in english The scope of this study was to analyze protection and vulnerability factors in physical and psychological domestic violence among adolescents infected with HIV/AIDS through vertical transmission. This group is especially susceptible as they have vulnerability factors such as chronic disease, orphanh [...] ood with consequent change of caregivers and impaired body image. The research was conducted in a public hospital. The first stage used the Parent Child Conflict Tactics and the Degree of Psychological Violence Scale to determine what domestic violence occurred. In the second qualitative stage, the adolescents who scored the most or the least for violence in the quantitative instrument were interviewed. The questionnaires and the interviews revealed a high prevalence of physical and psychological violence and abusive domestic dynamics, thereby corroborating the extant literature. In view of the consequences of this kind of violence, it is essential that the health professional should be able to identify violent situations and recognize vulnerability factors and to promote protection factors against ill-treatment.

  7. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Primary Infection Information for adults ... 1–6 weeks following exposure to HIV (the human immunodeficiency virus). Chronic infection with this virus can ...

  8. Fungal infections associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaranayake, L P; Fidel, P L; Naglik, J R; Sweet, S P; Teanpaisan, R; Coogan, M M; Blignaut, E; Wanzala, P

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is perhaps the commonest infection seen in HIV disease. The aim of this workshop was to provide a sketch of the multifarious aspects of the disease from a global perspective. To this end the panellists addressed issues such as the virulence of Candida, emergence of antifungal resistance, management of candidiasis and other exotic, oral mycotic diseases. An all-pervasive theme was the dramatic differences in the management of fungal infections consequential to the availability (or the lack) of anti-HIV drugs in the developed and the developing world. Further, the social stigmata associated with the HIV disease in many developing regions in Africa and Asia appears to modify the therapeutic strategies. Additionally, the lesser-known regional variations in the disease manifestations and therapeutic approaches were stark. Further work is direly needed to address these issues. PMID:12164650

  9. Federal Violence Against Women Act authorizes HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-23

    The 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals affirmed a lower court ruling requiring a convicted kidnapper who sexually assaulted his victim to undergo HIV testing. The 1994 amendments to the Federal Violence Against Women Act empower Federal courts to order criminal defendants charged with sex offenses to be tested for HIV. The defendant, [name removed], argued that the judge did not have inherent authority to order an HIV test. [Name removed] pleaded guilty to kidnapping and repeatedly raping a woman over a three-day period. PMID:11364957

  10. HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of American university students: associations with violence/abuse and covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Gill, Jasmeet K; Hubach, Randolph D; Cayetano, Reggie T; Hilbert, Cary J

    2014-10-01

    Associations linking HIV infection to violence and abuse are well documented; however, little is known about how violence/abuse is related to HIV testing behavior, particularly among undergraduate university students, who test at lower rates compared to non-student peers in the United States. We assessed history of HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates in California (n = 1,210); and examined potential associations between testing and various forms of violence/abuse, while controlling for covariates. Whereas 73.4% of students were sexually active in the past year, only 26.3% had ever tested for HIV. At the bivariate level, testing was associated with experiencing verbal abuse and sexual violence/coercion, and perpetrating verbal abuse. Experiencing verbal abuse remained significant in multivariate analysis. We discuss findings in a syndemics framework, considered in combination with social psychology-based health behavior theories. Enhanced HIV testing scale-up initiatives for undergraduates are needed and should consider integration with violence prevention programs. PMID:24043406

  11. Acyclovir resistant varicella zoster and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyall, E. G.; Ogilvie, M. M.; Smith, N. M.; Burns, S.

    1994-01-01

    A child infected with HIV who developed chronic varicella zoster virus infection resistant to acyclovir is presented. The clinical course of the infection, treatment, virological investigations, and relationship of the infection to the child's immunodeficient state are discussed.

  12. BONE MARROW ABONRMALITIES IN HIV INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sharad Antiram Dhurve

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction; Hematological abnormalities are a common complication of HIV infection.  Bone marrow abnormalities occur in all stages of HIV infection.  Present work was carried out to study the bone marrow abnormalities in patients with HIV/AIDS.  Methods: 160 patients of HIV +ve were included in the study. A complete blood count, relevant biochemical investigations, CD4   counts were done, besides a thorough history and clinical examination. HIV positive patients were classified as ...

  13. Renal issues in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalayjian, Robert C

    2011-09-01

    Kidney disease remains a prominent complication of HIV disease, despite beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy on the natural history of HIV-associated nephropathy, and on kidney function in general populations of HIV infected patients. Persons of African descent continue to bear a disproportionate burden of severe kidney disease, as is true for the general population. Recently identified genetic variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene may contribute to this burden. As is also true for the general population, markers of kidney disease, including microalbuminuria, are sensitive predictors of cardiovascular disease and mortality among persons living with HIV. The emerging experience with kidney transplantation also suggests this to be a viable option in selected patients. PMID:21643783

  14. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV Infection of Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    LIANG, HAO; WANG Xu; Chen, Hui; Song, Li; Li YE; Wang, Shi-Hong; Wang, Yan-Jian; ZHOU, LIN; Ho, Wen-zhe

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that the use of methamphetamine (meth), a sympathomimetic stimulant, is particularly common among patients infected with HIV. However, there is a lack of direct evidence that meth promotes HIV infection of target cells. This study examined whether meth is able to enhance HIV infection of macrophages, the primary target site for the virus. Meth treatment resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase of HIV reverse transcriptase activity in huma...

  15. Mucocutaneous manifestations of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhana A

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is associated with various mucocutaneous features, which may be the first pointer towards the existence of HIV infection. This study was done to note the different mucocutaneous lesions present in the HIV population in eastern India. METHODS: Four hundred and ten HIV seropositive patients attending the outpatient and inpatient departments were included in the study. RESULTS: Out of 410 HIV positives, 40% had mucocutaneous involvement at presentation. The mean age of the study population was 29 years and male to female ratio was 2.5:1. The common mucocutaneous morbidities included oral candidiasis (36%, dermatophytosis and gingivitis (13% each, herpes zoster (6%, herpes simplex and scabies (5% each. A striking feature, noted in 36% males, was straightening of hairs. Genital herpes was the commonest genital ulcer disease. Lesions associated with declining immunity included oral candidiasis, oral hairy leukoplakia and herpes zoster with median CD4 counts of 98, 62 and 198/ L respectively. CONCLUSION: Early recognition of mucocutaneous manifestations and associated STDs help in better management of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf zbal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 is a retrovirus and belongs to the family of Lentiviruses. The life cycle of HIV-1 is divided into early and late phases. In the early phase; an HIV-1 virion binds to CD4 receptors and chemokine co-receptors on the human host cell surface, viral and host cell membranes fuse and the viral core is entered into host cell. Viral particle is uncoated. The viral genome is reverse transcribed and the viral preintegration complex (PIC forms. The PIC is transported through the nuclear pore into the nucleoplasm, and the viral reverse transcript is integrated into a host cell DNA. In the late phase, viral RNAs are transcribed from the integrated viral genome and processed to generate viral mRNAs and full-length viral genomic RNAs. The viral RNAs are exported through the nuclear pore into the cytosol. Viral mRNAs are translated and the resulting viral proteins are post-translationally processed, core particles containing viral genomic RNA and envelope proteins assemble at the host cell membrane. Immature viral particles are released by budding. The released particles mature to become infectious.There are three main ways HIV-1 incites cell death in CD4 +TH lymphocytes, namely through the budding process, infected cell-to-cell fusion and through tricking the immune system. The stimulation of CD8 +T lymphocytes and the formation of antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes depend on the presentation of a peptide together with MHC-I. Cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes are able to recognize and eliminate HIV-1 infected cells. Nef induce downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I molecules from the HIV-1-infected cells, which represent an escape mechanism for the virus to evade an attack mediated by cytotoxic CD8 +T lymphocytes and to avoid recognition by CD4 +TH1 lymphocytes. The spectrum of vaccine strategies against HIV includes HIV-derived peptides or proteins, the use of viral or bacterial vectors, naked DNA, the use of live attenuated HIV strains.

  17. Neurologic Complications in Treated HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nisha S; Chow, Felicia C

    2016-07-01

    Effective combination antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV infection into a chronic disease, with HIV-infected individuals living longer and reaching older age. Neurological disease remains common in treated HIV, however, due in part to ongoing inflammation and immune activation that persist in chronic infection. In this review, we highlight recent developments in our understanding of several clinically relevant neurologic complications that can occur in HIV infection despite treatment, including HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, symptomatic CSF escape, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy. PMID:27170369

  18. HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch People living with HIV/AIDS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir As ... Page Preventing fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS Fungi are difficult to avoid because they ...

  19. Effectiveness of an integrated intimate partner violence and HIV prevention intervention in Rakai, Uganda: analysis of an intervention in an existing cluster randomised cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Jennifer A Wagman, PhD; Prof. Ronald H Gray, MD; Prof. Jacquelyn C Campbell, PhD; Marie Thoma, PhD; Anthony Ndyanabo, MSc; Joseph Ssekasanvu, BSc; Fred Nalugoda, PhD; Joseph Kagaayi, PhD; Gertrude Nakigozi, MPH; Prof. David Serwadda, MSc; Heena Brahmbhatt, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with HIV infection. We aimed to assess whether provision of a combination of IPV prevention and HIV services would reduce IPV and HIV incidence in individuals enrolled in the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS), Rakai, Uganda. Methods: We used pre-existing clusters of communities randomised as part of a previous family planning trial in this cohort. Four intervention group clusters from the previous trial were provided standard of c...

  20. B cells in HIV infection and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Moir, Susan; Fauci, Anthony S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, intense research efforts have been dedicated to elucidating the pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-associated disease progression. In addition to the progressive depletion and dysfunction of CD4+ T cells, HIV infection also leads to extensive defects in the humoral arm of the immune system. The lack of immune control of the virus in almost all infected individuals is a great impediment to the treatment of HIV-associated disease and to the development of a successful HIV vaccine. Th...

  1. Inflammation in HIV-Infected Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Klausen, Henrik Hedegaard; Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Andersen, Ove

    2012-01-01

    To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR).......To examine mechanisms underlying the increased inflammatory state of HIV-infected patients, by investigating the association of HIV-related factors, demography, lifestyle, and body composition with the inflammatory marker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)....

  2. Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Medina, Candida; Té, David da Silva; Laursen, Alex Lund; Østergaard, Lars Jørgen; Wejse, Christian; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter; Oliviera, Ines

    Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?......Vaccination scars in HIV infected patients – does vaccinia vaccination confer protection against HIV?...

  3. Cancer and HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Lanoy, Emilie; Guiguet, Marguerite

    1991-01-01

    Avec l'arrivée des nouvelles combinaisons antirétrovirales, l'incidence des cancers classant SIDA a fortement diminué et l'incidence des cancers ne définissant pas le SIDA est désormais plus élevée. les cancers dont le risque est augmenté avec l'immunodépression sont le plus souvent associés à une infection virale. Dans le contexte de l'infection à VIH, certains virus pourraient avoir un effet oncogène directement ou via un processus de facilitation, l'immunodépression limitant la capacité de...

  4. Psychiatric Disorders Among Patients with HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahadır Bakım

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the patients with AIDS are homosexual men or intravenous drug users. HIV infected individuals are subject to the full Tange of psychiatric syndromes including adjusment disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, bipolar disorders, sleep disorders, alcohol-substance related disorders, delirium, dementia and psychosec. HIV, opportunistic infections, anti-HIV medications, and the psychosocial stress of HIV illness cause substantial psychiatric morbidity over the course of illness. Dementia or milder forms of cognitive impairment are important manifestations of HIV infection with important consequences. Early detection and treatment is essential to prevent progression. Fatigue and depressive Symptoms are common in HIV-infection. Depression has a significant impact on the quality of life of persons living with HIV and is associated with HIV disease progression and mortality, either poor adherence with antiretroviral regiments or risk for suicide. Personality disorder is also common in the HIV- positive population. Symptoms of anxiety are very common in this patient population under substantial stress, while major anxiety disorders appear to occur with the same frequency as in the general population. Alcohol and substance abuse disorders are common in individuals across HIV risk factors. Psychiatric disorders often predate and are independent problems that interact with HIV infection and treatment. Patients with AIDS have an elevated rate of suicide. This suicidal patients require the same psychological and social Support as other persons at risk for suicide.

  5. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah; Grulich, Andrew E; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Mitsuyasu, Ronald; Tambussi, Giuseppe; Sabin, Caroline A; Neaton, James D; Lundgren, Jens D

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  6. Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present two cases of avascular osteonecrosis, one involving the knees and the other the hips, in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who met the criteria for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We review the literature concerning this rare complication of HIV infection, focussing especially on the clinical and radiological features and its possible etiopathogenesis. (Author) 30 refs

  7. Discrepant coagulation profile in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Anna Karen; Lund, Tamara T.; Birch, Carsten; Rönsholt, Frederikke; Trøseid, Marius; Ullum, Henrik; Gerstoft, Jan; Johansson, Per I.; Nielsen, Susanne Dam; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2013-01-01

    In HIV infection, cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a clinical problem, and elevated D-dimer has been reported. The pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. We aimed to investigate whether untreated HIV-infected individuals display evidence of functional coagulopathy...

  8. Coinfection of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Lartey, Margaret; Adusei, L; Hanson-Nortey, L; Addy, JH

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis has recently been discovered in some parts of Ghana. The case of an HIV infected patient presenting with cutaneous leishmaniasis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital is discussed. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was confirmed by histology. Also highlighted is the fact that this is the first reported case of dual infection of HIV and Leishmaniasis in Ghana.

  9. Ocular Syphilis among HIV-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Joseph D. Tucker; Lobo, Ann-Marie; Marra, Christina M.; Davis, Benjamin T.; Papaliodis, George N.; Felsenstein, Donna; Durand, Marlene L; Yawetz, Sigal; Robbins, Gregory K.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individual with ocular manifestations of secondary syphilis. Twelve other cases of HIV-associated ocular syphilis are also presented. Six of 12 individuals had normal cerebrospinal fluid study results, and 3 patients required retreatment within 1.5 years. In patients with HIV infection, clinicians should be vigilant for ocular syphilis despite normal cerebrospinal fluid measures and for syphilis reinfection.

  10. Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Illness/Condition Information HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Treatment Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share ... in HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS Related Therapies Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Approved ...

  11. Syphilis in the context of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, L; Chandran, R; Marnewick, J C; Chikte, U M E; Gugushe, T S; Meyerov, R; Lemmer, J

    2011-07-01

    Both HIV infection and syphilis are sexually transmitted diseases, share the same risk factors for acquisition and often occur concurrently. Syphilis may promote HIV acquisition and transmission and HIV infection may alter the course and response of syphilis to treatment. Oral lesions may occur at any symptomatic stage during the course of a syphilitic infection, usually presenting as any one of a number of distinct clinical forms, but not infrequently with a variety of nonspecific clinical features, or clinical features mimicking other disease entities. In South Africa where HIV infection is epidemic, syphilis is prevalent. It is the purpose of this paper to review the interrelationship between syphilis and HIV infection, and the oral manifestations of syphilis. PMID:23198478

  12. [Forensic and medical expertise of sexual transmission of venereal diseases and HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrieva, O A; Pigolkin, Iu I; Iutskovskiĭ, A D

    2003-01-01

    Although, there is a steady growth in the total number of sexually transmitted infections (STI), the forensic medical method is a rare expertise type as applicable to venereal and HIV infections. Since sexually abused persons are an STI risk category, they must be diagnosed as soon as possible. A micro-trauma of sexual violence, if detected, is an important finding because it is an open entry gate for STI. The specialist in skin and venereal diseases must examine all victims and all suspected of raping or of sexual violence to rule out the possibility of venereal disease infection. PMID:12939840

  13. Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokta, Mostafa

    2008-02-01

    Oral lesions are among the early signs of HIV infection and can predict progression to AIDS. The lesions commonly associated with the infection include oral candidiasis, herpes simplex infection, oral Kaposi's sarcoma, oral hairy leukoplakia, parotid gland enlargement, gingival diseases, xerostomia, and recurrent oral ulcerations. The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has changed the epidemiology of some of the oral diseases associated with HIV infection. This review discusses the oral manifestations associated with HIV disease, the change in the pattern of the disease, and some research questions that need more emphasis from the research community. PMID:18417029

  14. Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper FW; Lau, Susanna KP; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Woo, Patrick CY

    2016-01-01

    Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei is an important pathogenic thermally dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in Southeast Asia. The clinical significance of T. marneffei became evident when the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic arrived in Southeast Asia in 1988. Subsequently, a decline in the incidence of T. marneffei infection among HIV-infected patients was seen in regions with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy and other control measures for HIV. Since the 1990s, an increasing number of T. marneffei infections have been reported among non-HIV-infected patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. Their comorbidities included primary adult-onset immunodeficiency due to anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies and secondary immunosuppressive conditions including other autoimmune diseases, solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantations, T-lymphocyte-depleting immunsuppressive drugs and novel anti-cancer targeted therapies such as anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies and kinase inhibitors. Moreover, improved immunological diagnostics identified more primary immunodeficiency syndromes associated with T. marneffei infection in children. The higher case-fatality rate of T. marneffei infection in non-HIV-infected than HIV-infected patients might be related to delayed diagnosis due to the lack of clinical suspicion. Correction of the underlying immune defects and early use of antifungals are important treatment strategies. Clinicians should be familiar with the changing epidemiology and clinical management of T. marneffei infection among non-HIV-infected patients. PMID:26956447

  15. Cytokine expression during syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Benfield, Thomas; Kofoed, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about cytokine responses to syphilis infection in HIV-1-infected individuals. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HIV-1 and Treponema pallidum coinfection. Plasma samples from before, during, and after coinfection were analyzed for interleukin (IL)-2, IL...

  16. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis CRelated Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis CRelated Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  17. HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C-Related Liver Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis HIV Infection Accelerates Hepatitis C–Related Liver Fibrosis Email ... the progression of other chronic diseases as well. HIV and Fibrosis Dr. Kirk and his team tapped ...

  18. Maraviroc in the treatment of HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Neelanjana

    2009-01-01

    While a successful HIV vaccine will likely take several more years to become a reality, many anti-retroviral (ARV) drugs are currently available to treat HIV infection, and their efficacious use has improved the quality of life and life expectancy of millions of HIV-infected individuals. A recent addition to these ARVs is a new class of drug that targets the HIV entry process by interfering with the action of the CCR5 coreceptor. The first licensed member of this class is a drug called maravi...

  19. Mental health aspects of HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J

    1993-01-01

    Of the multiple causes of mental disturbance in HIV infection, it is generally safest to consider organic causes first, including opportunistic infections, tumours, medications, and HIV encephalopathy. The psychological stress of the illness will cause different or overlapping presentations that include anxiety and depression. When managing these situations, one should also pay attention to the effects of stress on the social network of the infected person.

  20. HIV: Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Infection and Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rute Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its recognition in the 80s, HIV infection has reached 65 million people worldwide. The presence of the virus in CNS occurs in most patients, increasingly being identified neuropsychiatric disorders associated with infection and / or treatment with ARV. This article intends to briefly review the neuro-pathogenesis and neuropsychiatric disorders associated with HIV infection and treatment with HAART, as well as its therapeutic approach.

  1. How does sex trafficking increase the risk of HIV Infection? An observational study from Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Kathleen E; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J; Silverman, Jay G; Murray, Megan B

    2013-02-01

    Studies have documented the substantial risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection endured by sex-trafficked women, but it remains unclear how exposure to trafficking puts its victims at risk. We assessed whether the association between sex trafficking and HIV could be explained by self-reported forced prostitution or young age at entry into prostitution using cross-sectional data collected from 1,814 adult female sex workers in Karnataka, India, between August 2005 and August 2006. Marginal structural logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for HIV infection. Overall, 372 (21%) women met 1 or both criteria used to define sex trafficking: 278 (16%) began sex work before age 18 years, and 107 (5%) reported being forcibly prostituted. Thirteen (0.7%) met both criteria. Forcibly prostituted women were more likely to be HIV-infected than were women who joined the industry voluntarily, independent of age at entering prostitution (odds ratio = 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.08, 4.90). Conversely, after adjustment for forced prostitution and other confounders, no association between age at entry into prostitution and HIV was observed. The association between forced prostitution and HIV infection became stronger in the presence of sexual violence (odds ratio = 11.13, 95% confidence interval: 2.41, 51.40). These findings indicate that forced prostitution coupled with sexual violence probably explains the association between sex trafficking and HIV. PMID:23324332

  2. Sexually Transmitted Infections among HIV-1-Discordant Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Guthrie, Brandon L.; KIARIE, James N.; Morrison, Susan; John-Stewart, Grace C.; Kinuthia, John; Whittington, William L. H.; FARQUHAR, CAREY

    2009-01-01

    Introduction More new HIV-1 infections occur within stable HIV-1-discordant couples than in any other group in Africa, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may increase transmission risk among discordant couples, accounting for a large proportion of new HIV-1 infections. Understanding correlates of STIs among discordant couples will aid in optimizing interventions to prevent HIV-1 transmission in these couples. Methods HIV-1-discordant couples in which HIV-1-infected partners were HSV-2...

  3. HIV infection and maternal and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, P

    1988-01-01

    Collaborative studies to determine the consequences of pregnancy in HIV infected women have been begun in the last 2 years. Both HIV and HIV antibodies pass through the placenta, and 30-50% of infants born to HIV infected mothers are infected in utero. In developed countries it is feasible to screen pregnant women in high risk groups for HIV positivity. In developing countries, where heterosexual transmission is the main route of infection, there are no high risk groups, and it is not feasible to screen all pregnant women. Some data have shown that HIV infection in pregnancy is associated with intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and high infant mortality. There is no evidence that cesarean section reduces infection in neonates, and it should not be performed on HIV infected women. By 1987 almost 1.5% of AIDS cases in the US were in vertically infected infants. In Africa also the main factor in HIV in infancy is vertical transmission. AIDS in infancy follows 1 of 2 distinct patterns: failure to thrive and death from Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia within the 1st year or else apparent health during infancy but death from opportunistic infections by age 3. HIV infection in childhood is uncommon and can usually be traced to blood transfusions or unsterilized needles used for vaccinations. Neurological symptoms often develop early in children. Breast feeding probably does not infect any infants who have not already been infected in utero, and in developing counties breast feeding is still the best assurance of total nutrition. Pooled, unpasteurized milk banks, on the other hand, represent an unnecessary danger, and milk donors should be screened. Since there is no evidence that routine immunization accelerates the course of HIV infection, and since mass screening is not feasible in developing countries, the World Health Organization recommends that routine immunizations be continued. Since the best protection from in utero HIV infection is the use of contraception, it is recommended that contraceptive regimens should be continued, but the use of condoms is recommended in addition. In India the 1st AIDS cases were found among prostitutes in Madras, and a nationwide serosurveillance program was implemented within 6 months. By October, 1987, 145 seropositive persons were identified, of whom 13 had AIDS. The main methods of minimizing in utero infection remain sex education, sterilization of instruments, and contraception. PMID:3225025

  4. Adapting an evidence-based intervention for HIV to avail access to testing and risk-reduction counseling for female victims of sexual violence in post-earthquake Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahill, Guitele J; Joshi, Manisha; Hernandez, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Haiti has the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean. Before the 2010 earthquake, Haitian women bore a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS, had lower HIV knowledge, less capacity to negotiate for safer sex, and limited access to HIV testing and risk-reduction (RR) counseling. Since 2010, there has been an increase in sexual violence against women, characterized by deliberate vaginal injuries by non-intimate partners, increasing victims' risk of sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Needed is an adaptation of evidence-based interventions for HIV that include HIV testing and counseling for this stigmatized population. We reviewed several features of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 103 evidence-based interventions for HIV (e.g., measures used, participant risk characteristics, theoretical framework, outcome variables, and evidence tier) in an attempt to seek a feasibly adaptable evidence-based intervention for HIV that could be used for victims of sexual violence (VOSV). RESPECT, one of the reviewed evidence-based HIV interventions, comprises of one-on-one, client-focused HIV prevention/RR counseling, and RAPID HIV testing. Adapting RESPECT can enhance access to testing for Haitian VOSV and can influence their perceptions of HIV risk, and establishment of RR goals for future consensual intimate relations. Adapting and implementing RESPECT can increase uptake of evidence-based HIV interventions among Haitians and positively affect a region with high HIV prevalence and increased rates of sexual violence. PMID:26278002

  5. Epidemiology of HIV infection in Northern Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, facilities for HIV screening are available since 1987. So far, 54, 170 individuals have been tested. These included 48235 blood donors, 3369 persons proceeding abroad, 561 patients of venereal diseases, 350 Lymphoma cases, 21 deportees from the UAE, 460 clinically suspected cases of AIDS, 735 persons who were worried about HIV infection and 439 family members of HIV positive cases. A total of 30 cases were positive for anti-HIV on a strict protocol, which included screening tests followed by confirmatory tests including Western blot for HIV antibodies. The mode of HIV transmission was ascertained after a detailed history of all seropostive cases. It was found that in 24 cases the virus was acquired through sexual contact with high risk persons, which was homosexual in 3, heterosexual in 17, and bisexual in 4 cases. In 4 cases, the infection was acquired through blood transfusion, one child was infected through breast feeding, whereas only in one case the exact mode of HIV transmission was unclear. Out of 30 HIV positive cases, only three cases acquired the disease within Pakistan, 20 had acquired HIV infection during their stay in the Gulf states, while few cases had it from other countries (Saudi Arabia 1, Greece 1, France 2, S E Asia 3). (author)

  6. HIV infection, aging and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, Kathy; Worm, Signe W

    2011-01-01

    In the developed world, HIV infection is now well managed with very effective and less toxic antiretroviral treatment. HIV-positive patients therefore are living longer, but are now faced by challenges associated with aging. Several non-AIDS associated morbidities are increased in this population....... High rates of smoking, dyslipidaemia and a family history of CVD have been reported. This population is also aging, with estimates of more than 25% of HIV-positive patients in the developed world being over the age of 50. Antiretroviral treatment, both through its effect on lipids and through other......, sometimes less well understood, mechanisms, has been linked to increased CVD risk. HIV infection, especially untreated, is a further contributing factor to increased CVD risk in HIV-positive patients. As the HIV-positive population continues to age, the risk of CVD will continue to increase. Guidelines for...

  7. HIV infection and the kidneys, Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basta-Jovanović Gordana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV- (Human immunodeficiency Virus infected patients may be faced with a variety of renal problem patterns. Acute renal failure is common and most often the result of sepsis, hypertension, and toxic agents. Besides acute renal failure, HIV-associated nephropathy occurs in many HIV-positive patients, representing a unique pattern of sclerosing glomerulopathy, Many authors consider it to be the most rapidly progressive form of focal segmental sclerosis.

  8. Humanized Mouse Models of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Paul W.; Garcia, J Victor

    2011-01-01

    Because of the limited tropism of HIV, in vivo modeling of this virus has been almost exclusively limited to other lentiviruses such as SIV that reproduce many important characteristics of HIV infection. However, there are significant genetic and biological differences among lentiviruses and some HIV-specific interventions are not effective against other lentiviruses in non-human hosts. For these reasons much emphasis has recently been placed on developing alternative animal models that suppo...

  9. Neuromuscular Diseases Associated with HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson-Papp, Jessica; David M. Simpson

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders are common in HIV, occurring at all stages of disease and affecting all parts of the peripheral nervous system. These disorders have diverse etiologies including HIV itself, immune suppression and dysregulation, co-morbid illnesses and infections, and side effects of medications. In this article, we review the following HIV-associated conditions: distal symmetric polyneuropathy, inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, mononeuropathy, mononeuropathy multiplex, autono...

  10. Triple trouble : tuberculosis, HIV infection and malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Lettow, Monique Hendrika Elizabeth van

    2005-01-01

    Tuberculosis has emerged as the second commonest cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, after HIV/AIDS, killing nearly 2 million people each year. Most cases occur in less-developed countries. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the greatest single risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis in adults. Hence, over the past decade, tuberculosis incidence has increased in Africa, mainly as a result of the burden of HIV infection. The association between tuberculosis ...

  11. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...

  12. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies...... indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of published studies that evaluated the in vitro and in vivo activity of RAPA in HIV. RAPA represses HIV-1...... replication in vitro through different mechanisms including, but not limited, to down regulation of CCR5. In addition RAPA synergistically enhances the anti-HIV activity of entry inhibitors such as vicriviroc, aplaviroc and enfuvirtide in vitro. RAPA also inhibits HIV-1 infection in human peripheral blood...

  13. The link between HIV/AIDS and violence among young adults: A study in Udupi, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Yadav

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Violence is a major public health problem which affects the community and threatens the life of people. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and different forms of violence among HIV positive young adults taking antiretroviral therapy (ART in Udupi district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HIV positive young adults (18-35 years who were aware of their status. The participants were selected from ART Centre of Udupi district adopting convenience sampling. Data were collected from 200 young HIV positive young adults using a predesigned, pre-tested self-administered questionnaire. Results: The overall prevalence of domestic violence was 14.5% and was found to be more among females (17.6% as compared to males (6.9%. This difference was statistically significant among gender with a P-value <0.05. Among the various forms of violence the prevalence of physical violence was found to be 14.5% with significant difference among gender. Among females who experienced physical violence, husband was perpetrator in 76% cases and among males, parents/relatives as the perpetrator in 75% cases. Around 8.5% of females had experienced sexual violence and husband was perpetrator in 50% of the cases followed by relatives and friend/acquaintance. Conclusion: Physical and sexual violence was found to be more in female HIV positive patients as compared to males. The presence of violence among HIV positive young adults especially among the females demands for the concerted efforts at combating underlying factors leading to violence among this vulnerable group of HIV positive young adults.

  14. Pneumonia in HIV-Infected Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Tural Önür

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS is an immune system disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. The purpose of this review is to investigate the correlation between an immune system destroyed by HIV and the frequency of pneumonia. Observational studies show that respiratory diseases are among the most common infections observed in HIV-infected patients. In addition, pneumonia is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients. According to articles in literature, in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, the use of prophylaxis provides favorable results for the treatment of pneumonia. Here we conduct a systematic literature review to determine the pathogenesis and causative agents of bacterial pneumonia, tuberculosis (TB, nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, fungal pneumonia, Pneumocystis pneumonia, viral pneumonia and parasitic infections and the prophylaxis in addition to ART and HAART for treatment. Pneumococcus-based polysaccharide vaccine is recommended to avoid some type of specific bacterial pneumonia.

  15. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Darak, Shrinivas; Hutter, Inge; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Kulkarni, Vinay; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N = 560), were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardiz...

  16. The link between HIV/AIDS and violence among young adults: A study in Udupi, Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    Nilesh Yadav; Ramachandra Kamath; Lena Ashok; Bharatesh Shetty; B Mohandas Hegde; Murali Dhar; Varalakshmi Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Violence is a major public health problem which affects the community and threatens the life of people. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence and different forms of violence among HIV positive young adults taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Udupi district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among HIV positive young adults (18-35 years) who were aware of their status. The participants were selected from ART Centre of Udupi district adopting convenie...

  17. HIV infection and the gastrointestinal immune system

    OpenAIRE

    Brenchley, JM; Douek, DC

    2008-01-01

    There has recently been a resurgence of interest in the gastrointestinal pathology observed in patients infected with HIV. The gastrointestinal tract is a major site of HIV replication, which results in massive depletion of lamina propria CD4 T cells during acute infection. Highly active antiretroviral therapy leads to incomplete suppression of viral replication and substantially delayed and only partial restoration of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells. The gastrointestinal pathology associated wi...

  18. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoharan G

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8%

  19. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Manoharan G; Padmavathy B; Vasanthi S; Gopalte R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8&#x...

  20. Cryptococcal meningitis among HIV infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, G; Padmavathy, B K; Vasanthi, S; Gopalte, R

    2001-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is an emerging opportunistic infection among HIV infected patients and an important cause of mortality among these patients. The incidence of cryptococcal meningitis varies from place to place. A total of 31 specimens of CSF out of 89 samples processed from known HIV positive cases yielded Cryptococcus neoformans during the period of 3 years. C.neoformans was the most common opportunistic pathogen isolated from CSF samples of these patients with an incidence of 34.8% PMID:17664823

  1. Engendering health sector responses to sexual violence and HIV in Kenya: Results of a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Kilonzo, Nduku; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Molyneux, Catherine; Kibaru, Josephine; Kimonji, Virginia; Theobald, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Abstract In Kenya many people who have been affected by sexual violence turn to the health sector for clinical treatment and preventive therapies. This interface provides a vital opportunity to impact on the dual epidemics of HIV and sexual violence. Despite this, the uptake of existing post-rape care services was low when the study was commenced and health care providers feel ill-prepared to deal with the consequences of sexual violence. A qualitative study was conducted to better...

  2. Global oral inequalities in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, S J

    2016-04-01

    Analysis of the prevalence and incidence of HIV infection globally reveal striking variances with regard to continent, country, region and gender. Of the global total of 33 million people infected with HIV, approximately 65% are in sub-Saharan African countries and 15% in South and South-East Asia with the remaining 20% spread over the rest of the world. As a percentage of the population, the Caribbean at 1.1% is second only to sub-Saharan Africa (5.5%). The majority of the world's HIV is in women. Deaths from HIV are twenty-fold greater in Africa than in Europe or the USA. Individual countries in sub-Saharan Africa show huge variances in the HIV+ prevalence with most West African countries having a rate of less than 2% whilst southern African countries including Swaziland and Botswana have rates of around 25%. Environment, education and social habits all contribute to the HIV infection rates. Similar variations between countries are seen in SE Asia with Cambodia and Papua New Guinea having rates three times greater than Pakistan. One of the most striking examples of inequality is in life years added to HIV populations as a result of antiretroviral therapy. UN AIDS figures over 1996-2008 suggest an average of 2.88 added years in the USA and Europe, but only 0.1 in sub-Saharan Africa, a thirty-fold difference largely due to accessibility to ART. ART leads to a reduction in oral lesions but it is estimated that some 10 million HIV+ subjects do not have access to oral care. Thus, inequalities exist both for HIV infection and for the associated oral lesions, mainly related to ART access. HIV infection and oral mucosal lesions both appear to be related to general social determinants of health. Oral HCW must be part of mainstream healthcare teams to address these inequalities. PMID:27109270

  3. When to consider acute HIV infection in the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Richard M; Hardwicke, Robin L; Grimes, Deanna E; DeGarmo, D Sean

    2016-01-16

    Patients presenting with fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy are likely to have mononucleosis; however, patients with acute HIV infection may present with similar symptoms. Acute HIV infection should be considered as a differential diagnosis if test results for mononucleosis are negative. This article describes when to order HIV testing and discusses the importance of early intervention for acute HIV infection. PMID:26678418

  4. Oral candidosis in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Soysa, Niroshani S; Ellepola, Arjuna N; Yatani, Hirofumi; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2008-11-01

    Oral candidosis (syn. Oral candidiasis; OC), is a collective term given to a group of oral mucosal disorders caused by the fugal pathogen belonging to the genus Candida. The association of OC with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been known since the advent of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic. OC is one of the earliest manifestations of HIV disease in high risk individuals not undergoing chemotherapy and is also a strong predictor of the subsequent risk of AIDS-related illness or death. With the advances in HIV therapy, such as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), the prevalence and presenting features of OC have changed in HIV-infected individuals, especially those in industrialized countries. The presence of OC in "controlled" HIV-positive individuals may be indicative of a patient nonadherence to therapy or possible failure. The factors contributing to the genesis of OC and its progression in these individuals are poorly understood, but may include an interrelationship between HIV and Candida and/or a dysfunction in the local immunity, superimposed on weakened cell-mediated immunity and depletion of CD4 T cells. The dramatic increase in publications on this topic matches the increased importance and awareness of this opportunistic infection in HIV-infected individuals. In this review we first address the epidemiologic and clinical features of OC in HIV-infected persons, followed by the current understanding of the pathogenesis of OC in the context of HIV infection with a concluding section on the current management concepts of OC. PMID:18991614

  5. HIV infection risk factors among male-to-female transgender persons: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Santis, Joseph P

    2009-01-01

    Male-to-female (MTF) transgender women experience a host of psychosocial issues such as discrimination, stigmatization, and marginalization. These challenges often limit economic opportunities, affect mental health, and may place members of this population at an increased risk for HIV infection. This report presents a review of the literature that focuses on risk factors for HIV infection specific to the MTF population. Factors including needle sharing and substance abuse, high-risk sexual behaviors, commercial sex work, health care access, lack of knowledge regarding HIV transmission, violence, stigma and discrimination, and mental health issues have been identified in the literature as risk factors for the acquisition of HIV infection by members of this population. Implications for care provided to MTF transgender persons are presented, and suggestions for future research are identified. PMID:19732695

  6. Retinitis due to opportunistic infections in Iranian HIV infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdollahi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We tried to evaluate prevalence and characteristics of Iranian HIV infected patients with retinitis due to opportunistic infections. In this cross sectional study, we evaluated 106 HIV infected patients via indirect ophthalmoscopy and slit lamp examination by 90 lens to find retinitis cases. General information and results of ophthalmologic examination were analyzed. Prevalence of retinitis due to opportunistic infections was 6.6%: cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis 1.88%, toxoplasmosis retinochoroiditis 1.88% and tuberculosis chorioretinitis 2.83%. CD4 count was higher than 50 cell/µlit in both cases with CMV retinitis. Along with increasing survival in the HIV infected patients, the prevalence of complications such as ocular manifestation due to opportunistic infections are increasing and must be more considered.

  7. Effect of Physical Violence on Sexually Transmitted Infections and Treatment Seeking Behaviour among Female Sex Workers in Thane District, Maharashtra, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ravi; Manthri, Suneedh; Tayyaba, Shaikh; Joy, Anna; Raj, Sunil Saksena; Singh, Devender; Agarwal, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Background Violence against sex workers can heighten their vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Evidence suggests the risk of acquiring STI/HIV infections among female sex workers (FSWs) who have experienced violence to be almost three-times higher than FSWs, who have not experienced violence. Moreover, an experience of physical and sexual violence makes it difficult for them to negotiate safer sex with their partners and often act as a barrier to utilization of prevention services. Methods This study utilizes data from 2785 FSWs aged 18 years and above who participated in a cross-sectional behavioural study conducted during 2013–14 in Thane district, Maharashtra. A probability-based two-stage cluster sampling method was used for data collection. This study assesses the effect of physical violence on self-reported STI symptoms (any STI and multiple STIs) and treatment seeking for the last STI symptom using propensity score matching method. Results About 18% of sampled FSWs reported physical violence at the time of the survey. The likelihood of experiencing such violence was significantly higher among FSWs who solicited clients at public places, engaged in other economic activities apart from sex work, had savings, and reported high client volume per week. FSWs experiencing violence were also inconsistent condom users while engaging in sex with regular partners and clients. The average adjusted effect of violence clearly depicted an increase in the risk of any STI (11%, pphysical violence on reporting of any STI symptom and treatment seeking. Findings call for the immediate inclusion of strategies aimed to address violence related challenges in HIV prevention program currently being provided at Thane district. Such strategies would further help in enhancing the access to tailored STI prevention and care services among FSWs in the district. PMID:26933884

  8. Neuropsychological Dysfunction among HIV Infected Drug Abusers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani S. Durvasula

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has been documented to cause direct and indirect central nervous system dysfunction that can be observed as a progressive decline in neuropsychological functioning in a large proportion of persons with HIV and AIDS. Neuropsychological decline in individuals with HIV is characterized by cognitive and motor slowing, attentional deficits, executive dysfunction and memory impairment (characterized by intact recognition and deficits in learning and delayed recall. Dementia occurs in a relatively small proportion of HIV infected individuals, though milder NP deficits are observed in 30-50% of persons with advanced disease. Recent evidence suggests that drug users, especially stimulant users, are at risk for accelerated progression of their HIV disease, including a greater risk of neuropsychological dysfunction. Methamphetamine may potentiate HIV Tat protein mediated neurotoxicity giving rise to striatal proinflammatory cytokine stimulation and activation of redox-regulated transcription factors. Oxidative stress due to mitochondrial dysfunction is another candidate process underlying the synergistic effects of stimulant use and HIV. Damage to neurotransmitter systems including the dopaminergic, serotonergic and glutamatergic systems which are affected by both stimulant use and HIV is an alternate explanation. Methamphetamine has also been shown to impede the effectiveness of HAART, which could then in turn allow for more rapid HIV disease progression. A greater prevalence of psychiatric disorders, particularly mood, anxiety and substance use disorders are also observed in HIV positive samples relative to the general population. The changing nature of the HIV pandemic is an ongoing challenge to investigators and clinicians working in this field. Emerging issues requiring additional attention are study of the interactive effects of normal aging and HIV on neurocognition as well as study of the effects of co-infection with Hepatitis C.

  9. Occurrence of Pregnancies among HIV Infected Indian Women: Does Knowledge about HIV Status Make a Difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Shrinivas Darak; Inge Hutter; Sanjeevani Kulkarni; Vinay Kulkarni; Fanny Janssen

    2015-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the behavioural effect of HIV on fertility among HIV infected women in India. Retrospective calendar data from ever-married HIV infected women between 15 and 45 years of age, attending a specialized HIV clinic in Pune, Western India (N=560), were analysed. Directly standardized overall and parity-specific pregnancy rates were compared among HIV infected women before and after coming to know about their HIV status. The age- and parity-standardized pregnancy r...

  10. ‘Occam's Scissors’: opportunistic infections in advanced HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Nirav; Owen, Leah; Bhagani, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    The authors report the case of a new diagnosis of advanced HIV-1 infection with a blood CD4 cell count of 0.003×109/L (2%), presenting with weight loss, night sweats, diarrhoea and anorexia. Symptoms were due to disseminated histoplasmosis (confirmed pulmonary and colonic disease), Pneumocystis pneumonia and oral candidiasis highlighting the limitations of ‘Occam's razor’ with advanced HIV infection.

  11. Microbiome alterations in HIV infection a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brett; Landay, Alan; Presti, Rachel M

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in molecular techniques have allowed researchers to identify previously uncultured organisms, which has propelled a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding our commensal microbiota. Interest in the microbiome specific to HIV grew from earlier findings suggesting that bacterial translocation from the intestines is the cause of persistent immune activation despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of SIV infected primates have demonstrated that Proteobacteria preferentially translocate and that mucosal immunity can be restored with probiotics. Pathogenic SIV infection results in a massive expansion of the virome, whereas non-pathogenic SIV infection does not. Human HIV infected cohorts have been shown to have microbiota distinctive from that of HIV negative controls and efforts to restore the intestinal microbiome via probiotics have often had positive results on host markers. The microbiota of the genital tract may play a significant role in acquisition and transmission of HIV. Modification of commensal microbial communities likely represents an important therapeutic adjunct to treatment of HIV. Here we review the literature regarding human microbiome in HIV infection. PMID:26945815

  12. Violence against women in sex work and HIV risk implications differ qualitatively by perpetrator

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Michele R; Pearson, Erin; Illangasekare, Samantha L.; Clark, Erin; Sherman, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical and sexual violence heighten STI/HIV risk for women in sex work. Against this backdrop, we describe the nature of abuse against women in sex work, and its STI/HIV implications, across perpetrators. Methods Adult women involved in sex work (n = 35) in Baltimore, MD participated in an in-depth interview and brief survey. Results Physical and sexual violence were prevalent, with 43% reporting past-month abuse. Clients were the primary perpetrators; their violence was severe, ...

  13. Violence Screening and Viral Load Suppression Among HIV-Positive Women of Color

    OpenAIRE

    Espino, Susan Ryerson; Fletcher, Jason; Gonzalez, Marisol; Precht, Allison; Xavier, Jessica; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measur...

  14. Renal Pathology in Portuguese HIV-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, AC; Carvalho, D; Carvalho, F; Galvão, MJ; Nolasco, F

    2011-01-01

    HIV-infected patients may be affected by a variety of renal disorders. Portugal has a high incidence of HIV2 infection and a low prevalence of HIV-infected patients under dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was to characterise the type of renal disease in Portuguese HIV-infected patients and to determine if HIV2 infection is associated to renal pathology. Only 60 of the 5158 HIV-infected patients followed in our hospital underwent renal biopsy. Clinical and laboratory data and the...

  15. Mycobacterial Lung Disease Complicating HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Michelle K; Daley, Charles L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial infections have caused enormous morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Of these, the most devastating has been tuberculosis (TB), the leading cause of death among HIV-positive persons globally. TB has killed more people living with HIV than any other infection. Diagnosis of latent TB infection (LTBI) is critical as treatment can prevent emergence of TB disease. Bacteriologic confirmation of TB disease should be sought whenever possible as well as drug susceptibility testing. When detected early, drug susceptible TB is curable. Similar to TB, nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) can also produce pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections including disseminated disease that can be fatal. Diagnosis through accurate identification of the pathogenic organism will greatly inform treatment. Depending on the NTM identified, treatment may not be curable. Ultimately, preventive strategies such as initiation of antiretroviral drugs and treatment of LTBI are interventions expected to have significant impacts on control of TB and NTM in the setting of HIV. This chapter will review the impact of pulmonary mycobacterial infections on HIV-positive individuals. PMID:26974300

  16. Kinetic model of HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments clarifying the details of exhaustion of CD8 T cells specific to various strains of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are indicative of slow irreversible (on a one-year time scale) deterioration of the immune system. The conventional models of HIV kinetics do not take this effect into account. Removing this shortcoming, we show the likely influence of such changes on the escape of HIV from control of the immune system

  17. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no signs...... of vasculitis. We review previous reported cases and radiological findings in HIV encephalitis and discuss the role of antiretroviral therapy and steroids in its management....

