Sample records for venus express science

  1. Sulfuric acid vapor in the atmosphere of Venus as observed by the Venus Express Radio Science experiment VeRa

    Oschlisniok, Janusz; Pätzold, Martin; Häusler, Bernd; Tellmann, Silvia; Bird, Mike; Andert, Tom


    The cloud deck within Venus' atmosphere, which covers the entire planet between approx. 50 and 70 km altitude, consists mostly of liquid and gaseous sulfuric acid. The gaseous part increases strongly just below the main clouds and builds an approx. 15 km thick haze layer of H2SO4. This region is responsible for a strong absorption of radio waves as seen in VeRa radio science observations. The amount of the absorption, which is used to derive the abundance of gaseous sulfuric acid, depends on the signal frequency. VeRa probed the atmosphere of Venus between 2006 and 2015 with radio signals at 13 cm (S-band) and 3.6 cm (X-band) wavelengths. We present H2SO4 profiles derived from S-band and X-band absorption during the first occultation season in 2006. The comparison of the H2SO4 profiles derived from both frequency bands provides a reliable picture of the H2SO4 abundance. Distinct differences in the S- and X-band profiles may give a clue to increased SO2 abundances. The derived VeRa results shall be compared with results provided by other experiments onboard Venus Express as well as with previous missions.

  2. Questions About Venus after Venus Express

    Limaye, Sanjay


    The observations from Venus Express for nearly 13 Venus years or 26 solar days from April 2006 till 27 November 2014. Earlier, Venus has been explored by fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared, millimeter to radio waves. Venus Express added significantly to the collection that will continue to be examined for understanding the planet's atmosphere and continuing analysis will inform us about new facets of the atmosphere and raise new questions. Inter-comparison of the measurements have been able to provide a general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements. These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber(s) in the cloud layer, and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole, interaction between the atmosphere and the solid planet. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate and how the climate has evolved. The questions include: (i) What are the implications of the supercritical state of the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - carbon dioxide and nitrogen in the lower atmosphere? (ii) Is the Venus (lower) atmosphere well mixed? (iii) What determines the observed alternating stable and unstable layers (static stability) in the lower atmosphere? (iv) What causes the contrasts seen in reflected sunlight which are largest at ultraviolet wavelengths and very muted at other visible wavelengths? (v) what causes the morning -afternoon

  3. Venus Express set for launch to the cryptic planet


    ESOC and the spacecraft. During the cruise phase and once the spacecraft has arrived at Venus, Cebreros will be the main information relay point between ESOC and Venus Express. Reaching for Venus During its 163 day journey to Venus, Venus Express will cover about 400 million kilometres at an average speed of some 28 kilometres per second with respect to the Sun. After an initial commissioning period, the spacecraft will cruise peacefully with no specific operations planned, besides routine checks of its subsystems and scientific instruments, and minor trajectory corrections if needed. The thrills will start again on 6 April 2006, at the end of the cruise, when the spacecraft will have to perform a delicate manoeuvre to brake and be captured into orbit around Venus. The energy required for Venus Orbit Insertion (VOI) is very high, and will need the main engine to fire (burn) for approximately 51 minutes. This manoeuvre will place the spacecraft in a highly elliptical ‘capture’ orbit around the planet, with a pericentre (closest point to the Venusian surface) of 250 kilometres near the north pole, and an apocentre (furthest distance from the surface) at 350 000 kilometres roughly at the south pole. At the end of this initial 10-day ‘capture’ orbit, Venus Express will ignite its main engine again. About six days later, after a series of other minor orbit adjustments, the spacecraft will have been positioned in its final operational orbit. This will be an elliptical polar orbit, lying between 250 and 66 000 kilometres above Venus, and will last 24 hours. The capture orbit could already provide the first opportunity for scientific observations, but the nominal science phase will start on 4 July 2006, after the spacecraft and instruments commissioning phase has been concluded. The set of seven instruments on board Venus Express represents an unprecedented diagnostic package to study the thick and enigmatic atmosphere of Venus - an atmosphere so dense and so

  4. Venus

    Fegley, B., Jr.

    Venus is Earth's nearest planetary neighbor and has fascinated mankind since the dawn of history. Venus' clouds reflect most of the sunlight shining on the planet and make it the brightest object in the sky after the Sun and Moon. Venus is visible with the naked eye as an evening star until a few hours after sunset or as a morning star shortly before sunrise. Many ancient civilizations observed and worshipped Venus, which had a different name in each society, for example, Ishtar to the Babylonians, Aphrodite to the Greeks, Tai'pei to the Chinese, and Venus to the Romans. Venus has continued to play an important role in myth, literature, and science throughout history.

  5. A Venus Flagship Mission: Report of the Venus Science and Technology Definition Team

    Bullock, M. A.; Senske, D. A.; Balint, T. S.; Benz, A.; Campbell, B. A.; Chassefiere, E.; Colaprete, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Glaze, L.; Gorevan, S.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Hall, J.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Head, J. W.; Hunter, G.; Johnson, N.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Kiefer, W. S.; Kolawa, E. A.; Kremic, T.; Kwok, J.; Limaye, S. S.; Mackwell, S. J.; Marov, M. Y.; Ocampo, A.; Schubert, G.; Stofan, E. R.; Svedhem, H.; Titov, D. V.; Treiman, A. H.


    The Venus STDT has defined the goals, objectives, mission architecture, science investigations and payload for a Flagship-class mission to Venus. The mission puts advanced exploration capabilities in orbit, in the atmosphere, and on the surface.

  6. Magnetic observations of Venus ionosphere during Venus Express aerobraking campaign

    Zhang, Tielong; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Russell, Christopher; Luhmann, Janet


    During the late days of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign was performed in May - July 2014. The altering of the spacecraft orbit allows the pericenter went to as low as 129.7 km in altitude, which is well below the main peak ionosphere altitude of ~140 km. Magnetic observations during aerobraking campaign shows that the Venus ionosphere exhibits the same magnetic properties as observed by Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) during solar maximum for altitude above 150 km which was the lowest altitude reached by PVO: magnetized ionosphere with large-scale horizontal magnetic field; or unmagnetized ionosphere with numerous small-scale thin structures, so-called flux ropes. However, around or below main peak ionosphere altitude, we find only very low background magnetic field of several nanotesla, without any large magnetic belt or larger spikes of fields, the so-called flux ropes. Apparently the magnetization of the ionosphere or the penetration of the magnetic ropes stops at main peak ionosphere altitude.

  7. O+ pickup ions outside of Venus' bow shock: Venus Express observations

    Wei, Yong; Fraenz, Markus; Dubinin, Eduard; Zhang, Tielong; Jarvinen, Riku; Wan, Weixing; Kallio, Esa; Collinson, Glyn; Barabash, Stars; Norbert, Krupp; Woch, Joachim; Lundin, Rickard; delva, Magda


    have examined the IMA data during the solar minimum period 2006-2010, and identified 80 cases with clear signature of O+ pickup ion. With these observations, we can determine the location and the scale height of the source region of O+ pickup ions and describe the relationship between the behavior of these O+ and the upstream solar wind condition. The results would provide new information for numerical simulation of plasma environment near Venus and contribute to estimation of total O+ ion loss from Venus. Reference: [1] Dubinin, E., M. Fränz, J. Woch, E. Roussos, S. Barabash, R. Lundin, J. D. Winningham, R. A. Frahm, and M. Acuña (2006a), Plasma morphology at Mars: Aspera-3 observations, Space Sci. Rev., 126, 209-238, doi:10.1007/s11214-006-9039-4. [2] Cravens, T. E., A. Hoppe, S. A. Ledvina, and S. McKenna-Lawlor (2002), Pickup ions near Mars associated with escaping oxygen atoms, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 1170, doi:10.1029/2001JA000125. [3] Luhmann, J. G., S. A. Ledvina, J. G. Lyon, and C. T. Russell (2006), Venus O+ pickup ions: Collected PVO results and expectations for Venus Express, Planet. Space Sci., 54, 1457-1471, doi:10.1016/j.pss.2005.10.009. [4] Williams, D. J. et al.(1991), Energetic Particles at Venus: Galileo Results. Science 253, 1525-1528.

  8. ESA to present the latest Venus Express results to the media


    The launch of Venus Express back in November 2005 represented a major milestone in the exploration of Venus — a planet unvisited by any dedicated spacecraft since the early 1990s. One of the fundamental questions being addressed by the Venus Express mission is why a world so similar to Earth in mass and size has evolved so differently, to become the noxious and inhospitable planet it is today. Since it started its scientific observations in July 2006, Venus Express has been making the most detailed study of the planet’s thick and complex atmosphere to date. The latest findings not only highlight the features that make Venus unique in the solar system but also provide fresh clues as to how the planet is — despite everything — a more Earth-like planetary neighbour than one could have imagined. The results will appear in a special section of the 29 November issue of the journal Nature containing nine individual papers devoted to Venus Express science activities. Media organisations interested in attending the press conference are invited to register via the form attached below. Media that cannot attend will have the opportunity to follow the press conference via the following phone line: +33 1 58 99 57 42 (listening-mode only).The results presented at the press conference are embargoed until 28 November 19:00 CET. For more information ESA Media Relations Office Tel: +33 1 5369 7299 Fax: +33 1 5369 7690 Media event programme ‘Venus: a more Earth-like planetary neighbour’ Latest results from Venus Express 28 November 2007, 15:00, room 137 ESA Headquarters, 8-10 rue Mario-Nikis, Paris 15:00 Introduction, by Håkan Svedhem, ESA Venus Express Project Scientist 15:07 Venus: What we knew before, by Fred Taylor, Venus Express Interdisciplinary Scientist 15:15 Temperatures in the atmosphere of Venus, by Jean-Loup Bertaux, SPICAV Principal Investigator 15:25 The dynamic atmosphere of Venus, by Giuseppe Piccioni, VIRTIS Principal Investigator 15:40 Venus

  9. Venus Express en route to probe the planet's hidden mysteries


    reduced to once daily. If needed, trajectory correction manoeuvres can go ahead at the half-way stage in January. When making its closest approach, Venus Express will face far tougher conditions than those encountered by Mars Express on nearing the Red Planet. For while Venus's size is indeed similar to that of the Earth, its mass is 7.6 times that of Mars, with gravitational attraction to match. To resist this greater gravitational pull, the spacecraft will have to ignite its main engine for 53 minutes in order to achieve 1.3 km/second deceleration and place itself into a highly elliptical orbit around the planet. Most of its 570 kg of propellant will be used for this manoeuvre. A second engine firing will be necessary in order to reach final operational orbit: a polar elliptical orbit with 12-hour crossings. This will enable the probe to make approaches to within 250 km of the planet's surface and withdraw to distances of up to 66 000 km, so as to carry out close-up observations and also get an overall perspective. Exploring other planets to better understand planet Earth "The launch of Venus Express is a further illustration of Europe's determination to study the various bodies in our solar system", stressed Professor David Southwood, the Director of ESA's science programmes. "We started in 2003 with the launch of Mars Express to the Red Planet and Smart-1 to the Moon and both these missions have amply exceeded our expectations. Venus Express marks a further step forward, with a view to eventually rounding off our initial overview of our immediate planetary neighbours with the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2013." "With Venus Express, we fully intend to demonstrate yet again that studying the planets is of vital importance for life here on Earth", said Jean Jacques Dordain, ESA Director General. "To understand climate change on Earth and all the contributing factors, we cannot make do with solely observing our own planet. We need to decipher the

  10. NASA's Venus Science and Technology Definition Team: A Flagship Mission to Venus

    Bullock, Mark Alan; Senske, D. A.; Balint, T. S.; Campbell, B. A.; Chassefiere, E.; Colaprete, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Glaze, L.; Gorevan, S.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Hall, J.; Hartford, W.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Head, J. W.; Hunter, G.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W. S.; Kolawa, E. A.; Kremic, T.; Kwok, J.; Limaye, S. S.; Mackwell, S. J.; Marov, M. Y.; Ocampo, A.; Schubert, G.; Stofan, E. R.; Svedhem, H.; Titov, D. V.; Treiman, A. H.


    The Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) was formed by NASA to look at science objectives, mission architecture, science investigations, and instrument payload for a Flagship-class mission to Venus. This $3-4B mission, to launch in the 2020-2025 timeframe, should revolutionize our understanding of how climate works on terrestrial planets, including the close relationship between volcanism, tectonism, the interior, and the atmosphere. It would also be capable of resolving the geologic history of Venus, including the existence and persistence of an ancient ocean. Achieving all these objectives will be necessary to understand the habitability of extrasolar terrestrial planets that should be detected in the next few years. The Venus STDT is comprised of scientists and engineers from the United States, the Russian Federation, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Japan. The team began work in January 2008, gave an interim report at NASA headquarters in May, and will deliver a final report in December 2008. The Venus STDT will also produce a technology roadmap to identify crucial investments to meet the unique challenges of in situ Venus exploration. We will discuss the mission architecture and payload that have been designed to address the science objectives, and the methods we used. Most of the science objectives in the latest VEXAG white paper can be addressed by a Venus Flagship mission, and equally importantly, NASA can fly a large mission to another Earth-sized planet with the explicit intention of better understanding our own.

  11. The Surface of Venus After VIRTIS on Venus Express: Laboratory Analogs and the Venus Emissivity Mapper

    Ferrari, S.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Dyar, D. M.; Mueller, N.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.


    A combination of laboratory work and remote sensing will be able to determine the large-scale compositional variations of the surface of Venus and will provide valuable input for any landing site selections for future Venus lander missions.

  12. MESSENGER and Venus Express Observations of the Solar Wind Interaction with Venus

    Slavin, James A.; Acuna, Mario H.; Anderson, Brian J.; Barabash, Stas; Benna, Mehdi; Boardsen, Scott A.; Fraenz, Markus; Gloeckler, George; Gold, Robert E.; Ho,George C.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Raines, Jim M.; Sarantos, Menelaos; Solomon, Sean C.; Zhang, Tielong; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.


    At 23:08 UTC on 5 June 2007 the MESSENGER spacecraft reached its closest approach altitude of 338 kin during its final flyby of Venus en route to its 2011 orbit insertion at Mercury. The availability of the simultaneous Venus Express solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field measurements provides a rare opportunity to examine the influence of upstream conditions on this planet's solar wind interaction. We present MESSENGER observations of new features of the Venus - solar wind interaction including hot flow anomalies upstream of the bow shock, a flux rope in the near-tail and a two-point determination of the timescale for magnetic flux transport through this induced magnetosphere. Citation: Stavin, J. A., et al. (2009), MESSENGER and Venus Express observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus,

  13. Venus Express uurib Maa kurja kaksikut / ref. Triin Thalheim


    9. novembril startis Baikonuri kosmodroomilt Veenusele Euroopa Kosmoseagentuuri sond Venus Express, mis peaks planeedi atmosfääri sisenema aprillis. Teadlaste sõnul peab sondi saadetav info aitama mõista naaberplaneedi kliimat ja atmosfääri ning tooma selgust, kas Maa võib kunagi Veenuse sarnaseks muutuda. Lisaks joonis: Venus Express

  14. Magnetotellurics at Venus: What Venus Express and Pioneer Venus Tell Us about the Possibility of Electromagnetic Sounding of the Venus Crust

    Russell, Christopher T.; Zhang, Tielong L.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Luhmann, Janet G.; Villarreal, Michaela; Chi, Peter J.


    In late 2014, the Venus Express mission was allowed to drop its periapsis altitude into the Venus atmosphere, sufficiently low to penetrate below the maximum electron density of the ionosphere into the neutral atmosphere below. In this paper, we examine the observations in this region and assess if such observations could be used to sound the interior electrical conductivity of Venus. We conclude that the fluctuating field would only be useful for sounding with landers on the surface. However, it might be possible to sound the core using the draped magnetic field, an essentially static signature.

  15. Progress towards a post-Venus Express Clouds & Haze reference model for Venus

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Belyaev, Denis; Wilson, Colin; Wilquet, Valérie; Luginin, Mikhail


    With the end of Venus Express in 2014, the focus of the scientific community has gradually moved from the study of Venus Express mono-instrumental data sets to cross-instrumental studies involving pure modelization as well. This is especially true for the clouds and hazes that surround most of the planet between 48 and 70 km. They play a major role at the crossroads of various atmospheric processes among which the radiative budget as well as the dynamical and chemical coupling between the lower and upper atmosphere. In order to support such efforts, ISSI has supported from 2013 to 2015 a "Clouds & Hazes of Venus" scientific team involving Venus Express and ground-based observers as well as microphysical modelers. Together, they compared their results in order to achieve a more unified and consistent view of Venus' clouds and hazes, taking into account its spatial and temporal variability more in detail than previously available VIRA-1 and 2 cloud models. We will review the individual data sets and models that have been used, and then present our strategy towards a unified cloud model. We will first make available some observable parameters to the wider community through a web-based repository. Our future steps will involve more advanced techniques (data assimilation) in order to achieve our objective of a unified Venus clouds & haze model that encompasses its various variabilities as well as possible.