  18. Feasibility of an HIV/STI Risk-Reduction Program for Incarcerated Women Who Have Experienced Interpersonal Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Peabody, Marlanea E; Wechsberg, Wendee M; Rosen, Rochelle K; Fernandes, Karen; Zlotnick, Caron

    2015-11-01

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and interpersonal violence (IV; e.g., childhood abuse, partner violence, and rape) victimization are significant and interconnected public health problems facing incarcerated women. We adapted a best-evidence HIV-prevention intervention for women (the Women's CoOp) to address sexual safety among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence victimization. The standard Women's CoOp teaches safe sex, substance use harm reduction, and violence prevention information and skills needed to empower women to make more intentional decisions about their safety. We also incorporated strategies to increase affect management, social support, and access to community resources. This resulted in the first trauma-focused HIV-prevention intervention for women that directly addresses the sequelae of IV (such as affect dysregulation in sexual situations) within the context of HIV harm reduction. This manuscript describes the rationale, feasibility, acceptability, and pre-post outcomes of this intervention among 14 women nearing release from prison in two state prison systems. Assessments took place at baseline, prior to release, and at 2-, 5-, and 8 months after release. The intervention overall and each of its components were feasible and acceptable. Participants' number of unprotected sexual occasions, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depressive symptoms decreased significantly from baseline to post-release. Effectiveness in obtaining resources increased significantly from baseline to post-release. Because pre-post measurements of outcomes are confounded with incarceration and subsequent release in this preliminary study, a randomized controlled trial is needed to establish the efficacy of this tailored intervention. PMID:25395223

  19. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  20. Stem-Cell-Based Gene Therapy for HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjie Zhen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the enormous success of combined anti-retroviral therapy, HIV infection is still a lifelong disease and continues to spread rapidly worldwide. There is a pressing need to develop a treatment that will cure HIV infection. Recent progress in stem cell manipulation and advancements in humanized mouse models have allowed rapid developments of gene therapy for HIV treatment. In this review, we will discuss two aspects of HIV gene therapy using human hematopoietic stem cells. The first is to generate immune systems resistant to HIV infection while the second strategy involves enhancing anti-HIV immunity to eliminate HIV infected cells.

  1. Encephalitis in primary HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helleberg, M; Kirk, O

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of primary HIV encephalitis, which initially presented as acute psychosis. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was suggestive of vasculitis and multiple infarctions, whereas a brain biopsy after six weeks of symptoms showed HIV encephalitis with microglial nodules, but no sig...

  2. Plasma Proteomic Profiling in HIV-1 Infected Methamphetamine Abusers

    OpenAIRE

    Pottiez, Gwenael; Jagadish, Teena; Yu, Fang; LETENDRE, SCOTT; Ellis, Ronald; Duarte, Nichole A.; GRANT, Igor; GENDELMAN, HOWARD E.; Fox, Howard S; Ciborowski, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV i...

  3. Renal pathology and HIV infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praditpornsilpa, K; Napathorn, S; Yenrudi, S; Wankrairot, P; Tungsaga, K; Sitprija, V

    1999-02-01

    The existence of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) as a distinct disease entity characterized by glomerulosclerosis is well established in North America and Western Europe. Although the large number of HIV-infected cases overwhelm the Asian countries, no cases of HIVAN are documented in the literature. We studied 26 cases of HIV-infected Thai patients with proteinuria greater than 1.5 g/d of protein during 1995 and 1996. None of the patients were treated with antiretroviral drugs at the time of renal biopsy. Intravenous drug addiction and sexual transmission were risk factors in 11 and 15 patients, respectively. Pathological examinations were performed by light microscopic and immunoperoxidase study. Mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis was found in 17 cases, immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy in 2 cases, and diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis secondary to cryptococcal infection in 2 cases each. One case each had membranous glomerulopathy, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis secondary to tuberculosis. The renal pathological findings of HIVAN with the unique features described in previous literature were not evident in these patients. Although the data in this study are limited to 26 HIV-infected Thai patients, we believe that HIVAN is uncommon in the Asian HIV-infected population. PMID:10023639

  4. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;

  5. Virology, Immunology, and Clinical Course of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchan, J. Allen

    1990-01-01

    Presents overview of medical aspects of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Addresses structure and replication of virus, current methods for detecting HIV-1 in infected persons, effects of the virus on immune system, and clinical course of HIV-1 disease. Emphasizes variable causes of progression through HIV-1 infection stages;…

  6. Host-pathogen interaction in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Ankita; Silvestri, Guido

    2013-01-01

    The host pathogen interaction is strikingly complex during HIV infection. While several immune effector mechanisms (i.e., cytotoxic T cells, neutralizing antibodies, NK cells, etc) can play a strong antiviral role in vivo, the virus is remarkably able to evade these responses. In addition, the virus preferentially infects and kills activated memory CD4+ T cells, thus exploiting the host antiviral immune response as a source of new cellular targets for infection. Recent advances in understandi...

  7. Neuropsychiatric manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Dubé, Benoit; Benton, Tami; Cruess, Dean G.; Evans, Dwight L.

    2005-01-01

    As the life expectancy of people living with HIV infection has increased (through recent advances in antiretroviral therapy), clinicians have been more likely to encounter neuropsychiatric manifestations of the disease. Some patients present with cognitive deficits due to an HIV-triggered neurotoxic cascade in the central nervous system. However, more patients present with a depressive spectrum disorder during the course of their illness, the underlying pathogenesis of which is not as well un...

  8. DOLUTEGRAVIR efficacy in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitru Irina Magdalena; Cernat Roxana Carmen; Rugină S.

    2015-01-01

    In the past years there have been numerous discoveries regarding treatment of patients with HIV. If at first the doctors watched as patients live longer, now we want these patients to live better with regimens potent, safe, individualized and without side effects. HAART has revolutionized “the world HIV” and caused a significant reduction in mortality, and morbidity associated with HIV-related opportunistic infections. However, side effects associated with HAART, metabolic toxicity (such as a...

  9. The natural history of HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabin, C.A.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review recent published literature around three areas: long-term nonprogression/viral control; predictors of viral load set point/disease progression; and the potential impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in early HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: The natural course of...... ongoing research efforts will hopefully identify host factors that are causally related to these phenotypes, thus providing opportunities for the development of novel treatment or preventive strategies. Although there is increasing evidence that initiation of ART during primary infection may prevent the...... immunological deterioration which would otherwise be seen in untreated HIV infection, recent studies do not address the longer term clinical benefits of ART at this very early stage. SUMMARY: A better understanding of the relative influences of viral, host, and environmental factors on the natural course of HIV...

  10. HIV and gender-based violence: welcome policies and programmes, but is the research keeping up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruskin, Sofia; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Moore, Chelsea L; Steiner, Riley J; Dworkin, Shari L

    2014-11-01

    The global HIV policy arena has seen a surge of interest in gender-related dimensions of vulnerability to HIV and violence. UNAIDS and other prominent actors have named gender-based violence a key priority, and there seems to be genuine understanding and commitment to addressing gender inequalities as they impact key populations in the AIDS response. In the quest for evidence-informed interventions, there is usually a strong connection between the research conducted and the policies and programmes that follow. Regarding gender, HIV and violence, is this the case? This discussion paper asks whether the relevant peer-reviewed literature is suitably representative of all affected populations--including heterosexual men, transgender men and women, women who have sex with women, and men who have sex with men--as well as whether the literature sufficiently considers gender norms and dynamics in how research is framed. Conclusions about violence in the context of heterosexual relationships, and with specific attention to heterosexual women, should not be presented as insights about gender-based violence more generally, with little attention to gender dynamics. Research framed by a more comprehensive understanding of what is meant by gender-based violence as it relates to all of the diverse populations affected by HIV would potentially guide policies and programmes more effectively. PMID:25555774

  11. Characteristics of tuberculous meningitis in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hristea, A; C Manciuc; E Zaharia-Kezdi; C Dorobat; Arbune, M; Olaru, I; R Jipa; Niculescu, I.; Streinu-Cercel, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) has a substantial mortality even with anti-tuberculous treatment, in HIV-non-infected patients. Purpose of the study. The objectives were to describe clinical and laboratory differences of TBM in HIV-infected versus HIV non-infected patients and to assess risk factors of death in HIV-infected patients. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients admitted to four infectious diseases hospitals in Romania, between 2001 and 2011, with TBM. Patients were ...

  12. Approved Generic Formulations of Antiretroviral Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS HIV/AIDS Treatment Approved generic formulations of antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Share ... in HIV/AIDS Treatment HIV/AIDS Related Therapies Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Approved ...

  13. Late diagnosis of HIV infection among prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco Mourio, Andrs; Gallego Castellv, Carlos; Garca de Olalla, Patricia; Sol Zapata, Neus; Argelles Fernndez, Mara Jos; Escribano Ibez, Montserrat; Snchez Roig, Montserrat; Cayl Buqueras, Joan Artur

    2013-01-01

    HIV-risk populations are over-represented in prisons. It is very important to identify late HIV infection diagnosis in this setting from a public health perspective. The objectives of this study are to estimate the prevalence of late diagnosis and identify the predictive factors among inmates of two prisons in Barcelona from 2010 to 2012, and to review late diagnosis in other prisons. A cross-sectional study design was used on inmates with newly-diagnosed HIV infection. Less than 350 CD4 lymphocytes/l was considered late diagnosis. A Medline search was performed. Of the 3,933 total inmates, 1.2% (n = 47) were diagnosed with HIV infection, 1.7% from Prison A and 0.6% from Prison B (p immigrant population, and among intravenous drug users (p = 0.026, p = 0.007, p = 0.03, respectively). The proportion of late diagnosis decreased from 60% in 2010, to 44.4% in 2011 and 20% in 2012 (p = 0.05). The multivariate analysis confirmed an association between late diagnosis and immigrant status (OR: 7.85; 95% CI: 1.8-34.13) and the declining prevalence (p = 0.032). This is the first study to estimate late diagnosis in a prison population. Late diagnosis occurs mainly among the immigrant inmate population. The prison can serve as an opportunity to identify and treat HIV infection among people who have little contact with health services, thus avoiding further transmission. PMID:24002198

  14. Emerging microsporidian infections in Russian HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Olga I; Demyanov, Anton V; Bowers, Lisa C; Didier, Elizabeth S; Yakovlev, Alexei V; Skarlato, Sergei O; Sokolova, Yuliya Y

    2011-06-01

    Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem was detected in one patient, and two patients were identified as being infected by Microsporidium species. One patient was infected with both E. intestinalis and E. cuniculi. In two patients, the microsporidian species were not identifiable. No statistically significant differences in gender, age, and stage of AIDS were observed between the microsporidian-positive and -negative HIV-infected patients. HIV-infected patients diagnosed with microsporidian infection, however, were significantly more likely to exhibit ≤ 100 CD4(+) T cells/μl blood (20/30 patients [67%]; odds ratio [OR], 3.150; 95% confidence interval [CI(95)], 1.280 to 7.750; P = 0.0116) and weight loss of >10% of the baseline (19/30 patients [63%]; odds ratio, 2.995; CI(95), 1.100 to 8.158; P = 0.0352) than HIV-infected patients not diagnosed with microsporidian infection. In summary, this is the first report describing the diagnosis of microsporidian infection of HIV-infected patients in Russia and the first detection of E. cuniculi strain II in a human. PMID:21450962

  15. Fuzzy Modeling and Control of HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Zarei; Ali Vahidian Kamyad; Ali Akbar Heydari

    2012-01-01

    The present study proposes a fuzzy mathematical model of HIV infection consisting of a linear fuzzy differential equations (FDEs) system describing the ambiguous immune cells level and the viral load which are due to the intrinsic fuzziness of the immune system's strength in HIV-infected patients. The immune cells in question are considered CD4+ T-cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs). The dynamic behavior of the immune cells level and the viral load within the three groups of patients wit...

  16. CNS involvement in pediatric HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the spectrum of abnormalities identified by means of CT in children with HIV infection and correlate them with clinical findings; to provide additional insight into the timing and type of insult occurring in these children. The CT studies of 24 HIV-infected children aged 1 mo--8 y were reviewed. The findings were correlated with the history and physical examination. CT abnormalities were seen in 18/24 children. Among 10 children with normal findings on neurologic study, seven showed one or more CT abnormalities. These included microcephaly (n = 2), intracranial calcification (n = 2), and cerebral atrophy (n = 6)

  17. Trajectories of childbearing among HIV infected Indian women

    OpenAIRE

    Darak, Shrinivas; Mills, Melinda; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Hutter, Inge; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    textabstractHIV infection closely relates to and deeply affects the reproductive career of those infected. However, little is known about the reproductive career trajectories, specifically the interaction of the timing of HIV diagnosis with the timing and sequencing of reproductive events among HIV infected women. This is the first study to describe and typify this interaction.

  18. Tuberculosis-HIV Co-infection in Kiev City, Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    van der Werf, Marieke J.; Yegorova, Olga B.; Chentsova, Nelly; Chechulin, Yuriy; Hasker, Epco; Petrenko, Vasyl I.; Veen, Jaap; Turchenko, Leonid V.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004, we tested all patients with newly diagnosed tuberculosis (TB) for HIV in Kiev City. The results were compared to information from medical records of 2002, when co-infection prevalence was 6.3%. Of 968 TB patients, 98 (10.1%) were HIV infected. TB-HIV co-infection is increasing, especially in injecting drug users.

  19. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Usmani; Rifat; Rakesh; Praveen Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs) which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study...

  20. Demographics in HIV-infected children in Denmark: results from the Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes; Jensen-Fangel, Sren; Valerius, Niels Henrik; Nielsen, Vibeke Rosenfeldt; Herlin, Troels; Christensen, Hans Ole; Nielsen, Henrik Ib; Obel, Niels

    2005-01-01

    We present the demographic data on HIV-infected children from the Danish Paediatric HIV Cohort Study, an observational database on HIV in Denmark. Up to 1 July 2003 a total of 89 children had been diagnosed with HIV infection before the age of 16 y, of which 12 (13.5%) had died, 2 (2.2%) had emig...

  1. Clinical profile of HIV infected patients attending a HIV referral clinic in Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Antwal

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Signs and symptoms associated with HIV positivity observed in this study can be used by health care providers to detect HIV infection early. Moreover, similar to HIV testing in patients with tuberculosis, strategies can be developed for considering Herpes zoster as a predictor of HIV infection.

  2. 42 CFR Appendix A to Part 130 - Definition of HIV Infection or HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of HIV Infection or HIV A Appendix A to... PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM Pt. 130, App. A Appendix A to Part 130—Definition of HIV Infection or HIV ER31MY00.000 ER31MY00.001...

  3. Immune Responses to HIV Vaccines and Potential Impact on Control of Acute HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    McElrath, M Juliana

    2010-01-01

    Unanticipated results from two recent candidate HIV-1 vaccine regimens in large-scale international trials highlight the importance of understanding the optimal earliest immune defense against HIV-1 infection. Presented here are key findings in these vaccine studies that have relevance to the development of future HIV-1 vaccines that can control acute HIV-1 infection.

  4. HIV-1 Continues To Replicate and Evolve in Patients with Natural Control of HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Kearney, Mary; Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Schønning, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels; Maldarelli, Frank; Mellors, John W; Benfield, Thomas Lars; Coffin, John M

    2010-01-01

    Elucidating mechanisms leading to the natural control of HIV-1 infection is of great importance for vaccine design and for understanding viral pathogenesis. Rare HIV-1-infected individuals, termed HIV-1 controllers, have plasma HIV-1 RNA levels below the limit of detection by standard clinical...

  5. HIV among men who have sex with men in Malawi: elucidating HIV prevalence and correlates of infection to inform HIV prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea L Wirtz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited data characterizing the burden of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM in Malawi. Epidemiologic research and access to HIV prevention, treatment and care services have been traditionally limited in Malawi by criminalization and stigmatization of same-sex practices. To inform the development of a comprehensive HIV prevention intervention for Malawian MSM, we conducted a community-led assessment of HIV prevalence and correlates of infection. Methods: From April 2011 to March 2012, 338 MSM were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in Blantyre, Malawi. Participants were recruited by respondent-driven sampling methods (RDS, reaching 19 waves. Trained staff administered the socio-behavioural survey and HIV and syphilis voluntary counselling and testing. Results: Crude HIV and syphilis prevalence estimates were 15.4% (RDS-weighted 12.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 7.3–17.8 and 5.3% (RDS-weighted 4.4%, 95% CI: 3.1–7.6, respectively. Ninety per cent (90.4%, unweighted of HIV infections were reported as being previously undiagnosed. Participants were predominantly gay-identified (60.8% or bisexually identified (36.3%; 50.7% reported recent concurrent relationships. Approximately half reported consistent condom use (always or almost always with casual male partners, and proportions were relatively uniform across partner types and genders. The prevalence of perceived and experienced stigma exceeded 20% for almost all variables, 11.4% ever experienced physical violence and 7% were ever raped. Current age >25 years (RDS-weighted adjusted odds ratio (AOR 3.9, 95% CI: 1.2–12.7, single marital status (RDS-weighted AOR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1–0.8 and age of first sex with a man <16 years (RDS-weighted AOR: 4.3, 95% CI: 1.2–15.0 were independently associated with HIV infection. Conclusions: Results demonstrate that MSM represent an underserved, at-risk population for HIV services in Malawi and merit comprehensive HIV prevention services. Results provide a number of priorities for research and prevention programmes for MSM, including providing access to and encouraging regular confidential HIV testing and counselling, and risk reduction counselling related to anal intercourse. Other targets include the provision of condoms and compatible lubricants, HIV prevention information, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection treatment and adherence support. Addressing multiple levels of HIV risk, including structural factors, may help to ensure that programmes have sufficient coverage to impact this HIV epidemic among MSM.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Helminth Co-infection in Kenyan HIV-1 Infected Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Walson, Judd L; Stewart, Barclay T; Sangaré, Laura; Mbogo, Loice W.; Otieno, Phelgona A.; Piper, Benjamin K. S.; Richardson, Barbra A.; John-Stewart, Grace

    2010-01-01

    Background Deworming HIV-1 infected individuals may delay HIV-1 disease progression. It is important to determine the prevalence and correlates of HIV-1/helminth co-infection in helminth-endemic areas. Methods HIV-1 infected individuals (CD4>250 cells/ul) were screened for helminth infection at ten sites in Kenya. Prevalence and correlates of helminth infection were determined. A subset of individuals with soil-transmitted helminth infection was re-evaluated 12 weeks following albendazole the...

  7. ENT presentations in children with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Georgalas, C; Patel, N; Papesch, M

    2003-06-01

    Illnesses of the ear, nose and throat (ENT) are common in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We reviewed the case files of 107 HIV seropositive children in the paediatric HIV unit at St Mary's Hospital. The prevalence, age of onset and type of ENT disease were reviewed. We also determined sex distribution, maternal country of origin and mode of transmission of HIV. Fifty per cent of the HIV children had ENT illnesses. Fifty-five per cent of the children presented with their first ENT symptom before age 3 years with 98% of the children having ENT manifestations by age 9 years. The commonest ENT diseases were cervical lymphadenopathy (70%), otitis media (46%), oral candidiasis (35%) and adenotonsillar disease (31%). HIV transmission was vertical in 90%. Maternal country of origin was Africa in 70% and the UK in 13%. Compared with previous studies, the proportion of HIV children with ENT problems appears to have decreased. Although our figures report a similar ENT symptom profile, the age at onset of these symptoms has increased. PMID:12755764

  8. Patterns of HIV infection among native and refugee Afghans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Amna S; Khanani, Muhammad R; Abidi, Syed H; Shah, Farida; Shahid, Aniqa; Ali, Syed H

    2011-07-17

    The current study was conducted to explore the origins of the HIV epidemics among the Afghan refugees in Pakistan and the native Afghans in Afghanistan. Phylogenetic analysis of HIV gag gene from 40 samples showed diverse HIV variants, originating from a number of countries. Intermixing of diverse HIV variants among Afghans may give rise to seeding of infections with rare HIV strains which may pose serious challenges for the treatment and control of infection. PMID:21516026

  9. HIV infection, bone metabolism, and fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Güerri-Fernández

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of high active antiretroviral therapy there was a significant improvement on HIV subjects survival. Thus, bone changes related to HIV became an important aspect of these individuals. HIV affects bone remodeling causing bone fragility. In addition, antiretroviral therapy may also negatively affect bone metabolism. Several studies describe an increased incidence of fractures in these patients when compared with controls without the disease. The European Society of AIDS (EACS, and other societies, have included guidance on management of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients emphasizing the identification of patients with low bone mass. Supplementation of calcium and vitamin D and the use of alendronate in these individuals should be recommended on a case base.

  10. Legionellosis in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsborg, Jette Marie; Jensen, B N; Friis-Møller, A; Bruun, B

    1990-01-01

    During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. The majority of specimens were bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids (84%), but tracheal suctions and lung tissue from...... autopsies were also examined. The diagnostic methods used were a direct immunofluorescence assay (DFA) for the detection of Legionella antigen, and culture on buffered charcoal yeast extract (BCYE-alpha) media. All specimens were also examined for the presence of other bacterial lung pathogens, and all BAL...... specimens additionally for Pneumocystis carinii and mycobacteria. Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. Dual infection with Legionella and P...

  11. Incomplete immune recovery in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) usually results in diminished viral replication, increasing CD4? cell counts, a reversal of most immunological disturbances, and a reduction in risk of morbidity and mortality. However, approximately 20% of all HIV...... tissue, perturbed frequencies of immune regulators such as regulatory T cells and Th17 cells, and increased immune activation, immunosenescence, and apoptosis. Importantly, INRs have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality compared to HIV-infected patients with an optimal immune reconstitution....... Additional treatment to HAART that may improve immune reconstitution has been investigated, but results thus far have proved disappointing. The reason for immunological nonresponse is incompletely understood. This paper summarizes the known and unknown factors regarding the incomplete immune reconstitution...

  12. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Antonia M Villarruel; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicul...

  13. Access to HIV prevention services among gender based violence survivors in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Mboya, Beati; Temu, Florence; Awadhi, Bayoum; Ngware, Zubeda; Ndyetabura, Elly; Kiondo, Gloria; Maridadi, Janneth

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Currently, Tanzania's HIV prevalence is 5.7%. Gender inequality and Gender Based Violence (GBV) are among factors fuelling the spread of HIV in Tanzania. This study was conducted to assess universal access to HIV prevention services among GBV survivors in Iringa and Dar-es-Salaam where HIV prevalence is as high as 14.7% and 9% respectively compared to a national average of 5.7%. Methods In 2010, a mixed methods study using triangulation model was conducted in Iringa and Dar-es-Sa...

  14. The epidemiology of human papillomavirus in HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, R A; Schim van der Loeff, M.F.; Mooij, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis studied the epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) among HIV-negative and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Anal, penile, and oral HPV prevalence and incidence were high, in particular among HIV-infected MSM. Clearance of anal HPV infection was lower among HIV-infected compared to HIV-negative MSM. HIV infection was strongly associated with HPV infection, independent of sexual behavior and other possible confounder...

  15. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    OpenAIRE

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

  16. Lessons from Africa: combating the twin epidemics of domestic violence and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezer, Tamar

    2008-12-01

    Domestic violence and HIV/AIDS have proven a lethal combination, exacting a heavy toll on women's lives, particularly in Africa. In this article, partially based on a presentation made at the human rights networking zone at the conference, Tamar Ezer examines the interrelation between domestic violence and HIV/AIDS, provides an analysis of obligations under human rights law, and describes innovative programs that attempt to address the intersection of these twin epidemics. The author argues for holistic approaches that address the social, economic and legal dimensions of the problem. PMID:19297762

  17. Thrombocytopenia in HIV-Infected Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Francielle Garcia; Tanaka, Paula Yurie

    2012-06-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a common feature among HIV-positive patients. However, there are few reports about this subject after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) introduction. The authors show a retrospective description of epidemiology, clinical aspects, and treatment observed in 55 HIV-positive outpatients with thrombocytopenia treated in two reference centers for HIV treatment in So Paulo, Brazil. Thirty-four (62%) patients were male, 50 (91%) were Caucasian, with median of lymphocytes TCD4 of 394cells/mm(3). In 63.6% patients, the cause of thrombocytopenia was classified as immune thrombocytopenic purpura and non immune in 25.5%. Regular use of HAART was present in 43.6% of the population studied. In 20% HAART was initiated for thrombocytopenia treatment with improvement in platelets count observed after 3 months. Platelet transfusion was needed in 23.7% of the patients and one patient died due to bleeding. Thrombocytopenia is still common among patients infected with HIV, considered a multifactor disorder, commonly due to immune mechanisms in our cases. In the clinical setting, a diagnostic approach related to the hematological consequences of HIV infection is needed for a better therapy option for this population. PMID:23730018

  18. Macrophage activation in HIV-2 infected patients is less affected by antiretroviral treatment - sCD163 in HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØnge, Bo L; Andersen, Morten N; Jespersen, Sanne; Medina, Candida; Correira, Faustino G; Jakobsen, Martin R; Laursen, Alex; Erikstrup, Christian; MØller, Holger J; Wejse, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The course of disease among HIV-2, HIV-1 and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients is different. We investigated the macrophage activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163) dynamics in 212 HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1/2 dually infected patients. There were no differences in sCD163 levels at baseline or during ...

  19. Intestinal microbiota and HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. S. M. Trindade

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal microbiota consists of a qualitatively and quantitatively diverse range of microorganisms dynamically interacting with the host. It is remarkably stable with regard to the presence of microorganisms and their roles which, however, can be altered due to pathological conditions, diet composition, gastrointestinal disturbances and/or drug ingestion. The present review aimed at contributing to the discussion about changes in the intestinal microbiota due to HIV-1 infection, focusing on the triad infection-microbiota-nutrition as factors that promote intestinal bacterial imbalance. Intestinal microbiota alterations can be due to the HIV-1 infection as a primary factor or the pharmacotherapy employed, or they can be one of the consequences of the disease.

  20. Cryptosporidium muris Infection in an HIV-Infected Adult, Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gatei, Wangeci; Ashford, Richard W.; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Kamwati, S. Kang'ethe; Greensill, Julie; Hart, C. Anthony

    2002-01-01

    We describe a case of Cryptosporidium muris infection in an HIV-infected adult with diarrhea in Kenya. Sequence analysis of an 840-bp region of the 18S rRNA gene locus demonstrated the isolate had 100% nucleotide identity with C. muris recovered from a rock hyrax, 98.8% with a C. muris calf isolate, 95.5% with C. serpentis, but only 87.8% with C. parvum human type.

  1. HIV infection and intervention: the first decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, E J

    1991-01-01

    Integrated intervention strategies, appropriate to the specific socioeconomic context, are required to address the needs of the 18 million adults projected to be infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by the year 2000. Such interventions must operate on two levels. The first is aimed at minimizing the devastating effects of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on individuals, while the second is geared toward halting HIV transmission in populations. The median two-year survival time for people with AIDS had doubled from 10 months before 1987 to 20 months in 1990, primarily because of treatments such as zidovudine that slow down the rate of virus replication, but AIDS patients who survive longer develop more intractable opportunistic infections than in the past. Viral transmission throughout populations can be halted only through a comprehensive strategy that addresses agent, host, and environmental factors in a complementary manner. For example, whether or not high-risk individuals will be willing and able to adopt safer sex practices depends, in large part, on the social, economic, and psychological forces acting on and within those individuals. Finally, public attitudes toward sexuality, drug use, and racial discrimination comprise the moral context in which AIDS prevention strategies must be implemented. The mass media, which have already created public awareness of the problem and corrected many misconceptions, must continue to motivate individuals to adopt behavioral changes that reduce the risk of HIV infection. PMID:1932193

  2. Multicentric Castleman's disease & HIV infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cotter, A

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 35 year patient from Nigeria who presented with fever and splenomegaly. The initial diagnosis was Salmonellosis. However, relapsing symptoms lead to a re-evaluation and ultimately a diagnosis of Multicentric Castleman\\'s Disease (MCD). There is no gold standard treatment but our patient responded to Rituximab and Highly active anti-retroviral therapy. MCD is a rare, aggressive disease that should be considered in a HIV positive patient presenting with fever and significant lymphadenopathy.

  3. Clinical profile of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khopkar Uday

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV seropositivity rate of 14 percent was observed amongst STD cases. Heterosexual contact with prostitutes was the main risk factor. Fever, anorexia, weight loss, lymphadenopathy and tuberculosis were useful clinical leads. Genital ulcers, especially chancroid, were common in seropositivies. Alopecia of unknown cause, atypical pyoderma, seborrhea, zoster, eruptive mollusca and sulfa-induced erythema multiforme were viewed with suspicion in high risk groups. Purpura fulminans, fulminant chancroid, vegetating pyoderma and angioedema with purpura were unique features noted in this study.

  4. DOLUTEGRAVIR efficacy in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Irina Magdalena

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the past years there have been numerous discoveries regarding treatment of patients with HIV. If at first the doctors watched as patients live longer, now we want these patients to live better with regimens potent, safe, individualized and without side effects. HAART has revolutionized “the world HIV” and caused a significant reduction in mortality, and morbidity associated with HIV-related opportunistic infections. However, side effects associated with HAART, metabolic toxicity (such as abnormal fat distribution, abnormal lipid and glucose metabolism, and bone loss and the large number of pills led to decreased patient adherence.

  5. HIV infection in patients with intraocular inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet Mara Enriquez Puertas

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis is the most common form of inflammatory eye disease. It is considered a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in the world so that responsible for 5-25% of legal blindness. Although most cases of uveitis are considered mediated by the immune system disease, infectious disease is the second most important in the etiology of uveal disease. Viruses have a significant role in uveitis, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. In Cuba, where uveitis constitute a health problem of great interest, the real magnitude that involvement of HIV in this ocular disorder is unknown. In order to determine the frequency of HIV infection in patients with uveitis and its relationship with the immune status of patients, a descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on patients with intraocular inflammation examined in the service of uvetis at "Ramn Pando Ferrer" Cuban Ophthalmology Institute between May 2013 and May 2014. Investigation of VIH-1 and VIH-2 serologic status was performed using inmunochromagraphic test (Hexagon HIV,Human, Germany and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Vironostika HIV Ag/Ab, bioMrieux, France; DAVIH VIH-2, Laboratorios DAVIH, Cuba. Seropositive results were confirmed using Western blot test (DAVIH BLOT VIH-1 y 2, Laboratorios DAVIH, Cuba. The sample included 95 patients, of which seven were seropositive for HIV-1 (7.4%. The males (85.7% were more affected than females with ages ranging from 35 to 54 years. In patients with HIV-1, posterior uveitis (57% was the predominant anatomical type of uveitis, followed by panuveitis (43%, and blindness in 57.1% of patients as sequelae of intraocular inflammation. The seven patients infected with HIV had a CD4+ cell count of at least 500 cells/mL at the time of diagnosis; and 57% of patients had CD4 counts less than 100 cells/mL. The ocular syphilis (43% was the most common associated condition with uveitis. Other associated conditions were cytomegalovirus retinitis (28.5% and toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (28.5%. Severe intraocular inflammation presented by these patients could be due to the late diagnosis of HIV in patients, as a result of the evaluation of uveitis, when they were an advanced state of immunodeficiency. For the first time a retrovirus screening study was conducted in patients with uveitis and showed the important role of HIV-1 in intraocular inflammatory diseases

  6. HIV Infection among Illegal Migrants, Italy, 2004–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; El Hamad, Issa; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Speziani, Fabrizio; Cristini, Graziella; Scolari, Carla; Suligoi, Barbara; Luzi, Anna Maria; Bernasconi, Daniela; Lichtner, Miriam; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Castelli, Francesco; .. .

    2009-01-01

    To determine HIV prevalence and place of exposure for illegal migrants in Italy, we tested 3,003 illegal adult migrants for HIV; 29 (0.97%) were HIV positive. Antibody avidity index results (indicators of time of infection) were available for 27 of those persons and showed that 6 (22.2%) presumably acquired their infection after migration.

  7. Domestic violence among adolescents in HIV prevention research in Tanzania: participant experiences and measurement issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Joy Noel; Kaaya, Sylvia; Karungula, Happy; Kaale, Anna; Headley, Jennifer; Tolley, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Under-representation of female adolescents in HIV clinical trials may inhibit their access to future prevention technologies. Domestic violence, broadly defined as violence perpetrated by intimate partners and/or family members, may affect trial participation. This study describes violence in the lives of adolescents and young women in Tanzania, explores use of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale to measure battering, and examines the associations between battering and socio-demographic and HIV risk factors. Community formative research (CFR) and a mock clinical trial (MCT) were conducted to examine the challenges of recruiting younger (15-17) versus older (18-21) participants into HIV prevention trials. The CFR included qualitative interviews with 23 participants and there were 135 MCT participants. The WEB was administered in both the CFR and MCT. Nineteen CFR participants experienced physical and/or sexual violence and 17 % scored positive for battering. All married participants reported partner-related domestic violence, and half scored positive for battering. Many believed beatings were normal. None of the single participants scored positive on battering, but one-third reported abuse by relatives. Among MCT participants, 15 % scored positive for battering; most perpetrators were relatives. Younger participants were more likely to report battering. Adolescents experienced high rates of domestic violence and the WEB captured battering from both partners and relatives. The level of familial violence was unexpected and has implications for parental roles in study recruitment. Addressing adolescent abuse in HIV prevention trials and in the general population should be a public health priority. PMID:24740725

  8. Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in

  9. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Hae-Young; Kasonde Prisca; Mwiya Mwiya; Thea Donald M; Kankasa Chipepo; Sinkala Moses; Aldrovandi Grace; Kuhn Louise

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth) and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (2001–2004) in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infa...

  10. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Fayaz Ahmad; Lateef Ahmad; Javid; Roohi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor...

  11. [Problems of early detection of HIV infection, medical and psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliukin, I M; Bolekhan, V N; Iusupov, V V; Bulan'kov, Iu I; Orlova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The article contains the analysis of materials about HIV infection and the status of work on its early detection among soldiers. Currently, the figures have a tendency to stabilization, but there is an increase in the persantage of HIV-infected persons performing military service under the contract, as well as the actualization sexual way of infection. The insufficient effectiveness of the barrier screening during the laboratory examination of recruits may contribute the increase in the incidence of HIV infection. Have been reviewed the questions medical-diagnostic and medical-psychological support of HIV-infected soldiers. Been analyzed the social consequences of delays in seeking medical help of patients in this group, the opportunities and challenges of their dispensary observation. It was noted that early detection of HIV infection and proper medical and psychological support in the dynamics of pathological process helps to reduce the number of new cases and improve their outcomes and to reduce the period of efficiency recovery of military personnel. PMID:25916037

  12. Intimate Partner Violence among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities: Partner Characteristics and HIV Risk-behaviors as Correlates of Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; AMARO, HORTENSIA; OCampo, Patricia; Thomas L. Patterson

    2010-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with greater vulnerability to HIV infection among women. We examined prevalence and correlates of IPV among female sex workers (FSWs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, two large Mexico-U.S. border cities where HIV prevalence is rising. Participants were 300 FSWs with a current spouse or a steady partner. Participants mean age was 33 years, and mean number of years as a sex worker was 6 years. The prevalence of IPV in the past 6 months among par...

  13. Impact of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1+2 dual infection on the outcome of tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wejse, C; Patsche, C B; Kühle, A; Bamba, Fjv; Mendes, Ms; Lemvik, G; Gomes, V; Rudolf, F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection has been shown to impact the outcome of patients with tuberculosis (TB), but data regarding the impact of HIV-2 on TB outcomes are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HIV types on mortality among TB patients in Guinea-Bissau and to examine the...... predictive ability of the TBscoreII, a clinical score used to assess disease severity. METHODS: In a prospective follow-up study, we examined the prevalence of HIV-1, HIV-2, and HIV-1+2 co-infection in TB patients in Guinea-Bissau, and the impact on outcomes at 12 months of follow-up. We included all adult...... seventy-nine patients were HIV-infected: 241 had HIV-1, 93 had HIV-2, and 45 were HIV-1+2 dual infected. The HIV type-associated risk of TB was 6-fold higher for HIV-1, 7-fold higher for HIV-1+2 dual infection, and 2-fold higher for HIV-2 compared with the HIV-uninfected. Of the patients included, 144 (11...

  14. Diagnosis of Perinatal Transmission of HIV-1 Infection by HIV DNA PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Shah

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available To determine the sensitivity and specificity of HIV DNA PCR (Qualitative at various age groups todetect or rule out HIV infection in infants born to HIV infected mothers. Pediatric and perinatal HIVclinic in a tertiary pediatric hospital.Sixteen infants born to HIV positive mother enrolled in the preventionof mother to child transmission of HIV at our center were tested for HIV infection by HIV DNAPCR at 1.5 months, 3 months, 5.5 months and/or 7 months of age. Their HIV status was confirmedby an HIV ELISA test at 18 months of age by 2 different ELISA kits. Eight patients (50% had anegative HIV DNA PCR whereas 8 patients (50% had a positive DNA PCR of which 6 patients(75% had a false positive HIV DNA PCR and no false negative DNA PCR. Thus, the sensitivity ofHIV DNA PCR was 100% and specificity was 57.1% with a total efficiency of the test being62.5%. The efficiency of HIV DNA PCR at 1.5 months of age was 50%, at 3 months of age42.9%, at 5.5 months of age 60% and at 7 months of age was 100%. HIV DNA PCR has a highsensitivity but low specificity to diagnose HIV infection in infants less than 7 months of age. Hence,the results of the test have to be interpreted with caution in infants born to HIV positive mothers.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and HIV/STD Risk among Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, Adam Jackson; Melendez, Rita M.

    2006-01-01

    To date, there has been little research examining HIV/STD risk among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals who are in abusive relationships. This article uses data collected from a community-based organization that provides counseling for LGBT victims of intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 58 clients completed the…

  16. HIV infection and microbial diversity in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R; Phelan, Joan A; Norman, Robert G; Fisch, Gene S; Corby, Patricia M; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among the three sets of samples. HIV-positive subjects had higher levels of total cultivable microbes, including oral streptococci, lactobacilli, Streptococcus mutans, and Candida, in saliva than did HIV-negative subjects. The total cultivable microbial levels were significantly correlated with CD4+ T cell counts. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), which compared the overall microbial profiles, showed distinct fingerprinting profiles for each group. The human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM) assay, which compared the 16S rRNA genes, showed clear separation among the three sample groups. Veillonella, Synergistetes, and Streptococcus were present in all 30 saliva samples. Only minor changes or no changes in the prevalence of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Gemella, Leptotrichia, Solobacterium, Parvimonas, and Rothia were observed. Seven genera, Capnocytophaga, Slackia, Porphyromonas, Kingella, Peptostreptococcaceae, Lactobacillus, and Atopobium, were detected only in HIV-negative samples. The prevalences of Fusobacterium, Campylobacter, Prevotella, Capnocytophaga, Selenomonas, Actinomyces, Granulicatella, and Atopobium were increased after HAART. In contrast, the prevalence of Aggregatibacter was significantly decreased after HAART. The findings of this study suggest that HIV infection and HAART can have significant effects on salivary microbial colonization and composition. PMID:24523469

  17. HIV INFECTION PRESENTING AS APLASTIC ANEMIA: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayaz Ahmad

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Disorders of the hematopoietic system including lym phadenopathy, anemia, leukopenia, and/or thrombocytopenia are common thro ughout the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and may be t he direct result of HIV infection, manifestations of opportunistic infections and neop lasms, or side effects of therapy. However aplastic anemia due to HIV infection is very rare. Though anemia is seen with advanced disease and associated with poor prognosis, it is treated with various therapeutic modalities. Our patient with HIV infection had bone marrow documented aplastic a nemia and responded very well to antiretroviral therapy.

  18. Aging of the Human Innate Immune System in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata, Heidi J; Shaw, Albert C

    2014-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a chronic inflammatory state arising from multiple factors, including innate immune recognition of HIV, increased microbial translocation, and release of endogenous ligands from damaged cells (such as CD4 T cells). In many respects, this heightened pro-inflammatory environment resembles that associated with aging in the absence of HIV infection, and evidence of dysregulated innate immune responses can be found in not only older HIV-negative a...

  19. Genetic Associations of Variants in Genes Encoding HIV-Dependency Factors Required for HIV-1 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Chinn, Leslie W.; Tang, Minzhong; Kessing, Bailey D; Lautenberger, James A.; Troyer, Jennifer L; Malasky, Michael J.; McIntosh, Carl; Kirk, Gregory D.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Gomperts, Edward D.; Goedert, James J.; O'Brien, Stephen J.

    2010-01-01

    Background. High-throughput genome-wide techniques have facilitated the identification of previously unknown host proteins involved in cellular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Recently, 3 independent studies have used small interfering RNA technology to silence each gene in the human genome to determine the importance of each in HIV infection. Genes conferring a significant effect were termed HIV-dependency factors (HDFs).

  20. Vitamin D, Bone, and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk for falls and fractures, diabetes and obesity, cardiovascular disease, some malignancies, and tuberculosis. Observational data have suggested benefit of higher vitamin D levels in many of these settings. However, data from randomized trials supporting the benefit of vitamin D supplementation are generally lacking, apart from data showing benefit in preventing falls and fractures in the elderly. HIV-infected persons have a high preva...

  1. Progress in drug therapies for HIV infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Broder, S; Fauci, A S

    1988-01-01

    The discovery of effective therapies for HIV requires a fundamental knowledge of retroviral infections. Research by the Public Health Service and collaborating organizations on oncogenic viruses, including retroviruses, has provided much of the basic understanding of retroviruses in general and anti-retroviral therapeutic strategies in particular. Early work by the Viral Cancer and Developmental Therapeutic Programs of the National Cancer Institute and the Intramural Research Program of the N...

  2. Neutralizing antibodies in slowly progressing HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schønning, Kristian; Nielsen, C; Iversen, Johan; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    1995-01-01

    Ten asymptomatic individuals who had experienced only limited CD4+ cell loss after prolonged infection with HIV-1 were studied. These individuals had a mean CD4+ cell count of 674 x 10(6) cells/L and a mean duration of infection of 8.5 years. Also included were 10 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected indi...

  3. Suppression of HIV-1 Infectivity by Human Glioma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Tanaka, Atsushi; Islam, Salequl; Ahsan, Gias Uddin; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2016-05-01

    HIV-1 infection to the central nervous system (CNS) is very common in AIDS patients. The predominant cell types infected in the brain are monocytes and macrophages, which are surrounded by several HIV-1-resistant cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, neurons, and microvascular cells. The effect of these HIV-1-resistant cells on HIV-1 infection is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the stability of HIV-1 cultured with several human glioblastoma cell lines, for example, NP-2, U87MG, T98G, and A172, to determine whether these HIV-1-resistant brain cells could enhance or suppress HIV-1 infection and thus modulate HIV-1 infection in the CNS. The HIV-1 titer was determined using the MAGIC-5A indicator cell line as well as naturally occurring CD4(+) T cells. We found that the stability of HIV-1 incubated with NP-2 or U87MG cells at 37°C was significantly shorter (half-life, 2.5-4 h) compared to that of HIV-1 incubated with T98G or A172 cells or in culture medium without cells (half-life, 8-18 h). The spent culture media (SCM) of NP-2 and U87MG cells had the ability to suppress both R5- and X4-HIV-1 infection by inhibiting HIV-1 attachment to target cells. This inhibitory effect was eliminated by the treatment of the SCM with chondroitinase ABC but not heparinase, suggesting that the inhibitory factor(s) secreted by NP-2 and U87MG cells was chiefly mediated by chondroitin sulfate (CS) or CS-like moiety. Thus, this study reveals that some but not all glioma cells secrete inhibitory molecules to HIV-1 infection that may contribute in lowering HIV-1 infection in the CNS in vivo. PMID:26650729

  4. Cardiovascular Diseases in HIV-infected Subjects (HIV-HEART Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-07

    Detection of Frequency, Severity and Progression of Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients With HIV-infection.; Effect on Cardiovascular Risk and Life Quality by Age, Gender, Classic Cardiovascular Risk Factors,; HIV-specific Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Cardiovascular Medication, Antiretroviral Medication

  5. Epidermal and mucosal dendritic cells and HIV1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D; Dezutter-Dambuyant, C

    1994-10-01

    The major modes of HIV1 transmission involve circumstances and behavior that promote exchange of blood or body fluids containing HIV virus and/or HIV infected cells. In the second group, semen, vaginal secretions, exudates and occasionally saliva have been documented as sources of transmission. If the skin, protected by the horny layer, does not seem easily infected, the mucous membrane and especially the vaginal, rectal or oral mucosa are the main sites of HIV entry in absence of lesions. In mucosa, a well identified population of dendritic cells may be considered as the first target of HIV1: the Langerhans cells. Originated from the bone marrow, the Langerhans cells migrate into the peripheral epithelia (skin, mucous membranes) and play a key role in the immune surveillance system against foreign antigens. They act as antigenpresenting cells through a specific cooperation with CD4+ lymphocytes after migration to the proximal lymph nodes. As HIV1-susceptible cells, Langerhans cells in genital or rectal mucosa may be the first infected cell type and may be the vectors of infection for CD4 positive T cells. It is clearly demonstrated that LC may be infected in HIV1 seropositive patients. Recently in vitro, experimental infection of Langerhans cells was reproduced using a co-culture assay with HIV1 infected cells. Recent data obtained with transgenic mice containing HIV1 gene underline the key role of Langerhans cells in the pathogenesis process of HIV infection. PMID:7899146

  6. A mathematical approach to HIV infection dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, A.; Oharu, S.; Oharu, Y.