  16. Venus

    Martin, Paula; Stofan, Ellen


    On 8 June 2004 Venus will pass in front of the Sun as seen from the Earth. Many people will watch the small dark dot cross the solar disk, but will they stop to think about Venus as a real place? In this article we discuss what we know about Venus, what it looks like from orbit, what you might see if you were on the surface and future plans for…

  17. Measurements of minor species below the clouds of Venus using VIRTIS/Venus Express.

    Marcq, Emmanuel; Drossart, Pierre; Bézard, Bruno; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Henry, Florence; Reess, Jean-Michel


    VIRTIS spectral imager was part of Venus Express (2006-2014) payload. On the night side, it was able to analyse the thermal radiation near 2.3 μm originating from the deep atmosphere of Venus and leaking through its optically thick cloud layers [Tsang et al., 2008; Marcq et al., 2008] measuring various minor species in the 30-40 km altitude range: CO, OCS, H_2O, HDO, SO_2, HF. Most of VIRTIS data acquired since 2008 have not been processed until now. Yet a more complete analysis of this data set would be very interesting, especially in the context of two recent discoveries brought by other Venus Express instruments (SPICAV and VMC): the confirmation of the large spatial and temporal variabiliy of SO_2 above Venus's clouds top [Marcq et al., 2013], indicative of a dynamical coupling between the lower atmosphere reservoir and the lower mesosphere; the unexpected correlation between the low latitude topography and several observable parameters at cloud top level [Fedorova et al., 2015; Bertaux et al., submitted]: zonal wind speed, UV albedo, H_2O abundance. We will present here preliminary results about these new composition measurements with an emphasis put on the search for various correlations (latitude/longitude, local solar time, date, etc.)

  18. Results of the Venus Express Aerobraking Campaign

    Svedhem, Hakan; Müller-Wodarg, Ingo


    After a very successful mission orbiting Venus for more than 8 years, slowly the fuel is running out and the spacecraft will inevitably one day end up in the hot and acid atmosphere of the planet. Being near the end of the mission and in a position to accept some risk to the spacecraft we decided to take the opportunity to dip down deep into the atmosphere, to around 130 km, in a controlled manner, in order to make detailed in situ investigations of this for remote sensing instruments difficult to access region. The on board accelerometers gave direct measurements of the deceleration which in turn is directly proportional to the local atmospheric density. This provided an excellent way to study both the total density profile throughout the orbital arc in the atmosphere and small scale density variations in the region of the pericentre. The spacecraft behaved perfectly well throughout the whole campaign and provided a wealth of data both on the atmosphere and on the response of the spacecraft to the harsh environment with strong heat loads and some dynamic stress. At the time of the campaign the pericentre was located near the terminator at about 75 degrees Northern latitude. Aerobraking is a very efficient method of reducing the pericentre velocity and thereby reducing the apocentre altitude and the orbital period.The so called "walk-in" phase started at an altitude of 190 km on 17 May and the campaign ended on 11 July, after having reached a lowest altitude of 129.2 km. Subsequently, a series of orbit control manoeuvres lifted up the pericentre to 460 km altitude and the science activities were resumed after a thorough check-out of the spacecraft. We have detected a highly variable atmosphere, both on a day to day basis and within the individual pericentre passes. The duration of each pass was approximately 100 s and the maximum dynamic pressure achieved was more than 0.75 N/m2, probably a record for a spacecraft that continued its operation afterwards. The

  19. Low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region: Venus Express observations

    L. Guicking


    Full Text Available We investigate wave properties of low-frequency magnetic field fluctuations in Venus' solar wind interaction region based on the measurements made on board the Venus Express spacecraft. The orbit geometry is very suitable to investigate the fluctuations in Venus' low-altitude magnetosheath and mid-magnetotail and provides an opportunity for a comparative study of low-frequency waves at Venus and Mars. The spatial distributions of the wave properties, in particular in the dayside and nightside magnetosheath as well as in the tail and mantle region, are similar to observations at Mars. As both planets do not have a global magnetic field, the interaction process of the solar wind with both planets is similar and leads to similar instabilities and wave structures. We focus on the spatial distribution of the wave intensity of the fluctuating magnetic field and detect an enhancement of the intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and a strong decrease towards the terminator. For a detailed investigation of the intensity distribution we adopt an analytical streamline model to describe the plasma flow around Venus. This allows displaying the evolution of the intensity along different streamlines. It is assumed that the waves are generated in the vicinity of the bow shock and are convected downstream with the turbulent magnetosheath flow. However, neither the different Mach numbers upstream and downstream of the bow shock, nor the variation of the cross sectional area and the flow velocity along the streamlines play probably an important role in order to explain the observed concentration of wave intensity in the dayside magnetosheath and the decay towards the nightside magnetosheath. But, the concept of freely evolving or decaying turbulence is in good qualitative agreement with the observations, as we observe a power law decay of the intensity along the streamlines. The observations support the assumption of wave convection through the magnetosheath, but

  20. Analysis of Venus Express optical extinction due to aerosols in the upper haze of Venus

    Parkinson, C. D.; Bougher, S. W.; Schulte, R.; Gao, P.; Yung, Y. L.; Vandaele, A.; Wilquet, V.; Mahieux, A.; Tellmann, S.


    Observations by the SPICAV/SOIR instruments aboard the Venus Express (VEx) spacecraft have revealed that the upper haze (UH) of Venus, between 70 and 90 km, is variable on the order of days to weeks and that it is populated by two particle modes. Gao et al. (submitted, Icarus, 2013) posit that one mode is made up of cloud particles that have diffused upwards from the main sulfuric acid cloud deck below, while the other mode is generated in situ by nucleation of sulfuric acid droplets on meteoric dust. They also propose that the observed variability in the UH is caused in part by vertical transient winds. They test this hypothesis by simulating a column of the Venus atmosphere from 40 to 100 km above the surface using a model based upon the Community Aerosol and Radiation Model for Atmospheres (CARMA). In this work, we significantly extend the analysis using the new more detailed SOIR/VeRa VEx temperature profiles which better constrain the observed strong CO2 15-micron cooling emission and 4.3-μm near-IR heating in Venus' atmosphere (and consistent with Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) simulations of Brecht et al. (2011)). We discuss our new results in context of the recent VEx observations (Wilquet et al., Icarus 217, 2012) with an intercomparison with the PVO data. We will also discuss similarities and differences arising from the PVO and VEx epochs where they exist. Additionally we report on our efforts self-consistently applying the VTGCM to constrain the degree to which effects due to vertical transient wind simulations can establish variability timescales and number density profiles that match VEx observations.

  1. Venus Express observations of magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath

    Du, J.; Wang, C.; Zhang, T. L.; Volwerk, M.; Delva, M.; Baumjohann, W.


    Magnetic field fluctuations within a planetary magnetosheath play an important role in the solar wind interaction with the planet, since they can reconfigure the plasma flow and the magnetic field and transfer energy from the bow shock to the lower boundary. Many studies have been presented on the fluctuations in the terrestrial magnetosheath; however, hardly any studies have so far been carried out for Venusian magnetosheath fluctuations, except for Luhmann et al. [1983] and Vörös et al. [2008] who performed some case studies on the magnetosheath fluctuations at Venus. It was shown that the fluctuations are probably convected from the vicinity of the quasi-parallel bow shock along the streamlines. Based on the Venus Express observations in 2006 and 2007, we investigate the spatial distributions of magnetic field fluctuations in the Venus magnetosheath statistically.

  2. Venus Express Contributions to the Study of Planetary Lightning

    Russell, C. T.; Hart, R. A.; Zhang, T. L.