    2007-07-01

    In order to obtain a comprehensive form of mathematical models describing nonlinear phenomena such as HIV infection process and AIDS disease progression, it is efficient to introduce a general class of time-dependent evolution equations in such a way that the associated nonlinear operator is decomposed into the sum of a differential operator and a perturbation which is nonlinear in general and also satisfies no global continuity condition. An attempt is then made to combine the implicit approach (usually adapted for convective diffusion operators) and explicit approach (more suited to treat continuous-type operators representing various physiological interactions), resulting in a semi-implicit product formula. Decomposing the operators in this way and considering their individual properties, it is seen that approximation-solvability of the original model is verified under suitable conditions. Once appropriate terms are formulated to describe treatment by antiretroviral therapy, the time-dependence of the reaction terms appears, and such product formula is useful for generating approximate numerical solutions to the governing equations. With this knowledge, a continuous model for HIV disease progression is formulated and physiological interpretations are provided. The abstract theory is then applied to show existence of unique solutions to the continuous model describing the behavior of the HIV virus in the human body and its reaction to treatment by antiretroviral therapy. The product formula suggests appropriate discrete models describing the dynamics of host pathogen interactions with HIV1 and is applied to perform numerical simulations based on the model of the HIV infection process and disease progression. Finally, the results of our numerical simulations are visualized and it is observed that our results agree with medical and physiological aspects.

  7. Short Communication: Adhesion Pathways Utilized by HIV-Infected Lymphocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, Yu-Hua; LIU, LI; Schwartz, Barbara; Harlan, John M; Schnapp, Lynn M

    2012-01-01

    We recently reported a novel adhesion pathway in lymphocytes that is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 4 activity and mediates lymphocyte interactions with endothelial matrix. We now demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes also use Cdk4 to mediate spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and endothelial matrix. We further demonstrate that HIV-infected lymphocytes require Rap-1 activity for phorbol-stimulated adhesion. Understanding adhesion pathways used by HIV-infected lymphocytes may l...

  8. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  9. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Bruna Pasticci; Maurizio Paciaroni; Piero Floridi; Enisia Cecchini; Franco Baldelli

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of ...

  10. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  11. Oral Manifestations of Ethnic Chinese HIV- infected Adults on HAART

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, RAPM; Tsang, PCS; Samaranayake, LP; Mcmillan, AS

    2008-01-01

    The dawn of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) has revolutionized the prognostic outcome of patients infected with HIV. Consequently, type and prevalence of oral manifestations have been reduced significantly with the advent of HAART. OBJECTIVE: to identify the types and prevalence of oral lesions among HIV infected individuals in Hong Kong, on HAART. METHODS: 101 individuals with HIV infection attending the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong were selected. Oral lesions were diagn...

  12. Myocardial infarction among Danish HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Line D; Helleberg, Marie; May, Margaret; Afzal, Shoaib; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we iden...... controls. Smoking cessation could potentially prevent more than 40% of MIs among HIV-infected individuals, and smoking cessation should be a primary focus in modern HIV care.......BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals have increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI); however, the contribution from smoking and potentiating effects of HIV are controversial. METHODS: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study, we...... identified 3251 HIV-infected individuals and 13 004 population controls matched on age and gender. Data on MI were obtained from the National Hospital Registry and the National Registry of Causes of Death. We calculated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR) for risk of MI and population...

  13. Hematological Manifestation in HIV Infected Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the common hematological abnormalities in HIV infected children and any association of these abnormalities with HIV disease severity. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Regional Pediatric ART centre, Medical College and Hospital, Kolkata, West Bengal, India, from November 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: Children up to 12 years with confirmed diagnosis of HIV infection were clinically examined and tested for complete hemogram and CD4 count. Bone marrow study was done in selected patient depending on hemogram report. Children were divided in different stages according to WHO clinical staging. Each of the hematological parameters was assessed for any association with progression of disease. Fisher's Exact Test was used for determining the association between WHO clinical staging and abnormal blood parameters. P-value < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Sixty nine percent of the study population was anemic; 47.37% (18/38), 66.67% (8/12), 71.43% (15/21) and 93.10% (27/29) of stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively were anemic in the study population (p=0.001). Leucopenia was present in 34% (34/100) children. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was present in 19% (19/100) and 22% (22/100) children. Lymphopenia was present in 7.89% (3/38), 16.67% (2/12), 19.05% (4/21) and 44.83% (13/29) of patient with stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively (p=0.020). Eosinophilia was present in 17% (17/100) and thrombocytopenia in 11% (11/100) children. 2 patients with stage 4 disease were with hypoplastic bone marrow. Conclusion: Anemia was the most common hematological abnormality in HIV infected children. Anemia and lymphopenia had a significant association with the stage of the disease. (author)

  14. Methamphetamine Enhances HIV-1 Infectivity in Monocyte Derived Dendritic Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Madhavan P. N.; Zainulabedin M. Saiyed; Nair, Narayanan; Nimisha H Gandhi; Rodriguez, Jose W.; Boukli, Nawal; Provencio-Vasquez, Elias; Malow, Robert M.; Miguez-Burbano, Maria Jose

    2008-01-01

    The US is currently experiencing an epidemic of methamphetamine (Meth) use as a recreational drug. Recent studies also show a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection among Meth users. We report that Meth enhances HIV-1 infectivity of dendritic cells as measured by multinuclear activation of a galactosidase indicator (MAGI) cell assay, p24 assay, and LTR-RU5 amplification. Meth induces increased HIV-1 infection in association with an increase in the HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5, and infection ...

  15. Lung cancer in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Palacios

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Several studies have shown that HIV patients are at higher risk of lung cancer. Our aim is to analyse the prevalence and features of lung cancer in HIV-infected patients. Methods: The clinical charts of 4,721 HIV-infected patients seen in three hospitals of southeast Spain (study period 1992–2012 were reviewed, and all patients with a lung cancer were analysed. Results: There were 61 lung cancers, giving a prevalence of 1.2%. There was a predominance of men (82.0%, and smokers (96.6%; mean pack-years 35.2, with a median age of 48.0 (41.7–52.9 years, and their distribution according to risk group for HIV was: intravenous drug use 58.3%, homosexual 20.0%, and heterosexual 16.7%. Thirty-four (56.7% patients were Aids cases, and 29 (47.5% had prior pulmonar events: tuberculosis 16, bacterial pneumonia 9, and P. jiroveci pneumonia 4. The median nadir CD4 count was 149/mm3 (42–232, the median CD4 count at the time of diagnosis of the lung cancer was 237/mm3 (85–397, and 66.1%<350/mm3. 66.7% were on ART, and 70% of them had undetectable HIV viral load. The most common histological types of lung cancer were adenocarcinoma and epidermoid, with 24 (40.0% and 23 (38.3% cases, respectively. There were 49 (80.3% cases with advanced stages (III and IV at diagnosis. The distribution of treatments was: only palliative 23 (39.7%, chemotherapy 14 (24.1%, surgery and chemotherapy 8 (13.8%, radiotherapy 7 (12.1%, surgery 4 (6.9%, and other combined treatments 2 (3.4%. Forty-six (76.7% patients died, with a median survival time of 3 months. The Kaplan-Meier survival rate at 6 months was 42.7% (at 12 months 28.5%. Conclusions: The prevalence of lung cancer in this cohort of HIV-patients is high. People affected are mainly men, smokers, with transmission of HIV by intravenous drug use, and around half of them with prior opportunistic pulmonary events. Most patients had low nadir CD4 count, and were immunosuppressed at the time of diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The diagnosis is usually made at advanced stages of the neoplasm, and mortality is high.

  16. Emerging Microsporidian Infections in Russian HIV-Infected Patients▿

    OpenAIRE

    Sokolova, Olga I.; Demyanov, Anton V.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Didier, Elizabeth S; Yakovlev, Alexei V.; Sergei O Skarlato; Sokolova, Yuliya Y.

    2011-01-01

    Microsporidia were identified in stool specimens by histochemistry and PCR of 30 (18.9%) of 159 HIV-infected patients presenting to the S. P. Botkin Memorial Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases, St. Petersburg, Russia. The higher prevalence of Encephalitozoon intestinalis, in 21 (12.8%) patients, than of Enterocytozoon bieneusi, in 2 patients (1.2%), was unexpected. Encephalitozoon cuniculi was detected in three patients: one with strain I and two with strain II. Encephalitozoon hellem w...

  17. Virulence of Candida albicans isolated from HIV infected and non infected individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wibawa, Tri; Praseno,; Aman, Abu Tholib

    2015-01-01

    Candida sp contributes 33.1 % of fungal infections among HIV patients. Among the species of the genus Candida, Candida albicans is the most frequently isolated from HIV patients. This study aimed to analyze putative virulence factors of C. albicans isolated from oral cavities of HIV infected patients and healthy individuals. Twenty isolates from HIV infected patients and fourteen from healthy individuals were analyzed for phenotypic switching, cell growth rate, hyphae formation, hemolytic act...

  18. Dynamics of HIV infection in lymphoid tissue network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Shinji; Iwami, Shingo; Sato, Kei

    2016-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a fast replicating ribonucleic acid virus, which can easily mutate in order to escape the effects of drug administration. Hence, understanding the basic mechanisms underlying HIV persistence in the body is essential in the development of new therapies that could eradicate HIV infection. Lymphoid tissues are the primary sites of HIV infection. Despite the recent progress in real-time monitoring technology, HIV infection dynamics in a whole body is unknown. Mathematical modeling and simulations provide speculations on global behavior of HIV infection in the lymphatic system. We propose a new mathematical model that describes the spread of HIV infection throughout the lymphoid tissue network. In order to represent the volume difference between lymphoid tissues, we propose the proportionality of several kinetic parameters to the lymphoid tissues' volume distribution. Under this assumption, we perform extensive numerical computations in order to simulate the spread of HIV infection in the lymphoid tissue network. Numerical computations simulate single drug treatments of an HIV infection. One of the important biological speculations derived from this study is a drug saturation effect generated by lymphoid network connection. This implies that a portion of reservoir lymphoid tissues to which drug is not sufficiently delivered would inhibit HIV eradication despite of extensive drug injection. PMID:26507442

  19. Care of Patients With HIV Infection: Antiretroviral Drug Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Philip; Roder, Navid; Colgate, Emily; Cheeseman, Sarah H

    2016-04-01

    The advent of combination antiretroviral drug regimens has transformed HIV infection from a fatal illness into a manageable chronic condition. All patients with HIV infection should be considered for antiretroviral therapy, regardless of CD4 count or HIV viral load, for individual benefit and to prevent HIV transmission. Antiretroviral drugs affect HIV in several ways: entry inhibitors block HIV entry into CD4 T cells; nucleotide and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription from RNA to DNA via chain-terminating proteins; nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors prevent reverse transcription through enzymatic inhibition; integrase strand transfer inhibitors block integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA; protease inhibitors block maturation and production of the virus. Current guidelines recommend six combination regimens for initial therapy. Five are based on tenofovir and emtricitabine; the other uses abacavir and lamivudine. Five include integrase strand transfer inhibitors. HIV specialists should assist with treating patients with complicated HIV infection, including patients with treatment-resistant HIV infection, coinfection with hepatitis B or C virus, pregnancy, childhood infections, severe opportunistic infections, complex drug interactions, significant drug toxicity, or comorbidities. Family physicians can treat most patients with HIV infection effectively by choosing appropriate treatment regimens, monitoring patients closely, and retaining patients in care. PMID:27092564

  20. Declines in violence and police arrest among female sex workers in Karnataka state, south India, following a comprehensive HIV prevention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara S Beattie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Female sex workers (FSWs frequently experience violence, harassment and arrest by the police or their clients, but there is little evidence as to the impact that such factors may have on HIV risk or whether community interventions could mitigate this impact. Methods: As part of the evaluation of the Avahan programme in Karnataka, serial integrated behavioural and biological assessment (IBBA surveys (four districts (2005 to 2011 and anonymous polling booth surveys (PBS (16 districts (2007 to 2011 were conducted with random samples of FSWs. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess 1 changes in reported violence and arrests over time and 2 associations between violence by non-partners and police arrest and HIV/STI risk and prevalence. Mediation analysis was used to identify mediating factors. Results: 5,792 FSWs participated in the IBBAs and 15,813 participated in the PBS. Over time, there were significant reductions in the percentages of FSWs reporting being raped in the past year (PBS (30.0% in 2007, 10.0% in 2011, p<0.001, being arrested in the past year [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.57 (0.35, 0.93, p=0.025] and being beaten in the past six months by a non-partner (clients, police, pimps, strangers, rowdies [AOR 0.69 (0.49, 0.95, p=0.024] (IBBA. The proportion drinking alcohol (during the past week also fell significantly (32.5% in 2005, 24.9% in 2008, 16.8% in 2011; p<0.001. Violence by non-partners (being raped in the past year and/or beaten in the past six months and being arrested in the past year were both strongly associated with HIV infection [AOR 1.59 (1.18, 2.15, p=0.002; AOR 1.91 (1.17, 3.12, p=0.01, respectively]. They were also associated with drinking alcohol (during the past week [AOR 1.98 (1.54, 2.53, p<0.001; AOR 2.79 (1.93, 4.04, p<0.001, respectively], reduced condom self-efficacy with clients [AOR 0.36 (0.27, 0.47, p<0.001; AOR 0.62 (0.39, 0.98, p=0.039, respectively], symptomatic STI (during the past year [AOR 2.62 (2.07, 3.30, p<0.001; AOR 2.17 (1.51, 3.13, p<0.001, respectively], gonorrhoea infection [AOR 2.79 (1.51, 5.15, p=0.001; AOR 2.69 (0.96, 7.56, p=0.060, respectively] and syphilis infection [AOR 1.86 (1.04, 3.31, p=0.036; AOR 3.35 (1.78, 6.28, p<0.001, respectively], but not with exposure to peer education, community mobilization or HIV testing uptake. Mediation analysis suggests that alcohol use and STIs may partially mediate the association between violence or arrests and HIV prevalence. Discussion: Violence by non-partners and arrest are both strongly associated with HIV infection among FSWs. Large-scale, comprehensive HIV prevention programming can reduce violence, arrests and HIV/STI infection among FSWs.

  1. Characteristics, Immunological Response & Treatment Outcomes of HIV-2 Compared with HIV-1 & Dual Infections (HIV 1/2) in Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Chiara, Montaldo; Rony, Zachariah; Homa, Mansoor; Bhanumati, Varghese; Ladomirska, Joanna; Manzi, M.; Wilson, N; Alaka, Deshpande; Harries, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    Background & objectives: Information available on HIV-2 and dual infection (HIV-1/2) is limited. This study was carried out among HIV positive individuals in an urban referral clinic in Khar, Mumbai, India, to report on relative proportions of HIV-1, HIV-2 and HIV-1/2 and baseline characteristics, response to and outcomes on antiretroviral treatment (ART). Methods: Retrospective analysis of programme data (May 2006-May 2009) at Khar HIV/AIDS clinic at Mumbai, India was done. Three test algori...

  2. Violence screening and viral load suppression among HIV-positive women of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, Susan Ryerson; Fletcher, Jason; Gonzalez, Marisol; Precht, Allison; Xavier, Jessica; Matoff-Stepp, Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    Recent research suggests intimate partner violence (IPV) is commonly experienced by many people living with HIV/AIDS, which can complicate their care. We introduce a novel approach to screening for history of violence among 102 women of color living with HIV and receiving care at an outpatient public health clinic. Using a composite measure composed of data from a variety of screening tools, we were able to determine that 70.6% of the women had a history of violence using the composite measure, and that 43% screened positive using multiple screening tools. Although overall viral load suppression rate was high at 81.4%, women with a history of violence were less likely to be virally suppressed when compared to those without such a history (76.4% versus 93.3%, p<0.05). Our findings suggest using a variety of screening questions at entry and at follow-up care appointments may be key to identifying and supporting women survivors who may not disclose violence when first asked. Future research should foster further development, analysis, and use of a variety of screening tools such as those used in this study. PMID:25561308

  3. Rates of sexual violence among HIV-positive women: finding a way forward for a holistic service

    OpenAIRE

    Manners, R.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of sexual violence are high, and several studies have suggested that rates are particularly high among HIV-positive women. Experience of sexual violence can lead to numerous physical and psychological co-morbidities as well as a wide range of social problems. On both a Scottish Government and an international level it has been suggested that routine questioning about sexual violence in vulnerable populations can help to ensure access to appropriate services. This study aimed to assess t...

  4. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the…

  5. Postgraduate Educational Research on Violence, Gender, and HIV/AIDS in and around Schools (1995-2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moletsane, R.; Madiya, N.

    2011-01-01

    Social issues such as HIV/AIDS, bullying, and violence have recently come to the fore in schooling and related research in South Africa. This article describes and critically analyses Masters and Ph.D. research done in education in the period 1995-2004, with particular reference to the voice given to social issues, namely: gender, violence, and…

  6. Association between Education and Domestic Violence among Women Being Offered an HIV Test in Urban and Rural Areas in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuya, Benta A.; Onsomu, Elijah O.; Moore, DaKysha; Piper, Crystal N.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between education and domestic violence among women being offered an HIV test in urban and rural areas in Kenya. A sample selection of women who experienced physical (n = 4,308), sexual (n = 4,309), and emotional violence (n = 4,312) aged 15 to 49 allowed for the estimation of the

  7. Bone Disease in HIV Infection: A Practical Review and Recommendations for HIV Care Providers

    OpenAIRE

    McComsey, Grace A.; Tebas, Pablo; Shane, Elizabeth; Yin, Michael T; Overton, E Turner; Huang, Jeannie S; ALDROVANDI, GRACE M.; Cardoso, Sandra W; Santana, Jorge L.; Brown, Todd T.

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) is prevalent in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected subjects. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with a 2%–6% decrease in BMD over the first 2 years, a decrease that is similar in magnitude to that sustained during the first 2 years of menopause. Recent studies have also described increased fracture rates in the HIV-infected population. The causes of low BMD in individuals with HIV infection appear to be multifactorial and likely represen...

  8. Morphological aspects of liver CT in patients with HIV infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT examinations of the liver in HIV-infected patients show more frequent pathological findings. The extended spectrum of differential diagnosis and atypical manifestations of disorders in immunodeficient patients needs to be considered in the interpretation of CT scans. Difficulties in the differential diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in HIV-infected patients are demonstrated in the following. Besides the relatively common findings in HIV-infection such as hepato- or hepatosplenomegalia, lymphoma, and inflammatory changes of the bowel an infection with Cryptococcus neoformans, hepatitis, and local steatosis of the liver are discussed as the rare causes for suspect computertomographic findings in the live of HIV-infected patients. The examinations were obtained consecutively in 76 HIV-infected patients during abdominal CT staging. (orig.)

  9. HIV Infection and TLR Signalling in the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Crane; Kumar Visvanathan; Lewin, Sharon R

    2012-01-01

    Despite the availability of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), liver disease is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, specifically, in the presence of viral hepatitis coinfection. HIV, a single stranded RNA virus, can bind to and activate both Toll-like receptor (TLR)7 and TLR8 in circulating blood mononuclear cells, but little is known about the effect of HIV on TLRs expressed in the liver. HIV can d...

  10. Pregnancy care in two adolescents perinatally infected with HIV.

    OpenAIRE

    Meloni, Alessandra; Tuveri, Milena; Floridia, Marco; Zucca, Francesca; Borghero, Grazia; Gariel, Donatella; Melis, Gian Benedetto

    2009-01-01

    Abstract We describe the main issues encountered in pregnancy care in two perinatally infected adolescents with HIV. Despite the young maternal age, both mothers complied well with visits and treatment during pregnancy and delivered at week 38 through elective caesarean section. Both, however, missed the regular gynaecological and the routine HIV visits scheduled after pregnancy. Both infants following HIV exposure were confirmed HIV negative at the end of tests performed in the fi...

  11. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children

    OpenAIRE

    Venturini, E.; Turkova, A.; E Chiappini; Galli, L.; Martino, M; Thorne, C.

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: HIV is the top and tuberculosis is the second leading cause of death from infectious disease worldwide, with an estimated 8.7 million incident cases of tuberculosis and 2.5 million new HIV infections annually. The World Health Organization estimates that HIV prevalence among children with tuberculosis, in countries with moderate to high prevalence, ranges from 10 to 60%. The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood,...

  12. Targeted Cytotoxic Therapy Kills Persisting HIV Infected Cells During ART

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Paul W.; Long, Julie M.; Wietgrefe, Stephen W.; Sykes, Craig; Spagnuolo, Rae Ann; Snyder, Olivia D.; Perkey, Katherine; Archin, Nancie M; Choudhary, Shailesh K.; Yang, Kuo; HUDGENS, Michael G.; Pastan, Ira; Haase, Ashley T.; Kashuba, Angela D.; Berger, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Author Summary Antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves the quality of life for HIV infected individuals. However, ART is currently a lifelong commitment because HIV persists during treatment despite being suppressed below detection. If therapy is stopped, the HIV reappears. A concerted effort is ongoing to develop new eradication therapies to prevent virus rebound, but there are challenges to be overcome. Our work is a major step forward in this process. We measured persistent HIV throughout th...

  13. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... education-matched comparison groups were analyzed. Main effects of age, HIV infection, methamphetamine dependence, and the interactions of these factors were examined in analyses of cerebral gray matter structure volumes. RESULTS: Independent of the effect of age, HIV infection was associated with reduced...... volumes of cortical, limbic, and striatal structures. There was also some evidence of an interaction between age and HIV infection such that older HIV-positive participants suffered disproportionate loss. Methamphetamine dependence was surprisingly associated with basal ganglia and parietal cortex volume...

  14. Bladder cancer in HIV-infected adults: an emerging concern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Chawki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As HIV-infected patients get older more non-AIDS-related malignancies are to be seen. Cancer now represents almost one third of all causes of deaths among HIV-infected patients (1. Albeit bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancy worldwide (2, only 13 cases of bladder cancer in HIV-infected patients have been reported in the literature so far (3. Materials and Methods: We conducted a monocentric study in our hospital. We selected all patients who were previously admitted (from 1998 to 2013 in our hospital with diagnoses of HIV and bladder cancer. The objective was to assess the prevalence and characteristics of bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients in our hospital. Results: Based on our administrative HIV database (6353 patients, we found 15 patients (0.2% with a bladder cancer. Patients’ characteristics are presented in Table 1. Patients were mostly men and heavy smokers. Their median nadir CD4 cell count was below 200 and most had a diagnosis of AIDS. A median time of 14 years was observed in those patients, between the diagnosis of HIV-infection and the occurrence of bladder cancer, although in patients much younger (median age 56 than those developing bladder cancer without HIV infection (71.1 years (4. Haematuria was the most frequent diagnosis circumstance in HIV-infected patients who had relatively preserved immune function on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Histopathology showed relatively advanced cancers at diagnosis with a high percentage of non transitional cell carcinoma (TCC tumor and of TCC with squamous differentiation, suggesting a potential role for human papilloma virus (HPV co-infection. Death rate was high in this population. Conclusions: Bladder cancers in HIV-infected patients remain rare but occur in relatively young HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 nadir, presenting with haematuria, most of them being smokers, and have aggressive pathological features that are associated with severe outcomes.

  15. Somatic Symptoms and the Association between Hepatitis C Infection and Depression in HIV-infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Jeanie C.; PAUL K. CRANE; Ciechanowski, Paul S.; Harrington, Robert D.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Crane, Heidi M.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of depression and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in HIV-infected patients have been contradictory and often not addressed key differences between HCV-infected and uninfected individuals including substance use. This cross-sectional observational study from the University of Washington HIV Cohort examined associations between HCV, symptoms, and depression in HIV-infected patients in routine clinical care. Patients completed instruments measuring depression, symptoms, and substance u...

  16. Bloodstream Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis among HIV patients

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-09-23

    This podcast looks at bloodstream infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other pathogens among outpatients infected with HIV in Southeast Asia. CDC health scientist Kimberly McCarthy discusses the study and why bloodstream infections occur in HIV-infected populations.  Created: 9/23/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/23/2010.

  17. Eradicating HIV-1 infection: seeking to clear a persistent pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Archin, Nancie M; Sung, Julia Marsh; Garrido, Carolina; Soriano-Sarabia, Natalia; Margolis, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) blunts viraemia, which enables HIV-1-infected individuals to control infection and live long, productive lives. However, HIV-1 infection remains incurable owing to the persistence of a viral reservoir that harbours integrated provirus within host cellular DNA. This latent infection is unaffected by ART and hidden from the immune system. Recent studies have focused on the development of therapies to disrupt latency. These efforts unmasked residual viral g...

  18. HIV: primary and secondary prophylaxis for opportunistic infections

    OpenAIRE

    Aberg, Judith; Powderly, William

    2010-01-01

    Opportunistic infections can occur in up to 40% of people with HIV infection and a CD4 count less than 250/mm3, although the risks are much lower with use of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). HAART has reduced the rate of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP), toxoplasmosis, and other opportunistic infections, so the absolute benefits of prophylactic regimens for opportunistic infections are probably smaller in people with HIV who are also taking HAART, and even smaller for ...

  19. Young women most vulnerable to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    It is estimated that 70% of the 3000 women who are infected with HIV each day are 15-24 years old. This pattern of increased prevalence among young women has been noted since a 1986 report that AIDS cases in Zaire were equally divided among men and women, but that the women were an average of 10 years younger than the men, and cases in women peaked at age 20-29. Despite this information, the HIV research and program agenda has failed to address the gender issues that place young women at risk of infection. Societies that do not provide young women with information about reproductive anatomy and sex or with reproductive health services, that allow men to have multiple sex partners, and that condone condom use only for illicit intercourse, leave young girls and women at risk of forced and unprotected sexual intercourse. Studies have also shown that early marriage practices also increase the risk of women becoming infected (usually by their older and more "experienced" husbands). In some parts of Africa, older men seek out virgins in the belief that having sex with a virgin will cure them of sexually transmitted diseases. Poverty also drives women to barter sex for money or goods. In addition to these social and behavioral risk factors, young women appear to have a greater physiological susceptibility to infection than more mature women. Possible factors for this increased risk include the facts that, in younger women, the lining of the vagina is thinner, vaginal mucus may be less profuse, ovulation (which seems to have a protective effect against infection) is infrequent, and a transition zone of cells ringing the cervical opening is more exposed. Thus, biologic, social, and behavioral factors increase the vulnerability of young women. To protect young women, societies will have to change cultural and sexual norms, values, and practices. PMID:12288834

  20. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Noguera-Julian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156 and Stockholm (n = 84, men who have sex with men (MSM predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction.

  1. Gut Microbiota Linked to Sexual Preference and HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera-Julian, Marc; Rocafort, Muntsa; Guillén, Yolanda; Rivera, Javier; Casadellà, Maria; Nowak, Piotr; Hildebrand, Falk; Zeller, Georg; Parera, Mariona; Bellido, Rocío; Rodríguez, Cristina; Carrillo, Jorge; Mothe, Beatriz; Coll, Josep; Bravo, Isabel; Estany, Carla; Herrero, Cristina; Saz, Jorge; Sirera, Guillem; Torrela, Ariadna; Navarro, Jordi; Crespo, Manel; Brander, Christian; Negredo, Eugènia; Blanco, Julià; Guarner, Francisco; Calle, Maria Luz; Bork, Peer; Sönnerborg, Anders; Clotet, Bonaventura; Paredes, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The precise effects of HIV-1 on the gut microbiome are unclear. Initial cross-sectional studies provided contradictory associations between microbial richness and HIV serostatus and suggested shifts from Bacteroides to Prevotella predominance following HIV-1 infection, which have not been found in animal models or in studies matched for HIV-1 transmission groups. In two independent cohorts of HIV-1-infected subjects and HIV-1-negative controls in Barcelona (n = 156) and Stockholm (n = 84), men who have sex with men (MSM) predominantly belonged to the Prevotella-rich enterotype whereas most non-MSM subjects were enriched in Bacteroides, independently of HIV-1 status, and with only a limited contribution of diet effects. Moreover, MSM had a significantly richer and more diverse fecal microbiota than non-MSM individuals. After stratifying for sexual orientation, there was no solid evidence of an HIV-specific dysbiosis. However, HIV-1 infection remained consistently associated with reduced bacterial richness, the lowest bacterial richness being observed in subjects with a virological-immune discordant response to antiretroviral therapy. Our findings indicate that HIV gut microbiome studies must control for HIV risk factors and suggest interventions on gut bacterial richness as possible novel avenues to improve HIV-1-associated immune dysfunction. PMID:27077120

  2. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico; Tourret, Jérome; Moreno, Asunción; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Fux, Christoph Andreas; Katlama, Christine; Reiss, Peter; Lundgren, Jens; Gatell, Jose Maria; Kirk, Ole; Miró, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients.......To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients....

  3. Stroke in a Patient with Tuberculous Meningitis and HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Pasticci, Maria Bruna; Paciaroni, Maurizio; Floridi, Piero; Cecchini, Enisia; Baldelli, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculous meningitis (TBM) is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently.

  4. Interleukin-2 therapy in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrams, D; Lévy, Y; Losso, M H; Babiker, A; Collins, G; Cooper, D A; Darbyshire, J; Emery, S; Fox, L; Gordin, F; Lane, H C; Lundgren, J D; Mitsuyasu, R; Neaton, J D; Phillips, A; Routy, J P; Tambussi, G; Wentworth, D

    2009-01-01

    Interleukin-2 in HIV-Infected Patients with Low CD4+ Counts under Active Antiretroviral Therapy (SILCAAT) study and the Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT). In each, patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who had CD4+ cell counts of either...

  5. Oral manifestations of HIV infection in 36 Nigerian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniyi, Taiwo Olufemi; Sunday, Pam

    2005-01-01

    Oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS are early and common clinical indicators of HIV infection. There has been no report on the clinical prevalence of oral lesions associated with HIV infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa. We report the findings of a cross sectional study of 36 Nigerian children seen at the Pediatrics Infectious Disease Clinic of the AIDS Prevention Initiative in Nigeria (APIN), Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH) Jos, Nigeria. PMID:16302607

  6. Neuropsychiatric aspects of HIV infection among older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hinkin, C.H.; Castellon, S. A.; Atkinson, J. H.; Goodkin, K

    2001-01-01

    Treatment advances such as the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have translated into greater life expectancy for HIV-infected individuals, which will ultimately result in a “graying” of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. In addition, older individuals are engaging in a higher rate of high risk behaviors than had been previously expected. As such, study of older HIV-infected patients, including study of the psychiatric and neurocognitive aspects of the disease, appears highly indicat...

  7. Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Muhlestein, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Throughout time, Egyptian sources display divergent attitudes towards violence expressing the belief that some situations of violence were positive and to be encouraged, while others were to be avoided. Sanctioned violence could be employed for a variety of reasons—the severity of which ranged from inflicting blows to gruesome death. Violence was part of the preternatural realm, notably as Egyptians attempted to thwart potential violence in the afterlife. While the average Egyptian was suppos...

  8. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Orza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH and human rights (HR, and the implications for policymakers. Methods: A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results: In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings. Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations, and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions: Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end-users if lived experiences are used.

  9. Violence. Enough already”: findings from a global participatory survey among women living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orza, Luisa; Bewley, Susan; Chung, Cecilia; Crone, E Tyler; Nagadya, Hajjarah; Vazquez, Marijo; Welbourn, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women living with HIV are vulnerable to gender-based violence (GBV) before and after diagnosis, in multiple settings. This study's aim was to explore how GBV is experienced by women living with HIV, how this affects women's sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and human rights (HR), and the implications for policymakers. Methods A community-based, participatory, user-led, mixed-methods study was conducted, with women living with HIV from key affected populations. Simple descriptive frequencies were used for quantitative data. Thematic coding of open qualitative responses was performed and validated with key respondents. Results In total, 945 women living with HIV from 94 countries participated in the study. Eighty-nine percent of 480 respondents to an optional section on GBV reported having experienced or feared violence, either before, since and/or because of their HIV diagnosis. GBV reporting was higher after HIV diagnosis (intimate partner, family/neighbours, community and health settings). Women described a complex and iterative relationship between GBV and HIV occurring throughout their lives, including breaches of confidentiality and lack of SRH choice in healthcare settings, forced/coerced treatments, HR abuses, moralistic and judgemental attitudes (including towards women from key populations), and fear of losing child custody. Respondents recommended healthcare practitioners and policymakers address stigma and discrimination, training, awareness-raising, and HR abuses in healthcare settings. Conclusions Respondents reported increased GBV with partners and in families, communities and healthcare settings after their HIV diagnosis and across the life-cycle. Measures of GBV must be sought and monitored, particularly within healthcare settings that should be safe. Respondents offered policymakers a comprehensive range of recommendations to achieve their SRH and HR goals. Global guidance documents and policies are more likely to succeed for the end-users if lived experiences are used. PMID:26643458

  10. Response of HIV-associated proteinuria to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected children

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ira, Shah.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV-associated nephropathy has been found in children with HIV-1 infection as a late manifestation of this disease; it is associated with nephrotic syndrome with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and/or mesangial hyperplasia with microcystic tubular dilatation. This is quite rare in children and no [...] cases have been reported from India. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized for the HIV-induced renal damage. We report on two HIV-infected children with HIV-associated proteinuria and dramatic response to antiretroviral therapy.

  11. Knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes in relation to HIV infection in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon D Brewer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In prior research, Africans who knew about blood-borne risks were modestly less likely to be HIV-infected than those who were not aware of such risks. Objectives/Methods: I examined the association between knowledge of specific HIV transmission modes and prevalent HIV infection with data from the 2009 Mozambique AIDS Indicator Survey. Results: Respondents displayed high awareness of blood exposures and vaginal sex as modes of HIV transmission. However, only about half of respondents were aware of anal sex as a way HIV can be transmitted. After adjustments for demographics and sexual behaviors, respondents who knew that HIV could spread by contact with infected blood or by sharing injection needles or razor blades were less likely to be infected than those who did not know about these risks. Respondents who knew about sexual risks were as, or more, likely to be HIV infected as those who did not know about sexual risks. Also, children of HIV-uninfected mothers were less likely to be infected if their mothers were aware of blood-borne HIV risks than if their mothers were unaware. Conclusion: HIV education campaigns in Mozambique and elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa should include a focus on risks from blood exposures and anal sex.

  12. HIV-1/HSV-2 Co-Infected Adults in Early HIV-1 Infection Have Elevated CD4+ T Cell Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, Jason D.; Sauer, Mariana M.; Sharp, Elizabeth R.; Garrison, Keith E; Long, Brian R.; Tomiyama, Helena; Bassichetto, Katia C.; Oliveira, Solange M.; Abbate, Maria C.; Nixon, Douglas F.; Kallas, Esper G.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction HIV-1 is often acquired in the presence of pre-existing co-infections, such as Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2). We examined the impact of HSV-2 status at the time of HIV-1 acquisition for its impact on subsequent clinical course, and total CD4+ T cell phenotypes. Methods We assessed the relationship of HSV-1/HSV-2 co-infection status on CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 RNA levels over time prior in a cohort of 186 treatment naïve adults identified during early HIV-1 infection. We asse...

  13. Genital infections and syndromic diagnosis among HIV-infected women in HIV care programmes in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djomand, Gaston; Gao, Hongjiang; Singa, Benson; Hornston, Sureyya; Bennett, Eddas; Odek, James; McClelland, R Scott; John-Stewart, Grace; Bock, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Control of genital infections remains challenging in most regions. Despite advocacy by the World Health Organization for syndromic case management, there are limited data on the syndromic approach, especially in HIV care settings. This study compared the syndromic approach with laboratory diagnosis among women in HIV care in Kenya. A mobile team visited 39 large HIV care programmes in Kenya and enrolled participants using population-proportionate sampling. Participants provided behavioural and clinical data with genital and blood specimens for lab testing. Among 1063 women, 68.4% had been on antiretroviral therapy >1 year; 58.9% were using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis; 51 % had CD4+T-lymphocytes symptom. Clinical signs were found in 63% of women; and 30.8% had an aetiological diagnosis. Bacterial vaginosis (17.4%), vaginal candidiasis (10.6%) and trichomoniasis (10.5%) were the most common diagnoses. Using laboratory diagnoses as gold standard, sensitivity and positive predictive value of the syndromic diagnosis for vaginal discharge were 47.6% and 52.7%, respectively, indicating a substantial amount of overtreatment. A systematic physical examination increased by 9.3% the positive predictive value for genital ulcer disease. Women attending HIV care programmes in Kenya have high rates of vaginal infections. Syndromic diagnosis was a poor predictor of those infections. PMID:25614522

  14. Systems mapping of HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Wei

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Mathematical models of viral dynamics in vivo provide incredible insights into the mechanisms for the nonlinear interaction between virus and host cell populations, the dynamics of viral drug resistance, and the way to eliminate virus infection from individual patients by drug treatment. The integration of these mathematical models with high-throughput genetic and genomic data within a statistical framework will raise a hope for effective treatment of infections with HIV virus through developing potent antiviral drugs based on individual patients’ genetic makeup. In this opinion article, we will show a conceptual model for mapping and dictating a comprehensive picture of genetic control mechanisms for viral dynamics through incorporating a group of differential equations that quantify the emergent properties of a system.

  15. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Watts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion: Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subsequent partner disclosure are common triggers for violence within relationships. The authors describe the challenges women face in adhering to medication or using services. Kyegombe and colleagues present a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial in Uganda of SASA! – a community violence prevention programme. Along with promising community impacts on physical partner violence, significantly lower levels of sexual concurrency, condom use and HIV testing were reported by men in intervention communities. Remme and her colleagues present a systematic review of evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of gender-responsive HIV interventions. The review identified an ever-growing evidence base, but a paucity of accompanying economic analyses, making it difficult to assess the costs or value for money of gender-focused programmes. Conclusions: There is a need to continue to accumulate evidence on the effectiveness and costs of different approaches to addressing gender inequality and violence as part of a combination HIV response. A clearer HIV-specific and broader synergistic vision of financing and programming needs to be developed, to ensure that the potential synergies between HIV-specific and broader gender-focused development investments can be used to best effect to address vulnerability of women and girls to both violence and HIV.

  16. Heroin inhibits HIV-restriction miRNAs and enhances HIV infection of macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Tong-Cui; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Geller, Ellen B.; Adler, Martin W.; Peng, Jin-Song; Zhou, Wang; Zhou, Dun-Jin; HO, WEN-ZHE

    2015-01-01

    Although opioids have been extensively studied for their impact on the immune system, limited information is available about the specific actions of opioids on intracellular antiviral innate immunity against HIV infection. Thus, we investigated whether heroin, one of the most abused drugs, inhibits the expression of intracellular HIV restriction microRNA (miRNA) and facilitates HIV replication in macrophages. Heroin treatment of macrophages enhanced HIV replication, which was associated with ...

  17. The social context of gender-based violence, alcohol use and HIV risk among women involved in high-risk sexual behaviour and their intimate partners in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulkind, Jasmine; Mbonye, Martin; Watts, Charlotte; Seeley, Janet

    2016-07-01

    This paper explores the interaction between gender-based violence and alcohol use and their links to vulnerability to HIV-infection in a population of women and their regular male partners in Kampala, Uganda. Data derive from 20 life history interviews (10 women and 10 men). Participants were drawn from a cohort of women at high risk of sexually transmitted infection (including HIV). Six of the women were current or former sex workers. Findings reveal that life histories are characterised by recurrent patterns of gender inequity related to violence, limited livelihood options and socioeconomic disadvantage. Overall, findings suggest women are able to negotiate safer sex and protect themselves better against abuse and violence from clients than from their intimate partners, although the status of men as 'client' or 'partner' is transitory and fluid. Among male respondents, alcohol led to intimate partner violence and high levels of sexual-risk taking, such as engagement with sex workers and reduced condom use. However, male partners are a heterogeneous group, with distinct and contrasting attitudes towards alcohol, condom use and violence. Actions to address gender-based violence need to be multi-pronged in order to respond to different needs and circumstances, of both women and men. PMID:26786739

  18. HIV and malaria co-infection in Mumbai, western Indi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Shankarkumar, A. Shankarkumar & K. Ghosh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Conflicting reports exist regarding the HIV-1 infection on the risk of malaria. Atransient almost one-log elevation in HIV viral load occurs during febrile malaria episodes. We prospectivelystudied malaria patients for HIV infection from Mumbai.Methods: A total of 171 malaria patients and 28,749 normal voluntary blood donors were studied for their HIVstatus. Diagnosis of malaria was done by microscopical examination of blood. HIV screening was done bydetection of HIV-1 & 2 antibodies by micro well ELISA using Enzaids & J Mitra kits followed by confirmationusing western blot (Innogenetics, Belgium analysis.Results: Out of 171 malaria patients 13 (7.6%; Odds ratio= 4.45; p <0.0001 and 521 blood bank donors werefound to be HIV reactive. Among 13 HIV reactive patients, eight patients were Elisa borderline reactive andwestern blot positive (p24, which may be due to cross-reactive antibodies. Five of 13 malaria patients foundto be HIV-1 positive by ELISA and by western blot confirming HIV and malaria co-infection.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that HIV-1 and malaria co-infection cant be ruled out in malaria endemiccountries like India

  19. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Tomlinson, M; Hensels, I S; Sherr, L

    2016-03-01

    Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12-15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p self-esteem (β = -0.17, p self-esteem (β = -0.18, p children (β = 0.24, p self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  20. Dilazep synergistically reactivates latent HIV-1 in latently infected cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Hanxian; Liu, Sijie; Wang, Pengfei; Qu, Xiying; Ji, Haiyan; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhu, Xiaoli; Song, Zhishuo; Yang, Xinyi; Ma, Zhongjun; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2014-11-01

    The long-lived latently infected cells persist in spite of prolonged highly active anti-retroviral therapy and present a major barrier to a cure of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Elimination of this reservoir requires reactivation of the latent virus. None of the current agents can safely and effectively reactivate latent HIV-1 reservoirs. Dilazep, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, is used to treat ischemic dysfunction. However, little is known about the effect of dilazep in inducing HIV expression in latently infected cells. Using the Jurkat T cell model of HIV-1 latency, we found that dilazep effectively reactivates latent HIV-1 gene expression in a dose manner. We observed that dilazep synergistically reactivated latent HIV-1 transcription with valproic acid. We also found that dilazep activates viral latency without inducing cell surface activation markers CD25 and CD69 activation. In summary, dilazep, alone or in combination with VPA, could be useful in future eradication strategies. PMID:25091947

  1. Rates of sexual violence among HIV-positive women: finding a way forward for a holistic service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Manners

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rates of sexual violence are high, and several studies have suggested that rates are particularly high among HIV-positive women. Experience of sexual violence can lead to numerous physical and psychological co-morbidities as well as a wide range of social problems. On both a Scottish Government and an international level it has been suggested that routine questioning about sexual violence in vulnerable populations can help to ensure access to appropriate services. This study aimed to assess the level of engagement around sexual violence in one HIV centre looking specifically at how often it was discussed, rate of disclosure, advice given and the demographics of the population disclosing sexual violence. Through this the aim was to assess the prevalence of disclosed sexual violence, and how it was being dealt with, in order to improve service provision. This was achieved by undertaking a case note review of 50 female patients of 394 number being cared for by the genito-urinary physicians. Sexual violence was discussed at least once in 63% of cases, most commonly at time of diagnosis in a GUM clinic or other centre. 50% of those women disclosed experience of sexual violence, of while 60% (n=28 were from sub-Saharan Africa and 44% (n=21 had entered the country as asylum seekers or refugees. These results show that a large number of HIV-positive women within this city have experienced sexual violence, in particular in the asylum seeking population. As such, if services for HIV-positive women are to take account of the psychological and social needs of their service users they will need to be aware of this and make appropriate provisions. This could take the form of routine questioning around gender-based violence and/or providing good information about internal and external support services.

  2. HIV-infected mental health patients: characteristics and comparison with HIV-infected patients from the general population and non-infected mental health patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schadé Annemiek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing mental health symptoms, which negatively influence the treatment of the HIV-infection. Mental health problems in HIV-infected patients may affect public health. Psychopathology, including depression and substance abuse, can increase hazardous sexual behaviour and, with it, the chance of spreading HIV. Therefore, it is important to develop an optimal treatment plan for HIV-infected patients with mental health problems. The majority of HIV-infected patients in the Netherlands (almost 60% are homosexual men. The main objectives of this study were to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics of patients with HIV who seek treatment for their mental health symptoms in the Netherlands. Secondly, we tested whether HIV infected and non-infected homosexual patients with a lifetime depressive disorder differed on several mental health symptoms. Methods We compared a cohort of 196 patients who visited the outpatient clinic for HIV and Mental Health with HIV-infected patients in the general population in Amsterdam (ATHENA-study and with non-HIV infected mental health patients (NESDA-study. DSM-IV diagnoses were determined, and several self-report questionnaires were used to assess mental health symptoms. Results Depressive disorders were the most commonly occurring diagnoses in the cohort and frequent drug use was common. HIV-infected homosexual men with a depressive disorder showed no difference in depressive symptoms or sleep disturbance, compared with non-infected depressive men. However, HIV-positive patients did express more symptoms like fear, anger and guilt. Although they showed significantly more suicidal ideation, suicide attempts were not more prevalent among HIV-infected patients. Finally, the HIV-infected depressive patients displayed a considerably higher level of drug use than the HIV-negative group. Conclusion Habitual drug use is a risk factor for spreading HIV. It is also more often diagnosed in HIV-infected homosexual men with a lifetime depression or dysthymic disorder than in the non-infected population. Untreated mental health problems, such as depressive symptoms and use of drugs can have serious repercussions. Therefore, general practitioners and internists should be trained to recognize mental health problems in HIV-infected patients.

  3. HIV/AIDS and Associated Conditions among HIV-Infected Refugees in Minnesota, 2000–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Krohn; Luisa Pessoa-Brandão; Ann O'Fallon; Brett Hendel-Paterson; Kailey Nelson; Blain Mamo; Glenise Johnson; Lowther, Sara A.; William Stauffer

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, the requirement for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing of adult refugees prior to US resettlement was removed, thus leading to a potential for missed diagnosis. We reviewed refugee health assessment data and medical charts to evaluate the health status of HIV-infected refugees who arrived in Minnesota during 2000–2007, prior to this 2010 policy change. Among 19,292 resettled adults, 174 were HIV-infected; 169 (97%) were African (median age 26.4 (range: 17–...

  4. Addressing gender inequality and intimate partner violence as critical barriers to an effective HIV response in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Charlotte Watts; Janet Seeley

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In Africa, women and girls represent 57% of people living with HIV, with gender inequality and violence being an important structural determinant of their vulnerability. This commentary draws out lessons for a more effective combination response to the HIV epidemic from three papers recently published in JIAS. Discussion: Hatcher and colleagues present qualitative data from women attending ante-natal clinics in Johannesburg, describing how HIV diagnosis during pregnancy and subs...

  5. The effect of aging, nutrition, and exercise during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Somarriba

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Somarriba, Daniela Neri, Natasha Schaefer, Tracie L MillerDivision of Pediatric Clinical Research, Department of Pediatrics, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: Medical advances continue to change the face of human immunodeficiency virusacquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. As life expectancy increases, the number of people living with HIV rises, presenting new challenges for the management of a chronic condition. Aging, nutrition, and physical activity can influence outcomes in other chronic conditions, and emerging data show that each of these factors can impact viral replication and the immune system in HIV. HIV infection results in a decline of the immune system through the depletion of CD4+ T cells. From initial infection, viral replication is a continuous phenomenon. Immunosenescence, a hallmark of aging, results in an increased susceptibility to infections secondary to a delayed immune response, and this phenomenon may be increased in HIV-infected patients. Optimal nutrition is an important adjunct in the clinical care of patients with HIV. Nutritional interventions may improve the quality and span of life and symptom management, support the effectiveness of medications, and improve the patients resistance to infections and other disease complications by altering immunity. Moderate physical activity can improve many immune parameters, reduce the risk of acute infection, and combat metabolic abnormalities. As people with HIV age, alternative therapies such as nutrition and physical activity may complement medical management.Keywords: HIV replication, aging, diet, nutrition, exercise, immunity

  6. HIV and TB co-infection in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyoub, E M; Garg, Suneela; Singh, M M; Agarwal, Paras; Gupta, V K; Gupta, Naresh

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Anti-Retroviral Therapy Clinic and TB center of a tertiary level hospital to find out socio-demographic correlates of HIV/TB individuals and risk factors of HIV/TB co-infection in Indian context. It is a case-control study comprising 420 subjects, 3 groups of 140 each. For a case group of HIV-TB co-infected subjects, two control groups, one comprising HIV patients (not having TB), and the other TB patients (not having HIV). Majority 267 (63.6%) males, 100 (71.4%) in case group (HIV/ TB), 74 (52.9%) in control group 1 (TB) and 93 (66.4%) in control group 2 (HIV). Mean (+/-SD) age of case-group was 34.91 (+/- 8.57) years. New TB cases were 213 (76.1%), more among control-group 1, compared to case-group. Multivariate analysis showed that risk of co-infection was 1.94 times higher among individuals aged >35 years. Difference statistically significant amongst those who were not on ART than who were on ART (p class. Current history of smoking significantly associated with co-infection. HIV status during TB infection was detected in 1/4th of study subjects. History of TB symptoms in family significantly associated with co-infection. PMID:25141551

  7. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuti, Kehinde Mobolanle; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George; Akinyinka, Olusina Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT), olfactory discrimination (OD), olfactory identification (OI), and TDI using “Sniffin' sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS) score) measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p = 0.67) and taste (p = 0.84) of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p < 0.05). Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27047688

  8. Identifying Recent HIV Infections: From Serological Assays to Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Sikhulile; Wilkinson, Eduan; Novitsky, Vladimir; Vandormael, Alain; Gaseitsiwe, Simani; Essex, Max; Engelbrecht, Susan; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we review serological and molecular based methods to identify HIV infection recency. The accurate identification of recent HIV infection continues to be an important research area and has implications for HIV prevention and treatment interventions. Longitudinal cohorts that follow HIV negative individuals over time are the current gold standard approach, but they are logistically challenging, time consuming and an expensive enterprise. Methods that utilize cross-sectional testing and biomarker information have become an affordable alternative to the longitudinal approach. These methods use well-characterized biological makers to differentiate between recent and established HIV infections. However, recent results have identified a number of limitations in serological based assays that are sensitive to the variability in immune responses modulated by HIV subtypes, viral load and antiretroviral therapy. Molecular methods that explore the dynamics between the timing of infection and viral evolution are now emerging as a promising approach. The combination of serological and molecular methods may provide a good solution to identify recent HIV infection in cross-sectional data. As part of this review, we present the advantages and limitations of serological and molecular based methods and their potential complementary role for the identification of HIV infection recency. PMID:26512688

  9. Enhanced clearance of HIV-1-infected cells by broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ching-Lan; Murakowski, Dariusz K; Bournazos, Stylianos; Schoofs, Till; Sarkar, Debolina; Halper-Stromberg, Ariel; Horwitz, Joshua A; Nogueira, Lilian; Golijanin, Jovana; Gazumyan, Anna; Ravetch, Jeffrey V; Caskey, Marina; Chakraborty, Arup K; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2016-05-20

    Antiretroviral drugs and antibodies limit HIV-1 infection by interfering with the viral life cycle. In addition, antibodies also have the potential to guide host immune effector cells to kill HIV-1-infected cells. Examination of the kinetics of HIV-1 suppression in infected individuals by passively administered 3BNC117, a broadly neutralizing antibody, suggested that the effects of the antibody are not limited to free viral clearance and blocking new infection but also include acceleration of infected cell clearance. Consistent with these observations, we find that broadly neutralizing antibodies can target CD4(+) T cells infected with patient viruses and can decrease their in vivo half-lives by a mechanism that requires Fcγ receptor engagement in a humanized mouse model. The results indicate that passive immunotherapy can accelerate elimination of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:27199430

  10. Short Communication: Neutralizing Antibodies in HIV-1-Infected Brazilian Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Dalziza Victalina; Morgado, Mariza Gonalvez; Crtes, Fernanda Heloise; Guimares, Monick Lindermeyer; de Mendona-Lima, Leila; PILOTTO, JOSE HENRIQUE; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Veloso, Valdila Gonalves; Bongertz, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Tests for the detection of the humoral immune response to HIV-1 have to be standardized and established, demanding regional efforts. For this purpose the neutralizing antibody (NAb) assay for HIV-1 in TZM-bl cells was introduced in Brazil. Twenty plasma samples from HIV-1-infected individuals were assayed: 10 progressors and 10 long-term nonprogressors. These were tested against eight env-pseudotyped viruses (psVs) in the TZM-bl NAb assay and against HIV-1 strain HTLV/IIIB (HIV-1 IIIB) in pri...

  11. Genetic Variability of Candida albicans in HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Challacombe, S.J.; Muir, J; Howell, S. A.; Sweet, S. P.

    2011-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most common oral manifestation of HIV infection. but it is unclear whether, in addition to immune dysfunction, this predisposition is related to changcs in the biotypes or genotypes of infecting Candida. The objective of this study was to compare the genetic variability of Candida albicans isolated from 50 HIV infected patients (25 Candida carriers and 25 candidiasis patients) and 50 age and candidiasis matched control subjects. Candidal DNA was extracted, purified, cl...

  12. Cutaneous protothecosis in a patient with previously undiagnosed HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Kenneth; Tee, Shang-Ian; Ho, Madeline S L; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2015-08-01

    Protothecosis is an uncommon condition resulting from infection by achlorophyllous algae of the Prototheca species. Immunocompromised individuals are generally most susceptible to protothecal infection and tend to develop severe and disseminated disease. However, the association between protothecosis and HIV-induced immunosuppression is not clear, with only a handful of cases having been described to date. Here we report a case of cutaneous protothecosis in a Chinese man with previously undiagnosed HIV infection that responded well to oral itraconazole. PMID:24592936

  13. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Larke, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and hum...

  14. Plasmacytoid Dendritic cells (pDCs in HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected patients receiving successful treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Khokhlova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Depletion of cellular pool and constant activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs in HIV-infected persons (HIV+ are associated with disease progression and manifestation of opportunistic infections. The influence of highly-active antiretroviral treatment (HAART and suppressed HCV-co-infection (HIV+/HCV+ on the extent of these changes remains unknown. Objective: To study parameters of pDCs in peripheral blood of HIV+ and HIV+/HCV+ patients on HAART. Methods: Twelve uninfected with HIV or HCV volunteers and 37 patients (12 HIV+, 9 HIV+/HCV+ and 16 HCV+ were enrolled. All HIV+ patients received HAART and had undetermined HIV viral load. All HCV+ patients had finished antiviral therapy (Pegasys/ribavirin with sustained viral response for six months and more. The pDC population was enumerated by flow cytometry. In vitro IFN production in the whole blood in response to pDC-specific stimulus unmethylated CpG oligonucleotides was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The percentage of pDCs of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in HIV+/HCV+ was the lowest (0.08±0.02 but statistically not different from HIV+ (0.15±0.03; p=0.11 and significantly lower than HCV+ (0.17±0.015; p=0.4 and controls (0.27±0.045; p=0.03. Absolute number of pDCs in HIV+ on HAART (6.3±1.3 was not significantly lower than the control (10.25±1.75; p=0.09 but in HIV+/HCV+ (5.1±1.2; p=0.03, the difference was valid. IFN-alpha production by pDCs in patients on HAART in HIV+ (2.4±0.9 pg/µl and in HIV+/HCV+ (3.7±1 pg/µl patients were significantly higher than in controls (in controls IFN-alpha production by pDCs in the native plasma was below the level of detection (3 pg/µl, p=0.02 and p=0.0014. Conclusions: Absolute number of pDC in HIV-positive person on HAART with sustained viral response to treatment of HCV-co-infection was lower than in HIV-mono-infected. IFN-alpha production by pDC in HIV+ and in HIV+/HCV+ patients receiving HAART remains higher than in uninfected persons.

  15. Factors associated with the perpetration of sexual violence among wine-shop patrons in Chennai, India

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Vivian F.; Srikrishnan, Aylur K; Salter, Megan L.; Mehta, Shruti; Johnson, Sethulakshmi C.; Sivaram, Sudha; Davis, Wendy; Solomon, Suniti; Celentano, David D

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS, India has the third highest number of HIV-infected people in the world. Despite reductions in prevalence among the general population, the percentage of all infections occurring among Indian women is continuing to rise. Women s risk of HIV infection from their partner and observed associations between sexual violence and HIV infection in India underscore the importance of understanding determinants of forced sex. A probability survey ...

  16. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J.; Calderon, Veronica E.; Huante, Matthew B.; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L.; Hunter, Robert L.; Actor, Jeffrey K.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Lisinicchia, Joshua G.; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J.

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination. PMID:26908312

  17. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Humanized Mice Infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaum, Rebecca J; Calderon, Veronica E; Huante, Matthew B; Sutjita, Putri; Vijayakumar, Sudhamathi; Lancaster, Katrina L; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K; Cirillo, Jeffrey D; Aronson, Judith; Gelman, Benjamin B; Lisinicchia, Joshua G; Valbuena, Gustavo; Endsley, Janice J

    2016-01-01

    Co-infection with HIV increases the morbidity and mortality associated with tuberculosis due to multiple factors including a poorly understood microbial synergy. We developed a novel small animal model of co-infection in the humanized mouse to investigate how HIV infection disrupts pulmonary containment of Mtb. Following dual infection, HIV-infected cells were localized to sites of Mtb-driven inflammation and mycobacterial replication in the lung. Consistent with disease in human subjects, we observed increased mycobacterial burden, loss of granuloma structure, and increased progression of TB disease, due to HIV co-infection. Importantly, we observed an HIV-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine signature (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, and IL-8), neutrophil accumulation, and greater lung pathology in the Mtb-co-infected lung. These results suggest that in the early stages of acute co-infection in the humanized mouse, infection with HIV exacerbates the pro-inflammatory response to pulmonary Mtb, leading to poorly formed granulomas, more severe lung pathology, and increased mycobacterial burden and dissemination. PMID:26908312

  18. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Enteric parasites are a major cause of diarrhoea in HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 counts. Parasitic infections in HIV-infected individuals can reduce their quality of life and life span, especially those who are severely immunosuppressed with a CD4 T-lymphocyte count 0.05). Conclusions: Low CD4 counts in HIV-infected patients can lead to enteric infections. This information strengthens the importance of monitoring CD4 counts and intestinal parasites. Routine CD4 testing will greatly improve the prognosis of HIV positive patients. (author)

  19. CMV and HCV infections in HIV/non-HIV mothers and newborns: prevalence, frequency and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lopo, Sílvia; Pereira, Maria Amável; Mendonça, Joana; Vinagre, Elsa; Reis, Tânia; Cordeiro, Dora; Almeida, Catarina; Água-Doce, Ivone; Manita, Carla; Palminha, Paula; Pádua, Elizabeth; Paixão, Maria Teresa; Carreiro, Helena; Barroso, Rosalina; Campos, Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of HIV infections in gestational age is an important Public Health issue as are concerns about co-infection with opportunistic viruses, such as CMV/HCV. Several authors refer higher ratios of congenital CMV infection in children born to HIV infected mother than in uninfected. In the case of HCV, perinatal transmission increases in cases of mothers co-infected with HIV. Aims:To study CMV/HCV infection/co-infection in HIV/non-HIV women and their newborns between 2006-2010, acc...

  20. Possible transmission of HIV Infection due to human bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandivdekar Atmaram H

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential risk of HIV-1 infection following human bite although epidemiologically insignificant, but it is biologically possible. There are anecdotal reports of HIV transmission by human bites particularly if saliva is mixed with blood. The oral tissues support HIV replication and may serve as a previously unrecognized HIV reservoir. The HIV infected individuals have more viruses in blood than saliva, possibly due to the potent HIV-inhibitory properties of saliva. The case presented here is of a primary HIV infections following a human bite where in the saliva was not blood stained but it got smeared on a raw nail bed of a recipient. The blood and saliva of the source and blood of the recipient showed a detectable viral load with 91% sequence homology of C2-V3 region of HIV gp120 between the two individuals. The recipient did not receive PEP [post exposure prophylaxis] as his family physician was unaware of salivary transmission. The family physician should have taken PEP decision after proper evaluation of the severe and bleeding bite. Hence it is necessary to treat the HIV infected human bites with post exposure prophylaxis.

  1. Targeting TNF-Alpha in HIV-1 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Coquard, Laurie; Herbein, Georges

    2016-01-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has dramatically extended the lifespan and quality of life of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HAART comprises of a cocktail of various pharmacological inhibitors which interfere with almost every stages of HIV-1 life cycle. However, constant application of drugs often results in the evolution of hostpathogen relationship resulting in the emergence of drug resistant viral strains. Drug resistant HIV-1 is a potent threat for the humankind. Therefore, there is a constant need to search for novel therapeutic molecules. HIV-1 infection results in the depletion of CD4+/CD8+T cells and alters the cytokine network in the infected individuals. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), a proinflammatory cytokine, plays a critical role in HIV-1 pathogenesis. HIV-1 utilizes the TNF-alpha signaling pathway for expanding its reservoir. Several HIV-1 proteins mimic and regulate the TNF-alpha signaling pathway. TNF-alpha inhibitors have been used in several inflammatory pathologies with success to some extent. In the present mini review we will discuss the role of TNF-alpha in HIV-1 pathogenesis. Furthermore we will evaluate the TNF-alpha inhibitors as an additional therapeutic option for HIV-1 infection. PMID:26073859

  2. Examining the Relationship between Urogenital Schistosomiasis and HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbabazi, Pamela Sabina; Andan, Olivia; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; Chitsulo, Lester; Engels, Dirk; Downs, Jennifer A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Urogenital schistosomiasis, caused by infection with Schistosoma haematobium, is widespread and causes substantial morbidity on the African continent. The infection has been suggested as an unrecognized risk factor for incident HIV infection. Current guidelines recommend preventive chemotherapy, using praziquantel as a public health tool, to avert morbidity due to schistosomiasis. In individuals of reproductive age, urogenital schistosomiasis remains highly prevalent and, likely, underdiagnosed. This comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the evidence for a cause-effect relationship between urogenital schistosomiasis and HIV/AIDS. The review aims to support discussions of urogenital schistosomiasis as a neglected yet urgent public health challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a systematic search of the literature including online databases, clinical guidelines, and current medical textbooks. We describe plausible local and systemic mechanisms by which Schistosoma haematobium infection could increase the risk of HIV acquisition in both women and men. We also detail the effects of S. haematobium infection on the progression and transmissibility of HIV in co-infected individuals. We briefly summarize available evidence on the immunomodulatory effects of chronic schistosomiasis and the implications this might have for populations at high risk of both schistosomiasis and HIV. Conclusions/Significance Studies support the hypothesis that urogenital schistosomiasis in women and men constitutes a significant risk factor for HIV acquisition due both to local genital tract and global immunological effects. In those who become HIV-infected, schistosomal co-infection may accelerate HIV disease progression and facilitate viral transmission to sexual partners. Establishing effective prevention strategies using praziquantel, including better definition of treatment age, duration, and frequency of treatment for urogenital schistosomiasis, is an important public health priority. Our findings call attention to this pressing yet neglected public health issue and the potential added benefit of scaling up coverage of schistosomal treatment for populations in whom HIV infection is prevalent. PMID:22163056

  3. Interleukin-27 Is Differentially Associated with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ T Cell Counts in Therapy-Naïve HIV-Mono-Infected and HIV/HCV-Co-Infected Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    He, Lai; Zhao, Jin; Wang, Maggie Haitian; Siu, Kenny K. Y.; Gan, Yong-Xia; Chen, Lin; Zee, Benny C. Y.; Li YANG; Kung, Hsiang-Fu; Yang, Zheng-Rong; He, Ming-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27), a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well charact...

  4. Lentiviral vectors for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Mario R

    2002-02-01

    Lentiviral vectors based on HIV-1, HIV-2, or SIV have the ability to transduce dividing and non-dividing T cells, dendritic cells, hematopoietic stem cells and macrophages, which are the main target cells for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection. Besides their function as gene delivery vehicles, lentiviral vector backbones containing the cis-acting sequences necessary to perform a complete replication cycle in the presence of viral proteins provided in trans, have the ability to inhibit HIV-1 replication by several mechanisms that include sequestration of the regulatory proteins Tat and Rev, competition for packaging into virions and possibly by inhibition of reverse transcription in heterodimeric virions. Expression of anti-HIV-1 genes in these vectors would strengthen the potency of this inhibition. To avoid self-inhibition of the vector packaging system, lentiviral vectors have to be modified to become resistant to the anti-HIV-1 genes encoded by them. This review discusses the different genetic intervention strategies for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection focusing in the use of lentiviral vectors as the main agents to mediate inhibition of HIV-1 replication. It also discusses possible strategies to adapt HIV-1 or HIV-2 vectors to express the different classes of anti-HIV-1 genes and approaches to improve in vivo vector mobilization. PMID:12108972

  5. Clinical manifestations, management and therapy of HIV infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaoma, F M; Scott, G B

    1992-03-01

    Perinatal infection accounts for the majority of cases of HIV infection in children both in developed and developing countries. Transmission may occur in utero, intrapartum or postpartum as a result of breast-feeding. The actual risk of transmission through breast-feeding is unknown. The majority of infants reported to be infected through breast milk have been infected as a result of a recently acquired HIV infection in the mother. Infants with HIV infection frequently present with clinical symptoms early in life. There is a broad spectrum of clinical findings in paediatric HIV infection, with opportunistic infections and multiorgan system involvement being common. The management of infants born to seropositive mothers includes routine paediatric care as well as careful clinical and laboratory monitoring for evidence of HIV infection. Infants who are seronegative with normal clinical and immunological findings at 18 months of age are considered uninfected. The prognosis and outcome of infants with HIV infection have improved considerably with earlier diagnosis and the availability of specific antiviral therapy. Modalities of therapy include frequent medical evaluation, aggressive diagnosis and treatment of infection, prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii infection, the use of intravenous gamma-globulin and specific antiviral therapy, such as zidovudine, didanosine or other drugs in development through clinical trials. HIV infection in children is a chronic illness and requires a comprehensive, family-oriented approach to care. With longer survival, children require support systems and an atmosphere of care and understanding to give them a good quality of life as well as prolonged survival. PMID:1633655

  6. HIV/STD prevalence among MSM in Chengdu, China and associated risk factors for HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuji; Wu, Zunyou; Detels, Roger; Qin, Guangming; Liu, Li; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Linglin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of HIV and selected STDs among MSM in Chengdu, China and the risk factors associated with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study using a snowball sampling method was conducted from March to July, 2007. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about sexual history, high risk behaviors, STD infection history, HIV knowledge and testing, and an assessment of depression. Blood samples were taken for antibody testing for HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis. Results A total of 538 MSM were recruited and 513 (95.4%) consented to complete the questionnaire. HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis prevalence were 9.1%, 24.7%, and 28.1%, respectively. The rate of consistent condom use was low and varied by types of sexual partners. The highest was with casual male partners (38.6%) and the lowest was with wife or girl friend (17.8%). Money boys (MB) were 6 times more likely to be infected with HIV compare to clerks/students. Infection with either HSV or syphilis increased the risk of HIV infection more than 4 fold. Conclusions The prevalences of HIV and STDs were high among MSM in Chengdu. To prevent HIV/STDs, campaigns promoting condom use are needed not only to boost the frequency of condom use, but also to educate MSM about proper condom use. PMID:20104114

  7. Intersection of Intimate Partner Violence and HIV in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 33. Constantino, R.E. et al. (2000). Negative life experiences, depression, and immune function in abused and nonabused women. ... and impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and comorbid depression on adherence to HAART and CD4+ counts in people living with HIV. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 19( ...

  8. Disseminated tuberculosis in an AIDS/HIV-infected patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abdi-Liae

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Disseminated tuberculosis (TB is commonly seen in HIV-infected patients and is major cause of death in these patients. In HIV-infected patients disseminated tuberculosis is frequently undiagnosed or misdiagnosed. In this article we report a case of disseminated TB in a HIV-infected patient with a relatively long history of fever and other complaints without definite diagnosis. Diagnosis of disseminated TB was confirmed by bone marrow biopsy and polymerase chain reaction analysis (PCR of the ascitic fluid. With anti-TB treatment signs and symptoms improved.

  9. Epidemiology of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Ulrik Bak; Bauer, J; Poulsen, S; Askgaard, D; Andersen, A B; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    1999-01-01

    found no evidence to suggest that the increase in TB incidence among young Danes was caused by the HIV-epidemic or transmission from immigrants. TB among HIV-positive Danes is most often due to recent infection. The patients often belong to a subpopulation living in Copenhagen characterized by......Denmark is an area of low incidence of HIV and tuberculosis (TB). The number of newly reported cases of HIV has been stable during the 1990s, whereas the number of TB cases has doubled in Denmark in the past decade, mainly due to immigration. However, among native Danes the incidence of TB has...... increased in the younger age groups, indicating more newly infected persons. This study was performed in order to assess the impact of the HIV epidemic and immigration on TB incidence among native Danes. The study was also designed to reveal transmission patterns of TB among HIV-positive patients. Data from...

  10. Urban legends series: oral manifestations of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, L L; Ramirez-Amador, V; Anaya-Saavedra, G; Nittayananta, W; Carrozzo, M; Ranganathan, K

    2013-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-related oral lesions (HIV-OLs), such as oral candidiasis (OC) and oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), have been recognized as indicators of immune suppression since the beginning of the global HIV epidemic. The diagnosis and management of HIV disease and spectrum of opportunistic infection has changed over the past 30 years as our understanding of the infection has evolved. We investigated the following controversial topics: (i) Are oral manifestations of HIV still relevant after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)? (ii) Can we nowadays still diagnose HIV infection through oral lesions? (iii) Is the actual classification of oral manifestations of HIV adequate or does it need to be reviewed and updated? (iv) Is there any novelty in the treatment of oral manifestations of HIV infection? Results from extensive literature review suggested the following: (i) While HAART has resulted in significant reductions in HIV-OLs, many are still seen in patients with HIV infection, with OC remaining the most common lesion. While the relationship between oral warts and the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is less clear, the malignant potential of oral human papillomavirus infection is gaining increasing attention. (ii) Effective antiretroviral therapy has transformed HIV from a fatal illness to a chronic manageable condition and as a result expanded screening policies for HIV are being advocated both in developed and in developing countries. Affordable, reliable, and easy-to-use diagnostic techniques have been recently introduced likely restricting the importance of HIV-OLs in diagnosis. (iii) The 1993 EC-Clearinghouse classification of HIV-OLs is still globally used despite controversy on the relevance of periodontal diseases today. HIV-OL case definitions were updated in 2009 to facilitate the accuracy of HIV-OL diagnoses by non-dental healthcare workers in large-scale epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. (iv) Research over the last 6 years on novel modalities for the treatment of HIV-OLs has been reported for OC and OHL. PMID:23517181

  11. Male circumcision, HIV and sexually transmitted infections: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larke, Natasha

    Three randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa have shown that circumcision reduces the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men by approximately 60%. In this paper, we review the evidence that male circumcision protects against infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and their female partners. Data from the clinical trials indicate that circumcision may be protective against genital ulcer disease, Herpes simplex type 2, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus infection in men. No evidence exists of a protective effect against Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhea. There is weak evidence that circumcision has a direct protective effect on HIV infection in women, although there is likely to be an indirect benefit, since HIV prevalence is likely to be lower in circumcised male partners. Although there is little evidence from the trials of serious adverse events from the procedure and of behavioural risk compensation among circumcised men, essential operational research is being conducted to evaluate these key issues outside the trial setting as circumcision services are expanded. Following the publication of the clinical trial results in early 2007, the World Health Organization/UNAIDS has advised that promotion of male circumcision should be included as an additional HIV strategy for the prevention of heterosexually acquired HIV infection in men in areas of high HIV prevalence. As circumcision services are expanded in settings where resources are limited, non-physician providers including nurses will play an important role in the provision of services. PMID:20622758

  12. The physical and psychological effects of HIV infection and its treatment on perinatally HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C Vreeman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods: We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+ infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion: Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological challenges, including higher rates of mental health and behavioural disorders. Existing studies have significant methodological limitations, including small sample sizes, inappropriate control groups and heterogeneous definitions, to name a few. Conclusions: Success in treating perinatally HIV-infected children and better understanding of the physical and psychological implications of lifelong HIV infection require that we address a new set of challenges for children. A better understanding of these challenges will guide care providers, researchers and policymakers towards more effective HIV care management for perinatally infected children and their transition to adulthood.

  13. Seroprevalence of HIV infection in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdool Karim, Q; Abdool Karim, S S; Singh, B; Short, R; Ngxongo, S

    1992-12-01

    As part of a population-based malaria surveillance program in late 1990, surveillance agents took blood samples from 979 people who had had a fever within the last 2 weeks and from 4044 healthy people during regular house-to-house visits in rural northern Natal/KwaZulu, South Africa, to determine HIV seroprevalence and risk factors of HIV infection. 60 (1.2%) people were HIV-1 seropositive. No one had HIV-2 infection. Febrile people had a 30% higher sex-adjusted relative risk (RR) of HIV-1 infection than healthy individuals, but this increase was insignificant. Women were at greater risk of HIV-1 infection than men (1.6% vs. 0.4%; age-adjusted RR = 3.8). In fact, this risk still existed when the researchers controlled for fever (RR = 3.75) and migrancy (RR = 3.2). The fall in the RR for women from 3.8 to 3.2 when controlled for migrancy suggested an underrepresentation of migrant male workers in the study sample. 2.3% of the women in their childbearing years (15-44) were HIV-1 seropositive, indicating an increased likelihood of transmission of HIV-1 to newborns. The youngest person afflicted with HIV-1 was a 12-year-old female and the oldest was a 66-year-old woman. No 10-to-19-year-old males tested HIV-1 positive, while 1.7% of the 10-to-19-year-old females did, suggesting that the young females had sex with older men. This may have indicated teenage prostitution and sexual abuse. 2.9% of the people who changed their place of residence within the last year (migrancy) had HIV-1 infection. For women it was linked to a 2.4 times higher RR (age-adjusted) of HIV-1 infection. For men, the age-adjusted RR was even greater (7.3). Even though HIV-1 seroprevalence was about 45% greater in areas crossed by the main national road than it was in other areas (1.3% vs. 0.9%), the difference was not significant. Since migrants were a key source of HIV-1 infection, improvement in social conditions, allowing families to live together and to settle in their communities, may reduce HIV-1 transmission. PMID:1492937

  14. HIV Infection among Civilian Applicants for Nigeria Military Service

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua A. Itsifinus; Felix Ebunu; Johnbull Sonny Ogboi; Kabir Sabitu; Suleiman Idris

    2010-01-01

    AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth’s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army betw...

  15. Impact of HIV Infection on Medicare Beneficiaries with Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Page C. Moore; Lensing, Shelly Y.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer among individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is elevated compared to that among the general population. This study examines the prevalence of HIV and its impact on outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries who are 65 years of age or older and were diagnosed with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between 1997 and 2008. Prevalence of HIV was estimated using the Poisson point estimate and its 95% confidence interval. Relative risks for potential...

  16. Latent and Active Tuberculosis Infection Increase Immune Activation in Individuals Co-Infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuri A. Sullivan

    2015-04-01

    Significance: Latent tuberculosis, which affects an estimated 1/3 of the world's population, has long been thought to be a relatively benign, quiescent state of M. tuberculosis infection. While HIV co-infection is known to exacerbate M. tuberculosis infection and increase the risk of developing active TB, little is known about the potential effect of latent TB infection on HIV disease. This study shows that HIV-infected individuals with both active and latent TB have elevated levels of inflammation and immune activation, biomarkers of HIV disease progression and elevated risk of mortality. These results suggest that, in the context of HIV, latent TB infection may be associated with increased risk of progression to AIDS and mortality.

  17. HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir Lakhashe; Madhuri Thakar; Sheela Godbole; Srikanth Tripathy; Ramesh Paranjape

    2008-11-01

    The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naïve patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection. However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.

  18. Risk factors for physical domestic violence in a high-prevalence HIV setting: findings from Project Accept baseline data (HPTN-043)

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastian Kevany; Godfrey Woelk; Shade, Starley B.; Michal Kulich; Janet M. Turan; Alfred Chingono; Morin, Stephen F

    2013-01-01

    Zimbabwe faces an acute generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic combined with rapidly deteriorating economic and political conditions, under which levels of domestic violence are on the rise. We aimed to determine possible demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical domestic violence in a rural setting in order to better inform both national and local domestic violence and HIV prevention policies. Using the Project Accept baseline data set, we selected demographic, socio-economic, and b...

  19. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected Gambians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of HIV/hepatitis co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa is not well documented, while both HIV and HBV are endemic in this area. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the seroprevalence of HBV and HCV virus in HIV-infected subjects in the Gambia. Methods Plasma samples from HIV infected patients (190 individuals with clinically defined AIDS and 382 individuals without AIDS were tested retrospectively for the presence of HBV sero-markers and for serum HBV DNA, screened for HCV infection by testing for anti-HCV antibody and HCV RNA. Results HBsAg prevalence in HIV-positive individuals is 12.2%. HIV/HBV co-infected individuals with CD4 count of Conclusion The prevalence of HBsAg carriage in HIV- infected Gambians is similar to that obtained in the general population. However co-infected individuals with reduced CD4 levels, indicative of AIDS had higher prevalence of HBeAg retention and elevated HBV DNA levels compared to non-AIDS patients with higher CD4 count.

  20. HIV infection is a risk factor for venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, A Sinan; Smith, Peter R; Gomez, Victor; Bergman, Michael; Homel, Peter

    2002-05-01

    The reported incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has ranged from 0.25 to 0.96% in clinical studies, but up to 17% at autopsy. A preliminary analysis at our hospital suggested that the frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals might be higher than previously reported. To further evaluate this issue, we performed a retrospective study of patients with a diagnosis of VTE and/or HIV infection discharged from our hospital between July 1, 1998 and June 30, 1999. A total of 13,496 patients were discharged during the year of the study. There were 244 patients with VTE and 362 who were HIV-positive. Ten of the 244 patients with VTE were HIV-positive (4.1%). The frequency of VTE among HIV-positive individuals was 10/362 (2.8%) compared to 234/13134 (1.8%) in the non-HIV-positive group, but the difference is not statistically significant. However, in patients under age 50, the frequencies were significantly different: 10/302 (3.31%) versus 35/6594 (0.53%), respectively (p < 0.0001). The frequency of VTE in HIV-positive patients less than 50 years old (3.31%) was greater than in HIV-positive patients over 50 years of age (0/60), but the difference did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, in the non-HIV-positive group, VTE was significantly more frequent in those 50 and older compared to younger patients (3.04% versus 0.53%, p = 0.0001). Statistical analysis indicated that the direction of association between age and diagnosis of VTE differed for HIV-positive patients versus non-HIV-positive patients. Our results suggest that HIV-positive patients under age 50 are at increased risk for VTE compared with non-HIV-positive individuals. PMID:12055028

  1. Circulating HIV DNA Correlates With Neurocognitive Impairment in Older HIV-infected Adults on Suppressive ART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Michelli Faria de; Murrel, Ben; Prez-Santiago, Josu; Vargas, Milenka; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott; Grant, Igor; Smith, Davey M.; Woods, Steven Paul; Gianella, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Older HIV-infected adults have a higher risk of neurocognitive impairment, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the associations between levels of HIV DNA in peripheral blood, soluble markers of inflammation and cellular trafficking in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neurocognitive functioning among 18 younger (2240 years) and 26 older (5071 years) HIV-infected subjects, who were administered a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. Older HIV-infected individuals presented higher levels of inflammation in CSF and blood compared to younger individuals, but no difference was observed in HIV DNA levels. Among older participants, higher HIV DNA levels were significantly associated with more severe neurocognitive impairment (p?=?0.005), particularly in the Executive Functions domain (p?=?0.004). No association was observed between HIV DNA and neurocognition among younger individuals. Despite significantly increased inflammation observed in the older group, none of the inflammatory markers were associated with neurocognitive impairment among older HIV+ individuals (p?>?0.05). Our study supports the involvement of peripheral HIV DNA reservoir in the pathogenesis of neurocognitive disorder during suppressive ART. Correlates of neurocognitive impairment might differ between younger and older adults, suggesting that future treatment and prevention strategies for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders likely need to be tailored based on age. PMID:26603568

  2. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  3. Telaprevir in the Treatment of Acute Hepatitis C Virus Infection in HIV-Infected Men

    OpenAIRE

    Fierer, Daniel S.; Dieterich, Douglas T; Mullen, Michael P.; Branch, Andrea D.; Uriel, Alison J.; Carriero, Damaris C.; van Seggelen, Wouter O.; Hijdra, Rosanne M.; Cassagnol, David G.; Akil, Bisher; Bailey, Juan; Bellman, Paul; Bowers, Daniel; Bungay, Krisczar; Burger, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Adding telaprevir to pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for treatment of acute genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection in HIV-infected men significantly decreased treatment duration to 12 weeks and improved sustained virologic response rates to 84%.

  4. Hepatitis delta in HIV-infected individuals in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soriano, Vincent; Grint, Daniel; Monforte, Antonellad'arminio; Horban, Andrzej; Leen, Clifford; Poveda, Eva; Antunes, Francisco; de Wit, Stephane; Lundgren, Jens; Rockstroh, Juergen; Peters, Lars

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection results in the most aggressive form of chronic viral hepatitis. There is scarce information about the prevalence, epidemiology, virological profile and natural historyof hepatitis delta in HIV patients. METHODS:: From 16,597 HIV patients enrolled...

  5. SOCIO ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF HIV INFECTED VICTIMS OF VINDHYA REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Hamendra Kumar Verma; Devendra N. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    In the research report we have studied the relationships between socio-economic factors and HIV prevalence in Rewa and Mauganj of Rewa district of Vindhya region of Madhya Pradesh using district level data and also analyzed the drivers of the epidemic and found out what socio-economic and other factors make people susceptible to HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection.

  6. The Experience of Children with Hemophilia and HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christopher S.

    1994-01-01

    Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…

  7. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia; Butterworth, Anthony E; van Dam, Govert J; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Stunted development and reduced fecundity of Schistosoma parasites in immunodeficient mice and the impaired ability of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1)-infected humans to excrete schistosome eggs have been described. This study explores the effect that HIV-1-associated immunodeficiency has on...... the excretion of schistosome eggs in a large cohort of coinfected individuals....

  8. Confidentiality and Public Policy Regarding Children with HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Addresses the relationship between law and policy, examining significant gains in establishing legal precedents for protecting the educational rights of children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in confronting HIV-related discrimination. The article looks at legal principles of confidentiality, disclosure, negligence and potential…

  9. Natural controlled HIV infection: Preserved HIV-specific immunity despite undetectable replication competent virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term non-progressive HIV infection, characterized by low but detectable viral load and stable CD4 counts in the absence of antiviral therapy, is observed in about 5% of HIV-infected patients. Here we identified four therapy naive individuals who are strongly seropositive for HIV-1 but who lack evidence of detectable HIV p24 antigen, plasma RNA, and proviral DNA in routine diagnostic testing. With an ultrasensitive PCR, we established that frequencies of pol proviral DNA sequences were as low as 0.2-0.5 copies/106 PBMC. HIV could not be isolated using up to 30 x 106 patient PBMC. One individual was heterozygous for CCR5 Δ32, but CCR5 expression on CD4+ T cells was normal to high in all four individuals. In vitro R5 and X4 HIV-1 susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of all study subjects was significantly lower than the susceptibility of CD8-depleted PBMC of healthy blood donors. All individuals expressed protective HLA-B*58s alleles and showed evidence of HIV-specific cellular immunity either by staining with HLA-B*57 tetramers folded with an HIV RT or gag peptide or after stimulation with HIV-1 p24 gag, RT, or nef peptides in ELIspot analysis. HIV-specific CD4+ T helper cells were demonstrated by proliferation of CD4+ T cells and intracellular staining for IL-2 and IFNγ after stimulation with an HIV-gag peptide pool. Sera of all individuals showed antibody-mediated neutralization of both R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants. These data implicate that very low-level antigen exposure is sufficient for sustained HIV-specific immunity and suggest the possibility of a multi-factorial control of HIV infection

  10. Risk Factors for Anal HPV Infection and Anal Precancer in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Lauren M.; Castle, Philip E.; Follansbee, Stephen; Borgonovo, Sylvia; Fetterman, Barbara; Tokugawa, Diane; Lorey, Thomas S.; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Luhn, Patricia; Gage, Julia C.; Darragh, Teresa M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Background. Carcinogenic human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a large proportion of anal cancers. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of HPV infection and anal cancer compared with HIV-negative men. We evaluated risk factors for HPV infection and anal precancer in a population of HIV-infected MSM.

  11. Infection with Hepatitis C Virus among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Jamieson, Denise J; Natapakwa Skunodom; Thanyanan Chaowanachan; Anuvat Roongpisuthipong; Bower, William A.; Tawee Chotpitayasunondh; Wendy Bhanich Supapol; Kuhnert, Wendi L.; Wimol Siriwasin; Jeffrey Wiener; Sanay Chearskul; McConnell, Michelle S; Nathan Shaffer

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of coinfection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV among a cohort of pregnant Thai women. Methods. Samples from 1771 pregnant women enrolled in three vertical transmission of HIV studies in Bangkok, Thailand, were tested for HCV. Results. Among HIV-infected pregnant women, HCV seroprevelance was 3.8% and the active HCV infection rate was 3.0%. Among HIV-uninfected pregnant women, 0.3% were HCV-infected. Intravenous drug u...

  12. Symptomatic Mixed Cryoglobulinemia during HIV Primary Infection: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Juliette Gerbe; Laurence Courdavault; Bouchra Wifaq; Philippe Genet

    2011-01-01

    We report a patient who developed during HIV primary infection a symptomatic mixed cryoglobulinemia. The patient suffered from arthralgias, vascular purpura of the legs, and proteinuria. Cryoglobulinemia progressively disappeared in several months after HAART.

  13. Diagnosis of cytomegalovirus infections by qualitative and quantitative PCR in HIV infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    CUNHA Aldo de Albuquerque; Marin, Lauro Juliano; Victor Hugo AQUINO; Luiz Tadeu Moraes FIGUEIREDO

    2002-01-01

    A high incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections is observed in Brazil. These viruses are causatives of significant morbidity and mortality among patients with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This work, shows the application of a PCR on determination of CMV load in the buffy coat and plasma. We analyzed the samples of 247 HIV infected patients in order to diagnose CMV infection and disease. We developed a semi-quantitative PCR that amplifies part of the glycoprotein...

  14. Simulation of HIV infection in artificial immune systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieburg, Hans B.; McCutchan, J. Allen; Clay, Oliver K.; Cabalerro, Lisa; Ostlund, James J.

    1990-09-01

    Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes a multi-faceted disease process which ultimately leads to severe degenerative conditions in the immune and nervous systems. The complexity of the virus/host-system interaction has brought into sharp focus the need for alternative efforts by which to overcome the limitations of available animal models. This article reports on the dynamics of HIV infection in an artificial immune system (AIS), a novel in silico tool for bio-medical research. Using a method of graphical programming, the HIV/AIS interactions are described at the cellular level and then transferred into the setting of an asynchronous cellular automaton simulation. A specific problem in HIV pathogenesis is addressed: To determine the extent by which the physiological connectivity of a normal B-cell, T-cell, macrophage immune system supports persistence of infection and disease progression to AIDS. Several observations are discussed which will be presented in four categories: (a) the major known manifestations of HIV infection and AIDS; (b) the predictability of latency and sudden progression to disease; (c) the predictability of HIV-dependent alterations of cytokine secretion patterns, and (d) secondary infections, which are found to be a critical element in establishing and maintaining a progressive disease dynamics. The effects of exogenously applied cytokine Interleukin 2 are considered. All results are summarized in a phase-graph model of the global HIV/AIS dynamical system.

  15. The challenges of success: adolescents with perinatal HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne M Mofenson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The great success in the prevention and treatment of pediatric HIV in high resource countries, and now in low resource countries, has changed the face of the HIV epidemic in children from one of near certain mortality to that of a chronic disease. However, these successes pose new challenges as perinatally HIV-infected youth survive into adulthood. Increased survival of HIV-infected children is associated with challenges in maintaining adherence to what is likely life-long therapy, and in selecting successive antiretroviral drug regimens, given the limited availability of pediatric formulations, limitations in pharmacokinetic and safety data of drugs in children, and the development of extensive drug resistance in multi-drug-experienced children. Pediatric HIV care must now focus on morbidity related to long-term HIV infection and its treatment. Survival into adulthood of perinatally HIV-infected youth in high resource countries provides important lessons about how the epidemic will change with increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children in low resource countries. This series of papers will focus on issues related to management of perinatally infected youth and young adults.

  16. SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF HIV-INFECTED INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliya Anatolyevna Kudrich

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available By 2020 the prevalence of HIV in the Russian Federation may increase by 250%, unless we provide appropriate treatment to as many HIV-infected people as possible (V.I. Skvortsova, 2015. Previous research in this field shows that the psychotraumatic character of the disease lowers the psychological resource of HIV-infected individuals. In most cases, they are not psychologically prepared for the negative life events, unable to find an optimal behavioral pattern when their life stereotypes are being destroyed. In fact, being HIV-infected is an example of an acute event (V.V. Pokrovsky, 1993. The ability to overcome the life crisis and effectiveness of using adaptation and compensatory mechanisms to fight the disease depend on the level of adaptation to the fact of being infected and resistance to stress. The aim of the current study was to determine social and psychological features of HIV-infected individuals and assess their influence on the stress resistance and adaptation abilities of HIV+ patients. We observed men and women aged 21-30 who had been HIV+ for 1-5 years. Investigation methods included the following diagnostic tools: The Cattel Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (Form C, The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (conducted by Spielberger, adapted for use in Russia by Hanin, The Social Readjustment Rating Scale (The Holmes-Rahe Stress Inventory, The Social and Psychological Adaptation Questionnaire (by C. Rogers and R. Diamond, methods of mathematical statistics. As a result of the study, we have developed comparative factor profiles of individual psychological features of HIV-infected individuals that show their dependence on the social environment and form certain behavioral patterns. We have revealed significant difference in state and trait anxiety between HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected individuals. Self-blame, inadequate self-esteem and level of aspiration indicate low cognitive assessment of the condition by the patients that leads to the development of emotional distress. HIV+ individuals demonstrate low stress resistance and prevalence of desadaptation over adaptive processes. Our study has shown that decreased social and psychological adaptation of HIV+ individuals is affected by the following factors: psycho-emotional state, increased state and trait anxiety, approach to life, low self-control, lack of self-confidence. The results can be used to determine the methods of psycho-correctional counseling and help to HIV+ patients in the area of overcoming the life crisis.