    Jupiter, and Saturn are expected to generate the electrical potential differences in their clouds sufficient to cause a breakdown in the atmosphere,creating a conducting path for the electric potential to discharge. This high-energy phenomenon creates a hot, high-pressure channel that enables chemical reactions not possible under usual local thermodynamic conditions. Thus it is of some interest to determine if lightning occurs in an atmosphere. While Venus is not usually considered one of the wet planets, lightning has been an object of interest since the Venera landers. It was observed with electromagnetic coils on Venera 11, 12, 13, 14 landers [2]. It was observed with a visible spectrometer on the Venera 9 orbits [1]. It was mapped during solar occultations by the electric antenna on the Pioneer Venus Orbiter [4]. These measurements revealed extensive lightning activity with an electromagnetic energy flux similar to that on Earth. However, the observations were limited in number in the atmosphere and to the nightside from orbit. In order to improve the understanding of Venus lightning, the Venus Express magnetometer was given a 128-Hz sampling rate that could cover much of the ELF frequencies at which lightning could be observed in the weak magnetic fields of the Venus ionosphere [5]. This investigation was immediately successful [3], but mastering the cleaning of the broadband data took several years to accomplish. Furthermore, the high polar latitudes of VEX periapsis were not the ideal locations to conduct the more global survey that was desired. Fortunately, after precessing poleward over the first few years the latitude of periapsis has returned to lower latitudes(Figures 1 and 2) and active electrical storms are now being studied. The charged constituent of the Venus atmosphere need not be water. In fact, we believe it is H2SO4 which polarizes much as water does and which freezes and melts at similar temperatures. If it is H2SO4, we would expect the

  3. Venus winds at cloud level from VIRTIS during the Venus Express mission

    Hueso, Ricardo; Peralta, Javier; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre


    The Venus Express (VEX) mission has been in orbit to Venus for almost four years now. The VIRTIS instrument onboard VEX observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. Images in the ultraviolet range are used to study the upper cloud at 66 km while images in the infrared (1.74 μm) map the opacity of the lower cloud deck at 48 km. Here we present our latest results on the analysis of the global atmospheric dynamics at these cloud levels using a large selection over the full VIRTIS dataset. We will show the atmospheric zonal superrotation at these levels and the mean meridional motions. The zonal winds are very stable in the lower cloud at mid-latitudes to the tropics while it shows different signatures of variability in the upper cloud where solar tide effects are manifest in the data. While the upper clouds present a net meridional motion consistent with the upper branch of a Hadley cell the lower cloud present almost null global meridional motions at all latitudes but with particular features traveling both northwards and southwards in a turbulent manner depending on the cloud morphology on the observations. A particular important atmospheric feature is the South Polar vortex which might be influencing the structure of the zonal winds in the lower cloud at latitudes from the vortex location up to 55°S. Acknowledgements This work has been funded by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  4. Atmospheric temperature in the Venus mesosphere, investigated by VIRTIS/Venus Express

    Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Piccioni, G.; Lebonnois, S.; Montabone, L.; Drossart, P.


    Atmospheric temperature, retrieved using remote sensing data acquired with the VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) instrument on board the European Venus Express mission, is presented for the night side of Venus both in the northern and southern hemispheres of the planet. The explored pressure range covers from 100 to 4 mbar, corresponding approximately to the altitude range from 65 to 80 km. Differences between the dusk and dawn sides are observed in the temperature values, the dawn being the coldest quadrant in the pressure range 100 to 12 mbar. The most important observed feature is the cold-collar region around 60-70°, which is 15 to 20 K colder than the temperature at the pole at 100 mbar (about 65 km), also showing a significant thermal inversion. A peculiar pattern of maxima and minima in temperature is observed at 100 and 12 mbar. The application of a global circulation model (Lebonnois et al., 2010) to our data allows to interpret the observed features as indication of diurnal and/or semidiurnal thermal tides (Migliorini et al., 2011).

  5. The Venus ground-based image Active Archive: a database of amateur observations of Venus in ultraviolet and infrared light

    Barentsen, Geert; Koschny, Detlef


    The Venus ground-based image Active Archive is an online database designed to collect ground-based images of Venus in such a way that they are optimally useful for science. The Archive was built to support ESA's Venus Amateur Observing Project, which utilises the capabilities of advanced amateur astronomers to collect filtered images of Venus in ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared light. These images complement the observations of the Venus Express spacecraft, which cannot continuously mon...

  6. Exploring Venus with high-altitude balloons: Science objectives and mission architectures

    Baines, Kevin; Limaye, Sanjay; Zahnle, Kevin; Atreya, Sushil K.

    Following the trailblazing flights of the 1985 twin Soviet VEGA balloons, missions to fly in the high atmosphere of Venus near 55 km altitude have been proposed to both NASA's Discovery Program and ESA's Cosmic Vision. Such missions would address a variety of fundamental science issues highlighted in a variety of high-level NASA-authorized science documents in recent years, including the Decadal Study, various NASA roadmaps, and recommendations coming out of the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG). Such missions would in particular address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state, including detailed measurements of (1) trace gases associated with Venus's active photoand thermo-chemistry and (2) measurements of vertical motions and local temperature which characterize convective and wave processes. As an example of what can be done with a small mission (less than 500M US dollars), the Venus Aerostatic-Lift Observatories for in-situ Research (VALOR) Discovery mission will be discussed. This mission would fly twin balloon-borne aerostats over temperate and polar latitudes, sampling rare gases, chemicals and dynamics in two distinct latitude regions for several days. A variety of scenarios for the origin, formation, and evolution of Venus would be tested by sampling all the noble gases and their isotopes, especially the heaviest elements never reliably measured previously: xenon and krypton. Riding the gravity and planetary waves of Venus, the VALOR balloons would sample the chemistry, meteorology and dynamics of Venus's sulfur-cloud region. Tracked by an array of Earth-based telescopes, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds would be measured with unprecedented precision. Such measurements would help to develop a fundamental understanding of (1) the circulation of Venus, especially its enigmatic super-rotation, (2) the nature of Venus's sulfur cycle, key to Venus's current climate, and (3) how Venus formed and evolved over the aeons.

  7. Investigation of air temperature on the nightside of Venus derived from VIRTIS-H on board Venus-Express

    Migliorini, A.; Grassi, D.; Montabone, L.; Lebonnois, S.; Drossart, P.; Piccioni, G.


    We present the spatial distribution of air temperature on Venus' night side, as observed by the high spectral resolution channel of VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer), or VIRTIS-H, on board the ESA mission Venus Express. The present work extends the investigation of the average thermal fields in the northern hemisphere of Venus, by including the VIRTIS-H data. We show results in the pressure range of 100-4 mbar, which corresponds to the altitude range of 65-80 km. With these new retrievals, we are able to compare the thermal structure of the Venus' mesosphere in both hemispheres. The major thermal features reported in previous investigations, i.e. the cold collar at about 65-70°S latitude, 100 mbar pressure level, and the asymmetry between the evening and morning sides, are confirmed here. By comparing the temperatures retrieved by the VIRTIS spectrometer in the North and South we find that similarities exist between the two hemispheres. Solar thermal tides are clearly visible in the average temperature fields. To interpret the thermal tide signals (otherwise impossible without day site observations), we apply model simulations using the Venus global circulation model Venus GCM (Lebonnois, S., Hourdin, F., Forget, F., Eymet, V., Fournier, R. [2010b]. International Venus Conference, Aussois, 20-26 June 2010) of the Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique (LMD). We suggest that the signal detected at about 60-70° latitude and pressure of 100 mbar is a diurnal component, while those located at equatorial latitudes are semi-diurnal. Other tide-related features are clearly identified in the upper levels of the atmosphere.

  8. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections observed by MESSENGER and Venus Express

    Good, S W


    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) observed by the MESSENGER (MES) and Venus Express (VEX) spacecraft have been catalogued and analysed. The ICMEs were identified by a relatively smooth rotation of the magnetic field direction consistent with a flux rope structure, coinciding with a relatively enhanced magnetic field strength. A total of 35 ICMEs were found in the surveyed MES data (primarily from March 2007 to April 2012), and 84 ICMEs in the surveyed VEX data (from May 2006 to December 2013). The ICME flux rope configurations have been determined. Ropes with northward leading edges were about four times more common than ropes with southward leading edges, in agreement with a previously established solar cycle dependence. Ropes with low inclinations to the solar equatorial plane were about four times more common than ropes with high inclinations, possibly an observational effect. Left and right-handed ropes were observed in almost equal numbers. In addition, data from MES, VEX, STEREO-A, STEREO-B ...

  9. Update of the Venus density and temperature profiles at high altitude measured by SOIR on board Venus Express

    Mahieux, A.; Vandaele, A. C.; Bougher, S. W.; Drummond, R.; Robert, S.; Wilquet, V.; Chamberlain, S.; Piccialli, A.; Montmessin, F.; Tellmann, S.; Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Bertaux, J. L.