  17. Sexual Relationship Power and Depression among HIV-Infected Women in Rural Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Hatcher, Abigail M.; Tsai, Alexander Chung-Yu; Kumbakumba, Elias; Dworkin, Shari L.; Hunt, Peter W.; Martin, Jeffrey N; Clark, Gina; Bangsberg, David Roy; Weiser, Sheri D

    2012-01-01

    Background: Depression is associated with increased HIV transmission risk, increased morbidity, and higher risk of HIV-related death among HIV-infected women. Low sexual relationship power also contributes to HIV risk, but there is limited understanding of how it relates to mental health among HIV-infected women. Methods: Participants were 270 HIV-infected women from the Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes study, a prospective cohort of individuals initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in ...

  18. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Letícia Santos Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant born to an HIV infected mother who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM at nine weeks of gestation. We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women.

  19. Congenital toxoplasmosis infection in an infant born to an HIV-1-infected mother

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Letícia Santos Cruz; Claudete Araújo Cardoso; Mariza C. Saavedra; Eliane dos Santos; Tatiana Melino

    2007-01-01

    We report the occurrence of congenital toxoplasmosis in an infant born to an HIV infected mother who had high anti-toxoplasma IgG and negative IgM at nine weeks of gestation. We briefly review available literature and discuss the possible mechanisms of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis among HIV infected pregnant women.

  20. Clinicopathological study of itchy folliculitis in HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Annam Vamseedhar; Yelikar B; Inamadar Arun; Palit Aparna; Arathi P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Itchy folliculitis are pruritic, folliculo-papular lesions seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Previous studies have shown that it was impossible to clinically differentiate between eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) and infective folliculitis (IF). Also, attempts to suppress the intense itch of EF were ineffective. Aims: The present study is aimed at correlating clinical, histopathological and immunological features of itchy folliculitis in HIV patients a...

  1. Lipoprotein particle subclasses, cardiovascular disease and HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprez, Daniel A; Kuller, Lewis H; Tracy, Russell; Otvos, James; Cooper, David A; Hoy, Jennifer; Neuhaus, Jacqueline; Paton, Nicholas I; Friis-Møller, Nina; Lampe, Fiona; Liappis, Angelike P; Neaton, James D

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association of lipoprotein particles with CVD in a subgroup of HIV-infected patients who were enrolled in the Strategies for Management of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (SMART) study. SMART was a trial of intermittent use of ART (drug conservation [DC]) versus continuous of ART....... CONCLUSIONS: Lipoprotein particles, especially lower levels of small and large HDL-p identify HIV-infected patients at increased risk of CVD independent of other CVD risk factors....

  2. Focus on the Brain: HIV Infection and Alcoholism

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-01-01

    Both HIV infection and alcohol abuse have negative effects on the brain, with some unique to each condition and others shared by both conditions. Investigators have used magnetic resonance imaging to study the size and integrity of various brain structures in participants with alcoholism, HIV infection, or both conditions and in healthy control subjects. In these studies, alcoholics exhibited enlarged, cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces (i.e., ventricles) as well as tissue shrinkage in various...

  3. Assessing pharmacists’ perspectives of HIV and the care of HIV-infected patients in Alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Davis Pate M; Shell AT; King SR

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose was to assess factors potentially affecting care pharmacists provide to HIV/AIDS patients including comfort level, confidence, education, experience, professional competence, continuity of care and patient-provider relationship between pharmacists and HIV-infected patients. Methods A 24-item questionnaire assessed the constructs of this study. Surveys were distributed from October 2009 to April 2010 to pharmacists in Alabama with varying levels of experience treating HIV...

  4. Oral manifestations associated with HIV infection: evaluation, assessment, and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anita S H; Glick, Michael

    2003-01-01

    During the course of HIV disease, oral lesions frequently are the initial manifestation of underlying immune deterioration. Typically, these lesions are readily accessible and lend themselves to being examined. Therefore, it is important to perform oral examinations routinely both in dental and medical settings. The recognition and treatment of these early signs of immune suppression may have a significant impact on the survival and the quality of life of HIV-infected patients. This article briefly discusses the HIV epidemic and common intraoral manifestations associated with HIV disease progression. PMID:15055688

  5. Cerebrovascular disease in children with HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Charles K; Eley, Brian; Wieselthaler, Nicky; Ndondo, Alvin; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 3.2 million children worldwide have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in prolonged survival, leading to an increase in complications previously recognized in adults. Children with HIV infection have increased risk of cerebrovascular disease from multiple aetiologies including HIV-associated vasculopathy, opportunistic vasculitis, cardioembolism or coagulopathy, all of which may be secondary to the infection. Prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children is underestimated because of limited neuroimaging in low and middle income countries, silent events without overt motor manifestations, and mislabeling as HIV encephalopathy for non-motor manifestations such as behavioural and cognitive difficulties. No management guidelines for cerebrovascular disease in HIV-infected children exist but common practices target risk factors for stroke in low and middle income countries. Where capacity permits, screening for opportunistic infections, vasculitis, coagulopathy and cardioembolism is important. Optimising virological suppression, correction of anaemia, control of seizures and aspirin prophylaxis are management priorities. Neurosurgical interventions may have a role. PMID:26890389

  6. Correlation of mental illness and HIV/AIDS infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Safarcherati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV/AIDS is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in world. There are more than 35 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Although the annual incidence of HIV infection is decreasing globally, HIV prevalence is rising due to development of more effective treatment and higher survival. Iran suffers from concentrated HIV epidemics among injecting and non-injecting drug users. There are more than 27 thousand registered cases of HIV infection and it is estimated that there are above seventy eight thousand cases in the country. Regarding the burden of disease, it is projected that HIV/AIDS will have the highest growth during the next 10 years. The outcome of this epidemics will be determined by human behavior. HIV, psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are closely correlated and are accompanied by similar risk factors. They also share common consequences such as stigma and discrimination. Correlation of psychiatric disorders, as one of the most influential determinants of our behavior, and HIV/AIDS infection is reviewed in this narrative article. Psychiatric disorders are associated with greater risk of HIV acquisition. Substance use disorders, both injecting and non-injecting, as well as severe mental illnesses put the individual at higher risk of acquiring HIV infection. Impaired judgment, diminished inhibition and control over behaviors, lack of insight and poor self-care have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms. On the other hand, HIV infection may put the individual at greater risk of developing a mental illness. Coping with a chronic and life-threatening illness, fear of stigma and discrimination, CNS invasion of the virus as well as the adverse neuropsychiatric side effects of anti-retroviral medications may all contribute to establishment of a psychiatric disorder. Although there exists a bi-directional correlation between mental health problems and HIV/AIDS infection, this reciprocity goes beyond. Psychiatric disorders can affect the patient’s adherence, access to treatment and care and can worsen the course and clinical outcome of the infection. The clinical importance, underlying mechanism and other implications of this correlation are reviewed in this article.

  7. Laboratory markers associated with progression of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta V

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection with HIV may develop to AIDS at different rates in different individuals, with a spectrum varying from rapid progression to long term non-progression. The variable course of HIV-1 infection causes emotional trauma for the infected person and complicates the design and interpretation of therapeutic trials because of unrecognized differences in prognosis. Thus it is essential to have tests which can accurately assess the stage of infection in an individual, as well as predict its course and monitor its progression. These laboratory tests are very valuable during the period of clinical latency and subsequently supplement various clinical parameters.

  8. Pregnancy loss and role of infant HIV status on perinatal mortality among HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hae-Young

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-infected women, particularly those with advanced disease, may have higher rates of pregnancy loss (miscarriage and stillbirth and neonatal mortality than uninfected women. Here we examine risk factors for these adverse pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected women in Zambia considering the impact of infant HIV status. Methods A total of 1229 HIV-infected pregnant women were enrolled (20012004 in Lusaka, Zambia and followed to pregnancy outcome. Live-born infants were tested for HIV by PCR at birth, 1 week and 5 weeks. Obstetric and neonatal data were collected after delivery and the rates of neonatal ( Results The ratio of miscarriage and stillbirth per 100 live-births were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Higher maternal plasma viral load (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for each log10 increase in HIV RNA copies/ml?=?1.90; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.103.27 and being symptomatic were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth (AOR?=?3.19; 95% CI 1.466.97, and decreasing maternal CD4 count by 100 cells/mm3 with an increased risk of miscarriage (OR?=?1.25; 95% CI 1.021.54. The neonatal mortality rate was 4.3 per 100 increasing to 6.3 by 70 days. Intrauterine HIV infection was not associated with neonatal morality but became associated with mortality through 70 days (adjusted hazard ratio?=?2.76; 95% CI 1.256.08. Low birth weight and cessation of breastfeeding were significant risk factors for both neonatal and early mortality independent of infant HIV infection. Conclusions More advanced maternal HIV disease was associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Excess neonatal mortality in HIV-infected women was not primarily explained by infant HIV infection but was strongly associated with low birth weight and prematurity. Intrauterine HIV infection contributed to mortality as early as 70 days of infant age. Interventions to improve pregnancy outcomes for HIV-infected women are needed to complement necessary therapeutic and prophylactic antiretroviral interventions.

  9. Syphilis and Hepatitis B Co-infection among HIV-Infected, Sex-Trafficked Women and Girls, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Michele R; Gupta, Jhumka; Raj, Anita; Silverman, Jay Glen; Dharmadhikari, Ashwin; SEAGE, George R.

    2008-01-01

    Sex trafficking may play a major role in spread of HIV across South Asia. We investigated co-infection with HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases among 246 sex-trafficked women and girls from Nepal. Those who were HIV positive were more likely than those who were HIV negative to be infected with syphilis and/or hepatitis B.

  10. Psychometric properties of a short version of the HIV stigma scale, adapted for children with HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Wiklander, M.; Rydström, L.-L.; Ygge, B.-M.; Navér, L.; Wettergren, L.; Eriksson, L.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV is a stigmatizing medical condition. The concept of HIV stigma is multifaceted, with personalized stigma (perceived stigmatizing consequences of others knowing of their HIV status), disclosure concerns, negative self-image, and concerns with public attitudes described as core aspects of stigma for individuals with HIV infection. There is limited research on HIV stigma in children. The aim of this study was to test a short version of the 40-item HIV Stigma Scale (HSS-40), adapt...

  11. HIV Infection in Pregnant Women: Consequences For the Child

    OpenAIRE

    Ndirangu, J. N.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, globally more than 3 million children under 15 years are living with HIV, 90% of whom live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA); nearly all acquired infection through mother-to-child transmission. This thesis describes adverse pregnancy outcomes by maternal HIV status, the role of cell-associated and cell-free virus in postnatal mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rates and the risk of not-breastfeeding on infant morbidity and mortality comparing infants of HIV infected and uninfected mothe...

  12. Is phototherapy safe for HIV-infected individuals?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Houpt, K.R.; Cruz, P.D. Jr. [Texas Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Southwestern Medical Center

    1996-08-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a high prevalence of UV radiation-responsive skin diseases including psoriasis, pruitus, eosinophillic folliculitis and eczemas. On the other hand, UV has been shown to suppress T cell-mediated immune responses and to induce activation and replication of HIV. These developments have prompted clinicians and investigators to question whether phototherapy is safe for HIV-infected individuals. We have reviewed these issues and hereby provide a summary and critique of relevant laboratory and clinical evidence. (Author).

  13. Vasculitis: an unusual manifestation in an HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive patients may develop vasculitis, either mediated by immunological factors or by direct vascular injury. We describe a patient who developed manifestations suggestive of extremities vasculitis with no identifiable risk factors other than HIV, Epstein Barr and Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV type 1 co-infection. Physicians should be aware that vasculitis may have a heterogeneous presentation and occur associated with HIV infection. Although unusual, this association should be recognized for early proper treatment and prevention of ischemia.

  14. HIV virology and pathogenetic mechanisms of infection: a brief overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Fanales-Belasio

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies on HIV virology and pathogenesis address the complex mechanisms that result in the HIV infection of the cell and destruction of the immune system. These studies are focused on both the structure and the replication characteristics of HIV and on the interaction of the virus with the host. Continuous updating of knowledge on structure, variability and replication of HIV, as well as the characteristics of the host immune response, are essential to refine virological and immunological mechanisms associated with the viral infection and allow us to identify key molecules in the virus life cycle that can be important for the design of new diagnostic assays and specific antiviral drugs and vaccines. In this article we review the characteristics of molecular structure, replication and pathogenesis of HIV, with a particular focus on those aspects that are important for the design of diagnostic assays.

  15. Trajectories of Childbearing among HIV Infected Indian Women: A Sequence Analysis Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Darak, Shrinivas; Mills, Melinda; Kulkarni, Vinay; Kulkarni, Sanjeevani; Hutter, Inge; Janssen, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV infection closely relates to and deeply affects the reproductive career of those infected. However, little is known about the reproductive career trajectories, specifically the interaction of the timing of HIV diagnosis with the timing and sequencing of reproductive events among HIV infected women. This is the first study to describe and typify this interaction. Methods Retrospective calendar data of ever married HIV infected women aged 15-45 attending a HIV clinic in Pune, Mah...

  16. Estimating the Potential Pool of HIV-infected Deceased Organ Donors in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Boyarsky, Brian J.; Hall, Erin C.; Singer, Andrew L; Montgomery, Robert A.; Gebo, Kelly A.; Segev, Dorry L.

    2011-01-01

    HIV is no longer a contraindication to transplantation. For HIV-infected patients, HIV-infected deceased donors (HIVDD) could attenuate the organ shortage and waitlist mortality. However, this practice would violate United States federal law. The goal of this study was to estimate the potential impact of legalizing transplantation of HIV-infected organs by quantifying the potential pool of HIVDD. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data, HIV-infected deaths compatible with donation were e...

  17. The Impact of HIV Co-Infection on the Genomic Response to Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Huson, Michaëla A. M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Cremer, Olaf L; Bonten, Marc J M; Schultz, Marcus J; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R.; Nürnberg, Peter; Grobusch, Martin P; Poll, Tom van der

    2016-01-01

    HIV patients have an increased risk to develop sepsis and HIV infection affects several components of the immune system involved in sepsis pathogenesis. We hypothesized that HIV infection might aggrevate the aberrant immune response during sepsis, so we aimed to determine the impact of HIV infection on the genomic host response to sepsis. We compared whole blood leukocyte gene expression profiles among sepsis patients with or without HIV co-infection in the intensive care unit (ICU) and valid...

  18. Risk of Anal Cancer in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Silverberg, Michael J; Lau, Bryan; Justice, Amy C.; engels, eric; Gill, M John; Goedert, James J.; Kirk, Gregory D.; D’SOUZA, Gypsyamber; Bosch, Ronald J.; Brooks, John T.; NAPRAVNIK, Sonia; Hessol, Nancy A; JACOBSON, Lisa P.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Klein, Marina B

    2012-01-01

    In a large North American cohort study, anal cancer incidence rates were substantially higher for HIV-infected men who have sex with men, other men, and women compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. Rates increased from 1996–1999 to 2000–2003 but plateaued by 2004–2007.

  19. Innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsen Carsten S

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of HIV infection, and in particular the development of immunodeficiency, remains incompletely understood. Whichever intricate molecular mechanisms are at play between HIV and the host, it is evident that the organism is incapable of restricting and eradicating the invading pathogen. Both innate and adaptive immune responses are raised, but they appear to be insufficient or too late to eliminate the virus. Moreover, the picture is complicated by the fact that the very same cells and responses aimed at eliminating the virus seem to play deleterious roles by driving ongoing immune activation and progressive immunodeficiency. Whereas much knowledge exists on the role of adaptive immunity during HIV infection, it has only recently been appreciated that the innate immune response also plays an important part in HIV pathogenesis. In this review, we present current knowledge on innate immune recognition and activation during HIV infection based on studies in cell culture, non-human primates, and HIV-infected individuals, and discuss the implications for the understanding of HIV immunopathogenesis.

  20. A community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV/AIDS risk in Kampala, Uganda (the SASA! Study): study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Abramsky Tanya; Devries Karen; Kiss Ligia; Francisco Leilani; Nakuti Janet; Musuya Tina; Kyegombe Nambusi; Starmann Elizabeth; Kaye Dan; Michau Lori; Watts Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Gender based violence, including violence by an intimate partner, is a major global human rights and public health problem, with important connections with HIV risk. Indeed, the elimination of sexual and gender based violence is a core pillar of HIV prevention for UNAIDS. Integrated strategies to address the gender norms, relations and inequities that underlie both violence against women and HIV/AIDS are needed. However there is limited evidence about the potential impact ...

  1. Psychiatric Diagnoses among an HIV-Infected Outpatient Clinic Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shacham, Enbal; Önen, Nur F; Donovan, Michael F; Rosenburg, Neal; Overton, E Turner

    2016-03-01

    As individuals with HIV infection are living longer, the management of psychiatric disorders has increasingly been incorporated into comprehensive care. Individuals were recruited from an outpatient HIV clinic to assess the prevalence and related associations of current psychiatric disorders and biomarkers. Of the 201 participants who completed the interviews, the median age was 43.5 years, and the majority was male and African American. Most were receiving HIV therapy and 78% of those had achieved virologic suppression. Prevalent psychiatric diagnoses included major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety, and agoraphobia. Alcohol and cocaine/crack abuse and dependence were common substance use disorders. Current receipt of HIV therapy was less common among those diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder. Agoraphobia was the only disorder associated with unsuppressed viral load. Psychiatric and substance use disorders are highly prevalent among an urban HIV clinic population, although we identified few associations between psychiatric diagnoses and HIV diseases status. PMID:25348798

  2. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathekge, Mike [University Hospital of Pretoria, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Goethals, Ingeborg; Wiele, Christophe van de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Maes, Alex [AZ Groening, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2009-07-15

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  3. Positron emission tomography in patients suffering from HIV-1 infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews currently available PET studies performed either to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection or to assess the value of PET imaging in the clinical decision making of patients infected with HIV-1 presenting with AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies. FDG PET has shown that HIV-1 infection progresses by distinct anatomical steps, with involvement of the upper torso preceding involvement of the lower part of the torso, and that the degree of FDG uptake relates to viral load. The former finding suggests that lymphoid tissues are engaged in a predictable sequence and that diffusible mediators of activation might be important targets for vaccine or therapeutic intervention strategies. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients, limited available data support the hypothesis that stavudine-related lipodystrophy is associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue as a result of the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). Finally, in early AIDS-related dementia complex (ADC), striatal hypermetabolism is observed, whereas progressive ADC is characterized by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In the clinical setting, PET has been shown to allow the differentiation of AIDS-related opportunistic infections and malignancies, and to allow monitoring of side effects of HAART. However, in patients suffering from HIV infection and presenting with extracerebral lymphoma or other human malignancies, knowledge of viraemia is essential when interpreting FDG PET imaging. (orig.)

  4. Correlates of Prevalent Disability Among HIV-Infected Elderly Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Funes, José Alberto; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo Francisco; Tamez-Rivera, Oscar; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Navarrete-Reyes, Ana Patricia; Cuellar-Rodríguez, Jennifer; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Amieva, Hélène

    2016-02-01

    The growing elderly population of HIV-infected patients is leading to a significant epidemiological transition and HIV infection has been proposed as a premature and accelerated aging model rending the individual more susceptible to premature disability. However, the determinants of disability among this emergent population are still lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the correlates of prevalent disability in adults ≥50 years with HIV infection. A cross-sectional study of 184 HIV-infected adults receiving ambulatory care in an HIV clinic of a tertiary care, university-affiliated hospital in Mexico City was conducted. Disability for instrumental (IADL) and basic activities of daily living (ADL) was established. Sociodemographic factors, clinical variables, current CD4(+) cell count, and HIV viral load (VL) were tested as potential determinants of disability. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify the correlates of both types of disability. The mean age was 59.3 years. All participants were receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Of participants 17.9% had disability for IADL and 26.1% for ADL. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that being older; having a lower CD4(+) cell count, and having a detectable HIV VL were independently associated with both types of disability. In addition, educational level was also independently associated with ADL disability. Age, educational level, low CD4(+) cell count, and detectable HIV VL were independently associated with disability. Whether effective and timely antiretroviral therapy will reduce the risk of disability in HIV-infected elderly patients needs to be evaluated. PMID:26559405

  5. Early life circumstances as contributors to HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Lekas, Helen-Maria; Ramjohn, Destiny; Schrimshaw, Eric; VanDevanter, Nancy

    2014-10-01

    Adolescents may come from family settings that heighten their vulnerability to early sexual initiation, promiscuity and sexual exploitation. Using qualitative data, we illustrated how early life and family circumstances including neglectful or dysfunctional parenting, sexual abuse, and unstable housing placed young women on a risk trajectory for HIV infection. Five representative cases from a sample of 26 adolescent and young adult HIV-infected females (ages 16-24) who participated in a study about the disease-related adaptive challenges they faced are discussed. Study participants were recruited from five New York City adolescent HIV clinics that provided comprehensive specialty medical and ancillary social services to adolescents and young adults with the disease. The findings revealed that these young women's unmet need for love, protection, and feeling valued left them vulnerable to exploitive relationships with men who were often significantly older and resulted in their HIV infection. PMID:25397349

  6. Gender inequality and HIV transmission: a global analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Eugene T.; Sean E Collins; Tiffany Kung; Jones, James H.; Khai Hoan Tram; Boggiano, Victoria L; Linda-Gail Bekker; Zolopa, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The HIV pandemic disproportionately impacts young women. Worldwide, young women aged 15–24 are infected with HIV at rates twice that of young men, and young women alone account for nearly a quarter of all new HIV infections. The incommensurate HIV incidence in young – often poor – women underscores how social and economic inequalities shape the HIV epidemic. Confluent social forces, including political and gender violence, poverty, racism, and sexism impede equal access to thera...

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid HIV infection and pleocytosis: Relation to systemic infection and antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petropoulos Christos J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Central nervous system (CNS exposure to HIV is a universal facet of systemic infection. Because of its proximity to and shared barriers with the brain, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF provides a useful window into and model of human CNS HIV infection. Methods Prospective study of the relationships of CSF to plasma HIV RNA, and the effects of: 1 progression of systemic infection, 2 CSF white blood cell (WBC count, 3 antiretroviral therapy (ART, and 4 neurological performance. One hundred HIV-infected subjects were cross-sectionally studied, and 28 were followed longitudinally after initiating or changing ART. Results In cross-sectional analysis, HIV RNA levels were lower in CSF than plasma (median difference 1.30 log10 copies/mL. CSF HIV viral loads (VLs correlated strongly with plasma VLs and CSF WBC counts. Higher CSF WBC counts associated with smaller differences between plasma and CSF HIV VL. CSF VL did not correlate with blood CD4 count, but CD4 counts In subjects starting ART, those with lower CD4 counts had slower initial viral decay in CSF than in plasma. In all subjects, including five with persistent plasma viremia and four with new-onset ADC, CSF HIV eventually approached or reached the limit of viral detection and CSF pleocytosis resolved. Conclusion CSF HIV infection is common across the spectrum of infection and is directly related to CSF pleocytosis, though whether the latter is a response to or a contributing cause of CSF infection remains uncertain. Slowing in the rate of CSF response to ART compared to plasma as CD4 counts decline indicates a changing character of CSF infection with systemic immunological progression. Longer-term responses indicate that CSF infection generally responds well to ART, even in the face of systemic virological failure due to drug resistance. We present simple models to explain the differing relationships of CSF to plasma HIV in these settings.

  8. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38%...

  9. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  10. Hepatitis E Virus infection in HIV-infected patients with elevated serum transaminases levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanson-Le-Pors Marie-Jose

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Increases in aminotransferases levels are frequently encountered in HIV-positive patients and often remain unexplained. The role in this setting and natural history of hepatitis E in HIV-infected patients are unknown. The aim of the study was to assess HEV infection in HIV-infected patients attending a Parisian hospital, with a current or previous cryptogenic hepatitis.191 plasma samples collected from 108 HIV-infected patients with elevated aminotransferases levels were retrospectively tested for the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV infection markers: anti-HEV IgM antibodies, anti-HEV IgG antibodies, anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA.One acute infection, documented by positive tests for anti-HEV IgM antibody, low anti-HEV IgG avidity index and plasma HEV RNA (genotype 3e, and three past infections were diagnosed, without any observed case of persistent infection. The acute hepatitis was benign and resolved spontaneously within two weeks. This infection was probably contracted locally. Acute HEV hepatitis can occur in HIV-infected patients but rarely explains cryptogenic hepatitis, at least in an urban HIV population, regardless geographic origin and CD4 counts.

  11. [Prevalence of HIV-TB co-infection and impact of HIV infection on pulmonary tuberculosis outcome in Togo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnra, A Y; Adjoh, K; Tchaptchet Heunda, S; Patassi, A A; Sadzo Hetsu, D; Awokou, F; Tidjani, O

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV infection in tuberculosis patients and its impact on the TB treatment. We enrolled 569 pulmonary TB patients in four diagnosis and treatment centres in Togo. All patients were new TB cases and received the first-line TB drugs: two months of rifampicin-pyrazinamide-isoniazid-ethambutol and six months of isoniazid-ethambutol. HIV testing was done according to the national guidelines, using rapid diagnosis tests. The CD4 lymphocyte counting was performed by Facscalibur (BD, Sciences) for all HIV-positive patients. Of the 569 TB patients enrolled, 135 (23.7%) were HIV positive (TB/HIV+). HIV prevalence was 22.4% (76 of 339) among men and 25.6% (59 of 230) among women without statistical difference. The global rate of treatment success was 82.2%. The rate of treatment success was lower (64.3%) in TB/HIV+ patients than in TB/HIV- patients (87.5%) (p TCD4 lymphocyte counts above 200/l (84.4%). TB program in Togo must take into account HIV infection to improve its performance. PMID:20821178

  12. Educational attainment and risk of HIV infection, response to antiretroviral treatment, and mortality in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Omland, Lars H; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate association between educational attainment and risk of HIV diagnosis, response to HAART, all-cause, and cause-specific mortality in Denmark in 1998-2009. DESIGN: Prospective, population-based cohort study including 1277 incident HIV-infected patients without hepatitis C virus...... suppression were identified. All-cause MRRs were 1.8 (95% CI 1.0-3.2) and 1.8 (1.1-2.8) for HIV-infected patients and population controls with low educational attainment compared with medium and high educational attainment. MRRs for smoking and alcohol-related deaths were 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.9) for HIV...... or intravenous drug abuse identified in the Danish HIV Cohort Study and 5108 individually matched population controls. METHODS: Data on educational attainment, categorized as low, medium, or high, were identified in The Danish Attainment Register. Logistic and Poisson regression were used to estimate...

  13. HIV-TB co-infection in children: associated factors and access to HIV services in Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, O. J.; Adejumo, O. A.; Gidado, M.; Abdur-Razzaq, H. A.; Jaiyesimi, E. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) are the leading causes of death from infectious disease worldwide. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of HIV among children with TB in moderate to high prevalence countries ranges between 10% and 60%. This study aimed to determine the access to HIV services of HIV-TB co-infected children.

  14. Using Elecsys HIV Combi PT assay to identify acute and early HIV infection in a teaching hospital of southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siyuan; Li, Dongdong; An, Jingna; Chen, Qixia; Liu, Qianqian; Tao, Chuanmin

    2016-03-01

    This study is the first attempt to evaluate the use of the Elecsys HIV combi PT assay in identifying acute and early HIV infection in southwest China. We also analyzed the extent of cutoff ratios overlap between false-positive and true-positive results to aid the identification of HIV infection, using samples from the West China Hospital in Chengdu, Sichuan Province from April 2012 to December 2013. Reactive results from a screening test were retested and all repeatedly reactive samples - if available - were confirmed with Western blot, HIV-1 p24 antigen, or HIV-1 RNA. Of 241,840 samples screened, the Elecsys HIV combi PT assay identified 54 patients with acute and early HIV infection; 99.8% cases with cutoff index ratios ?50 were proved to be true-positive HIV infection and 95.6% cases with cutoff index ratios HIV combi PT assay can identify acute and early HIV infection, including those who might have been missed by third-generation HIV screening assays and Western blot. However, cutoff index ratios HIV-1 nucleic acid test may be unaffordable, detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen can be an alternative strategy to diagnose HIV infection in individuals with a negative or indeterminate Western blot. PMID:25824151

  15. Minibus taxi drivers sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  16. Minibus taxi drivers’ sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busisiwe Ncama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risky sexual behaviours in South Africa are a major contributing factor to the spread of HIV infection and AIDS. HIV infection amongst minibus taxi drivers is a concern, because these people belong to an occupational group that exhibits risky behaviours due to the demands of their work. Given the high vulnerability of minibus taxi drivers, exploring the sexual beliefs and health-related sexual practices of this group will assist in planning targeted interventions.The objectives of this study were to assess the level of knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding HIV infection and AIDS amongst minibus taxi drivers. An exploratory descriptive study was conducted using a pre-tested questionnaire to explore and describe sexual beliefs and practices associated with HIV infection and AIDS in a convenience sample of 175 minibus taxi drivers. Permission to undertake the study was obtained from the KwaZulu-Natal Taxi Alliance and individuals who participated in the study. Data analysis were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences 13.0. The study revealed that minibus taxi drivers are one of the high- risk groups in the spread of HIV infection and AIDS; they lack necessary education and need attention in relation to control and prevention of the spread of HIV and AIDS. Multiple sexual partners are relatively common amongst the minibus taxi drivers. Violence against women and even forceful sexual intercourse in the belief that women should tolerate it to keep the family together was reported. There is a need for intervention programmes with a focus on minibus taxi drivers and similar high-risk groups. Prevention activities should incorporate the distribution of condoms amongst this group and HIV prevention educational programmes, as well as creating mechanisms for accessing circumcision by the minibus taxi drivers.

  17. HIV's Syndemic Links With Mental Health, Substance Use, and Violence in an Environment of Stigma and Disparities in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Anthony S

    2016-06-01

    A syndemics orientation has become a valuable lens through which to understand the complex system dynamics of HIV, HIV's links to other social and health problems, and the design of effective, comprehensive interventions. Using data from a broader ethnographic study of HIV epidemics in the Kansai Region and Tokyo Metropolitan Area of Japan, I found that HIV was synergistically linked with poor mental health, substance use, and violence, suggesting the existence of at least three syndemics. These occurred in an environment of stigma and social and health disparities, particularly for men who have sex with men, transgender persons, immigrants, and people living with HIV. Integrated interventions, led by Japan's HIV nongovernmental organizations and supported by the government, should more aggressively target stigma, which underlies most of the syndemic connections. Quantitative research should build upon the ethnographically derived associations shown here and test whether there are additive syndemic effects. PMID:26848082

  18. Origin of the Transmitted Virus in HIV Infection: Infected Cells Versus Cell-Free Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, Manish

    2014-01-01

    All human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected inocula, such as genital secretions, breast milk, and blood, contain both cell-free virus and infected cells. The relative contributions of cell-free and/or cell-associated virus in establishing an infection in a naive host during the different modes of HIV-1 acquisition remains unclear. Studies aim to elucidate the source of the acquired virus because strategies to prevent acquisition may have differential efficacy against the differen...

  19. Cardiac structure and function in fetuses of mothers infected with HIV: The prospective P2C2HIV multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Lisa K.; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Easley, Kirk A.; Colan, Steven D.; Schwartz, Marcy; Kaplan, Samuel; Starc, Thomas J.; Ayres, Nancy A.; Lai, Wyman W.; Moodie, Douglas S.; Kasten-Sportes, Carol; Sanders, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study was designed to determine if vertically transmitted HIV infection and maternal infection with HIV are associated with altered cardiovascular structure and function in utero. Methods Fetal echocardiography was performed in 173 fetuses of 169 HIV-infected mothers (mean gestational age, 33.0 weeks; SD = 3.7 weeks) at 5 centers. Biparietal diameter, femur length, cardiovascular dimensions, and Doppler velocities through atrioventricular and semilunar valves and the umbilical artery were measured. Measurements were converted to z scores based on published normal data. Results Fetuses determined after birth to be HIV-infected had similar echocardiographic findings as fetuses later determined to be HIV-uninfected except for slightly smaller left ventricular diastolic dimensions (P = .01). The femur length (P = .03) was also smaller in the fetuses postnatally identified as HIV-infected. Differences in cardiovascular dimensions and Doppler velocities were identified between fetuses of HIV-infected women and previously published normal fetal data. The reason for the differences may be a result of maternal HIV infection, maternal risk factors, or selection bias in the external control data. Conclusions Vertically transmitted HIV infection may be associated with reduced left ventricular size but not with altered cardiac function in utero. Fetuses of HIV-infected mothers may have abnormal cardiovascular structure and function and increased placental vascular resistance, regardless of whether the fetuses are subsequently found to be infected with HIV. PMID:11011330

  20. Development of Human Dendritic Cells and their Role in HIV Infection: Antiviral Immunity vs HIV Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YasukoTsunetsugu-Yokota

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Although dendritc cells (DC represent a small cell population in the body, they have been recognized as professional antigen presenting cells and key players of both innate and acquired immunity. The recent expansion of basic knowledge concerning differentiation and function of various DC subsets will greatly help to understand the nature of protective immunity required in designing AIDS vaccines. However, HIV not only targets CD4+ T cells but also myeloid cells, including macrophages and DC. When HIV infects DC, its replication is highly restricted in DC. Nevertheless, even a low level of HIV production is sufficient to enhance HIV replication in activated CD4+ T cells, through antigen presentation activity by HIV-infected DC. Considering how antiviral immunity is initiated and memory response is maintained, such efficient DC-T cell transmission of HIV should play an important role in the disturbed immune responses associated with HIV infection. Recently, accessory proteins encoded by HIV have been shown to interact with various proteins in DC, and thereby affect DC-T cell transmission. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about DC biology and discuss what needs to be known in order to successfully manipulate DC for the development of an effective AIDS vaccine in the future.

  1. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV-infected in...... antiretroviral therapy, improved drug adherence, prevention and treatment of HIV-unrelated co-morbidity and collaboration with other medical specialists to treat an ageing co-morbidity-acquiring HIV population.......A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV......-infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family...

  2. Rate of Comorbidities Not Related to HIV Infection or AIDS among HIV-Infected Patients, by CD4 Cell Count and HAART Use Status

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Richard D.; Gebo, Kelly A; Lucas, Gregory M.; Keruly, Jeanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The rate of comorbidities not related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among HIV-infected patients may be higher than expected. We assessed the incidence of comorbidities not related to HIV infection or AIDS by CD4 cell count and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use status in an HIV clinical practice. A total of 2824 patients contributed 9172 person-years of longitudinal data during the period 19972006. HAART receipt was...

  3. Impact of human Staufen-1 on the particle production and infectivity of HIV-2

    OpenAIRE

    Amler, Anna-Klara

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organisation, there are 35 million people currently infected with HIV worldwide. Untreated infection with the virus leads to a decline of the CD4+ cell number and weakening of the immune system, resulting in the development of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). This enables opportunistic infections to arise, which may end in death of the infected person. HIV infections are mostly caused by HIV-1, whereas distribution of HIV-2 is more restricted. Due...

  4. HIV Infection and Microbial Diversity in Saliva

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yihong; Saxena, Deepak; Chen, Zhou; Liu, Gaoxia; Abrams, Willam R.; Phelan, Joan A.; NORMAN, Robert G.; Fisch, Gene S.; Corby, Patricia M.; Dewhirst, Floyd; Paster, Bruce J; Kokaras, Alexis S.; Malamud, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Limited information is available about the effects of HIV and subsequent antiretroviral treatment on host-microbe interactions. This study aimed to determine the salivary microbial composition for 10 HIV-seropositive subjects, before and 6 months after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), compared with that for 10 HIV-seronegative subjects. A conventional culture and two culture-independent analyses were used and consistently demonstrated differences in microbial composition among th...

  5. Potential use of rapamycin in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Donia, Marco; McCubrey, James A.; Bendtzen, Klaus; Nicoletti, Ferdinando

    2010-01-01

    The strong need for the development of alternative anti-HIV agents is primarily due to the emergence of strain-resistant viruses, the need for sustained adherence to complex treatment regimens and the toxicity of currently used antiviral drugs. This review analyzes proof of concept studies indicating that the immunomodulatory drug rapamycin (RAPA) possesses anti-HIV properties both in vitro and in vivo that qualifies it as a potential new anti-HIV drug. It represents a literature review of pu...

  6. Sex, violence and HIV on the inside: cultures of violence, denial, gender inequality and homophobia negatively influence the health outcomes of those in closed settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kawage, Thomas; Vallely, Andrew; Mek, Agnes; Mathers, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    To map the context of HIV in closed settings in Papua New Guinea (PNG), semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 56 prisoners and detainees and 60 key stakeholders. The nature of HIV-related risk differs for detained women and men, and reflects important gender-based issues present in PNG society more broadly. Women in detention are vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation and at greatest risk of HIV while detained in police holding cells, where they are typically supervised by male officers, in contrast to prisons, where they have little contact with male staff. HIV risk for men in prison is associated with consensual and non-consensual sex; this risk is perpetuated by a pervasive culture of denial and institutionalised homophobia. The illegal nature of sodomy and male-to-male sex provides Correctional Services the legal grounds by which to refuse access to condoms for prisoners. Addressing HIV risk among detained men and women in PNG requires the reform of legislation, police and prison practices and an understanding of broader structural problems of gender-based violence and stigma and discrimination. PMID:25853184

  7. Assesment of mineral metabolism in patients with HIV-infection, chronic hepatitis с and co-infection HIV/ chronic hepatitis С

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurko Е.М.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Objective: Evaluate the indicators of mineral metabolism in HIV-infected patients, patients with chronic hepatitis С and co-infection HIV/HCV. Material and Methods: The content of microelements (zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, iron (Fe in serum was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The study involved 99 patients: with chronic hepatitis С — 32 patients, with HIV infection — 34 and co-infection of HIV/HCV — 33 patients. Results: Microelements and metal-dependent proteins metabolic disorders as a reduction of the zinc, haptoglobin contents, and an increase of copper, iron, and ceruloplasmin contents were identified in patients with chronic hepatitis С In HIV-infected patients and patients with co-infection HIV/HCV were identified reducing zinc, copper, iron, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin. in patients with co-infection HIV/HCV compared HIV-infected patients lower zinc, haptoglobin, ceruloplasmin contents (p<0,001 were detected. In patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, as compared with a group of chronic hepatitis С were set lower values of all parameters (p<0,001. Conclusion: Integrated assessment of the degree of deviation from the control of the trace element content and activity metal-dependent enzymes showed that its highest significance was typical for patients with co-infected HIV/HCV, which is higher than that of HIV-infected patients in the 1,2-fold and 2,2-fold in patients with chronic hepatitis С

  8. Oral HPV complications in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Jennifer E; Hagensee, Michael E

    2008-08-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and disease, including that of the oral cavity, has not dramatically declined since the introduction of potent combination therapy to control HIV. Two manifestations of HPV in the oral cavity that may be on the rise are HPV-32-associated oral warts and HPV-16-associated oral cancers. A current research focus is the natural history of HPV infections in the oral cavity. A better understanding of the natural history of oral HPV infections could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment for oral HPV complications in HIV-positive patients. PMID:18627661

  9. Human papillomavirus infection and disease in men: Impact of HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead Delany-Moretlwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of a significant burden of human papillomavirus (HPV infection and associated disease in men. High rates of HPV infection have been observed in men from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV prevalence is high. HIV infection increases HPV prevalence, incidence and persistence and is strongly associated with the development of anogenital warts and anal, penile and head and neck cancers in men. Despite increasing access to antiretroviral therapy, there appears to be little benefit in preventing the development of these cancers in HIV-positive men, making prevention of infection a priority. New prevention options that are being introduced in many African countries include male circumcision and HPV vaccination. However, more data are needed on the burden of HPV disease in men before boys are included in HPV vaccination programmes.

  10. Indirect methods for estimating prevalent HIV infections : adults in England and Wales at the end of 1993

    OpenAIRE

    G. Hughes; Porter, K.; Gill, O.N.

    1998-01-01

    Two indirect methods were used to estimate the point prevalence of HIV infection in England and Wales at the end of 1993 using data on diagnosed HIV infections, AIDS cases, HIV-related deaths and HIV testing behaviour from unlinked anonymous surveys. The methods estimated the proportion of all prevalent HIV infections that diagnosed infections represented. Most of those exposed to HIV infection through injecting drug use or sexual intercourse between men had had their infections diagnosed com...

  11. Prevalence and determinants of unemployment among ageing HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals

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    P Reiss

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: People living with HIV (PLWH appear to be at increased risk for earlier onset of age-associated non-communicable co-morbidity (AANCC and declines in physical and mental capacities, compared to the general population [1]. This earlier onset of AANCC in the setting of HIV infection is likely to negatively affect work participation and quality of life. Present study investigates prevalence and determinants of unemployment among older HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected participants of the AGEhIV Cohort Study. Methods: Data were collected (Oct. 2010–Jan. 2012 within the ongoing prospective AGEhIV Cohort Study, recruiting HIV-1-infected patients >45 years from a tertiary care HIV outpatient clinic, and HIV-uninfected Public Health Service attendants, comparable regarding age, gender and ethnicity. Data on socio-demographics, lifestyle, quality of life, AANCC and unemployment were collected, using a self-administered questionnaire and through medical examination. Current analysis was restricted to participants in the working age (45–65 years. Logistic regression analysis was used to study determinants of unemployment. Summary of results: The majority from the first enrolled 277 HIV-1-infected and 251 HIV-uninfected subjects was male (88%, Dutch (76% and homosexual (74%. About 50% was highly educated and the median age was 52 [IQR: 48–57]. Almost all (94% HIV-1-infected individuals were on cART, median time since first ART was 11 years [IQR: 4–15], median time since HIV-diagnosis was 12 years [IQR: 7–18] and they had been diagnosed with more AANCC than HIV-uninfected individuals (p<0.01. Unemployment was higher among HIV-1-infected (36.5% compared to HIV-uninfected participants (21.9% (p<0.01. In multivariate analysis, being HIV-infected (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.3–3.3], experiencing >2 AANCC (ORadj 3.1 [95% CI: 1.4–6.8], lower physical health status (ORadj 2.0 [95% CI: 1.6–2.6], being unmarried (ORadj 2.1 [95% CI: 1.3–3.2] and older age (ORadj 60-65 yrs: 9.1 [95% CI: 4.5–18] were independently associated with higher levels of unemployment. Conclusions: Unemployment among HIV-1-infected individuals is higher compared to HIV-uninfected individuals, independent of socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle, quality of life or number of concomitantly diagnosed AANCC. This suggests that, apart from these factors, specific HIV-related determinants, such as stage of HIV disease, but also experienced stigma, work related conditions, influence unemployment.

  12. COURSE FEATURES EPIDEMIC PROCESS HIV INFECTION IN KHARKIV REGION

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    Nikolaeva LG

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In the context of the transformation of the spheres of human living epidemic HIV-infection continues. According to the intensity of the epidemic process of HIV-infection, Ukraine takes one of the first places among the European countries. The epidemic process of the infection is concentrated mainly on the high-risk groups, and there is uneven prevalence. Besides in most cases this distribution can not be explained by the social and economic characteristics of certain territories. Kharkiv region belongs to the territory of Ukraine with the lowest prevalence level of HIV-infection. Though in terms of the social and economic crisis due to hostilities in the east of the country, which the region borders, the epidemic situation may significantly become worse. Work objective: to study the peculiarities of the course of the epidemic process of HIV-infection for the period from 1987 till 2015 in Kharkiv region that will improve the epidemiological surveillance of the infection and develop appropriate preventive measures in modern conditions. Material & methods. The studies were conducted in Kharkiv region, which is a big industrial and administrative center. The city of Kharkiv is located at the crossroads of drug trafficking from Asia and Russia. The reportings and analytics of the Kharkiv regional center for prevention and control of AIDS and the Ministry of Health of Ukraine for the period of 1987 – 2015 were used in the research. The analysis of incidence of HIV prevalence, structure of transmission routes and sex-age groups were carried out using descriptive and evaluative and analytical ways of epidemiological research method. Results & discussion. During 1987 – 2015 in Kharkiv region there were officially registered 7868 cases of HIV-infection what was equal to 4.0 % of the registered cases in Ukraine. Since 1996 a marked upward tendency of the incidence of HIV infection in Kharkiv region (growth rate – +7.0 %, and on the whole in Ukraine (growth rate – +14.0 %. Herewith of incidence of HIV-infection in the region were lower than on the whole in Ukraine (accordingly 2.4 – 23.7 and 10.6 – 47.1 per 100 000 population. Almost all of the administrative territories of Kharkiv region have been involved into the epidemic process of HIV-infection, but in districts of the region the incidence of HIV-infection, AIDS and mortality were in 1.4 – 2.7 times higher than in Kharkiv itself. The measures directed at the prevention of HIV-infection in the groups of risk were actively being taken during the supervision in the region. Due to the collaboration of the executive authorities and local government, departmental structures, medical community and public organizations directed at the suspension of HIV-infection/AIDS epidemic in the region we managed to stabilize a little an epidemical situation on HIV-infection. For the period of 1987 – 2015 in the region there was defined the increase in the number of the infected women (from 12.9 % to 41.0 % and the decrease of the number of men (from 87.1 % to 59.0 % what led to the change of the ratio of the number of women with the number of men in accordance with 1:7 (1996 and 1:1.5 (2015. There were adult patients with HIV-infection (79.5 – 84.9 % in 4 - 5 times more than children under the age of 14 (15.1 – 20.5 %. The largest proportion of HIV-infected people in the age group of 25 – 49 years (60.0 – 72.2 % and the lowest – 15 – 17 years (0.1 – 1.0 %. In different periods of the current epidemic process of HIV-infection the ratio of parenteral, sexual and vertical routes of transmission considerably changed. At the beginning of the epidemic the incidence level of HIV-infection has been significantly affected by the drugs spreading and an increase in vulnerable groups of injecting drug users. Thus, in 1996 the part of the sexual route of transmission was equal to 5.7 % cases, whereas the part of parenteral one consists of 77.1 % cases. Taking effective preventive measures against drug abuse has led to the decrease in the incidence of HIV-infection among this group of risk and changes of transmission routes. In 2015 in the structure of the leading transmission routes there were (22.6 ± 1.8 % of parenteral and (56.9 ± 2.1 % of sexual cases (p<0.05. These data indicate that the implementation tract infection due to injecting drug use leads to a concentrated stage of the HIV epidemic. At the same time the increase in the proportion of sexual transmission increase in the number of infected women indicate a threat to the output of the epidemic risk groups to the general set of the population. Conclusions. 1. The incidence of HIV-infection in the region was in several times lower than on the whole in Ukraine (accordingly 2.4 - 23.7 and 10.6 - 47.1 per 100 000 population. 2. Carried out research in the region revealed the peculiarities of the epidemic process of HIV-infection. So the level of growth of newly registered cases of HIV-infection from 0.1 per 100 000 population in 1995 to 20.5 per 100 000 population in 2015 was set (the growth rate was +7.0 %; a gradual change in the sexual spectrum of HIV-infected people (women from 12.9 % to 41.0 % and men from 87.1 % to 59.0 % and the structure of the leading transmission routes (parenteral from 77.1 % to 22.6% and sexual from 5.7 % to 59.6 %; involvement in the epidemic process of all age groups with a predominance of the most working-age population 25 – 49 years. 3. The HIV epidemic is concentrated on the most vulnerable groups of population, but there is a risk of generalized spreading of HIV among the population. 4. Epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection must be adapted to the local epidemiological conditions, and preventive measures aimed at the timely detection of infection cases and the suspension of the epidemic.