    The SOIR instrument on board Venus Express regularly sounds the Venus atmosphere using the solar occultation technique. The density and temperature profiles are inferred from SOIR spectra recorded in the infrared. The method has been described in a previous publication (Mahieux et al., 2012. J. Geophys. Res. 117. doi:10.1029/2012JE004058.). This paper is devoted to the update of the VAST (Venus Atmosphere from SOIR measurements at the Terminator) compilation that was initiated in the above cited work, which gives the mean CO2 number density and temperature profiles for different latitude bins. The method has been improved and has been applied to more data. The new compilation which is given on the same latitudinal grid now distinguishes between the two sides of the terminator. The compilation also confirms the main thermal layering characteristics that were identified in the earlier version: the succession of a warm layer (230±30 K, 1-σ standard deviation) at a pressure level of 3.2×10-7 mbar (~140 km), a very cold layer (125±32 K) at 2.5×10-5 mbar (~123 km), a warm layer (204±17 K) at 0.01 mbar (~102 km) and finally a colder layer at 0.4 mbar (171±34 K, ~87 km). The layering of all the temperature profiles is explained by radiative rather than dynamical processes. The temporal temperature variation is larger than the mean latitudinal temperature variation. VAST is compared with temperature profiles obtained from other Venus Express instruments, VeRa and SPICAV-UV, and ground based measurements.

  10. Exploring Venus: the Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG)

    Ocampo, A.; Atreya, S.; Thompson, T.; Luhmann, J.; Mackwell, S.; Baines, K.; Cutts, J.; Robinson, J.; Saunders, S.

    In July 2005 NASA s Planetary Division established the Venus Exploration Analysis Group VEXAG http www lpi usra edu vexag in order to engage the scientific community at large in identifying scientific priorities and strategies for the exploration of Venus VEXAG is a community-based forum open to all interested in the exploration of Venus VEXAG was designed to provide scientific input and technology development plans for planning and prioritizing the study of Venus over the next several decades including a Venus surface sample return VEXAG regularly evaluates NASA s Venus exploration goals scientific objectives investigations and critical measurement requirements including the recommendations in the National Research Council Decadal Survey and NASA s Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap VEXAG will take into consideration the latest scientific results from ESA s Venus Express mission and the MESSENGER flybys as well as the results anticipated from JAXA s Venus Climate Orbiter together with science community inputs from venues such as the February 13-16 2006 AGU Chapman Conference to identify the scientific priorities and strategies for future NASA Venus exploration VEXAG is composed of two co-chairs Sushil Atreya University of Michigan Ann Arbor and Janet Luhmann University of California Berkeley VEXAG has formed three focus groups in the areas of 1 Planetary Formation and Evolution Surface and Interior Volcanism Geodynamics etc Focus Group Lead Steve Mackwell LPI 2 Atmospheric Evolution Dynamics Meteorology

  11. Venus Phasing.

    Riddle, Bob


    Presents a science activity designed to introduce students to the geocentric and heliocentric models of the universe. Helps students discover why phase changes on Venus knocked Earth out of the center of the universe. (DKM)

  12. The 2004 Transit of Venus as a Space Science Education Opportunity

    Odenwald, S.; Mayo, L.; Vondrak, R.; Thieman, J.; Hawkins, I.; Schultz, G.


    We will present some of the programs and activities that NASA and its missions are preparing in order to support public and K12 education in space science and astronomy using the 2004 transit of Venus as a focal event. The upcoming transit of Venus on June 8 offers a unique opportunity to educate students and the general public about the scale of the solar system and the universe, as well as basic issues in comparative planetology. NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum is offering a number of programs to take advantage of this rare event. Among these are a live web cast from Spain of the entire transit, a series of radio and TV programs directed at students and the general public, a web cast describing extra-solar planet searches using the transit geometry, and archived observations produced by public observatories and student-operated solar viewers. The NASA/OSS Education Forums will also partner with science museums, planetaria and teachers across the country to bring the transit of Venus 'down to Earth'. In addition to offering enrichment activities in mathematics and space science, we also describe collaborations that have yielded unique historical resources including online archives of newspaper articles from the 1874 and 1882 transits. In addition, in collaboration with the Library of Congress Music Division, we have supported a modern re-orchestration of John Philip Sousa's Transit of Venus March which has not been performed since 1883. We anticipate that the transit of Venus will be a significant event of considerable public interest and curiosity, if the newspaper headlines from the transit seen in 1882 are any indication.

  13. Distribution of sulphuric acid aerosols in the clouds and upper haze of Venus using Venus Express VAST and VeRa temperature profiles

    Parkinson, Christopher D.; Gao, Peter; Schulte, Rick; Bougher, Stephen W.; Yung, Yuk L.; Bardeen, Charles G.; Wilquet, Valérie; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Mahieux, Arnaud; Tellmann, Silvia; Pätzold, Martin


    Observations from Pioneer Venus and from SPICAV/SOIR aboard Venus Express (VEx) have shown the upper haze (UH) of Venus to be highly spatially and temporally variable, and populated by multiple particle size modes. Previous models of this system (e.g., Gao et al., 2014. Icarus 231, 83-98), using a typical temperature profile representative of the atmosphere (viz., equatorial VIRA profile), did not investigate the effect of temperature on the UH particle distributions. We show that the inclusion of latitude-dependent temperature profiles for both the morning and evening terminators of Venus helps to explain how the atmospheric aerosol distributions vary spatially. In this work we use temperature profiles obtained by two instruments onboard VEx, VeRa and SPICAV/SOIR, to represent the latitudinal temperature dependence. We find that there are no significant differences between results for the morning and evening terminators at any latitude and that the cloud base moves downwards as the latitude increases due to decreasing temperatures. The UH is not affected much by varying the temperature profiles; however, the haze does show some periodic differences, and is slightly thicker at the poles than at the equator. We also find that the sulphuric acid "rain" seen in previous models may be restricted to the equatorial regions of Venus, such that the particle size distribution is relatively stable at higher latitudes and at the poles.

  14. Mars Express and Venus Express Data Retention In-Flight Performance

    Lebrédonchel, J.; Rombeck, F.-J.


    Venus, Mars and Earth, three out of the four inner or 'rocky' planets of the Solar System, have a lot in common: a solid surface you could walk on, a comparable surface composition, an atmosphere and a weather system. European Space Agency (ESA) Mars Express (MEx) and Venus Express (VEx) pioneer scientific missions aim at exploring these two neighbours of the Earth, in order to enrich our knowledge of our planet and of the Solar System. Both projects are based on the same spacecraft bus, and in particular on 'sister' Solid State Mass Memory (SSMM) units, in charge of the acquisition, storage and retrieval of all on board data, relevant both to the platform and to the instruments. This paper recalls the common SSMM design and the inner fault tolerant memory array module architecture based on Computer Off The Shelf (COTS) Samsung 64 Mbit Synchronous Dynamic Random Access Memory (SDRAM) chips, and presents the comparative in-flight data retention performance for both MEx and Vex units, since their respective June 2003 and November 2005 launches. Both units have shown to successfully withstand the radiative deep space environment, including during the outstanding October 2003 solar flare, and no uncorrectable data corruption was ever reported. Beyond this stable retention performance over time, the memory scrubbing correctable error accounting feedback allows evaluating the deep space Single Event Upset (SEU) rates, to be compared with the theoretical SSMM radiation assessment as well as with other previous missions in-flight qualitative reference performance records, and finally enables to derive a couple of recommendations from the lessons' learnt.

  15. Future Venus exploration: mission Venera-D

    Zasova, Ludmila

    Venus was actively studied by Soviet and US missions in 60-90-th years of the last century. The investigations carried out both from the orbit and in situ were highly successful. After a 15-year break in space research of Venus, the ESA Venus Express mission, launched in 2005, successfully continues its work on orbit around Venus, obtaining spectacular results. However, many questions concerning the structure and evolutions of the planet Venus, which are the key questions of comparative planetology and very essential for understanding the possible evolution of the terrestrial climate, cannot be solved by observations only from an orbit. Venera-D includes orbiter, lander, subsatellite, long living station on the surface. Venera-D is focused for both in situ and remote investigations of Venus of surface and atmosphere, as well plasma environment and solar wind interaction. Practically all experiments for Venera-D, will be provided by international teams. A Russia-US Venera-D Joint Science Definition Team has been formed in February 2014 to recommend a possible collaborative and coordinated implementation by considering the common aspects of Venera-D mission as presently defined, as well as the Venus Climate Mission recommended by the US Academies Decadal Survey of Planetary Science and the Venus Flagship mission studied by NASA in 2009. The team will provide its report by March 2015 and will likely lead to a coordinated or joint call for instruements and/or mission elements.