  13. Context of risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections among incarcerated women in the south: individual, interpersonal, and societal factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Catherine I; Gelaude, Deborah J; Carry, Monique; Herbst, Jeffrey H; Parker, Sharon; Scheyette, Anna; Neevel, A

    2014-01-01

    Incarcerated women are disproportionately affected by HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) due to risk factors before, during, and after imprisonment. This study assessed the behavioral, social, and contextual conditions that contribute to continuing sexual risk behaviors among incarcerated women to inform the adaptation of an evidenced-based behavioral intervention for this population. Individual, in-depth interviews were conducted with 25 current and 28 former women prisoners to assess HIV/STI knowledge, perceptions of risk, intimate relationships, and life circumstances. Interviews were independently coded using an iterative process and analyzed using established qualitative analytic methods. Major themes identified in the interviews involved three focal points: individual risk (substance abuse, emotional need, self-worth, perceptions of risk, and safer sex practices); interpersonal risk (partner pressure, betrayal, and violence); and risk environment (economic self-sufficiency and preparation for reentry). These findings highlight the critical components of HIV/STI prevention interventions for incarcerated women. PMID:25204565

  14. [Vaccination of children born from HIV-infected mothers against Haemophilus influenzae type b infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostinov, M P; Pakhomov, D V; Snegova, N F; Nikitina, T N; Zinkina, T N

    2008-01-01

    Course of postvaccinal period after injection of vaccine against Haemophilus influenzae type b administered simultaneously with vaccines of Russian national immunization schedule was studied in children born from HIV-infected mothers. Good tolerability of the vaccine administered concomitantly with diphtheria-tetanus-whole cell pertussis and inactivated polio vaccines (Imovax Polio), which is comparable with tolerability in healthy children, was demonstrated. Prevaccination titers of antibodies and their dynamics during immunization process were described. Increase of levels of antibodies was detected both in the group of children with perinatal contact with HIV infection and in the group of HIV-infected children. PMID:18822498

  15. Stroke in a Patient With HIV Infection

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    Buse Rahime Hasırcı

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke which is a common complication in Human immumodeficiency virus type 1 positive patients is seen between 1% and 5% in clinical series. Vasculopathy and atherogenesis in HIV are the main pathologic mechanisms of stroke. We report a 63 year old man with sudden onset of a right hemiplegia and who was diagnosed as HIV-related stroke.

  16. Oral lesions in HIV infection in developing countries: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, K; Hemalatha, R

    2006-01-01

    HIV infection is a major global health problem affecting developing and developed countries alike. Oral lesions that are associated with this disease are important, since they affect the quality of life of the patient and are useful markers of disease progression and immunosuppression. Oral lesions in HIV infection have been well-documented in developed countries, but there are fewer reports on oral lesions from developing countries. Oral candidiasis is the most common opportunistic infection seen in all continents. Kaposi's sarcoma has been reported only from Africa and Latin America, while histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were reported in patients with advanced disease from Thailand. HIV-associated salivary gland disease has a high prevalence in Africa and Latin America, especially in the pediatric group. It is clear that there are considerable regional variations in the oral manifestations of HIV infection, depending both on the populations studied and on the clinical expertise available, among other factors. Well-designed and -documented studies are necessary for the correct assessment of the nature and magnitude of the problem in developing countries, if oral health measures are to be effectively formulated for the HIV-infected. PMID:16672552

  17. Stroke in a patient with tuberculous meningitis and HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bruna Pasticci

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Tuberculous meningitis (TBM is a devastating disease. TBM occurs more commonly in HIV infected patients. The influence of HIV co-infection on clinical manifestations and outcome of TBM is not well defined. Yet, some differences have been observed and stroke has been recorded to occur more frequently. This study reports on an HIV infected Caucasian female with lung, meningeal tuberculosis and stroke due to a cortical sub-cortical ischemic lesion.TBM was documented in the absence of neurologic symptoms. At the same time, miliary lung TB caused by multi-susceptible Mycobacterium tuberculosis was diagnosed. Anti-TB therapy consisting of a combination of four drugs was administered. The patient improved and was discharged five weeks later. In conclusion, TBM and multiple underling pathologies including HIV infection, as well as other risk factors can lead to a greater risk of stroke. Moreover, drug interactions and their side effects add levels of complexity. TBM must be included in the differential diagnosis of HIV infected patients with stroke and TBM treatment needs be started as soon as possible before the onset of vasculopathy.

  18. Thirty Years with HIV Infection-Nonprogression Is Still Puzzling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaardbo, Julie C; Hartling, Hans J; Gerstoft, Jan; Poulsen, Susanne Dam

    2012-01-01

    mechanisms. Understanding the lack of disease progression and the different interactions between HIV and the immune system could ideally teach us how to develop a functional cure for HIV infection. Here we review immunological features of controllers and LTNP, highlighting differences and clinical......, host differences in the immunological response have been proposed. Moreover, the immunological response can be divided into an immune homeostasis resistant to HIV and an immune response leading to viral control. Thus, non-progression in LTNP and controllers may be due to different immunological......In the early days of the HIV epidemic, it was observed that a minority of the infected patients did not progress to AIDS or death and maintained stable CD4+ cell counts. As the technique for measuring viral load became available it was evident that some of these nonprogressors in addition to...

  19. Microbial translocation and cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trøseid, Marius; Manner, Ingjerd W; Pedersen, Karin K; Haissman, Judith M; Kvale, Dag; Nielsen, Susanne D

    2014-01-01

    The widespread access to antiretroviral treatment during the past decades has transformed HIV infection from a lethal disease to a chronic condition, in which the relative burden of non-AIDS-related chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease, malignancy, renal, liver, and bone disease has...... increased. The adjusted relative risk for myocardial infarction is reported to be around 2-fold compared to that of the general population, which over time is likely to translate into increased absolute risk in an aging population. Thus, delineating potentially HIV-specific pathogenetic mechanisms is...... crucial in order to tailor novel strategies for prophylaxis and treatment. This review will focus on advances in the field that possibly link HIV-induced alterations of the gut mucosa and consequent microbial translocation to cardiometabolic risk factors in HIV infection. Recent work suggests that markers...

  20. Clostridium difficile infection in patients with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collini, Paul J; Kuijper, Ed; Dockrell, David H

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) affects significant numbers of hospitalized patients and is an increasing problem in the community. It is also among the most commonly isolated pathogens in HIV patients with diarrheal illness and is ?2 fold more common in HIV-seropositive individuals. This association is stronger in those with low absolute CD4 T cell counts or meeting clinical criteria for an AIDS diagnosis, and was most pronounced before the wide availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The presentation and outcome of CDI in HIV appears similar to the general population. The increased risk can in part be attributed to increased hospitalization and antimicrobial use, but HIV related alterations in fecal microbiota, gut mucosal integrity, and humoral and cell mediated immunity are also likely to play a role. Here we review the evidence for these observations and the relevance of recent advances in the diagnosis and management of CDI for the HIV clinician. PMID:23657793

  1. Prevention and treatment of surgical site infection in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgical site infection (SSI are the third most frequently reported nosocomial infection, and the most common on surgical wards. HIV-infected patients may increase the possibility of developing SSI after surgery. There are few reported date on incidence and the preventive measures of SSI in HIV-infected patients. This study was to determine the incidence and the associated risk factors for SSI in HIV-infected patients. And we also explored the preventive measures. Methods A retrospective study of SSI was conducted in 242 HIV-infected patients including 17 patients who combined with hemophilia from October 2008 to September 2011 in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. SSI were classified according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC criteria and identified by bedside surveillance and post-discharge follow-up. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 statistical software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL. Results The SSI incidence rate was 47.5% (115 of 242; 38.4% incisional SSIs, 5.4% deep incisional SSIs and 3.7% organ/space SSIs. The SSI incidence rate was 37.9% in HIV-infected patients undergoing abdominal operation. Patients undergoing abdominal surgery with lower preoperative CD4 counts were more likely to develop SSIs. The incidence increased from 2.6% in clean wounds to 100% in dirty wounds. In the HIV-infected patients combined with hemophilia, the mean preoperative albumin and postoperative hemoglobin were found significantly lower than those in no-SSIs group (P Conclusions SSI is frequent in HIV-infected patients. And suitable perioperative management may decrease the SSIs incidence rate of HIV-infected patients.

  2. HIV co-infection accelerates decay of humoral responses in spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Shen, T; Zhang, C; Long, L; Duan, Z; Lu, F

    2014-10-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a cohort of patients infected with HCV through commercial blood collection practices was studied. We found that the annual decreasing rate of anti-HCV presented a gradually accelerated process in HCV resolvers. However, the variation in the decline of anti-HCV presented a slowly accelerated process within the early decrease stage and a gradually decelerated process within the latter decrease stage. In addition, we deduced that it expended approximately 16 years from natural HCV recovery to undetectable peripheral anti-HCV in HCV resolvers co-infected with HIV, while this time was estimated to be 20 years in SR-HCV without HIV co-infection. Our data indicated that the decay of anti-HCV was accelerated by HIV-related impairment of immune function. The prevalence of HCV infection may be severely underestimated in this large-scale retrospective epidemiologic investigation in an HIV-infected population. PMID:24861885

  3. Factors Associated With Viral Rebound in HIV-1-Infected Individuals Enrolled in a Therapeutic HIV-1 gag Vaccine Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jonathan Z.; Brumme, Zabrina L; Brumme, Chanson J.; WANG, HONGYING; Spritzler, John; Robertson, Michael N.; LEDERMAN, Michael M.; Carrington, Mary; Walker, Bruce D.; Schooley, Robert T.; Daniel R. Kuritzkes

    2011-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccines directed to the cell-mediated immune system could have a role in lowering the plasma HIV-1 RNA set point, which may reduce infectivity and delay disease progression.

  4. Transplante renal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV Kidney transplantation in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Nilsen Moreno

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo de reviso tem como objetivo apresentar as principais consideraes sobre o transplante renal em pacientes HIV positivos. Na ltima dcada, com o advento da terapia antirretroviral de alta atividade (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART, a evoluo dos pacientes infectados pelo vrus da imunodeficincia humana (Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV mudou significativamente, com uma acentuada diminuio das taxas de morbimortalidade nesta populao. Neste contexto, o nmero de pacientes HIV positivos com doena renal crnica com necessidade de terapia dialtica vem aumentando progressivamente. Diante desta nova realidade, o transplante renal, antes considerado uma contraindicao absoluta para tais pacientes, passou a ser considerado uma alternativa de terapia substitutiva da funo renal. Questes sobre o uso de imunossupressores neste grupo de pacientes e sua possvel ao aumentando a replicao do HIV, alm do risco de infeces oportunistas e de desenvolvimento de neoplasias, so amplamente discutidas. Porm, a experincia clnica nessa rea mostra que a utilizao dessas drogas para pacientes soropositivos parece ser segura, inclusive com relatos de ao antirretroviral de algumas das drogas imunossupressoras. Apesar disso, ainda hoje existem poucos relatos de transplantes nesta populao. Em resumo, os dados da literatura sugerem que o transplante renal, seguindo critrios de seleo dos pacientes, parece ser uma alternativa segura como terapia de substituio renal em pacientes HIV positivos.This review presents current considerations for renal transplantation in HIV patients. In the last decade, with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, life expectancy of patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has significantly improved, showing a marked decrease in the rates of morbidity and mortality in this population. In this setting, the number of HIV-positive patients with end stage chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis is progressively growing. Kidney transplantation, previously considered as absolute contraindication for HIV-infected patients is currently, in the HAART era, considered a possible treatment alternative. Concerns for the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in these patients and the possible effects on progression of HIV disease, in addition to the risk of opportunistic infections and cancer development are widely discussed. Clinical experience in the HAART era shows that use of immunosuppressive drugs does not adversely affect HIV-seropositive patients. Furthermore, several transplant centers have reported improved patient and graft outcomes for kidney transplant recipients infected with HIV. In summary, results obtained so far are encouraging, supporting that renal transplantation, following specific selection criteria, can be considered an alternative of renal replacement therapy in HIV-infected patients.

  5. Leukocyte Telomere Length in HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Uninfected Children: Shorter Telomeres with Uncontrolled HIV Viremia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté, Hélène C. F.; Soudeyns, Hugo; Thorne, Anona; Alimenti, Ariane; Lamarre, Valérie; Maan, Evelyn J.; Sattha, Beheroze; Singer, Joel; Lapointe, Normand; Money, Deborah M.; Forbes, John

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) used in HIV antiretroviral therapy can inhibit human telomerase reverse transcriptase. We therefore investigated whether in utero or childhood exposure to NRTIs affects leukocyte telomere length (LTL), a marker of cellular aging. Methods In this cross-sectional CARMA cohort study, we investigated factors associated with LTL in HIV -1-infected (HIV+) children (n = 94), HIV-1-exposed uninfected (HEU) children who were exposed to antiretroviral therapy (ART) perinatally (n = 177), and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HIV−) control children (n = 104) aged 0–19 years. Univariate followed by multivariate linear regression models were used to examine relationships of explanatory variables with LTL for: a) all subjects, b) HIV+/HEU children only, and c) HIV+ children only. Results After adjusting for age and gender, there was no difference in LTL between the 3 groups, when considering children of all ages together. In multivariate models, older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL. For the HIV+ group alone, having a detectable HIV viral load was also strongly associated with shorter LTL (p = 0.007). Conclusions In this large study, group rates of LTL attrition were similar for HIV+, HEU and HIV− children. No associations between children’s LTL and their perinatal ART exposure or HIV status were seen in linear regression models. However, the association between having a detectable HIV viral load and shorter LTL suggests that uncontrolled HIV viremia rather than duration of ART exposure may be associated with acceleration of blood telomere attrition. PMID:22815702

  6. Psychosocial aspects of HIV infection: I Love You (2005)

    OpenAIRE

    Meštrović, Tomislav

    2012-01-01

    [EN] Since the discovery of HIV and AIDS, considerable progress has been made in understanding biology of the virus and disease, and also in developing effective treatments. Never the less, this infection still has very profound effects on psychological, social, and economic level. Some important examples of stigma and psychosocial aspects of the disease are depicted in this movie. Common bias where HIV is associated exclusively with the gay community and deviant behaviour is emph...

  7. Turnover of lymphocytes and conceptual paradigms in HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Silvestri, Guido; Feinberg, Mark B

    2003-01-01

    Prevailing views concerning the pathogenic mechanisms of AIDS have shifted from models that focus primarily on direct HIV-mediated killing of CD4+ T cells to models that emphasize the pathogenic role of generalized immune system activation. The observation that increases in T cell turnover seen in HIV-infected individuals primarily reflect increased proliferation of effector-memory T cells supports the concept that chronic immune activation plays a prominent, if not predominant, role in the p...

  8. Progress and Prospects in Therapeutics against HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Manisha Mandal

    2015-01-01

    Tremendous advances have occurred in recent decades in the development of safe and effective medications for the treatment of viral diseases. Currently there are more than 20 HIV drugs approved for use in humans. Combined chemotherapy has been found useful for a number of viral infections comprising drugs with different mechanism of action. HIV treatment guidelines recommend the use of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NsRTIs) plus a third antiretroviral drug for treatment-naiv...

  9. GYNECOLOGIC ISSUES IN THE HIV-INFECTED WOMAN

    OpenAIRE

    Cejtin, Helen E.

    2008-01-01

    With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), women living with HIV can now enjoy longer lifespans in relative good health as well as the prospect of bearing children with an overwhelmingly low risk of vertical transmission. Thus, increasingly, seropositive women are now facing issues around longevity as well as those associated with fertility. The clinician caring for the HIV-infected woman must be alert to the gynecologic issues that are prevalent in this population. Amon...

  10. CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection leading to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS causes progressive decline in immunological response in people living with HIV/AIDS, making them susceptible to a variety opportunistic infections (OIs which are responsible for morbidity and mortality. Therefore early diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections reduce the mortality and morbidity in HIV positive patients. CONTEXT : AIMS : To study the demographic variables; spectrum of opportunist ic infections and its correlation with CD4 count in HIV patients. SETTING AND DESIGN : The study was conducted on 200 HIV patients either admitted to Sanjay Gandhi Memorial Hospital or attending ART Center, Sh y am Shah Medical College, Rewa (M.P from Januar y 2013 to October 2014. METHODS AND MATERIAL : A detailed history was recorded with emphasis on personal history, high risk behavior, history of migration, mode of transmission of infection and complete thorough clinical examination was done. Data analysis was done by calculating P value using Chi Square test. RESULTS : Out of 200 HIV patients, most of them (88% belonged to the age group 20 - 49 years, 66% were males and 34% were females. 45% were illiterates, 62% were from low socioeconomic class. Majority of patients were married (79% and 72.2% had seropositive spouse. Unprotected sexual route was the most common (85% mode of transmission; among which heterosexual route was the only mode of transmission. 59.4% of males contracted infection through unprotect ed sex with either commercial sex workers (44.8% or multiple sex partners (14.6%. 61% of patients had history of emigration. Tuberculosis was the most common opportunistic infection (51%, followed by oral candidiasis 30% and chronic diarrhea (9%.Pulmon ary Tuberculosis was the most common form of Tuberculosis (64.7%, followed by tubercular lymphadenopathy (15.7%. CONCLUSION : HIV/AIDS has no vaccine or cure, so prevention is the only way to decrease its burden in the society. Health education, safe sex, and creating awareness among the people are the main tools in preventing HIV transmission. Treating physicians should have knowledge of spectrum of opportunistic infection in HIV patients.

  11. Specific Elimination of Latently HIV-1 Infected Cells Using HIV-1 Protease-Sensitive Toxin Nanocapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Yan, Ming; Liu, Yang; Li, Jie; Xie, Yiming; Lu, Yunfeng; Kamata, Masakazu; Chen, Irvin S. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-retroviral drugs suppress HIV-1 plasma viremia to undetectable levels; however, latent HIV-1 persists in reservoirs within HIV-1-infected patients. The silent provirus can be activated through the use of drugs, including protein kinase C activators and histone deacetylase inhibitors. This “shock” approach is then followed by “kill” of the producing cells either through direct HIV-1-induced cell death or natural immune mechanisms. However, these mechanisms are relatively slow and effectiveness is unclear. Here, we develop an approach to specifically target and kill cells that are activated early in the process of virus production. We utilize a novel nanocapsule technology whereby the ricin A chain is encapsulated in an inactive form within a polymer shell. Specificity for release of the ricin A toxin is conferred by peptide crosslinkers that are sensitive to cleavage by HIV-1 protease. By using well-established latent infection models, J-Lat and U1 cells, we demonstrate that only within an HIV-1-producing cell expressing functional HIV-1 protease will the nanocapsule release its ricin A cargo, shutting down viral and cellular protein synthesis, and ultimately leading to rapid death of the producer cell. Thus, we provide proof of principle for a novel technology to kill HIV-1-producing cells without effects on non-target cells. PMID:27049645

  12. Human Herpesviruses as Copathogens of HIV Infection, Their Role in HIV Transmission, and Disease Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawwar, Arshi; Singh, Sarman

    2016-01-01

    Of eight human herpesviruses (HHVs), often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. However, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) has only very recently been recognized. Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections may offer slowing of HIV infection, disease progression, and its transmission. Beside HSV-1 and HSV-2, HHV-3 a causative agent of herpes zoster remained one of the first manifestations of HIV disease before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HHV-5 also known as human Cytomegalovirus infection remains a significant risk factor for HIV-associated mortality and morbidity even in HAART era. It is proposed that Cytomegalovirus viremia could be a better predictor of HIV disease progression than CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. The role of HHV-4 or Epstein-Burr virus and HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 is still being investigated in HIV disease progression. This review provides insight into the current understanding about these 8 HHVs, their co-pathogenesis, and role in HIV/AIDS disease progression. The review also covers recent literature in favor and against administering anti-HHV treatment along with HAART for slower AIDS progression and interrupted sexual transmission. PMID:27013807

  13. Human herpesviruses as copathogens of HIV infection, Their role in HIV transmission, and disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshi Munawwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of eight human herpesviruses (HHVs, often, only herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1 and 2 (HSV-2 find mention in medical literature as both of these viruses are commonly associated with genital lesions and oral ulcers, commonly known as cold sores. However, role of human herpesviruses as copathogens and in aggravation and in the transmission of other human diseases, especially the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS has only very recently been recognized. Therefore, screening and treating subclinical HHV infections may offer slowing of HIV infection, disease progression, and its transmission. Beside HSV-1 and HSV-2, HHV-3 a causative agent of herpes zoster remained one of the first manifestations of HIV disease before the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. HHV-5 also known as human Cytomegalovirus infection remains a significant risk factor for HIV-associated mortality and morbidity even in HAART era. It is proposed that Cytomegalovirus viremia could be a better predictor of HIV disease progression than CD4+ T-lymphocyte count. The role of HHV-4 or Epstein–Burr virus and HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 is still being investigated in HIV disease progression. This review provides insight into the current understanding about these 8 HHVs, their co-pathogenesis, and role in HIV/AIDS disease progression. The review also covers recent literature in favor and against administering anti-HHV treatment along with HAART for slower AIDS progression and interrupted sexual transmission.

  14. HBV and neurological impairment in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Manolescu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: HIV can affect CNS in early stages of disease and determine neurological impairment. HBV DNA was found in CSF of HIV co-infected patients, but little is known about the neurotropic character of this virus. Here we assessed the degree of association between HBV infection and neurological impairment in a large cohort of long-term survivors, HIV-infected patients that experienced multiple therapeutic schemes over time. Methods: A total of 462 HIV-1-infected patients were retrospectively followed up for 10 years for HBV infection and neurological impairment. The patients were tested for immune (flow cytometry and virological parameters of HIV infection (Roche Amplicor, version 1.5/ COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test and for HBV infection markers (HBsAg, anti HBc: Murex Biotech ELISA tests. Many of these patients have experienced between one and six regimens such as: 2 NRTIs, 3 NRTIs, 2 NRTIs+1 NNRTI, 1 NRTI+1 NNRTI+1 PI, 2 NRTIs+2 PIs. Results: After 10 years 29.87% of the patients presented neurological impairment. Out of them 56.52% were HBV-infected. The prevalence of HIV encephalopathy (HE in our studied cohort was 22.7% and 50.4% of these patients were HBV-infected. The median HIV diagnosis age was 7 and the median age of HE diagnosis was 10. In order to establish a possible correlation between HBV infection and HE we first reviewed and excluded the main risk factors associated with HE at the moment of diagnosis: low weight, anemia, constitutional symptoms, low CD4+count, high plasma HIV-RNA load. No patient was infected with HCV. The groups of patients that presented HE and HBsAg and HE without HBsAg were balanced regarding sex, number of deceased patients, number of class C3 patients, but the patients in first group presented lower CD4 values at HE diagnosis vs patients from second group 2: 44.5 vs 95 cells/µL, p=0.3; lower nadir CD4 count: 38 vs 51 cell/µL, p=0.1; and slightly higher HIV viral load: 5.2 vs 5 log10 copies/mL, p = 0.2. There were only 53 patients that presented at the same time HE and HBV infection and the majority, 78.69%, were first infected with HBV. Conclusions: In our studied cohort HBV infection was associated with HE but further studies are needed to prove HBV neurotropic potential. Absolute CD4 nadir count and class C3 are proved to be strong predictors of HE in HIV-infected patients even after several changes in antiretroviral therapy schemes.

  15. HIV Infection and Fertility Preferences in Rural Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Yeatman, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Although HIV-prevalence and fertility rates in sub-Saharan Africa are among the highest in the world, little is known about how HIV infection affects the fertility preferences of men and women in the region. A quasi-experimental design and in-depth interviews conducted in rural Malawi are employed to examine how and through what pathways learning that one is HIV positive alters a persons childbearing desires. Among rural Malawians, particularly men, the desire to have more children decreases...

  16. Mediators of the Relation Between Community Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Adults Attending a Public Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E; Walsh, Jennifer L; Carey, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    Prior research shows that violence is associated with sexual risk behavior, but little is known about the relation between community violence (i.e., violence that is witnessed or experienced in one's neighborhood) and sexual risk behavior. To better understand contextual influences on HIV risk behavior, we asked 508 adult patients attending a publicly funded STI clinic in the U.S. (54 % male, M age = 27.93, 68 % African American) who were participating in a larger trial to complete a survey assessing exposure to community violence, sexual risk behavior, and potential mediators of the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation (i.e., mental health, substance use, and experiencing intimate partner violence). A separate sample of participants from the same trial completed measures of sexual behavior norms, which were aggregated to create measures of census tract sexual behavior norms. Data analyses controlling for socioeconomic status revealed that higher levels of community violence were associated with more sexual partners for men and with more episodes of unprotected sex with non-steady partners for women. For both men and women, substance use and mental health mediated the community violence-sexual risk behavior relation; in addition, for men only, experiencing intimate partner violence also mediated this relation. These results confirm that, for individuals living in communities with high levels of violence, sexual risk reduction interventions need to address intimate partner violence, substance use, and mental health to be optimally effective. PMID:27000155

  17. Short Communication: High Prevalence of Vitamin D Deficiency in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eckard, Allison Ross; Leong, Traci; Avery, Ann; Castillo, Marina Duran; Bonilla, Hector; Storer, Norma; Labbato, Danielle; Khaitan, Alka; Tangpricha, Vin; Mccomsey, Grace A.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in HIV-infected populations. In resource-limited settings, vitamin D deficiency has been shown to affect HIV disease progression and mortality in pregnant women, and also increases mother-to-child HIV transmission and mortality in their infants. This study sought to investigate vitamin D status in HIV-infected women compared to healthy controls in a high-income country setting and determine variables associated with vitamin D deficiency. We prospectively enrolle...

  18. HIV enteropathy: comparative morphometry of the jejunal mucosa of HIV infected patients resident in the United Kingdom and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Batman, P; Kapembwa, M.; A. Miller; Sedgwick, P; Lucas, S.; Sewankambo, N.; Serwadda, D; Pudney, J.; A. Moody; Harris, J.(Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, United States); Griffin, G.

    1998-01-01

    Aims—To compare jejunal mucosal morphometry in HIV infected patients resident in London and Uganda. 
Patients—Twenty HIV positive patients from London and 16 from Uganda were studied, and compared with HIV negative control subjects from both sites. 
Methods—Stools and biopsy specimens were examined for enteropathogens. Surface area to volume (S:V) ratio was estimated morphometrically, mean crypt length of jejunal biopsy specimens was measured, and HIV infected cells detected...

  19. [Incidence and etiology of psychotic disorders in HIV infected patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederecker, M; Naber, D; Riedel, R; Perro, C; Goebel, F D

    1995-05-01

    There are numerous case reports on psychoses in AIDS patients and, although more seldom, also in HIV-positive patients in early stages of infection; however, systematic investigations on the frequency, e.g., relevant for the indication of an HIV test in psychiatric patients, are missing. For this study, 1046 HIV-positive patients were examined regarding psychoses. A total of 301 patients (28.8%) were HIV-positive but asymptomatic, and 380 patients (36.2%) had the lymphadenopathy syndrome. One hundred thirty-two patients (12.6%) suffered from an AIDS-related complex and 233 patients (22.3%) from AIDS. Of these 1046 patients, only 9 (0.9%) suffered from psychoses. One patient with a paranoid-hallucinatory syndrome was asymptomatic; one in the lymphadenopathy syndrome was manic. The other 7 patients were all in late stages of the infection. A causal relationship between HIV infection and psychosis and probable in only 3 patients. These data do not indicate a markedly elevated prevalence of psychosis in HIV-positive or AIDS patients. PMID:7609818

  20. HIV co-infection accelerates decay of humoral responses in spontaneous resolvers of HCV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Y.(Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China; Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, China; Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, China; School of Physics, Shandong University, Shandong, China; Physics Department, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China); T. Shen; C. Zhang; Long, L.; Duan, Z.; Lu, F.

    2014-01-01

    Acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is primarily followed by chronic infection, while spontaneous recovery of HCV infection (SR-HCV) occurs in a minority of those infected. Identification of SR-HCV clinically depends on two combined indicators, persistently undetectable peripheral HCV RNA and positivity for anti-HCV. However, the characteristics of dynamic variation in anti-HCV antibodies in SR-HCV, especially in those patients co-infected with HIV, are still undefined. In this study, a c...

  1. HIV/TB Co-infection in Nigerian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebele F Ugochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. The burden of childhood disease is not as well documented as that of adult disease, partly because of the difficulty of confirming the diagnosis. In Africa children have been estimated to account for 20-40% of TB case load. Children infected with M. tuberculosis have a high risk of progression to disease, the younger children being at highest risk. Infected children represent a reservoir of future adult disease. The incidence of childhood TB has increased in developing countries. This resurgence is partly attributed to the coexisting burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, which is most pronounced in Sub-Saharan Africa, Nigeria ranking third highest prevalence. The pattern of childhood HIV and TB infection mirror these epidemics in the adult population. The number of children co-infected with HIV and TB is rising, and so is the incidence of congenital and neonatal TB. In addition the emergence of multi-drug resistance TB and extensively drug-resistant TB has occurred within the context of a high prevalence of HIV and TB. The diagnosis of TB has always been difficult in children and is compounded by HIV co-infection. The clinical symptoms in both diseases are similar, and the radiological changes may be non-specific. Treatment of both conditions in children is a challenge due to drug interactions and problems with adherence. There are few stable syrup formulations of antituberculous and antiretroviral drugs in children, and hence division of tablets gives rise to unpredictable dosing and emergence of resistance. To reduce the morbidity and mortality of TB and HIV, existing childhood TB programs must be strengthened, and antiretroviral drug therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission programs scaled up. HIV prevalence in the adult population must also be reduced. An increased emphasis on childhood TB, with early diagnosis and treatment, must be a priority.

  2. Clinical history of HIV infection may be misleading in cytopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantanowitz Liron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are at an increased risk for developing opportunistic infections, reactive conditions and neoplasms. As a result, a broad range of conditions are frequently included in the differential diagnosis of HIV-related lesions. The clinical history of HIV infection may, however, be misleading in some cases. Illustrative cases are presented in which knowledge of a patient?s HIV status proved to be misleading and increased the degree of complexity of the cytologic evaluation. Case 1 involved the fine needle aspiration (FNA of a painful 3 cm unilateral neck mass in a 38-year-old female with generalized lymphadenopathy. Her aspirate revealed a spindle cell proliferation devoid of mycobacteria that was immunoreactive for S-100 and macrophage markers (KP-1, PGM1. Multiple noncontributory repeat procedures were performed until a final excision revealed a schwannoma. Case 2 was a CT-guided FNA of a positron emission tomography positive lung mass in a 53-year-old man. The acellular aspirate in this case contained structures resembling fungal spore forms that were negative for mucicarmine and GMS stains, as well as cryptococcal antigen immunocytochemistry. A Von Kossa stain confirmed that these pseudo-fungal structures were calcified debris. Follow up revealed multiple calcified lung and hilar node based granulomata. Case 3 involved the cytologic evaluation of pleural fluid from a 47-year-old man with Kaposi sarcoma and recurrent chylous pleural effusions. Large atypical cells identified in his effusion were concerning for primary effusion lymphoma. Subsequent pleural biopsy revealed extramedullary hematopoiesis, documenting these atypical cells as megakaryocytes. These cases demonstrate that knowledge of a patient?s HIV status can be misleading in the evaluation of cytology specimens, with potential for misdiagnosis and/or multiple procedures. To avoid this pitfall in the setting of HIV infection, common entities unrelated to HIV infection and artifacts should always be included in the differential diagnosis.

  3. Undetectable hepatitis C virus RNA during syphilis infection in two HIV/HCV-co-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Knudsen, Andreas; Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Katzenstein, Terese Lea; Gerstoft, Jan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis, elicits a vigorous immune response in the infected host. This study sought to describe the impact of syphilis infection on hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels in patients with HIV and chronic HCV infection. METHODS: Patients with...

  4. [Lines of research in the treatment of HIV infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidani, Maryline; Lelivre, Jean-Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Antiretroviral treatment have completely modified the face of HIV infection. Research of new therapeutic approaches during infection focus on the use of antiretroviral drugs and on new targets, treatment of immune activation and viral eradication. Recommendations for c-ART initiation are now broader. Future development in the area of antiretroviral therapy concern their use for prevention and the design of long-acting drugs. Extensive research efforts have led to the proposal of strategies that aim to treat immune activation which favor the occurrence of non AIDS defining disease and to eradicate HIV through the use of several different strategies (therapeutic vaccines, anti latency compounds). Results of these new approaches remain preliminary and antiretroviral treatment remain the only weapon to fight HIV infection. PMID:25510135

  5. Improved survival in HIV-infected persons: consequences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Nicolai; Hansen, Ann-Brit Eg; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2007-01-01

    -infected individual to be 39 years. The prospect of a near-normal life expectancy has implications for the HIV-infected persons as well as for the handling of the disease in the healthcare system. The patients can now on a long-term perspective plan their professional career, join a pension plan and start a family....... Further, they may expect to be treated equally with other members of society with respect to access to mortgage, health insurance and life insurance. As the infected population ages, more patients will contract age-related diseases, and the disease burden on some individuals may even come to be dominated......A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient in 2007 has the option to commence an antiretroviral regimen that is extremely efficacious in suppressing the virus and has few side effects. In a recent study, we estimated the median remaining lifetime of a newly diagnosed 25-year-old HIV...

  6. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Andrea Kinga Marias; Sharifi, Hamayun J; Jellinger, Robert M; Cristofano, Paul; Shi, Binshan; de Noronha, Carlos M C

    2016-04-01

    Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN), produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition. PMID:27093399

  7. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Andrea Kinga Marias; Sharifi, Hamayun J.; Jellinger, Robert M.; Cristofano, Paul; Shi, Binshan; de Noronha, Carlos M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN), produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition. PMID:27093399

  8. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-03-01

    HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  9. AIDS impact special issue 2015: interpersonal factors associated with HIV partner disclosure among HIV-infected people in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Shan; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yuejiao; Shen, Zhiyong; Tang, Zhenzhu

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV partner disclosure may facilitate social support, improve psychological well-being among HIV-infected individuals, and promote HIV testing and HIV prevention among their sexual partners. A growing literature emphasizes the critical role of interpersonal factors may play in decision-making and practice regarding HIV partner disclosure. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies that investigate how interpersonal factors may be associated with HIV partner disclosure. Using cross-sectional data collected from 791 HIV-infected people in Guangxi China, we examined the associations between these two interpersonal factors (quality of relationship with partner and family communication) and HIV partner disclosure. Descriptive analysis, t-test analysis, and gender stratified GLM analysis were conducted. We find that disclosing HIV status to partners was significantly related to better quality of relationship with partners and open and effective family communication. Gender and partner HIV status might moderate the associations between interpersonal factors and HIV partner disclosure. Our findings suggest the importance of considering relationship quality and enhancing open and comfortable family communication in HIV disclosure interventions. Gender difference and partner HIV status should be also considered in HIV disclosure intervention to address the diverse needs of HIV-infected people. PMID:26899370

  10. Bone Loss in the HIV-Infected Patient: Evidence, Clinical Implications, and Treatment Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Walker Harris, Vanessa; Brown, Todd T.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis is common in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected persons. The etiology of osteoporosis in HIV-infected patients is likely multifactorial, involving traditional risk factors such as low body weight, hypogonadism, and smoking, as well as direct effects of chronic HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy. Emerging evidence suggests that the increasing prevalence of osteoporosis in HIV-infected persons translates into a higher risk of fracture, likely leading to excess morbid...

  11. Increased longevity in HIV: caring for older HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Susan C

    2014-01-01

    The demographics of the HIV-infected population in the United States have shifted in a way that few would have predicted 30 years ago when the tide of sick and dying patients largely consisted of young men. Effective ART has allowed those infected to live long, productive lives and to grow old with their disease. With the increase in life expectancy afforded by HIV treatment, the cause of death among HIV-infected individuals is far more likely to be from an HIV-associated non-AIDS condition. Nonetheless, HIV seems to accelerate the aging process, and care providers involved in the treatment of older patients with HIV need to be aware that their patients are at increased risk of developing various common disorders, compared to uninfected same-age patients. Clinicians need to remain vigilant to the possibility of a new diagnosis of HIV among their older patients. Awareness of current or distant risk, frank discussions of sexual practices, and willingness to offer routine testing are crucial to making this diagnosis, with the recognition that longevity for patients with HIV is directly linked to how soon they enter care. HIV infection adds another challenge to the management of older patients; geriatricians and HIV specialists need to coordinate their efforts to provide patients with comprehensive multidisciplinary care. Older patients with HIV also have social and psychological needs that extend beyond the medical office. Maintaining independence, acknowledging limitations, reducing risk of adverse events such as falls or medication errors, and supporting self-acceptance and awareness are only a few of the many areas where care providers outside the medical office can be important for patients' ongoing well-being. Accessing family support, community outreach, church affiliation, or other outpatient support networks can be useful for patients. The remarkable change in prognosis brought about by effective ART in the mid-1990s has meant that HIV is now, for many, a manageable chronic illness. Clinicians and other care providers are changing their approach and goals of care as patients with HIV grow old. PMID:25118513

  12. HIV-1 infected monozygotic twins: a tale of two outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Losada Marcos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicate experiments are often difficult to find in evolutionary biology, as this field is inherently an historical science. However, viruses, bacteria and phages provide opportunities to study evolution in both natural and experimental contexts, due to their accelerated rates of evolution and short generation times. Here we investigate HIV-1 evolution by using a natural model represented by monozygotic twins infected synchronically at birth with an HIV-1 population from a shared blood transfusion source. We explore the evolutionary processes and population dynamics that shape viral diversity of HIV in these monozygotic twins. Results Despite the identical host genetic backdrop of monozygotic twins and the identical source and timing of the HIV-1 inoculation, the resulting HIV populations differed in genetic diversity, growth rate, recombination rate, and selection pressure between the two infected twins. Conclusions Our study shows that the outcome of evolution is strikingly different between these two "replicates" of viral evolution. Given the identical starting points at infection, our results support the impact of random epigenetic selection in early infection dynamics. Our data also emphasize the need for a better understanding of the impact of host-virus interactions in viral evolution.

  13. Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, M. (Department of Haematology L, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Gimsing, P. (Department of Haematology L, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Ingeberg, S.; Jans, H. (Department of Infectious Diseases, Hvidovre Hospital (Denmark)); Nexoe, E. (Department of Clinical Chemistry, Central Hospital, Hilleroed and KH University Hospital of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1992-01-01

    P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au).

  14. Cobalamin binding proteins in patients with HIV infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P-Cobalamins have been reported to be decreased in patients with HIV infection. Because of this, we found it of interest to examine both cobalamin-saturated binding proteins (holo-transcobalamin, holo-TC and holo-haptocorrin, holo-HC) and cobalamin unsaturated binding proteins (apo-transcobalamin, apo-TC and apo-haptocorrin, apo-HC). The results are given as range and (median). Eighteen male HIV-infected patients with plasma cobalamins below 200 pmol/l were studied. We found low concentrations of holo-TC (37-88(47.5)pmol/l) and holo-HC (64-184(135.3)pmol/l). The concentration of apo-TC and apo-HC was increased (480-1730(1025)pmol/l; 70-800(235)pmol/l). It is concluded that, in HIV-infected patients, low plasma cobalamin does not reflect a low concentration of transcobalamin or haptocorrin. In 20 HIV-infected patients and 31 patients with malignant haematological diseases, the TC isopeptide patterns were determined. In the HIV group, an increased frequency of TC isopeptide X was found and the overall distribution of TC isopeptides was significantly different from the reference population (p<0.05). There was no difference between the group of patients with malignant haematological diseases and the reference group. (au)

  15. Oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Tao, Renchuan; Jiang, Lanlan; Peng, Yuanyuan; Huang, Yuxiao

    2016-01-01

    Oral innate immunity, an important component in host defense and immune surveillance in the oral cavity, plays a crucial role in the regulation of oral health. As part of the innate immune system, epithelial cells lining oral mucosal surfaces not only provide a physical barrier but also produce different antimicrobial peptides, including human β-defensins (hBDs), secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and various cytokines. These innate immune mediators help in maintaining oral homeostasis. When they are impaired either by local or systemic causes, various oral infections and malignancies may be developed. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and other co-infections appear to have both direct and indirect effects on systemic and local innate immunity leading to the development of oral opportunistic infections and malignancies. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the standard treatment of HIV infection, contributed to a global reduction of HIV-associated oral lesions. However, prolonged use of HAART may lead to adverse effects on the oral innate immunity resulting in the relapse of oral lesions. This review article focused on the roles of oral innate immunity in HIV infection in HAART era. The following five key questions were addressed: (i) What are the roles of oral innate immunity in health and disease?, (ii) What are the effects of HIV infection on oral innate immunity?, (iii) What are the roles of oral innate immunity against other co-infections?, (iv) What are the effects of HAART on oral innate immunity?, and (v) Is oral innate immunity enhanced by HAART? PMID:25639844

  16. Research on HIV Co-Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with increased susceptibility to TB and worse TB treatment outcomes because of weakened immune defenses and drug-drug interactions complicating co-treatment of HIV and TB. As a result of prolonged survival, greater numbers ...

  17. Immune pathogenesis of pediatric HIV-1 infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tiemessen, Caroline T.; KUHN, Louise

    2006-01-01

    Vertical exposure to HIV occurs at a time when functional capacity of the infant’s immune system is attenuated through immaturity. Immune response capability is rooted in host genetic makeup, and the broad and fine specificity of innate and adaptive immune responses, respectively, shape the outcomes of HIV encounter in some instances and imprint viral changes through selective immune pressure in others. Findings from recent studies have profound implications for understanding immune pathogene...

  18. Atopy in HIV-infected children in pretoria

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R, Masekela; T, Moodley; N, Mahlaba; D F, Wittenberg; P, Becker; O, Kitchin; R J, Green.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The development or aggravation of a pre-existing atopic state in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has not been thoroughly investigated in South Africa. HIV-infected adults have been shown to have a higher prevalence of atopy in some international studies, but this has n [...] ot been documented in children. METHODS: A prospective convenience sample of 50 children aged between 3 months and 12 years attending the Tshwane District Hospital Paediatric HIV clinic in Pretoria was recruited. Their personal and family histories of atopy, World Health Organization (WHO) HIV clinical staging and Centers for Disease Control (CDC) immunological staging with CD4 counts were documented. An age- and sex-matched control group of 50 HIV-negative children was included. Skin prick tests (SPTs) to identify common aeroallergens were conducted on all patients. RESULTS: One hundred children were enrolled, with 50 in each group. Ten per cent of the HIV-infected patients compared with 16% of controls had positive SPTs to aeroallergens. A higher percentage of the HIV-infected patients had chronic rhinitis and eczema (60% and 68%, respectively). There was no relationship between CD4 count and positive SPTs (p=0.61), mean log CD4 count and presence of reported asthma (p=0.71), and CD4 count and presence of reported dermatitis (p=0.84). The CD4 count was not statistically different between children with and without a family history of atopy (p=0.68). CONCLUSION: It appears that the stage of HIV disease does not influence the development or expression of allergy. There is a high prevalence of dermatitis and chronic rhinitis in HIVinfected children, probably not atopic in origin.

  19. Gender inequities in sexually transmitted infections: implications for HIV infection and control in Lagos State, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ezekiel Oluwagbemiga Adeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Beyond the statistics of sex-based differences in infection rates, there are profound differences in the underlying causes and consequences of HIV infections in male and female which need to be examined. The study therefore examines; the gender differences in the STI knowledge and gender-related potential risks of HIV heterosexual transmission. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected. A multi-stage random sampling procedure was employed in administration of 1358 questionnaires. For q...

  20. Renal transplantation in an HIV-infected patient: Pharmacokinetic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Karen; Kangas, Ida; Laursen, Alex Lund; Jørgensen, Kaj Anker

    2011-01-01

    -controlled HIV infection are no longer prevented from receiving transplants, but treatment must be based on knowledge of pharmacokinetics for the drugs involved. The common approach measuring the cyclosporine level after 2 h or trough level is misleading and it was necessary to determine the area under the curve.......Abstract The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in the mid-1990s led to a dramatic reduction in mortality and progression to AIDS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)infection has now turned into a chronic disease with improved survival and prognosis. Hence, patients with well...