  16. The Surface of Venus and Implications for its Geological and Geodynamical Evolution: The View Before Venus Express and Outstanding Questions for the Future

    Head, J. W.; Ivanov, M. A.; Basilevsky, A. T.


    thickness variations and mantle convection patterns. The relationships of major elements of global topography and the sequence of events in the observed geological history (as recorded by major geologic units and structures) suggest that much of the current long-wavelength topography of Venus (tessera highlands and lowlands with regional plains) may have formed prior to emplacement of regional plains and been preserved since that time. These observations may favor evolutionary geodynamic models that are characterized by changes in geological style and rates, and may involve non-linear heat loss mechanisms that could have profound influence on the atmosphere. Although the observed surface of Venus dates from relatively recent planetary history, comparative planetology permits inferences to be made about the major stages in the earlier history of Venus. The evolution of the understanding of the surface from early speculations to present observations and interpretations provides an important context for: 1) establishing the relationships of the surface of Venus to the nature of the atmosphere and its evolution as assessed by Venus Express, 2) the comparison of the geological features and history of Venus relative to the Moon, Mars, Mercury and the Earth, and 3) defining the major outstanding problems and questions to be addressed by future experiments and missions to Venus.

  17. Ionospheric inversion of the Venus Express radio occultation data observed by Shanghai 25 m and New Norcia 35 m antennas

    Electron density profiles of Venus' ionosphere are inverted from the Venus Express (VEX) one-way open-loop radio occultation experiments carried out by the Shanghai 25 m antenna from November 2011 to January 2012 at solar maximum conditions and by the New Norcia 35 m antenna from August 2006 to June 2008 at solar intermediate conditions. The electron density profile (from 110 km to 400 km), retrieved from the X-band egress observation at the Shanghai station, shows a single peak near 147 km with a peak density of about 2 × 104 cm−3 at a solar zenith angle of 94°. As a comparison, the VEX radio science (VeRa) observations at the New Norcia station were also examined, including S- and X-band and dual-frequency data in the ingress mode. The results show that the electron density profiles retrieved from the S-band data are more analogous to the dual-frequency data in terms of the profile shape, compared with the X-band data. Generally, the S-band results slightly underestimate the magnitude of the peak density, while the X-band results overestimate it. The discrepancy in the X-band profile is probably due to the relatively larger unmodeled orbital errors. It is also expected that the ionopause height is sensitive to the solar wind dynamical pressure in high and intermediate solar activities, usually in the range of 200–1000 km on the dayside and much higher on the nightside. Structural variations (“bulges” and fluctuations) can be found in the electron density profiles during intermediate solar activity, which may be caused by the interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere. Considerable ionizations can be observed in Venus' nightside ionosphere, which are unexpected for the Martian nightside ionosphere in most cases. (paper)

  18. Transformative ocean science through the VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada ocean observing systems

    Martin Taylor, S.


    The health of the world's oceans and their impact on global environmental and climate change make the development of cabled observing systems vital and timely as a data source and archive of unparalleled importance for new discoveries. The VENUS and NEPTUNE Canada observatories are on the forefront of a new generation of ocean science and technology. Funding of over $100M, principally from the Governments of Canada and BC, for these two observatories supports integrated ocean systems science at a regional scale enabled by new developments in powered sub-sea cable technology and in cyber-infrastructure that streams continuous real-time data to Internet-based web platforms. VENUS is a coastal observatory supporting two instrumented arrays in the Saanich Inlet, near Victoria, and in the Strait of Georgia, off Vancouver. NEPTUNE Canada is an 800 km system on the Juan de Fuca Plate off the west coast of British Columbia, which will have five instrumented nodes in operation over the next 18 months. This paper describes the development and management of these two observatories, the principal research themes, and the applications of the research to public policy, economic development, and public education and outreach. Both observatories depend on partnerships with universities, government agencies, private sector companies, and NGOs. International collaboration is central to the development of the research programs, including partnerships with initiatives in the EU, US, Japan, Taiwan and China.

  19. Maximilianus Hell (1720-1792) and the eighteenth-century transits of Venus : a study of jesuit science in Nordic and Central European contexts

    Aspaas, Per Pippin


    In the years 1761 and 1769, the planet Venus passed in front of the Sun as seen from Earth. In that century of Enlightenment, these events – known as transits of Venus – attracted massive interest from the entire world of learning. The monograph "Maximilianus Hell (1720-1792) and the Eighteenth-Century Transits of Venus. A Study of Jesuit Science in Nordic and Central-European Contexts" is a source-based, historical case study that aims to explore and contextualise Venus transit activities in...

  20. Habitats for life in the Venusian Environment? Can the VENUS EXPRESS payload answer?

    Muller, C.


    The Venusian conditions are unique in the solar system. Venus abounds in molecules which could feed a life form except that the usual missing factor, energy, is present in excessive amounts from both active geothermic phenomena and from the nearby solar radiation trapped in a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere. Its surface conditions are hotter than the best practiced in hospital sterilisation; volcanism injects highly toxic gases which in the absence of water can accumulate in the atmosphere. Its upper atmosphere lays bare to solar radiation with only carbon dioxide to act as a confirmed EUV filter, so any consideration of life might seem excessive compared to what was known from life on earth before extremophile bacterias were discovered in dark undersea high temperature sulphur rich volcanic vents. However, some regions of the atmosphere might show conditions similar to the earth surface and could be a habitat of earth like microbial life. A synergy between the different atmospheric instruments of the VENUS-Express payload: SPICAM, VIRTIS and PFS can provide the way to probe the actual environmental conditions of this region and to check its capabilities of preserving an extant life or providing nutrients to a new one.

  1. Scientists are from Mars, educators are from Venus: Relationships in the ecosystem of science teacher preparation

    Duggan-Haas, Don Andrew


    Great problems exist in science teaching from kindergarten through the college level (NRC, 1996; NSF, 1996). The problem may be attributed to the failure of teachers to integrate their own understanding of science content with appropriate pedagogy (Shulman, 1986, 1987). All teachers were trained by college faculty and therefore some of the blame for these problems rests on those faculty. This dissertation presents three models for describing secondary science teacher preparation. Two Programs, Two Cultures adapts C. P. Snow's classic work (1959) to describe the work of a science teacher candidate as that of an individual who navigates between two discrete programs: one in college science and the second in teacher education. The second model, Scientists Are from Mars, Educators Are from Venus adapts the popular work of John Gray to describe the system of science teacher education as hobbled by the dysfunctional relationships among the major players and describes the teacher as progeny from this relationship. The third model, The Ecosystem of Science Teacher Preparation reveals some of the deeper complexities of science teacher education and posits that the traditional college science approach treats students as a monoculture when great diversity in fact exists. The three models are described in the context of a large Midwestern university's teacher education program as that program is construed for future biology teachers. Four undergraduate courses typically taken by future biology teachers were observed and described: an introductory biology course; an introductory teacher education course; an upper division course in biochemistry and a senior level science teaching methods course. Seven second semester seniors who were biological Science majors were interviewed. All seven students had taken all of the courses observed. An organization of scientists and educators working together to improve science teaching from kindergarten through graduate school is also

  2. Electron optical study of the Venus Express ASPERA-4 Electron Spectrometer (ELS) top-hat electrostatic analyser

    The performance of the Venus Express (VEX) ASPERA-4 Electron Spectrometer (ELS) is different from the nominal response shown by the ASPERA-3 ELS aboard Mars Express due to machining tolerance. Up to now, the precise mechanism for this was unknown and, therefore, the results of the experimental calibration could not be supported with a theoretical understanding of the fundamental instrument science behind the device. In this study, we show that the difference is due to a misalignment of the inner hemisphere and a widening of the entrance aperture of the instrument. The response of the VEX ELS can be approximated by a combination of a vertical offset of the inner hemisphere of ≈0.6 mm and a lateral offset of less than 0.125 mm, combined with an aperture that is ≈0.54 mm wider than nominal. The resulting K-factor, geometric factor, energy resolution and peak elevation are in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Therefore, we now have a good agreement between both laboratory calibration data and computer simulation, giving a firm foundation for future scientific data analysis

  3. Priorities for Venus Exploration

    Glaze, L. S.; Beauchamp, P. M.; Chin, G.; Crisp, D.; Grimm, R. E.; Herrick, R. R.; Johnston, S.; Limaye, S. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Ocampo, A.; Thompson, T. W.