  1. Strategies for addressing restorative challenges in HIV-infected children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelnur, Juliana Pires; Cerqueira, Daniella Ferraz; Castro, Gloria Fernanda; Maia, Lucianne Cople; de Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro

    2008-01-01

    The complete caries removal of deep/extensive dentin carious lesions with conventional procedures (high- and low-speed bur) may increase the risk of pulp exposure. In children with systemic diseases, such as HIV-infected children, the dental treatment proposed for the primary dentition with pulp involvement is tooth extraction once endodontic therapies cannot be guaranteed successfully. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe 3 cases of alternative techniques for caries removal in extensive and/or deep dentin carious lesions in the primary dentition of HIV-infected children: (1) atraumatic restorative treatment (ART); (2) Carisolv; and (3) Papacarie. PMID:18505652

  2. Pseudogout Associated Hip Pain in a Patient with HIV Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, Henry D.; Mary Anne Lloyd; Dala-Ali, Benan M.; Matthew Welck

    2010-01-01

    HIV infection is a global pandemic, currently affecting approximately 77,000 people in the UK and 33 million people around the world. The infection has widespread effects on the body and can involve the musculoskeletal system. It is therefore important that orthopaedic surgeons are aware of the condition and its sequelae. We present the case of a 46-year-old man with a 10-year history of HIV who presented with acute hip pain, difficulty weight-bearing, and constitutional symptoms. Following r...

  3. Serological diagnosis of Chagas disease in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulce Stauffert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This study assessed the rate of request for the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients treated at the Specialized Care Service of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used secondary data obtained from the medical records of 252 patients aged between 18 and 75 years. RESULTS: The serological diagnosis of Chagas disease was requested only in 3.2% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate poor adherence to protocols on the part of healthcare professionals, indicating the need to reevaluate the procedures applied to HIV-infected patients from endemic regions for both diseases.

  4. Long-Term Mortality in HIV-Infected Individuals 50 Years or Older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca A; Ahlström, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Mohey, Rajesh; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ≥ 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  5. Long-term mortality in HIV-infected individuals 50 years or older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Rebecca; Ahlstrm, Magnus G; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S; Pedersen, Court; Pedersen, Gitte; Mohey, Rajesh; Gerstoft, Jan; Obel, Niels

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the prevalence of HIV-infection among individuals ? 50 years of age has increased, the impact of HIV-infection on risk of death in this population remains to be established. Our aim was to estimate long-term mortality among HIV-infected individuals who were 50 years or older,...

  6. Allergoreactivity as a Predictor of the Severity of HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmedjanova Z.I.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different types of allergic conditions develop in the half of patients infected withHIV due to the immune system dysfunction. Increased prevalence of allergic conditions in HIVinfected patients lead us to conduct the study of allegro reactivity by carrying out skin tests todifferent types of allergens including an allergen to Candida.Objective: To study the immediate type skin reaction in response to subcutaneous injection ofdifferent allergens including Candida allergen in patients infected with HIV at different stages ofthe disease.Method: One hundred HIV infected patients were investigated. The control group consisted of10 healthy individuals and 10 patients with different clinical forms of atopic allergy.Subcutaneous tests were done in the patients forearm.Results: Allergic skin test results to different allergens were characterized by wide variability atall clinical stages: from absence of immediate hypersensitivity reaction to a strong positivereaction. The patients at the 4th stage of the disease despite the high level of IgE had immediatehypersensitivity reaction of the less intense compared to HIV infected patients at the 2nd stage ofthe disease. Test results to Candida allergen showed a positive reaction in patients with a rapidprogression of HIV/AIDS before the development of the clinical picture of candidiasis.Conclusion: Development and extent of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction changes withthe progression of HIV/AIDS. Analysis of the immediate hypersensitivity reaction to Candidaallergen may be used as an indicator of development and progression of candidiasis in HIVinfection. The skin test results should be taken into consideration before initiating theantiretroviral therapy in order to avoid the development of allergic drug reactions to this class ofmedications. Results of allergotests may help in prediction of HIV progression.

  7. Oral fungal and bacterial infections in HIV-infected individuals: an overview in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, T A; Rachanis, C C

    2002-01-01

    Oral opportunistic infections developing secondary to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have been reported from the early days of the epidemic and have been classified by both the EC-Clearinghouse and the World Health Organisation (WHO). Among the fungal infections, oral candidiasis, presenting in African HIV-infected patients has been sporadically documented. We review the literature with respect to candidal carriage, oral candidiasis prevalence and the predictive value of oral candidiasis for a diagnosis of underlying HIV disease in African HIV-infected patients. The use of oral candidiasis as a marker of disease progression, the species of yeasts isolated from the oral cavity in Africa and the resistance of the yeasts to antifungal agents and treatment regimens are discussed. Orofacial lesions as manifestations of the systemic mycoses are rarely seen in isolation and few cases are reported in the literature from Africa. In spite of the high incidence of noma, tuberculosis, chronic osteomyelitis and syphilis in Africa, surprisingly there have been very few reported cases of the oral manifestations of these diseases in HIV-positive individuals. Orofacial disease in HIV-infected patients is associated with marked morbidity, which is compounded by malnutrition. The authors indicate specific research areas, initially directed at the most effective management strategies, which would complete data in this important area. PMID:12164666

  8. Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison with HIV-unrelated mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkhof, Martin; Boulle, Andrew; Weigel, Ralf; Messou, Eugène; Mathers, Colin; Orrell, Catherine; Dabis, François; Pascoe, Margaret; Egger, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has killed more than 25 million people since 1981 and more than 30 million people (22 million in sub-Saharan Africa alone) are now infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS. HIV destroys immune system cells (including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte), leaving infected individuals susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-positive people died within ten years of infec...

  9. Differentially-Expressed Pseudogenes in HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditi Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Not all pseudogenes are transcriptionally silent as previously thought. Pseudogene transcripts, although not translated, contribute to the non-coding RNA pool of the cell that regulates the expression of other genes. Pseudogene transcripts can also directly compete with the parent gene transcripts for mRNA stability and other cell factors, modulating their expression levels. Tissue-specific and cancer-specific differential expression of these functional pseudogenes has been reported. To ascertain potential pseudogene:gene interactions in HIV-1 infection, we analyzed transcriptomes from infected and uninfected T-cells and found that 21 pseudogenes are differentially expressed in HIV-1 infection. This is interesting because parent genes of one-third of these differentially-expressed pseudogenes are implicated in HIV-1 life cycle, and parent genes of half of these pseudogenes are involved in different viral infections. Our bioinformatics analysis identifies candidate pseudogene:gene interactions that may be of significance in HIV-1 infection. Experimental validation of these interactions would establish that retroviruses exploit this newly-discovered layer of host gene expression regulation for their own benefit.

  10. Dynamics of immunoglobulin sequence diversity in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Kenneth B; Gall, Astrid; Bashford-Rogers, Rachael; Fidler, S J; Kaye, S; Weber, J N; McClure, M O; Kellam, Paul; Pybus, Oliver G

    2015-09-01

    Advances in immunoglobulin (Ig) sequencing technology are leading to new perspectives on immune system dynamics. Much research in this nascent field has focused on resolving immune responses to viral infection. However, the dynamics of B-cell diversity in early HIV infection, and in response to anti-retroviral therapy, are still poorly understood. Here, we investigate these dynamics through bulk Ig sequencing of samples collected over 2 years from a group of eight HIV-1 infected patients, five of whom received anti-retroviral therapy during the first half of the study period. We applied previously published methods for visualizing and quantifying B-cell sequence diversity, including the Gini index, and compared their efficacy to alternative measures. While we found significantly greater clonal structure in HIV-infected patients versus healthy controls, within HIV patients, we observed no significant relationships between statistics of B-cell clonal expansion and clinical variables such as viral load and CD4(+) count. Although there are many potential explanations for this, we suggest that important factors include poor sampling resolution and complex B-cell dynamics that are difficult to summarize using simple summary statistics. Importantly, we find a significant association between observed Gini indices and sequencing read depth, and we conclude that more robust analytical methods and a closer integration of experimental and theoretical work is needed to further our understanding of B-cell repertoire diversity during viral infection. PMID:26194755

  11. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection in HIV co-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogel Martin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chronic HCV co-infection is present in up to one third of HIV-positive patients in Europe. In recent years, apart from the traditional transmission route of intravenous drug abuse, outbreaks of sexually transmitted acute HCV infections, mainly among HIV-positive men who have sex with men, have contributed to the overall disease burden. Because the natural course of HCV infection is substantially accelerated in HIV-co-infection, end-stage liver disease has become the most frequent cause of non-AIDS related death in this population. Therefore every HIV/HCV co-infected patient should be evaluated for possible anti-HCV therapy with the goal of reaching a sustained virological response and thus cure of hepatitis C infection. The standard of care for the treatment of chronic HCV infection in HIV-infected remains a pegylated interferon in combination with weight-adapted ribavirin. HAART should not be withheld from HCV co-infected patients due to concerns of drug related hepatotoxicity and in patients with reduced CD4-cell counts HAART should be started first. Under pegylated interferon and ribavirin combination therapy drug to drug interactions and cumulated toxicity between nucleoside analogues and anti-HCV therapy may be observed and concomitant didanosine use is contraindicated and zidovudine and stavudine should be avoided if possible. The development of new drugs for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C represents a promising perspective also for HIV positive patients. However, these substances will probably reach clinical routine for HIV patients later than HCV monoinfected patients. Therefore at present waiting for new drugs is not an alternative to a modern pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy.

  12. Flail arm-like syndrome associated with HIV-1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalini A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years at least 23 cases of motor neuron disease have been reported in HIV-1 seropositive patients. In this report we describe the clinical picture of a young man with HIV-1 clade C infection and flail arm-like syndrome, who we were able to follow-up for a long period. We investigated and prospectively monitored a 34-year-old man with features of flail arm syndrome, who developed the weakness and wasting 1 year after being diagnosed with HIV-1 infection after a routine blood test. He presented in 2003 with progressive, symmetrical wasting and weakness of the proximal muscles of the upper limb of 2 years′ duration. He had severe wasting and weakness of the shoulder and arm muscles. There were no pyramidal signs. He has been on HAART for the last 4 years and the weakness or wasting has not worsened. At the last follow-up in July 2007, the patient had the same neurological deficit and no other symptoms or signs of HIV-1 infection. MRI of the spinal cord in 2007 showed characteristic T2 hyperintense signals in the central part of the spinal cord, corresponding to the central gray matter. Thus, our patient had HIV-1 clade C infection associated with a ′flail arm-like syndrome.′ The causal relationship between HIV-1 infection and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-like syndrome is still uncertain. The syndrome usually manifests as a lower motor neuron syndrome, as was seen in our young patient. It is known that treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART stabilizes/improves the condition. In our patient the weakness and atrophy remained stable over a period of 3.5 years after commencing HAART regimen.

  13. Evaluating Safer Conception Options for HIV-Serodiscordant Couples (HIV-Infected Female/HIV-Uninfected Male): A Closer Look at Vaginal Insemination

    OpenAIRE

    Okeoma Mmeje; Craig R. Cohen; Deborah Cohan

    2012-01-01

    HIV serodiscordant couples represent at least half of all HIV-affected couples worldwide. Many of these couples have childbearing desires. Safer methods of conception may allow for pregnancy while minimizing the risk of sexual transmission of HIV. In serodiscordant partnerships with an HIV-infected female and HIV-uninfected male, vaginal insemination of a partner's semen during the fertile period coupled with 100% condom use may be the safest method of conception.

  14. Clinical Evaluation of Shilajatu Rasayana in patients with HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. D.; Sujatha, N.; Dhanik, Ajay; Rai, N. P.

    2010-01-01

    AIDS is one of the serious global health concerns caused by Human Immuno Deficiency(HIV) virus and is predominantly a sexually transmitted disease. Currently there is no vaccine or cure for AIDS still Anti Retroviral Therapy (ART) is successful. It reduces both the mortality and the morbidity of HIV infection, but is expensive and inaccessible in many countries. However intense the therapy may be, HIV virus is rarely eliminated, and drug resistance is a major setback during long-term therapy. The development of new drugs and strategies and exploring alternative systems of medicine for antiviral herbs or drugs is the need of the age to improve treatment outcomes. Ayurveda describes many diseases which incorporate HIV like illness e.g. Rajayakshma, Ojo Kshaya, Sannipata jwara etc. HIV infection affects multisystems, chiefly the Immune System which can be correlated to Ojo Kshaya. Rasayana Chikitsa is the frontline therapy employed to treat Ojus disorders. Therefore Shilajatu (Mineral pitch), Centella asiatica (Mandukaparni), Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi) and Emblica officinalis (Amalaki), well known for their Immuno-modulator and antioxidant properties were selected to evaluate their role on immune system. The study was carried on 20 patients from OPD and IPD of Kayachikitsa, S.S.Hospital, IMS, BHU and was randomly allocated into Treated group (Shilajatu+ART) and Control group (ART). Treated Group responded better to ART both clinically and biochemically. The results show that Shilajatu decreases the recurrent resistance of HIV virus to ART and improves the outcome of the therapy PMID:22131681

  15. Risk Factors for the Spread of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in Lima, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, JL; Konda, KA; Segura, ER; Salvatierra, HJ; Leon, SR; Hall, ER; Caceres, CF; Klausner, JD; Coates, TJ

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), frequency of sexual risk behaviors, and relationship between knowledge of HIV infection status and sexual risk behavior among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) attending an STI clinic in Peru. Methods We recruited a convenience sample of 559 MSM from a municipal STI clinic in Lima, Peru. Participants completed a survey and provided blood for HIV, Syphilis, and HSV-2 antibody testing, and urine for gonorrhea and chlamydia nucleic acid testing. Results Among 124 HIV-infected MSM, 72.6% were aware of their HIV-infected status. Active syphilis (RPR≥1:8) was diagnosed in 21.0% of HIV-infected participants, HSV-2 in 79.8%, urethral gonorrhea in 1.6%, and chlamydia in 1.6%. Among 41 participants reporting insertive anal intercourse with their last sex partner, 34.2% did not use a condom. Of 86 participants reporting receptive anal intercourse, 25.6% did not use a condom. At least one episode of insertive unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with an HIV-uninfected partner during the previous six months was reported by 33.6% (35/104) of participants, and receptive UAI with an HIV-uninfected partner by 44.6% (45/101). No difference in frequency of UAI, with HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected partners, was observed between men who knew their serostatus compared with those who were previously undiagnosed (all p-values >0.05). Conclusions HIV-infected MSM in Peru engaged in high-risk behaviors for spreading HIV and STIs. Knowledge of HIV-infected status was not associated with a decreased frequency of unprotected anal intercourse. Additional efforts to reduce risk behavior after the diagnosis of HIV infection are necessary. PMID:19028945

  16. Tuberculous abdominal abscess in an HIV-infected man: Neither infection previously diagnosed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Yao Kao

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man had a 1-week history of right lower quadrant abdominal pain; the initial impression was that he had diverticulitis of the ascending colon with an intra-abdominal abscess. Signs of peritonitis mandated an immediate right hemicolectomy. The unusual location of the abscess and the patient’s unusual postoperative course suggested that he might also have a systemic disease. Testing for HIV infection was positive. After 2 weeks in hospital, he was treated as an outpatient for both tuberculosis and HIV with a favourable outcome. In Taiwan a pre-operative HIV test is not performed routinely, and the HIV seroprevalence in surgical patient populations is unknown. Surgeons should keep the possibility of HIV infection in mind in a patient with an unusual clinical course.

  17. HIV-1 infection of in vitro cultured human monocytes: early events and influence of anti HIV-1 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Olofsson, S; Nielsen, Jens Ole; Hansen, J E

    To characterize the role of the humoral immune response on HIV-1 infection of monocytes and macrophages (M phi s) we examined the susceptibility of in vitro cultured monocyte/M phi s to various HIV-1 isolates and the influence of heterologous and particularly autologous anti HIV-1 sera on this...... infection. Depending on the period of in vitro cultivation and the virus isolate used different patterns of susceptibility were detected. One week old monocyte/M phi s were highly susceptible to HIV-1 infection, in contrast to monocyte/M phi s cultured 4 weeks. The infection by virus isolated immediately...

  18. Antiretroviral Treatment and Resistance Patterns in HIV-Infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Atibioke, Oluyemi; Balogun, Tolulope; Oluwasanu, Mojisola

    2015-10-01

    Paediatric HIV-infected patients have higher risk of developing resistance to antiretroviral drugs, and from public health perspective, drug resistance remains a limiting factor for effective management of HIV infection in children. We reviewed the current evidences available on the antiretroviral treatment and resistance patterns in HIV-infected children. Prevalence of HIV drug resistance varied among the three main classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors in both treatment nave and treatment-experienced children in different countries. Most of the patients with extensive triple-class drug-resistant mutations were found to be considerably exposed to the three main classes of antiretroviral agents. Identification of genetic factors linked with susceptibility to perinatal transmission of HIV may be key in understanding the development of resistance due to waning antiviral effectiveness. Children who were less likely to achieve viral re-suppression were more likely to have resistance mutations. Newer drugs such as etravirine can be used as alternatives in case of resistance to efavirenz while newly developed diagnostic method such as next-generation sequencing is a platform for improving quality of detections especially minor variant drug resistance mutations. PMID:26319052

  19. Smart nanoparticles as targeting platforms for HIV infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rishi Rajat; More, Prachi; Banerjee, Rinti

    2015-04-01

    While Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are reducing in incidence with the advent of Highly Active Anti-retroviral Therapy (HAART), there remain a number of challenges including the existence of reservoirs, drug resistance and anatomical barriers to antiretroviral therapy. To overcome these, smart nanoparticles with stimuli responsive release are proposed for delivery of anti-retroviral agents. The paper highlights the strategic similarities between the design of smart antiretroviral nanocarriers and those optimized for cancer chemotherapy. This includes the development of nanoparticles capable of passive and active targeting as well as those that are responsive to various internal and external triggers. For antiretroviral therapy, the relevant triggers for stimuli responsive release of drugs include semen, enzymes, endosomal escape, temperature and magnetic field. Deriving from the experience of cancer chemotherapy, additional potential triggers are light and ultrasound which remain hitherto unexplored in HIV therapy. In addition, the roles of nanomicrobicides (nanogels) and virus mimetic nanoparticles are discussed from the point of view of prevention of HIV transmission. The challenges associated with translation of smart nanoparticles for HIV infections to realize the Millennium Development Goal of combating HIV infections are discussed.

  20. Coping With Stress Strategies in HIV-infected Iranian Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Dehdari, Tahereh; Shojaeezadeh, Davoud; Abbasian, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Stress has significant adverse impacts on health outcomes of HIV-infected patients. Our study explored coping with stress strategies by HIV-infected Iranian patients. A qualitative content analysis study was conducted at the Consultation Clinic of HIV at the Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2012. Twenty-six semi-structured in-depth interviews were done. Participants were asked about coping strategies for stress. After the first interview, continuous analysis of data was started and continued up to data saturation. Results showed that participants used two categories of strategies (emotion-based coping and problem-based coping) to cope with stress. Emotion-based coping had two sub-themes: adaptive and maladaptive. The problem-based coping category had three sub-themes: participation in education sessions, adherence to medication, and efforts to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Explanations of different strategies available to HIV-infected patients to cope with stress may help develop tailored interventions to improve the psychological conditions of people living with HIV. PMID:25769759

  1. Role of darunavir in the management of HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Monica Lascar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available R Monica Lascar, Paul BennThe Mortimer Market Centre, Camden PCT, London WC1E 6JBAbstract: There is an ongoing need for potent antiretroviral therapies to deal with the increasing pool of treatment-experienced patients with multiple drug resistance. The last few years have seen the arrival of 2 new and very potent protease inhibitors – darunavir and tipranavir – alongside 2 whole new classes of anti-HIV agents – the integrase inhibitors and chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonists. This review focuses on the role of darunavir in managing HIV infection, with an emphasis on darunavir’s exceptional resistance profile and related clinical effectiveness, pharmacokinetics, tolerability and toxicity data. Darunavir in combination with the pharmacokinetic booster ritonavir has proved to be very effective in the treatment of highly treatmentexperienced HIV patients with multiple drug resistance. The favorable tolerability and toxicity profile alongside the drug’s high genetic barrier to the development of resistance prompted approval of darunavir for HIV-treatment naïve patients. Furthermore, the paradigm of treating HIV with a combination of anti-HIV agents is currently being challenged by ongoing darunavir monotherapy trials and these preliminary data will be discussed.Keywords: HIV, antiretroviral therapy, darunavir

  2. Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred; Emery, Sean; Grund, Birgit; Sharma, Shweta; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Cooper, David A; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Llibre, Josep M; Molina, Jean-Michel; Munderi, Paula; Schechter, Mauro; Wood, Robin; Klingman, Karin L; Collins, Simon; Lane, H Clifford; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D; Pedersen, Court

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. METHODS: We randomly assigned HIV...... entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients......%) occurred in patients with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter. The risks of a grade 4 event were similar in the two groups, as were the risks of unscheduled hospital admissions. CONCLUSIONS: The initiation of antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive adults with a CD4+ count of more than...

  3. Disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in a returning HIV-infected traveller

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N P, Govender; R E, Magobo; T G, Zulu; M, du Plooy; C, Corcoran.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of disseminated fatal Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei infection in an HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment-experienced South African woman who had travelled to mainland China. The 37-year-old woman was admitted to a private hospital in fulminant septic shock and died within 12 [...] h of admission. Intracellular yeast-like bodies were observed on the peripheral blood smear. A serum cryptococcal antigen test was negative. Blood cultures flagged positive after 2 days; on direct microscopy, yeast-like bodies were observed and a thermally dimorphic fungus, confirmed as T. marneffei, was cultured after 5 days. The clinical features of HIV-associated disseminated penicilliosis overlap with those of tuberculosis and endemic deep fungal infections. In the southern African context, where systemic opportunistic fungal infections such as cryptococcosis are more common among HIV-infected patients with a CD4+ count of

  4. Evolving character of chronic central nervous system HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Richard W; Spudich, Serena S; Peterson, Julia; Joseph, Sarah; Fuchs, Dietmar; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2014-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the central nervous system (CNS) begins early in systemic infection and continues throughout its untreated course. Despite a common cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory response, it is usually neurologically asymptomatic for much of this course, but can evolve in some individuals to HIV-associated dementia (HAD), a severe encephalopathy with characteristic cognitive and motor dysfunction. While widespread use of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a marked decline in both the CNS infection and its neurologic severe consequence, HAD continues to afflict individuals presenting with advanced systemic infection in the developed world and a larger number in resource-poor settings where ART is more restricted. Additionally, milder CNS injury and dysfunction have broader prevalence, including in those treated with ART. Here we review the history and evolving nomenclature of HAD, its viral pathogenesis, clinical presentation and diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:24715483

  5. On the Dynamics of the Evolution of the HIV Infection

    CERN Document Server

    Zorenos dos Santos, R M; Zorzenon dos Santos, Rita M; Coutinho, Sergio

    2000-01-01

    We use a cellular automata model to study the evolution of HIV infection and the onset of AIDS. The model takes into account the global features of the immune response to any pathogen, the fast mutation rate of the HIV and a fair amount of spatial localization. Our results reproduce quite well the three-phase pattern observed in T cell and virus counts of infected patients, namely, the primary response, the clinical latency period and the onset of AIDS. We have also found that the infected cells may organize themselves into special spatial structures since the primary infection, leading to a decrease on the concentration of uninfected cells. Our results suggest that these cell aggregations, which can be associated to syncytia, leads to AIDS.

  6. Ankle-brachial index in HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martos Francisco

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prognosis for patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV has improved with the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. Evidence over recent years suggests that the incidence of cardiovascular disease is increasing in HIV patients. The ankle-brachial index (ABI is a cheap and easy test that has been validated in the general population. Abnormal ABI values are associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. To date, six series of ABI values in persons with HIV have been published, but none was a prospective study. No agreement exists concerning the risk factors for an abnormal ABI, though its prevalence is clearly higher in these patients than in the general population. Whether this higher prevalence of an abnormal ABI is associated with a higher incidence of vascular events remains to be determined.

  7. HPV in HIV-Infected Women: Implications for Primary Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NathalieDauphinMckenzie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is growing evidence that HIV-infected women might have a different HPV type distribution in cervical dysplasia specimens as compared to the general population. This has implications for primary prevention.Objective: We aimed to obtain preliminary data on the human papillomavirus (HPV genotypes prevalent in histological samples of HIV-infected women with CIN 3/ CIS of the cervix in Miami, Florida. Method: Retrospective data were collected on HIV-infected women referred to the UM-JMH colposcopy clinic between years 2000 and 2008. The histology slides of CIN3/CIS biopsies underwent pathological review and sections were cut from these archived specimens for HPV DNA extraction. HPV genotyping was then performed using the GeneSquare™ HPV genotyping assay. We report on our first set of 23 samples.Results: Eight high risk HPV (HR-HPV types were detected. Types in decreasing order of frequency were 16, 35, 45, 52, 59, 31, 58, and 56. Most cases had multiple infections. HPV type 16 was the most common (45% followed by HPV-35 and -45 with equal frequency (40%. No samples contained HPV-18Conclusion: Our preliminary data suggest that cervical dysplasia specimens of HIV-infected women more likely (55% contain non -16 and -18 high risk HPV types. We show that this held true for histologically confirmed carcinoma in situ. Epidemiological studies guide vaccine development, therefore HPV type prevalence in CIS and invasive cervical cancer among HIV-infected women should be more rigorously explored to ensure that this highly vulnerable population receives appropriate primary prevention.

  8. Frequency and subtype of BK virus infection in Iranian patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgari, Shahla; Mohraz, Minoo; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Kazemimanesh, Monireh; Aghakhani, Arezoo; Jozpanahi, Manizheh; Banifazl, Mohammad; Bavand, Anahita; Ramezani, Amitis

    2016-02-01

    Human polyomavirus BK virus (BKV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that infects approximately 90% of the general population as a subclinical or mild infection. In immunosuppressed patients, such as HIV cases, BKV may be reactivated resulting hemorrhagic cystitis and tubulointerstitial nephritis. However, there are limited studies on prevalence and molecular epidemiology of BKV in Iran. We therefore aimed to evaluate the prevalence and subtypes of BKV in Iranian HIV patients. A total of 99 patients with HIV infection were enrolled in the study. Presence of BKV DNA in plasma was evaluated by nested PCR. PCR products were sequenced directly, and phylogenetic analysis was performed. BKV DNA was detected in 8.08% of HIV patients. BKV viremia presented in 4 out of 25 patients (16%) not receiving antiretroviral therapy in comparison with 4 out 74 of HAART-treated patients (5.4%) (P=0.023). In patients with CD4 counts ?200cells/mm(3), viremia was found more commonly (7/80=8.8%) than in those with lower counts (1/19=5.2%) (not significant). All sequenced BKV isolates belonged to subtype Ib-2. Our findings indicated that the prevalence of BKV viremia is relatively prevalent in patients with HIV infection and significantly higher in nave than HAART-treated cases. Therefore, HAART can eliminate BKV infection from plasma and reduce viremia although the actual implication of BKV viremia in HIV patients is not clear. PMID:26141042

  9. Cytokine therapies in HIV-1 infection: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett, Sarah L; Kelleher, Anthony D

    2003-06-01

    Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-related deaths have declined dramatically in the developed world. However, HAART is neither able to eradicate the virus nor are its immunomodulatory effects sufficient to effect complete control of the virus. In addition, the long-term use of HAART is complicated by drug-related toxicities and compliance issues, both of which impact upon the development of viral resistance. The failure of structured treatment interruption strategies in those with chronic HIV-infection combined with the above limitations, has prompted renewed interest in immunotherapy. Cytokines and therapeutic vaccination have been proposed as HAART-adjunctive and HAART-sparing treatments in HIV-infection, and the current and future role of cytokine therapy in this disease will be the subject of this review. PMID:15482104

  10. Recurrent pneumococcal meningitis in a splenectomised HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesne Gilles

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of human disease, especially in pre-school children and elderly people, as well as in special risk groups such as asplenic, antibody deficient patients, or presenting disruption of natural barriers. The occurrence of pneumococcal disease has increased with the onset of the HIV epidemic and the emergence of drug-resistance. Case presentation We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient who experienced three episodes of recurrent pneumococcal meningitis over a 4-year period, despite chemoprophylaxis and capsular vaccination. Conclusions Efficacy of anti-pneumococcal chemoprophylaxis and vaccination in HIV-infected patients are discussed in the light of this particular case.

  11. The epidemiology of HIV seropositive malaria infected pregnant women in Akure Metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Ajibade Kwashie Ako-Nai; Blessing I. Ebhodaghe; Patrick O Osho; Ebun A Adejuyigbe; Folasade M. Adeyemi; Adeniran A. Ikuomola; Olakunle O. Kassim

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV increases the risks of malaria in pregnant women, while maternal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral load also facilitates perinatal transmission to neonates. Malaria and HIV coinfection has been shown to exacerbate adverse pregnancy complications. Our study was designed to determine the HIV prevalence of pregnant women at an antenatal clinic in Akure in southwestern Nigeria, investigate the relationship between dual HIV and malaria infection and HIV viral load and CD4+ T...

  12. Gene therapy of HIV-1 infection using lentiviral vectors expressing anti-HIV-1 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautino, Mario R; Morgan, Richard A

    2002-01-01

    The use of vectors based on primate lentiviruses for gene therapy of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has many potential advantages over the previous murine retroviral vectors used for delivery of genes that inhibit replication of HIV-1. First, lentiviral vectors have the ability to transduce dividing and nondividing cells that constitute the targets of HIV-1 infection such as resting T cells, dendritic cells, and macrophages. Lentiviral vectors can also transfer genes to hematopoietic stem cells with a superior gene transfer efficiency and without affecting the repopulating capacity of these cells. Second, these vectors could be potentially mobilized in vivo by the wild-type virus to secondary target cells, thus expanding the protection to previously untransduced cells. And finally, lentiviral vector backbones have the ability to block HIV-1 replication by several mechanisms that include sequestration of the regulatory proteins Tat and Rev, competition for packaging into virions, and by inhibition of reverse transcription in heterodimeric virions with possible generation of nonfunctional recombinants between the vector and viral genomes. The inhibitory ability of lentiviral vectors can be further increased by expression of anti-HIV-1 genes. In this case, the lentiviral vector packaging system has to be modified to become resistant to the anti-HIV-1 genes expressed by the vector in order to avoid self-inhibition of the vector packaging system during vector production. This review focuses on the use of lentiviral vectors as the main agents to mediate inhibition of HIV-1 replication and discusses the different genetic intervention strategies for gene therapy of HIV-1 infection. PMID:11839215

  13. Lues maligna in an HIV-infected patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passoni Luiz Fernando Cabral

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We report such a case of malignant syphilis in a 42-year-old HIV-infected man, co-infected with hepatitis B virus, who presented neurolues and the classical skin lesions of lues maligna. The serum VDRL titer, which was 1:64 at presentation, increased to 1:2,048 three months after successful therapy with penicillin, decreasing 15 months later to 1:8.

  14. Bronchoalveolar lavage in HIV infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    OpenAIRE

    de Blic, J; Blanche, S.; Danel, C; Le Bourgeois, M.; Caniglia, M; Scheinmann, P.

    1989-01-01

    The value of taking microbiological and cytological specimens by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage under local anaesthesia was assessed on 43 occasions in 35 HIV infected children, aged 3 months to 16 years, with interstitial pneumonitis. In acute interstitial pneumonitis (n = 22, 26 specimens from bronchoalveolar lavages) the microbiological yield was 73%, Pneumocystis carinii being the commonest infective agent (n = 14). P carinii pneumonia was found only in children with def...

  15. Emerging Patterns of HIV Infection and Control in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel M. Dayrit; Monzon, Ofelia T.; Basaca-Sevilla, Virginia; Hayes, Curtis G.

    1987-01-01

    A total of 50 carriers of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), 46 of them female prostitutes, have been detected through seroprevalence surveys by the Department of Health, Manila. Infection rates are highest in two small cities near foreign military bases and in the tourist district of MetroManila. Nine patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who contracted the disease outside the country have been reported, with opportunistic infections being the major clinical featur...

  16. Isoniazid preventive therapy for the prevention of tuberculosis in HIV infected people in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is the most common cause of bacterial infection in humans and is globally a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for TB and over 4 million people are co-infected with both organisms, the majority of whom reside in Africa. Such co-infection worsens the prognosis of HIV infection by increasing HIV replication and may result in rapid progr...

  17. HIV Infection and the Retroviral Restriction Factor APOBEC3G Influence Multilineage Hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Nixon, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Multilineage hematopoiesis suffers in the presence of HIV infection. While the hallmark of HIV infection is the massive loss of CD4+ T-cells, a number of studies have shown that the development of all blood phenotypes is disturbed through the course of infection. However, antiretroviral drugs, opportunistic infections, and the drugs used to treat them all impair hematopoiesis and confound the study of the mechanism of hematopoietic impairment in HIV-infected patient samples. These factors ...

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Serena P; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Warren D. Johnson; Pape, Jean W; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background AIDS has killed more than 25 million people since 1981, and about 33 million people (most of them living in low- and middle-income countries) are now infected with HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. HIV destroys immune system cells (including CD4 cells, a type of lymphocyte), leaving infected individuals susceptible to other infections. Early in the AIDS epidemic, most HIV-infected people died within 10 years of infection. Then, in 1996, highly active antiretroviral ...

  19. Psychosocial issues of children infected with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M N Vranda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The chronic medical conditions in the paediatric population pose a range of potential psychosocial challenges not only to the child, but also to the family members and health care providers. This paper comprehensively reviews the psychosocial issues of children infected with HIV and AIDS and offer some of the strategies to address the issues comprehensively by multidisciplinary team.

  20. HLA-DP antigens in HIV-infected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Niels; Georgsen, J; Fugger, L; Møller, J; Jakobsen, B K; Hofmann, B; Skinhøj, P; Klokker, M; Dickmeiss, E; Svejgaard, A

    1991-01-01

    We studied the distribution of HLA-DP antigens in 74 HIV-infected Danish homosexual men and 188 ethnically matched healthy individuals, using the primed lymphocyte typing (PLT) technique. Forty of the patients developed AIDS within 3 years after diagnosis, whereas the remaining 34 were healthy or...

  1. Hyperproinsulinaemia in normoglycaemic lipodystrophic HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hales, CN; Halsall, I; Rosenfalck, AM; Iversen, Johan; Madsbad, Sten

    2006-01-01

    ). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-three normoglycaemic HIV-infected patients [18 LIPO and 18 without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) receiving antiretroviral drugs, and seven patients naïve to antiretroviral drugs (NAIVE)] were examined. Insulin precursors were measured during fasting, during an intravenous glucose...

  2. HIV and parasitic co-infections in tuberculosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Range, N.; Magnussen, Pascal; Mugomela, A.; Malenganisho, W.; Changalucha, J.; Temu, M.M.; Mngara, J.; Krarup, H.; Friis, Henrik; Andersen, Å.B.

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mwanza, Tanzania, to determine the burden of HIV and parasitic co-infections among patients who were confirmed or suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Of the 655 patients investigated, 532 (81.2%) had been confirmed as PTB cases, by microscopy...

  3. Dialysis and renal transplantation in HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trullas, Joan Carles; Mocroft, Amanda; Cofan, Federico; Tourret, Jrome; Moreno, Asuncin; Bagnis, Corinne Isnard; Fux, Christoph Andreas; Katlama, Christine; Reiss, Peter; Lundgren, Jens; Gatell, Jose Maria; Kirk, Ole; Mir, Jose M

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine prevalence and characteristics of end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) [dialysis and renal transplantation (RT)] among European HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional multicenter survey of EuroSIDA clinics during 2008. RESULTS: Prevalence of ESRD was 0.5%. Of 122 pati...

  4. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, P. [Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Miranda-Filho, D.B. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Bandeira, F. [Serviço de Endocrinologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lacerda, H.R. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Chaves, H. [Departamento de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Albuquerque, M.F.P.M. [Centro de Pesquisa Aggeu Magalhães,FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE (Brazil); Montarroyos, U.R. [Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Ximenes, R.A.A. [Departamento de Medicina Clínica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Tropical, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2012-07-13

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count <200 cells/mm{sup 3} had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4{sup +} T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  5. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Monteiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261 and a comparison group (N = 82 of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France. The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm³ had a higher PWV (P = 0.01. There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV.

  6. Is arterial stiffness in HIV-infected individuals associated with HIV-related factors?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the association between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment-related characteristics, viral load, immune status, and metabolic changes in a cross-sectional study nested in a cohort of HIV/AIDS patients who have been followed for metabolic and cardiovascular changes since 2007. The study included patients recruited from the cohort (N = 261) and a comparison group (N = 82) of uninfected individuals, all enrolled from April to November 2009. Aortic stiffness was estimated using the carotid-femoral PWV (Complior-Artech, Paris, France). The groups were similar with respect to age, metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, Framingham score, and use of antihypertensive and hypolipidemic medications. Hypertension was more frequent among the controls. Individuals with HIV had higher triglyceride, glucose and HDL cholesterol levels. Among individuals with HIV/AIDS, those with a nadir CD4+ T-cell count <200 cells/mm3 had a higher PWV (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference when subjects were stratified by gender. Heart rate, age, male gender, and blood pressure were independently correlated with PWV. Nadir CD4+ T-cell count did not remain in the final model. There was no significance difference in PWV between HIV-infected individuals and uninfected controls. PWV was correlated with age, gender, and blood pressure across the entire population and among those infected with HIV. We recommend cohort studies to further explore the association between inflammation related to HIV infection and/or immune reconstitution and antiretroviral use and PWV

  7. How do national strategic plans for HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa address gender-based violence? A women's rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Mushinga, Mildred; Crone, E Tyler; Willan, Samantha; Mannell, Jenevieve

    2012-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant human rights violation and a key driver of the HIV epidemic in southern and eastern Africa. We frame GBV from a broad human rights approach that includes intimate partner violence and structural violence. We use this broader definition to review how National Strategic Plans for HIV and AIDS (NSPs) in southern and eastern Africa address GBV. NSPs for HIV and AIDS provide the national-level framework that shapes government, business, donor, and non-governmental responses to HIV within a country. Our review of these plans for HIV and AIDS suggests that attention to GBV is poorly integrated; few recognize GBV and program around GBV. The programming, policies, and interventions that do exist privilege responses that support survivors of violence, rather than seeking to prevent it. Furthermore, the subject who is targeted is narrowly constructed as a heterosexual woman in a monogamous relationship. There is little consideration of GBV targeting women who have non-conforming sexual or gender identities, or of the need to tackle structural violence in the response to HIV and AIDS. We suggest that NSPs are not sufficiently addressing the human rights challenge of tackling GBV in the response to HIV and AIDS in southern and eastern Africa. It is critical that they do so. PMID:23568943

  8. Cell-associated HIV DNA measured early during infection has prognostic value independent of serum HIV RNA measured concomitantly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, Terese L; Oliveri, Roberto S; Benfield, Thomas; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Nielsen, Claus; Gerstoft, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Using data from the Danish AIDS Cohort of HIV-infected homosexual men established in the 1980s, the prognostic value of early HIV DNA loads was evaluated. In addition to DNA measurements, concomitant serum HIV RNA levels, CD4 cell counts and CCR5 genotypes were determined. The patients were divided...

  9. Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection Increases Apoptosis and HIV-1 Replication in HIV-1 Infected Jurkat Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Tan, Jiying; Biswas, Santanu; Zhao, Jiangqin; Devadas, Krishnakumar; Ye, Zhiping; Hewlett, Indira

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus infection has a significant impact on public health, since it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. It is not well-known whether influenza virus infection affects cell death and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 replication in HIV-1-infected patients. Using a lymphoma cell line, Jurkat, we examined the in vitro effects of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus (pH1N1) infection on cell death and HIV-1 RNA production in infected cells. We found that pH1N1 infection increased apoptotic cell death through Fas and Bax-mediated pathways in HIV-1-infected Jurkat cells. Infection with pH1N1 virus could promote HIV-1 RNA production by activating host transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B), nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) through mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathways and T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-related pathways. The replication of HIV-1 latent infection could be reactivated by pH1N1 infection through TCR and apoptotic pathways. These data indicate that HIV-1 replication can be activated by pH1N1 virus in HIV-1-infected cells resulting in induction of cell death through apoptotic pathways. PMID:26848681

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Patients: The Role of Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Korthuis, P. Todd; ZEPHYRIN, Laurie C.; John A. Fleishman; Saha, Somnath; Josephs, Joshua S.; McGrath, Moriah M.; HELLINGER, James; GEBO, KELLY A.

    2008-01-01

    HIV infection and substance use disorders are chronic diseases with complex contributions to health-related quality of life (HRQOL). We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 951 HIV-infected adults receiving care at 14 HIV Research Network sites in 2003 to estimate associations between HRQOL and specific substance use among HIV-infected patients. HRQOL was assessed by multi-item measures of physical and role functioning, general health, pain, energy, positive affect, anxiety, and depression. ...

  11. Successful treatment of psoriasis-like lesions in HIV infected patients in Uganda with chloroquine

    OpenAIRE

    Shihab, H.M.; Feld, J J; Lutwama, F.; Piloya, T.; Colebunders, R

    2009-01-01

    The effect of chloroquine in the treatment of psoriasis remains controversial. Treatment of psoriasis in HIV infection is not well described. Chloroquine has been shown to have direct effects on both the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and on the psoriasis disease process. The effect of chloroquine in HIV infected patients with psoriasis has not been well studied. We report on the effect of chloroquine on psoriasis-like lesions in three HIV infected patients who were not on antiretrovi...

  12. Anemia and growth failure among HIV-infected children in India: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Shet Anita; Mehta Saurabh; Rajagopalan Nirmala; Dinakar Chitra; Ramesh Elango; Samuel NM; Indumathi CK; Fawzi Wafaie W; Kurpad Anura V

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia and poor nutrition have been previously described as independent risk factors for death among HIV-infected children. We sought to describe nutritional status, anemia burden and HIV disease correlates among infected children in India. Methods We analyzed retrospective data from 248 HIV-infected children aged 1–12 years attending three outpatient clinics in South India (2004–2006). Standard WHO definitions were used for anemia, HIV staging and growth parameters. Stati...

  13. Macronutrient intake and malabsorption in HIV infection: a comparison with other malabsorptive states

    OpenAIRE

    CARBONNEL, F; Beaugerie, L.; Rached, A; d'Almagne, H; Rozenbaum, W.; Le Quintrec, Y; Gendre, J; Cosnes, J

    1997-01-01

    Background—Wasting is a major complication of HIV infection. The role of malabsorption in wasting is controversial. 
Aims—To assess oral intake and malabsorption in a cohort of weight losing HIV infected patients, with or without chronic diarrhoea. 
Methods—A prospective study using a predefined protocol for HIV infected patients was performed in a gastroenterology and nutrition unit in a university hospital. A retrospective comparison was made with HIV negative patients with mala...

  14. Neurologic Abnormalities in HIV-1 Infected Children in the Era of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    van Arnhem, Lotus A.; Bunders, Madeleine J.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Majoie, Charles B. L. M.; Reneman, Liesbeth; Frinking, Olivier; Poll-The, Bwee Tien; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2013-01-01

    Background Pediatric HIV-1 infection is associated with neurologic abnormalities. In recent years, the neurological outcome of HIV-1 infected children has substantially improved with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, data regarding the long-term effect of cART and neurologic outcome are limited. Methods In the Pediatric Amsterdam Cohort on HIV-1 study, 59 perinatally HIV-1 infected children were evaluated from 1992–2010. All children underwent neurological examination and ne...

  15. Association of Human Papillomavirus Infection and Abnormal Anal Cytology among HIV-Infected MSM in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yu; Li, Xiangwei; Zhang, Zhihui; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Zhou, Feng; Gao, Cong; Li, Mufei; Jin, Qi; Gao, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Background In the recent years, dramatic increases in HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) have been observed in China. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection related anal cancer is more common among HIV-infected MSM as compared to the general population. However, HPV infection and anal cytology has been rarely studied in HIV-infected MSM in China. Methods HIV-infected MSM in Beijing, China were invited to participate in this study between January and April 2011. Anal swabs we...

  16. Polyomavirus JCV excretion and genotype analysis in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lednicky, John A.; Vilchez, Regis A.; Keitel, Wendy A.; Visnegarwala, Fehmida; White, Zoe S.; Kozinetz, Claudia A.; Lewis, Dorothy E.; Butel, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of shedding of polyomavirus JC virus (JCV) genotypes in urine of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: Single samples of urine and blood were collected prospectively from 70 adult HIV-infected patients and 68 uninfected volunteers. Inclusion criteria for HIV-infected patients included an HIV RNA viral load urine was more common in HIV-positive patients but not significantly different from that of the HIV-negative group [22/70 (31%) versus 13/68 (19%); P = 0.09]. HIV-positive patients lost the age-related pattern of JCV shedding (P = 0.13) displayed by uninfected subjects (P = 0.01). Among HIV-infected patients significant differences in JCV shedding were related to CD4 cell counts (P = 0.03). Sequence analysis of the JCV regulatory region from both HIV-infected patients and uninfected volunteers revealed all to be JCV archetypal strains. JCV genotypes 1 (36%) and 4 (36%) were the most common among HIV-infected patients, whereas type 2 (77%) was the most frequently detected among HIV-uninfected volunteers. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that JCV shedding is enhanced by modest depressions in immune function during HIV infection. JCV shedding occurred in younger HIV-positive persons than in the healthy controls. As the common types of JCV excreted varied among ethnic groups, JCV genotypes associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy may reflect demographics of those infected patient populations.

  17. Sero-prevalence of latent Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A comparative cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegbaru Belete

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis in immuno-compromised hosts manifests primarily as a life threatening condition, toxoplasmic encephalitis. However, there is scarce information about the magnitude of Toxoplasma gondii infection among HIV-infected people in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the sero-prevalence of T. gondii infection among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected subjects. Findings Sera were collected from people with and without HIV infection for the purpose of studying hepatitis B virus (HBV at St. Paul Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from 24 January 2007 to 15 February 2007. Among these sera, the first 330 consecutive sera, 165 from each HIV sero-group, were selected and tested for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma infection was assessed against socio-demographic characteristics, HIV and HBV serostatus and HBV-related risk factors. The overall sero-prevalence of latent T. gondii infection among the study subjects was 90.0%. Toxoplasma infection was observed with respective prevalence of 93.3% and 86.7% among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected people. Though Toxoplasma infection seems to be influenced by age, gender and HIV serostatus, only HBV serostatus was significantly associated (OR 2.71, CI 1.12 to 6.57 in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Conclusion The seroprevalence of latent T. gondii infection is high and similar by HIV status. Educating people to prevent acquisition of new Toxoplasma infection and minimizing the risk of disease manifestations among HIV-Toxoplasma co-infected individuals is important.

  18. 'I think my future will be better than my past': examining support group influence on the mental health of HIV-infected Rwandan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstrom, Paige; Operario, Don; Zlotnick, Caron; Mutimura, Eugene; Benekigeri, Chantal; Cohen, Mardge H

    2013-01-01

    Urgent need exists for improved psychological services among HIV-infected women in post-genocide Rwanda. Psychological problems associated with trauma and sexual violence (i.e., depression, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) place women at increased risk for sexual risk behaviour, low health-seeking behaviour, delay of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and reduced ART adherence. We explored experiences of HIV-infected Rwandan women attending psychosocial support groups and their narratives about how participation affected their mental health and HIV treatment. Focus group discussions examined participants' reasons for support group attendance, perceived psychological benefit of support groups, influence on ART adherence, and other influences on health behaviors and attitudes. Rwandan women (aged 18-65) were randomly selected from 10 health clinic-facilitated support groups for HIV-infected trauma survivors in Kigali. Results identified positive psychological and physical changes as well as behaviour changes in relationships with men, which participants attributed to support group attendance. Data showed significant improvement in mental health, ART adherence and HIV serostatus disclosure resulting from group attendance. Participants acknowledged limitations of support groups with respect to addressing poverty and hunger. Implementing psychosocial support groups may leverage clinical outcomes and rejuvenate the well-being of HIV-infected women with interpersonal trauma and/or PTSD and depressive symptoms, particularly those from post-conflict countries. PMID:22812728

  19. Exposure to violence and psychological well-being over time in children affected by HIV/AIDS in South Africa and Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, S.; Macedo, A.; Tomlinson, M.; Hensels, I. S.; Sherr, L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many of the risk factors for violence against children are particularly prevalent in families and communities affected by HIV/AIDS. Yet, in sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV rates are high, efforts to prevent or address violence against children and its long-lasting effects are hampered by a lack of evidence. We assessed the relationship between violence exposure and mental health among HIV-affected children attending community-based organisations in South Africa (n = 834) and Malawi (n = 155, total sample n = 989) at baseline and 12–15-month follow-up. Exposure to violence in the home and in the community was high. HIV-negative children who lived with an HIV-positive person experienced most violence overall, followed by HIV-positive children. Children unaffected by HIV experienced least violence (all p < .05). Interpersonal violence in the home predicted child depression (β = 0.17, p < .001), trauma symptoms (β = 0.17, p < .001), lower self-esteem (β = −0.17, p < .001), and internalising and externalising behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05), while exposure to community violence predicted trauma symptoms (β = 0.16, p < .001) and behavioural problems (β = 0.07, p < .05). Harsh physical discipline predicted lower self-esteem (β = −0.18, p < .001) and behavioural problems for children (β = 0.24, p < .001). Exposure to home (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.23–2.85) and community violence predicted risk behaviour (OR: 2.39, 95% CI: 1.57–3.62). Over time, there was a decrease in depressed mood and problem behaviours, and an increase in self-esteem for children experiencing different types of violence at baseline. This may have been due to ongoing participation in the community-based programme. These data highlight the burden of violence in these communities and possibilities for programmes to include violence prevention to improve psychosocial well-being in HIV-affected children. PMID:27002770

  20. Sex Differences in Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation in Pediatric HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swordy, Alice; Mori, Luisa; Laker, Leana; Muenchhoff, Maximilian; Matthews, Philippa C.; Tudor-Williams, Gareth; Lavandier, Nora; van Zyl, Anriette; Hurst, Jacob; Walker, Bruce D.; Ndungu, Thumbi; Prendergast, Andrew; Goulder, Philip; Jooste, Pieter

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and severity of infections in childhood is typically greater in males. The basis for these observed sex differences is not well understood, and potentially may facilitate novel approaches to reducing disease from a range of conditions. We here investigated sex differences in HIV-infected children in relation to antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation and post-treatment outcome. In a South African cohort of 2,101 HIV-infected children, we observed that absolute CD4+ count and CD4% were significantly higher in ART-nave female, compared to age-matched male, HIV-infected children. Absolute CD4 count and CD4% were also significantly higher in HIV-uninfected female versus male neonates. We next showed that significantly more male than female children were initiated on ART (47% female); and children not meeting criteria to start ART by >5yrs were more frequently female (59%; p<0.001). Among ART-treated children, immune reconstitution of CD4 T-cells was more rapid and more complete in female children, even after adjustment for pre-ART absolute CD4 count or CD4% (p=0.011, p=0.030, respectively). However, while ART was initiated as a result of meeting CD4 criteria less often in females (45%), ART initiation as a result of clinical disease in children whose CD4 counts were above treatment thresholds occurred more often in females (57%, p<0.001). The main sex difference in morbidity observed in children initiating ART above CD4 thresholds, above that of TB disease, was as a result of wasting and stunting observed in females with above-threshold CD4 counts (p=0.002). These findings suggest the possibility that optimal treatment of HIV-infected children might incorporate differential CD4 treatment thresholds for ART initiation according to sex. PMID:26151555

  1. Natural History of Anal vs Oral HPV Infection in HIV-Infected Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beachler, Daniel C.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Xiao, Wiehong; Gillison, Maura L.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected individuals are at greater risk for human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated anal than oropharyngeal cancers. The prevalence of anal vs oral HPV infections is higher in this population, but whether this is explained by higher incidence or persistence is unknown.

  2. Sleep Disordered Breathing, Fatigue, and Sleepiness in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Men

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Susheel P; Brown, Todd T.; JACOBSON, Lisa P.; Margolick, Joseph B; Laffan, Alison; Johnson-Hill, Lisette; Godfrey, Rebecca; Johnson, Jacquett; Reynolds, Sandra; Schwartz, Alan R; Philip L. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives We investigated the association of HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with sleep disordered breathing (SDB), fatigue, and sleepiness. Methods HIV-uninfected men (HIV−; n = 60), HIV-infected men using HAART (HIV+/HAART+; n = 58), and HIV-infected men not using HAART (HIV+/HAART−; n = 41) recruited from two sites of the Multicenter AIDS cohort study (MACS) underwent a nocturnal sleep study, anthropometric assessment, and questionnaires for fatigue an...

  3. Osteonecrosis en pacientes infectados por HIV Osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo G. Bottaro

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Según la literatura, la osteonecrosis tiene una mayor incidencia en los pacientes infectados con HIV que en la población general. Ello sería resultado de la confluencia de factores de riesgo clásicos y de otros propios de esta población o más prevalentes en ella, como el tratamiento con inhibidores de proteasa, la dislipemia producto de su consumo, la presencia de anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos, la hipercoagulabilidad, la restauración inmune y las vasculitis. Presentamos una serie de 13 pacientes infectados con HIV con osteonecrosis. El motivo de consulta fue dolor en grandes articulaciones. Cuatro eran alcoholistas, 8 tabaquistas y 9 tenían dislipemia. Once habían recibido esteroides en algún momento de la vida aunque sólo uno estaba recibiéndolos al momento del inicio del dolor. En 2 se detectaron anticuerpos anticardiolipina séricos. Doce tenían sida y recibían tratamiento antirretroviral de alta eficacia (11 con inhibidores de proteasa. Ellos lograron una adecuada recuperación inmunológica. Consideramos necesario incluir la osteonecrosis como diagnóstico diferencial de artralgia persistente en pacientes infectados con HIV e investigar infección por HIV en todo paciente con osteonecrosis sin claros factores predisponentes.Osteonecrosis, also known as avascular necrosis, is chiefly characterized by death of bone caused by vascular compromise. The true incidence of osteonecrosis in HIV-infected patients is not well known and the pathogenesis remains undefined. Hypothetical risk factors peculiar to HIV-infected individuals that might play a role in the pathogenesis of osteonecrosis include the introduction of protease inhibitors and resulting hyperlipidemia, the presence of anticardiolipin antibodies in serum leading to a hypercoagulable state, immune recovery and vasculitis. Hereby we present a series of 13 HIV-infected patients with osteonecrosis. The most common symptom upon presentation was arthralgia. The majority of the patients had received steroids, 9 had developed hyperlipidemia after the introduction of HAART, 8 were smokers and 4 patients were alcoholics. In 2 patients, seric anticardiolipin antibodies were detected. Twelve patients had AIDS and were on HAART (11 were on protease inhibitors. We believe that osteonecrosis should be included as differential diagnosis of every HIV-infected patient who complains of pain of weight bearing joints. Likewise, it seems prudent to rule out HIV infection in subjects with osteonecrosis.

  4. Pediatric HIV: School-Based Sequelae and Curricular Interventions for Infection Prevention and Social Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Steven; Pryor, John B.; Haefli, Katrine

    1995-01-01

    In response to the rising number of adolescents and infants who are infected with HIV, school psychologists must become experts in issues pertaining to pediatric HIV/AIDS. This article describes medical consequences of HIV and psychosocial sequalea. Discusses recommendations for school-based AIDS-education programs designed to prevent HIV

  5. Spatial Distributions of HIV Infection in an Endemic Area of Western Kenya: Guiding Information for Localized HIV Control and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshi, Tomonori; Fuji, Yoshito; Nzou, Samson Muuo; Tanigawa, Chihiro; Kiche, Ibrahim; Mwau, Matilu; Mwangi, Anne Wanjiru; Karama, Mohamed; Hirayama, Kenji; Goto, Kensuke; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    HIV is still a major health problem in developing countries. Even though high HIV-risk-taking behaviors have been reported in African fishing villages, local distribution patterns of HIV infection in the communities surrounding these villages have not been thoroughly analyzed. The objective of this study was to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of HIV infection in communities surrounding African fishing villages. In 2011, we applied age- and sex-stratified random sampling to collect 1,957 blood samples from 42,617 individuals registered in the Health and Demographic Surveillance System in Mbita, which is located on the shore of Lake Victoria in western Kenya. We used these samples to evaluate existing antibody detection assays for several infectious diseases, including HIV antibody titers. Based on the results of the assays, we evaluated the prevalence of HIV infection according to sex, age, and altitude of participating households. We also used Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic to test for HIV clustering in the study area. The prevalence of HIV at our study site was 25.3%. Compared with the younger age group (15–19 years), adults aged 30–34 years were 6.71 times more likely to be HIV-positive, and the estimated HIV-positive population among women was 1.43 times larger than among men. Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic detected one marginally significant (P = 0.055) HIV-positive and one significant HIV-negative cluster (P = 0.047) in the study area. These results suggest a homogeneous HIV distribution in the communities surrounding fishing villages. In addition to individual behavior, more complex and diverse factors related to the social and cultural environment can contribute to a homogeneous distribution pattern of HIV infection outside of African fishing villages. To reduce rates of transmission in HIV-endemic areas, HIV prevention and control programs optimized for the local environment need to be developed. PMID:26862764

  6. Association of HIV Infection, Hepatitis C Virus Infection, and Metabolic Factors With Liver Stiffness Measured by Transient Elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailony, M. Rami; Scherzer, Rebecca; Huhn, Gregory; Plankey, Michael W.; Peters, Marion G.; Tien, Phyllis C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Few studies have examined the relationship of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) monoinfection and its associated perturbations with liver fibrosis. Methods. Using multivariable linear regression, we examined the demographic, behavioral, metabolic and viral factors associated with transient elastography–measured liver stiffness in 314 participants (165 HIV positive/hepatitis C virus [HCV] negative, 78 HIV positive/HCV positive, 14 HIV negative/HCV positive, 57 HIV negative/HCV negative) in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. Results. Compared with HIV negative/HCV negative women, HIV positive/HCV positive women had higher median liver stiffness values (7.1 vs 4.4 kPa; P < .001); HIV positive/HCV negative and HIV negative/HCV negative women had similar liver stiffness values (both 4.4 kPa; P = .94). HIV/HCV coinfection remained associated with higher liver stiffness values (74% higher; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49–104) even after multivariable adjustment. Among HCV positive women, waist circumference (per 10-cm increase) was associated with 18% (95% CI, 7.5%–30%) higher liver stiffness values after multivariable adjustment; waist circumference showed little association among HIV positive/HCV negative or HIV negative/HCV negative women. Among HIV positive/HCV negative women, history of AIDS (13%; 95% CI, 4% –27%) and HIV RNA (7.3%; 95% CI, 1.59%–13.3%, per 10-fold increase) were associated with greater liver stiffness. Conclusions. HCV infection but not HIV infection is associated with greater liver stiffness when infected women are compared with those with neither infection. Our finding that waist circumference, a marker of central obesity, is associated with greater liver stiffness in HIV/HCV-coinfected but not HIV-monoinfected or women with neither infection suggests that in the absence of HCV-associated liver injury the adverse effects of obesity are lessened. PMID:23901097

  7. Violence against women with HIV risk and recent criminal justice system involvement: prevalence, correlates, and recommendations for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Brian W; Bard, Ronda S; O'Brien, Kerth; Casciato, Carol J; Stark, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    This research note examines the prevalence and correlates of intimate partner violence (IPV) and other violence (OV) among women (N = 529) at risk for HIV and with histories of criminal justice system involvement. The 3-month prevalences of IPV and OV were 31.2% and 18.7%, respectively. IPV was associated with having a current main partner, substance use, sexual risk behavior, trading sex, anxiety, depression, and lower self-esteem. OV was associated with no current employment or schooling, unstable housing, drug use, trading sex, anxiety, depression, and lower self-esteem. The high prevalence of violence demonstrates the need for intervention in this population; the correlates show that effective interventions must address the complex issues in these women's lives. PMID:18667407

  8. CMV Arthritis in a HIV Infected Teenage Girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The disease with Cytomegalovirus (CMV) in the immuno depressed patients is determined either by the reactivation of a latent infection or by the primary infection at a seronegative receptor from a seropositive blood donor. The CMV infection is an important co-factor of the progress of the HIV infection. Some clinical forms are mode frequently met: the CMV pneumonia, the CMV gastrointestinal infection, the CMV retinitis and the central nervous system condition as CMV meningitis. Other locations such as carditis, myositis, or arthritis are very seldom mentioned. Objectives: The presentation of a clinical case of CMV polyarthritis. Material And Method: A retrospective study of the medical record of an HIV infected teenage girl. Results: A teenage girl of 16 diagnosed with HIV for 10 years was hospitalized twice in 2 months. At the first hospitalization she presented abdominal pain, vomiting, pyrosis and severe asthenia. A gastro-duodenal radiography was performed which showed gastroduodenitis lesions. The serology for CMV IgG was positive, at a high titre and a diagnose of gastrointestinal infection was given. At the second episode of hospitalization the patient presented myalgia and polyarthralgia. A bone scintigraphy was performed which showed inflammations of the spinal column joints in the T6-L3 area, sacro-illiac joint (bilateral), scapulo-humeral joint and coxo-femural joint and also in the left knee joint area. Based on clinical and para clinical data, the diagnose was CMV polyarthritis. After this episode the patient underwent etiological treatment for CMV with Ganciclovyr with a good progress and no other localizations of the infection. Conclusions: We consider the bone scintigraphy useful for the CMV arthritis diagnose. In order to settle which are the most affected joints in this infection we find the screening by bone scintigraphy very significant for the patients with clinical and laboratory suspicion of CMV polyarthritis. (author)

  9. Educational software for simulating risk of HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Madeleine A.; Sandberg, Sonja; Awerbuch, Tamara E.

    1994-03-01

    The AIDS epidemic is still growing rapidly and the disease is thought to be uniformly fatal. With no vaccine or cure in sight, education during high school years is a critical component in the prevention of AIDS. We propose the use of computer software with which high school students can explore via simulation their own risk of acquiring an HIV infection given certain sexual behaviors. This particular software is intended to help students understand the three factors that determine their risk of HIV infection (number of sexual acts, probability that their partners are infected, and riskiness of the specific sexual activities they choose). Users can explicitly calculate their own chances of becoming infected based on decisions they make. Use of the program is expected to personalize the risk of HIV infection and thus increase users' concern and awareness. Behavioral change may not result from increased knowledge alone. Therefore the effectiveness of this program in changing attitudes toward risky sexual behaviors would be enhanced when the simulation is embedded in an appropriate curriculum. A description of the program and an example of its use are presented.

  10. Robustness of a cellular automata model for the HIV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirdo, P. H.; Coutinho, S.; Zorzenon dos Santos, R. M.

    2008-11-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the robustness of the results obtained from the cellular automata model which describes the spread of the HIV infection within lymphoid tissues [R.M. Zorzenon dos Santos, S. Coutinho, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87 (2001) 168102]. The analysis focused on the dynamic behavior of the model when defined in lattices with different symmetries and dimensionalities. The results illustrated that the three-phase dynamics of the planar models suffered minor changes in relation to lattice symmetry variations and, while differences were observed regarding dimensionality changes, qualitative behavior was preserved. A further investigation was conducted into primary infection and sensitiveness of the latency period to variations of the models stochastic parameters over wide ranging values. The variables characterizing primary infection and the latency period exhibited power-law behavior when the stochastic parameters varied over a few orders of magnitude. The power-law exponents were approximately the same when lattice symmetry varied, but there was a significant variation when dimensionality changed from two to three. The dynamics of the three-dimensional model was also shown to be insensitive to variations of the deterministic parameters related to cell resistance to the infection, and the necessary time lag to mount the specific immune response to HIV variants. The robustness of the model demonstrated in this work reinforce that its basic hypothesis are consistent with the three-stage dynamic of the HIV infection observed in patients.

  11. Dietary intakes of HIV-infected adults in urban UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, K; Goff, L M

    2013-08-01

    Maintaining a good nutritional status is important for immune health and for managing metabolic comorbidities in adults with HIV infection. Little is known about the dietary habits of adults living with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. The aims of this study were to characterise their dietary intakes, and to identify subgroups of patients who may require nutritional counselling and/or food support services. An observational study of adults attending a London HIV out-patient clinic who completed a demographics questionnaire and a structured 24 h diet recall interview was conducted. In all, 196 (162 men, 34 women) adults participated. Forty-three percent (n=66) of men and thirty-six percent (n=11) of women did not consume enough energy to meet their basal metabolic requirements and activity factor. The majority of both men (64%) and women (56%) consumed more than the recommended amount of saturated fat. Self-report of lipodystrophy (B coefficient -2.27 (95% CI -3.92 to -0.61), P=0.008) was associated with lower dietary fibre intake/1000 kcal per day, and a more recent diagnosis of HIV (B coefficient -0.11 (95% CI -0.20 to -0.02), P=0.013) was associated with a higher dietary fibre/1000 kcal intake per day. Recreational drug use was associated with a higher overall calorie (P=0.003) and protein (P=0.001) intake than non-usage after adjusting for basal metabolic requirements and weight, respectively. Our data describe the dietary intakes of a diverse group of adults with HIV infection in the United Kingdom. These dietary habits may have an impact on their overall health and development of other metabolic comorbidities common in people with HIV. PMID:23820340

  12. Late presentation of HIV infection: a consensus definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antinori, A; Coenen, T; Costagiola, D; Dedes, N; Ellefson, M; Gatell, J; Girardi, E; Johnson, M; Kirk, O; Lundgren, J; Mocroft, A; d'Arminio Monforte, A; Phillips, A; Raben, Dorthe; Rockstroh, J K; Sabin, C; Sönnerborg, A; de Wolf, F

    2010-01-01

    : persons presenting for care with a CD4 count below 200 cells/muL or presenting with an AIDS-defining event, regardless of the CD4 cell count. Conclusion The European Late Presenter Consensus working group believe it would be beneficial if all national health agencies, institutions, and researchers were......Objectives Across Europe, almost a third of individuals infected with HIV do not enter health care until late in the course of their infection. Surveillance to identify the extent to which late presentation occurs remains inadequate across Europe and is further complicated by the lack of a common...... clinical definition of late presentation. The objective of this article is to present a consensus definition of late presentation of HIV infection. Methods Over the past year, two initiatives have moved towards a harmonized definition. In spring 2009, they joined efforts to identify a common definition of...

  13. [Improvement of parodontitis therapy of patients with HIV-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Oseeva, A O; Shul'diakov, A A; Bulkina, N V

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose to determine the clinic-pathogenetic efficacy of cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of periodontitis of patients with subclinical stage of HIV-infection medical examination and treatment of 40 patients was carried out. It was established that use of liniment cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with subclinical stage of HIV-infection allowed to accelerate process of normalization of lipid peroxidation parameters and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infection load (herpes symplex virus I, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus) in parodontal recess and evidence of local inflammation with reduction of activity of the tumours necrosis factor and interleukin 1beta, what provided acceleration of recuperation processes, lowering the frequency of parodontitis relapses. PMID:20517247

  14. HCV and HIV infection and co-infection: injecting drug use and sexual behavior, AjUDE-Brasil I Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli Bahia Felicíssimo Zocratto

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize sexual and drug-use behaviors in injecting drug users (IDUs in relation to single hepatitis C virus (HCV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and HCV/HIV co-infection. The sample consisted of 272 IDUs enrolled in the AjUDE-Brasil I Project, a cross-sectional multi-center study conducted in five Brazilian cities in 1998. Data were collected with a structured questionnaire using self-reported risk behavior, and HCV and HIV serological status used ELISA on filter paper. IDUs were clustered in four distinct groups: HCV/HIV seronegative; HCV mono-infected; HIV mono-infected; and HCV/HIV co-infected. Active sharing of injecting equipment was associated with HCV infection (p = 0.001. Sexual behavior variables, especially male same-sex sexual relations, were consistently associated with HIV infection. HCV/HIV co-infection was associated with both sexual and drug use variables. It was possible to distinguish different behavioral indicators for HCV and HIV infection and co-infection in this population.

  15. Genotyping and virological characteristics of hepatitis B virus in HIV-infected individuals in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukhlid Yousif

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In HBV/HIV co-infected Sudanese patients, the ratio of genotype A to non-A was higher than that in mono-infected patients. The genotype E intra-group divergence in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals was significantly higher than that in HBV mono-infected patients.

  16. Gender context of sexual violence and HIV sexual risk behaviors among married women in Iringa Region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumaini M. Nyamhanga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of empirical research illuminating possible connections between gender imbalances and sexual violence among married women in Tanzania. There is a need to generate in-depth information on the connectivity between gender imbalances (asymmetrical resource ownership, sexual decision making, roles, and norms and sexual violence plus associated HIV risky sexual behavior among married women. Design: This paper is based on a qualitative case study that involved use of focus group discussions (FGDs. A thematic analysis approach was used in analyzing the study findings. Results: The study findings are presented under the three structures of gender and power theory. On sexual division of labor, our study found that economic powerlessness exposes women to sexual violence. On sexual division of power, our study found that perception of the man as a more powerful partner in marriage is enhanced by the biased marriage arrangement and alcohol consumption. On cathexis, this study has revealed that because of societal norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior characterized by their sexual and emotional attachments to men, women find it hard to leave sexually abusive marriages. That is, because of societal expectations of obedience and compelled tolerance many married women do suffer in silence. They find themselves trapped in marriages that increase their risk of acquiring HIV. Conclusions: This study suggests that married women experience a sexual risk of acquiring HIV that results from non-consensual sex. That non-consensual sex is a function of gender imbalances – ranging from women's economic dependence on their husbands or partners to socioculturally rooted norms and expectations regarding women's sexual behavior. The HIV risk is especially heightened because masculine sexual norms encourage men [husbands/partners] to engage in unprotected intra- and extramarital sex. It is recommended that the Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS should address the gender dimensions of sexual violence in marriage.

  17. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head in HIV infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Almeida Matos

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avascular necrosis (AVN of the femoral head is an emerging complication in HIV infected patients. It has been suggested that the increased incidence of AVN in this population may be caused by an increased prevalence of predisposing factors for osteonecrosis, including protease inhibitors, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid use, alcohol and intravenous drug abuse. The aim of this study was to assess the risk factors for avascular necrosis developing in the femoral head of HIV infected individuals. This study consisted of meta-analysis of the secondary data extracted from current literature. The selected articles allowed two study groups to be drawn up for comparison. Group 1 comprised 324 individuals infected by the HIV virus, who did not present femoral head AVN. Group 2 comprised 32 HIV positive patients, who presented femoral head AVN. The parameters used for analysis were as follows: age, gender, sexual preference, use of intravenous drugs, time of diagnosis, CD4+ cell count, use of antiretroviral agents and duration, serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides. The present study found a statistically significant association between hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, sexual preference and intravenous drug abuse. The authors concluded that femoral head osteonecrosis is associated with hyperlipidemia (hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia and intravenous drug abuse. This study supports the hypothesis that protease inhibitors play a role in the development of osteonecrosis through a tendency to cause hyperlipidemia.

  18. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  19. Non-infective pulmonary disease in HIV-positive children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theron, Salomine; Andronikou, Savvas; George, Reena; Plessis, Jaco du; Hayes, Murray; Mapukata, Ayanda [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Faculty of Health Sciences, Cape Town (South Africa); Goussard, Pierre; Gie, Robert [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    It is estimated that over 90% of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) live in the developing world and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Pulmonary disease is the most common clinical feature of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in infants and children causing the most morbidity and mortality, and is the primary cause of death in 50% of cases. Children with lung disease are surviving progressively longer because of earlier diagnosis and antiretroviral treatment and, therefore, thoracic manifestations have continued to change and unexpected complications are being encountered. It has been reported that 33% of HIV-positive children have chronic changes on chest radiographs by the age of 4 years. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis is common in the paediatric HIV population and is responsible for 30-40% of pulmonary disease. HIV-positive children also have a higher incidence of pulmonary malignancies, including lymphoma and pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is seen after highly active antiretroviral treatment. Complications of pulmonary infections, aspiration and rarely interstitial pneumonitis are also seen. This review focuses on the imaging findings of non-infective chronic pulmonary disease. (orig.)

  20. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE DYNAMICS OF HIV INFECTION WITHOUT TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogban G. I.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the mathematical and numerical modeling of the immune system of the course of HIV infection without treatment. Presently a significant number of scientific papers are devoted to the study of this problem. However, HIV infection is highly volatile and there is no effective drug, in that HIV has the ability to mutate and reproduce itself in the presence of chemical substances that are meant to inhibit or destroy it. The mathematical models used in this paper are conceptual and exploratory in nature. The proposed mathematical model allow us to obtain a complete description of the dynamics of HIV infection, and also an understanding of the progression to AIDS. Thus, the results of the numerical solution of differential equations in this work show that: the disease develops, and at low concentration of the virus, a certain level of stability does not depend on the initial concentration of infestation. In the absence of treatment, for interesting competition between virus and the loss of virus caused by immune response should be strictly greater than the rate of multiplication of the virus in the blood; the reproduction rate of the uninfected cells should be stricly greater than the mortality rate of the uninfected cells

  1. HIV infection in patients with intraocular inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    Juliet María Enriquez Puertas; Isabel Ambou

    2015-01-01

    Uveitis is the most common form of inflammatory eye disease. It is considered a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in the world so that responsible for 5-25% of legal blindness. Although most cases of uveitis are considered mediated by the immune system disease, infectious disease is the second most important in the etiology of uveal disease. Viruses have a significant role in uveitis, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In Cuba, where uveitis constitute a health probl...

  2. Clinical development of microbicides for the prevention of HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Cruz, Osmond J; Uckun, Fatih M

    2004-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues its spread at a rate of over 15,000 new infections every day. Sexual transmission of HIV-1 is the dominant mode of this pandemic spread. For the first time since the disease emerged in the early 1980s, about half the 42 million people now living with HIV/AIDS worldwide are women. Worldwide, more than 90 percent of all adolescent and adult HIV infections have resulted from heterosexual intercourse. The "feminization" of the pandemic largely driven by the social, economic, and biological factors warrants urgent attention particularly for the adolescent female population. In the absence of an effective prophylactic anti-HIV therapy or vaccine, current efforts are aimed at developing intravaginal/intrarectal topical formulations of anti-HIV agents or microbicides to curb the mucosal and perinatal HIV transmission. Microbicides would provide protection by directly inactivating HIV or preventing HIV from attaching, entering or replicating in susceptible target cells as well as dissemination from target cells present in semen or the host cells that line the vaginal/rectal wall. Thus, ideally, anti-HIV microbicides should be capable of attacking HIV from different angles. In addition, a contraceptive microbicide could help prevent unintended pregnancies worldwide. To be a microbicide, these agents must be safe, effective following vaginal or rectal administration, and should cause minimal or no genital symptoms following long-term repeated usage. A safe and efficacious anti-HIV microbicide is not yet available despite the fact that more than 60 candidate agents have been identified to have in vitro activity against HIV, 18 of which have advanced to clinical testing. Targeting HIV entry has been a favored approach because it is the first step in the process of infection and several readily available anionic polymeric products seem to variably interfere with these processes are the primary candidates for potential microbicides. Formulations of some anionic polymeric antiviral agents have been tested at various doses and various durations for safety, tolerability, and acceptability in Phase I/II clinical trials (vaginal, rectal, or penile studies) in HIV-uninfected and/or HIV-infected populations. Current multicenter Phase I/II safety and Phase II/III efficacy studies that are being conducted or planned in different geographical locations by various special interest groups are designed for rapid clinical development of candidate products. The currently marketed detergent-type spermicide, nonoxynol-9 (N-9), has failed in Phase III clinical trials, due to the drug-induced formation of localized genital lesions that might in fact actually promote virus transmission. Alternative "first-generation" microbicides that have undergone Phase I/II safety and tolerability studies in HIV-uninfected and/or HIV-infected volunteers include polymeric viral fusion inhibitors (dextrin sulfate/Emmelle, carrageenans [PC-213, PC-503, PC-515/Carraguard], cellulose sulfate/Ushercell, polystyrene sulfonate, naphthalene sulfonate [PIC 024-4/PRO 2000/5], acidifying gel [Carbomer 974P/BufferGel], Lactobacillus (L. crispatus) suppository/CTV-05, detergent-type dual-function barriers [ACIDFORM, GEDA Plus, SURETE, Glyminox/C31G/Savvy, Invisible Condom], herbal extracts [Praneem], and viral replication inhibitors [PMPA/Tenofovir]. For majority of these products, no information is available regarding their long-term mucosal safety, carcinogenicity potential, bioavailability, or efficacy following their extended vaginal or rectal exposure. The irritative genitourinary symptoms reported for a number of these first-generation products in Phase I clinical trials implies that the "soft" preclinical endpoints for mucosal safety established for the use and development of vaginal spermicides may not be rigorous enough for vaginal and rectal microbicides because of the efficient sexual tra virus diversity, and genetic environment. It is now apparent that sexually transmitted R5 HIV-1 viruses have less positive charge on their surface compared with the R4 HIV-1 viruses, which may limit the anionic polymers as topical microbicides despite extensive clinical trials. Nevertheless, their ongoing clinical trials, reviewed here, using optimized formulations, and special populations in various geographic locations are paving the way for future rigorous clinical testing of "mechanism-based" broad-spectrum anti-HIV microbicides that are currently under intense development. It is anticipated that future microbicide trials will focus on combination of products capable of attacking HIV life cycle at multiple steps intended to increase efficacy, limit cross-resistance as well as minimize microbicide-induced host toxicity. PMID:14754390

  3. Kinase Control of Latent HIV-1 Infection: PIM-1 Kinase as a Major Contributor to HIV-1 Reactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duverger, Alexandra; Wolschendorf, Frank; Anderson, Joshua C.; Wagner, Frederic; Bosque, Alberto; Shishido, Takao; Jones, Jennifer; Planelles, Vicente; Willey, Christopher; Cron, Randall Q.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of latent HIV-1 infection as a block to HIV-1 eradication, the molecular biology of HIV-1 latency remains incompletely understood. We recently demonstrated the presence of a gatekeeper kinase function that controls latent HIV-1 infection. Using kinase array analysis, we here expand on this finding and demonstrate that the kinase activity profile of latently HIV-1-infected T cells is altered relative to that of uninfected T cells. A ranking of altered kinases generated from these kinome profile data predicted PIM-1 kinase as a key switch involved in HIV-1 latency control. Using genetic and pharmacologic perturbation strategies, we demonstrate that PIM-1 activity is indeed required for HIV-1 reactivation in T cell lines and primary CD4 T cells. The presented results thus confirm that kinases are key contributors to HIV-1 latency control. In addition, through mutational studies we link the inhibitory effect of PIM-1 inhibitor IV (PIMi IV) on HIV-1 reactivation to an AP-1 motif in the CD28-responsive element of the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). The results expand our conceptual understanding of the dynamic interactions of the host cell and the latent HIV-1 integration event and position kinome profiling as a research tool to reveal novel molecular mechanisms that can eventually be targeted to therapeutically trigger HIV-1 reactivation. PMID:24155393

  4. Knowledge about aids/HIV infection among female college students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the level of awareness about HIV/ AIDs infection among female college students of Lahore. Results: Ninety-five percent students had heard about HIV/AIDS and its presence in Pakistan, 61.7 % students knew that HIV/AIDS is caused by germs and 91.2% knew about its transmissibility. Over 70% of students knew that HIV can be transmitted through sexual contact, infected blood transfusion, and re-use of infected injection needles. Moreover, only 19.2% mentioned ear/nose piercing with infected needles while 46.8% mentioned breast-feeding as sources of transmission of HIV/AIDS. However, 57% were of the view that second hand clothing cannot spread AIDS. Individuals having multiple sexual partners (78.2%), drug addicts (38.8%), homosexuals (39.2%), commercial sex workers (52.2%) and health care workers (16.2%) were identified as high-risk groups. Only 33.2% student perceived that women are at higher risk of acquiring HIV as compared to men. Regarding prevention of AIDS, 61.0% mentioned avoiding promiscuous sex, 49.3% knew use of condoms and 60.2% were aware that AIDS can be prevented by avoiding homosexuality. Sixty-eight percent and 70.2% students respectively held the view that avoiding used needles for injections in hospitals and laboratories for screening blood or blood products can prevent AIDS, while 78.2% and 55.8% respectively knew that there is no cure or vaccine available for AIDS. Majority of the students (71.5%) have discussed AIDS with their friends while discussion with siblings, parents and teachers was not common. Conclusion: The general level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention was satisfactory among college girls included in the study. However, a number of misconceptions and myths like getting HIV/AIDS through nose/ear piercing, its relation to Islam, and use of second hand clothing need to be clarified. (author)

  5. Effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on cerebral morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry Lynne; Gamst, Abthony C; Archibald, Sarah L.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Mindt, Monica Rivera; Marcotte, Thomas L.; Heaton, Robert K.; Ellis, Ronald J.; Grant, Igor

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the separate and combined effects of methamphetamine dependence and HIV infection on brain morphology. METHOD: Morphometric measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging of methamphetamine-dependent and/or HIV-positive participants and their appropriate age- and...... the results of the present study provide little information about the specific mechanisms leading to the unexpected methamphetamine effects, they may be related to glial activation or neuritic growth, both of which have been associated with methamphetamine exposure in animal studies. These results...

  6. HIV Infection among Civilian Applicants for Nigeria Military Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Itsifinus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: HIV/AIDS is a serious social pathology in public health, developmental and security problem since the productive and reproductive age group is mostly affected. This study was to determine the sero-prevalence of HIV among civilian applicants enrolling into military services of Nigeria army where youth’s vulnerability to HIV infection is very high. METHOD: A periodic cross sectional study was carried out amongst the civilian applicants undergoing recruitment into the Nigeria Army between January-February and July-August 2005, to determine their HIV status. Samples were collected from the applicants after interview to collect their socio-demographic characteristics. Data were analyzed with the aid of SPSS Version 12 and Chi square statistics was used to test for significance of association at P< 0.05. RESULTS: Out of the 9260 samples collected, 204 (2.2% tested positive for HIV with the highest proportion (73.5% occurring in the 22-25yrs bracket. Infection was detected in both sexes. The mean age of the applicants was 22yrs, with age range of 18-30 yrs and sex ratio of 1:7 (M: F. Age sex-specificity shows aged between 21-24 years have the highest number of HIV-antibody positivity. CONCLUSION: Antibody-positive applicants were identified in all the regions of Nigeria and the prevalence suggests that the epidemiology of transmission is changing both quantitatively and qualitatively because HIV now occurs commonly among young adults in their teens and late 20s and the impact of HIV on the military has grave consequences on the stability of Nigeria. The adoption of routine screening of applicants at point of recruitment, serving and retiring from the military can also be a source of data for understanding the epidemiology of this disease among the civilian and the military but in as HIV counseling and testing is an important continuum of the disease prevention and treatment, there is need to review Nigerian Army HIV and AIDS policy. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 195-200

  7. Impact of Adherence Counseling Dose on Antiretroviral Adherence and HIV Viral Load among HIV-Infected Methadone Maintained Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Cooperman, Nina A.; Heo, Moonseong; Berg, Karina M; Li, Xuan; Litwin, Alain H.; Nahvi, Shadi; ARNSTEN, JULIA H.

    2012-01-01

    Adherence counseling can improve antiretroviral adherence and related health outcomes in HIV-infected individuals. However, little is known about how much counseling is necessary to achieve clinically significant effects. We investigated antiretroviral adherence and HIV viral load relative to the number of hours of adherence counseling received by 60 HIV-infected drug users participating in a trial of directly observed antiretroviral therapy delivered in methadone clinics. Our adherence couns...

  8. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C; Lundgren, J D; Nielsen, C M; Vestergaard, B F

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found ...

  9. Case of death in a child with generalized HIV-infection and PCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Karev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a case of death of the young child, carries generalized HIV complicated by Pneumocystis pneumonia. Clinic HIV encephalitis so scarce that the disease is difficult to diagnose and manifestation of symptoms of HIV infection may begin with opportunistic infections, as in the present clinical observation.

  10. Property grabbing and will writing in Lusaka, Zambia: an examination of wills of HIV-infected cohabiting couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, E; Muzizi, L; Stephenson, R; Chomba, E; Ahmed, Y; Haworth, A; Allen, S

    2007-03-01

    High rates of HIV and poverty place women in a precarious economic situation in Lusaka, Zambia. Mortality from HIV infection is high, leaving many households single headed and creating almost a half a million orphans. One of the most prevalent forms of gender violence that creates poverty in women is when the male's family claims the property of the deceased from the widow and the children. The Zambia-Emory HIV Research Project collected 184 wills from individuals in monogamous unions where one or both of the individuals were HIV-positive. Despite the fact that many wills specifically stated that their extended family was not allowed to tamper with their possessions in the event of death, property grabbing proved to be a prevalent and difficult issue in Lusaka. In order to improve the lives of widowed women in Lusaka, the government and other civic and non-governmental organisations must inform women of their rights to own and protect their land and other assets in the event of their husbands' death, an issue of increasing importance in the area of HIV/AIDS. PMID:17453571

  11. Helminthic Infections Rates and Malaria in HIV-Infected Pregnant Women on Anti-Retroviral Therapy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan, Emil; Crowther, Nigel J.; Mutimura, Eugene; Osuwat, Lawrence Obado; Janssen, Saskia; Grobusch, Martin P

    2013-01-01

    Background Within sub-Saharan Africa, helminth and malaria infections cause considerable morbidity in HIV-positive pregnant women and their offspring. Helminth infections are also associated with a higher risk of mother-to-child HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of, and the protective and risk factors for helminth and malaria infections in pregnant HIV-positive Rwandan women receiving anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Methodology and principle findings Pregn...

  12. Incidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection among HIV-uninfected individuals at high risk for sexually transmitted infections

    OpenAIRE

    Palamara Guido; Di Carlo Aldo; Castilletti Concetta; Cordiali-Fei Paola; Giuliani Massimo; Boros Stefano; Rezza Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI). The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinants of HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly attending an urban STI clinic. Methods Sera from consecutive HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly tested for HIV-1 antibodies were a...

  13. Role of semen infected leukocytes in HIV mucosal transmission : Experimental model of SIVmac251 infection in Macaca fascicularis

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard-Stoecklin, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection mostly spreads by the mucosal route: sexual transmission is the dominant mode of transmission, responsible for between 85% and 90% of cases of infection worldwide. These epidemiological data indicate that semen is one of the major sources of HIV-1 transmission. Semen, like other bodily secretions involved in HIV sexual transmission, contains the virus as two forms: cell-free viral particles and cell-associated virus, mostly in infected leukocytes. ...

  14. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utay, Netanya S; Roque, Annelys; Timmer, J Katherina; Morcock, David R; DeLeage, Claire; Somasunderam, Anoma; Weintrob, Amy C; Agan, Brian K; Estes, Jacob D; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Douek, Daniel C

    2016-04-01

    People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV-infected people. PMID:27093273

  15. IFN-γ response on T-cell based assays in HIV-infected patients for detection of tuberculosis infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Cristina; Puig Jordi; Font Roser; Lacoma Alicia; Martínez-Lacasa Xavier; Latorre Irene; Lite Josep; Prat Cristina; Cuchi Eva; Ausina Vicente; Domínguez Jose

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have an increased risk of progression to active tuberculosis following Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The objective of the study was to determine IFN-γ responses for the detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with QuantiFERON-TB GOLD In Tube (QFT-G-IT) and T-SPOT.TB in HIV patients, and evaluate the influence of CD4 cell count on tests performance. Methods We studied 75 HIV patients enrolled for...

  16. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utay, Netanya S.; Roque, Annelys; Timmer, J. Katherina; Morcock, David R.; DeLeage, Claire; Somasunderam, Anoma; Weintrob, Amy C.; Agan, Brian K.; Estes, Jacob D.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV-infected people. PMID:27093273

  17. HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, is a strong risk factor for anorectal condyloma in Asian population: A prospective colonoscopy screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: HIV-1 infection, but not syphilis or HBV infection, was identified as a strong risk for anorectal condyloma. Anal HPV 16/18 was highly prevalent in patients with HIV-1 infection, especially in those with condyloma.

  18. Complexities of Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in the Context of HIV Infection and Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S X; Armstrong, Ajs; Neff, C P; Shaffer, M; Lozupone, C A; Palmer, B E

    2016-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with an altered gut microbiome that is not consistently restored with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Interpretation of the specific microbiome changes observed during HIV infection is complicated by factors like population, sample type, and ART-each of which may have dramatic effects on gut bacteria. Understanding how these factors shape the microbiome during HIV infection (which we refer to as the HIV-associated microbiome) is critical for defining its role in HIV disease, and for developing therapies that restore gut health during infection. PMID:26940481

  19. Screening and Assessing Violence and Mental Health Disorders in a Cohort of Inner City HIV-Positive Youth between 1998–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Jaime; Hosek, Sybil G.; Carleton, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of the primary care appointments for HIV-positive youth is often solely on medical concerns. However, these youth also present with mental health issues and histories of exposure to violence. To screen and assess for mental health disorders, HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 to 24 consecutively enrolled in an adolescent and young adult HIV clinic between 1998–2006 (n = 174), were screened for mental health disorders and violence, using the Client Diagnostic Questionnaire (CD...

  20. Reproductive tract infections in HIV positive women: A case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Archana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection primarily affects women during their reproductive years, and the coexistence of reproductive tract infections (RTIs is not surprising given the fact that HIV is mainly acquired via heterosexual contact. Aim: The aim of the study was to compare the occurrence of RTIs among infected and noninfected women. Materials and Methods: A case control study of 83 HIV positive women, tested by two enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and a matched control of 87 HIV negative women were screened for RTIs. They were submitted to gynecological examination and cervical cytology. Results: The mean age for HIV positive women was 30 years and that for HIV negative women was 27 years. 18% HIV positive women had menstrual irregularities compared to 6% in seronegative group ( P = 0.024. Vaginal infections including sexually transmitted infections (STIs were found in 47 (57% HIV positive women and 30 (34% HIV negative women ( P = 0.0037. Vaginal candidiasis was the most common infection (34% in HIV positive women, followed by trichomoniasis (12%. Human papilloma virus (HPV infection was seen in nine HIV positive women versus none in HIV negative women. Cervical cytology showed inflammation in 53 (64% HIV positive women compared to 27 (31% HIV negative women ( P = 0.000023. Genital neoplasia, including carcinoma in situ was observed in 2 (2.5% HIV positive women and in none of the HIV negative women. Conclusion: It is seen that reproductive tract morbidities are common in HIV positive women. So it is imperative that HIV positive women have a complete gynecological evaluation including a Papanicolaou (PAP smear with aggressive screening of STIs.