    Venus remains one of the most enigmatic bodies in our Solar System. Important questions remain regarding the origin and evolution of the atmosphere, the history of the surface and interior, and how the surface and atmosphere interact. In a broader context, understanding Venus has implications for understanding the evolution of terrestrial planets in our Solar System as well as for interpreting the growing set of observations of extra-solar planets. The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG), established in 2005, is chartered by NASA's Planetary Science Division and reports its findings to the NASA Advisory Council. Open to all interested scientists, VEXAG regularly evaluates Venus exploration goals, scientific objectives, investigations and critical measurement requirements, including especially recommendations in the NRC Decadal Survey and the Solar System Exploration Strategic Roadmap. At the last general meeting in November 2012, VEXAG resolved to update the scientific priorities and strategies for Venus exploration. To achieve this goal, three major tasks were defined for 2013, (1) update the document prioritizing Goals, Objectives and Investigations for Venus Exploration, (2) develop a Roadmap for Venus exploration that is consistent with VEXAG priorities as well as Planetary Decadal Survey priorities, and (3) develop a white paper on technologies for Venus missions. Proposed versions of all three documents were presented at the VEXAG general meeting in November 2013. Here, we present the findings and final versions of all three documents for community comment and feedback. A follow-on Workshop on Venus Exploration Targets is also being planned for the early summer of 2014. The workshop will provide a forum for the Venus science community to discuss approaches for addressing high priority investigations. Participants will be encouraged to present their ideas for specific targets on Venus (interior, surface and atmosphere) as well as to present specific data

  4. A new view of Earth's sister: Insights following nine years of Venus Express observations

    Titov, Dmitrij; Svedhem, Håkan; Drossart, Pierre; Taylor, Fredric W.; Zhang, Tielong; Barabash, Stas; Paetzold, Martin; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Vandaele, Ann C.; Wilson, Colin; Bertaux, Jean-Loup

    Since April 2006 ESA’s Venus Express has been performing a global survey of the remarkably dense, cloudy, and dynamic atmosphere of our near neighbour. The mission delivers comprehensive data on the temperature structure, the atmospheric composition, the cloud morphology, the atmospheric dynamics, the solar wind interaction and the escape processes. Vertical profiles of the atmospheric temperature show strong latitudinal trend in the mesosphere and upper troposphere correlated with changes in the cloud top structure and indicate convective instability in the main cloud deck at 50-60 km. Observations reveal significant latitudinal variations and temporal changes in the global cloud top morphology, which modulate the solar energy deposited in the atmosphere. The cloud top altitude varies from 72 km in the low and middle latitudes to 64 km in the polar region, correlated with decrease of the aerosol scale height from 4±1.6 km to 1.7±2.4 km, marking vast polar depression. UV imaging shows for the first time the middle latitudes and polar regions in unprecedented detail. The eye of the Southern polar vortex was found to be a strongly variable feature with complex dynamics. Solar occultation observations and deep atmosphere spectroscopy in spectral transparency windows mapped the distribution of the major trace gases H _{2}O, SO _{2}, CO, COS and their variations above and below the clouds, revealing key features of the dynamical and chemical processes at work. Tracking motions of cloud features provided the most complete characterization of the mean atmospheric circulation as well as its variability. Low and middle latitudes show an almost constant zonal wind speed at the cloud tops and vertical wind shear of 2-3 m/s/km. The zonal wind speed increased from 84±20 m/s to 110±16 m/s over the course of the mission. Towards the pole, the wind speed drops quickly and the vertical shear vanishes. The meridional poleward wind ranges from 0 at equator to about 15 m/s in

  5. In-Situ Exploration of Venus: Major Science Objectives, Investigations, and Mission Platform Options

    Baines, K. H.; Limaye, S. S.; Hall, J. L.; Atreya, S. K.; Bullock, M. A.; Crisp, D.; Grinspoon, D. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Russell, C. T.; Webster, C. R.; Zahnle, K. J.


    In-situ missions to Venus have been recommended by both the 2011 and 2003 Decadal Studies of the NRC and have been proposed numerous times to NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers programs as well as to ESA's Cosmic Vision program. Such missions would revolutionize our understanding of Venus, as they address key questions of Venus's origin, evolution, and current state via high precision measurements of (1) noble gases and their isotopes, and (2) reactive trace gases and aerosol associated with Venus's active photo- and thermo-chemistry and sulfur cycle, including components potentially responsible for the poorly-understood uv-absorbing haze layer. Fundamental questions, as promoted in recent VEXAG documents, include: (1) Did Venus, Mars, and Earth have a common origin? (2) What roles did comets from the outer Solar System play in delivering volatiles to Venus? (3) Did Venus once have and lose a global ocean? (4) How much has Venus outgassed, and what is the current rate of outgassing, particularly of sulfur, the major driver of Venus clouds? and (5) Through the deposition of energy within them, what role do these clouds play in (a) driving the cloud-level thermal structure and (b) generating and maintaining the super-rotating zonal windfield that covers the globe? Fundamental answers could be uniquely provided through in-situ sampling via mass spectrometry of the noble gases and their isotopes - in particular of the 8 stable Xe isotopes, the bulk abundances of Kr, and the 3 isotopes of Ne. Measurements of the relative abundances of the light isotopes of N, O, H, S and O, by, for example, tunable laser spectrometry, would provide additional insights into Venus's origin, surface outgassing and planetary escape. Such measurements could be performed by probes, landers, or balloons. On descent through the uv-absorbing layer and the surrounding H2SO4 cloud, each of these platforms could explore both the absorber and sulfur-cycle-associated reactive species and aerosols

  6. International Collaboration for Venus Exploration

    Cutts, James; Limaye, Sanjay; Zasova, Ludmila; Wilson, Colin; Ocampo, Adriana; Glaze, Lori; Svedhem, H.; Nakamura, Masato; Widemann, Thomas

    The Venus Exploration Analysis Group (VEXAG) was established by NASA in July 2005 to identify scientific priorities and strategy for exploration of Venus. From the outset, VEXAG has been open to the international community participation and has followed the progress of the ESA Venus Express Mission and the JAXA Akasuki mission as well exploring potential broad international partnerships for Venus exploration through coordinated science and missions. This paper discussed three mechanisms through which these collaborations are being explored in which VEXAG members participate One pathway for international collaboration has been through COSPAR. The International Venus Exploration Working Group (IVEWG) was formed during the 2012 COSPAR general assembly in Mysore, India. Another potentially significant outcome has been the IVEWG’s efforts to foster a formal dialog between IKI and NASA/PSD on the proposed Venera D mission resulting in a meeting in June 2013 to be followed by a discussion at the 4MS3 conference in October 2013. This has now resulted in an agreement between NASA/PSD and IKI to form a joint Science Definition Team for Venera D. A second pathway has been through an international focus on comparative climatology. Scientists from the established space faring nations participated in a first international conference on Comparative Climatology for Terrestrial Planet (CCTP) in Boulder Colorado in June 2012 sponsored by several international scientific organizations. A second conference is planned for 2015. The Planetary Robotics Exploration Coordinating Group (PRECG) of International Academy of Astronautics (IAA) the IAA has been focusing on exploring affordable contributions to the robotic exploration by non-space-faring nations wishing to get involved in planetary exploration. PRECG has sponsored a two year study of Comparative Climatology for which Venus is the focal point and focused on engaging nations without deep space exploration capabilities. A third

  7. In situ observations of waves in Venus’s polar lower thermosphere with Venus Express aerobraking

    Müller-Wodarg, Ingo C. F.; Bruinsma, Sean; Marty, Jean-Charles; Svedhem, Håkan


    Waves are ubiquitous phenomena found in oceans and atmospheres alike. From the earliest formal studies of waves in the Earth’s atmosphere to more recent studies on other planets, waves have been shown to play a key role in shaping atmospheric bulk structure, dynamics and variability. Yet, waves are difficult to characterize as they ideally require in situ measurements of atmospheric properties that are difficult to obtain away from Earth. Thus, we have incomplete knowledge of atmospheric waves on planets other than our own, and we are thereby limited in our ability to understand and predict planetary atmospheres. Here we report the first ever in situ observations of atmospheric waves in Venus’s thermosphere (130-140 km) at high latitudes (71.5°-79.0°). These measurements were made by the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) during aerobraking from 24 June to 11 July 2014. As the spacecraft flew through Venus’s atmosphere, deceleration by atmospheric drag was sufficient to obtain from accelerometer readings a total of 18 vertical density profiles. We infer an average temperature of T = 114 +/- 23 K and find horizontal wave-like density perturbations and mean temperatures being modulated at a quasi-5-day period.

  8. Venusian ion populations and bow shock as seen by the ASPERA-4 ion instrument on Venus Express

    Grande, M.; Whittaker, I.; Guymer, G.; Barabash, S.


    Introduction We examine ion populations at Venus. Previous models use magnetic crossing points to derive the bow shock position. The current work uses data from the ASPERA-4 (Analyser of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms) [1] instrument to measure ion populations and derive a bow shock position at Venus. Instrumentation The ASPERA-4 instrument flies onboard Venus Express (VEX) and is comprised of five different detectors (Barabash et al 2006 [1]). A neutral particle detector and analyser, an electron spectrometer and the Ion Mass Analyser (IMA) (ref). This paper uses the IMA instrument for all its data and an explanation of the specifications is required. The instrument is a top hat electrostatic analyser; it runs through voltages to scan look angles and also acceptance energies. In one look direction it scans through 96 different energy values before changing to the next. A full scan of all look directions and energies takes 192 seconds. Data Collection All data is weighed dependant upon its probability of the spacecraft measuring at a particular point and when fitted produces a value of 1.24 RV, somewhat closer distance for the sub solar point than previous authors - see figure 1. We separate the data according to slow or fast solar wind and not the similarities and differences in the results derived. The inbound and outbound bow shock crossings were taken by inspection of 106 orbits between November 2006 and February 2007. Any orbits where the crossing point was not clear or with data missing were ignored. The occupational probability is found from orbital mechanics. By setting up a grid and deriving the amount of time it takes to cross each square the probability as a whole can then be determined. Ion distribution plots Two dimensional maps of the ions are produced and the bow shock model overplotted to verify its accuracy, as shown in figure 3. The test of the bow shock is to place it upon real data and examine the fit. To do this ion distribution plots are

  9. Venus - summary and review of science research activities 1983-87

    The geology, geomorphology, and atmosphere of Venus are characterized on the basis of observations obtained with the Soviet Venera 15 and 16 spacecraft (including two international Vega balloon experiments), the Pioneer Venus Orbiter, and the Arecibo radio telescope during the period 1983-1986. Features discussed include impact craters, evidence of tectonic and volcanic activity, the high average age of the Venusian surface (apparently over 1 Gyr, indicating resurfacing rates much lower than on earth), and atmospheric temperature differences across the equator. 85 references

  10. Hydrogen density in the dayside venusian exosphere derived from Lyman-α observations by SPICAV on Venus Express

    Chaufray, J.-Y.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Quémerais, E.; Villard, E.; Leblanc, F.


    A series of observations of the venusian hydrogen corona made by SPICAV on Venus Express are analyzed to estimate the amount of hydrogen in the exosphere of Venus. These observations were made between November 2006 and July 2007 at altitudes from 1000 km to 8000 km on the dayside. The Lyman-α brightness profiles derived are reproduced by the sum of a cold hydrogen population dominant below ˜2000 km and a hot hydrogen population dominant above ˜4000 km. The temperature (˜300 K) and hydrogen density at 250 km (˜10 5 cm -3) derived for the cold populations, near noon, are in good agreement with previous observations. Strong dawn-dusk exospheric asymmetry is observed from this set of observations, with a larger exobase density on the dawn side than on the dusk side, consistent with asymmetry previously observed in the venusian thermosphere, but with a lower dawn/dusk contrast. The hot hydrogen density derived is very sensitive to the sky background estimate, but is well constrained near 5000 km. The density of the hot population is reproduced by the exospheric model from Hodges (Hodges, R.R. [1999]. J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8463-8471) in which the hot population is produced by neutral-ions interactions in the thermosphere of Venus.

  11. Hypothetical habitability of Venus

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    Hypothetical habitability of some of extrasolar planets is a fundamental question of science. Some of exoplanets possess physical conditions close to those of Venus. Therefore, the planet Venus, with its dense and hot (735 K) oxygen-free atmosphere of CO2, having a high pressure of 9.2 MPa at the surface, can be a natural laboratory for this kind of studies. The only existing data on the planet’s surface are still the results obtained by the Soviet VENERA landers in the 1970s and 1980s. The TV experiments of Venera-9 and 10 (October, 1975) and Venera-13 and 14 (March, 1982) delivered 41 panoramas of Venus surface (or their fragments). There have not been any similar missions to Venus in the subsequent 39 and 32 years. In the absence of new landing missions to Venus, the VENERA panoramas have been re-processed. The results of these missions are studied anew. A dozen of relatively large objects, from a decimeter to half a meter in size, with an unusual morphology have been found which moved very slowly or changed slightly their shape. Their emergence by chance could hardly be explained by noise. Certain unusual findings that have similar structure were found in different areas of the planet. This paper presents the last results obtained of a search for hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus.

  12. The Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM) Concept

    Helbert, J.; Wendler, D; Walter, I.; Widemann, Thomas; Marcq, Emmanuel; Maturilli, A.; Ferrari, S.; D'Amore, Mario; Müller, N; Dyar, Melinda D.; Smrekar, S.


    Based on experience gained from using the VIRTIS instrument on VenusExpress to observe the surface of Venus and the new high temperature laboratory exper- iments, we have developed the multi-spectral Venus Emissivity Mapper (VEM) to study the surface of Ve- nus. VEM imposes minimal requirements on the spacecraft and mission design and can therefore be added to any future Venus mission. Ideally, the VEM instrument will be combined with a high-resolution radar mapper to provide accurate topogra...

  13. The Role of Different Parameters in the Pressurant Budget of Venus Express and its Dynamic Evolution during the Mission

    Valencia Bel, F.; Lang, M.


    An insufficient amount of pressurant gas in the propulsion system or a working temperature in the pressurant tank outside the qualification limits can cause a decrease in the performance of the thrusters or even the loss of the mission. This paper presents an engineering tool used able to compute the Pressurant budget of a mission and the effects of influencing parameters. The updated tool allows to also compute the temperature, pressure and mass evolution inside the pressurant tank during the various mission phases. The tool has been used to verify the calculations done by Astrium Stevenage for Mars Express and Venus Express [1]. The pressurant gas used for both cases was helium. The tool permits to use other combinations of pressurant gases and propellants for different propellant systems (monopropellant and bipropellant systems).

  14. A Venus Flagship Mission: Exploring a World of Contrasts

    Senske, D.; Bullock, M.; Balint, T.; Benz, A.; Campbell, B.; Chassefiere, E.; Colaprete, A.; Cutts, J.; Glaze, L.; Gorevan, S.; Grinspoon, D.; Hall, J.; Hasimoto, G.; Head, J.; Hunter, G.; Johnson, N.; Kiefer, W.; Kolawa, E.; Kremic, T.; Kwok, J.; Limaye, S.; Mackwell, S.; Marov, M.; Peterson, C.; Schubert, G.; Spilker, T.; Stofan, E.; Svedhem, H.; Titov, D.; Treiman, A.


    Results from past missions and the current Venus Express Mission show that Venus is a world of contrasts, providing clear science drivers for renewed exploration of this planet. In early 2008, NASA's Science Mission Directorate formed a Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) to formulate science goals and objectives, mission architecture and a technology roadmap for a flagship class mission to Venus. This 3- to 4 billon mission, to launch in the post 2020 timeframe, should revolutionize our understanding of how climate works on terrestrial planets, including the close relationship between volcanism, tectonism, the interior, and the atmosphere. It would also more clearly elucidate the geologic history of Venus, including the existence and persistence of an ancient ocean. Achieving these objectives will provide a basis to understand the habitability of extra solar terrestrial planets. To address a broad range of science questions this mission will be composed of flight elements that include an orbiter that is highlighted by an interferometric SAR to provide surface topographic and image information at scales one to two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved by any previous spacecraft to Venus. Two balloons with a projected lifetime of weeks will probe the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere at an altitude of 50 to 70-km. In addition, two descent probes will collect data synergistic to that from the balloon and analyze the geochemistry of surface rocks over a period of hours. The technology road map focuses on key areas of science instruments and enabling engineering to provide greater in situ longevity in the hostile Venus environment.

  15. The Planet Venus

    Luhmann, Janet

    This book is not so much for the space scientist looking for background material for research as it is for one interested in the history of planetary exploration. The first half (˜100 pps) is devoted to studies of Venus before the space age, starting at several hundred years BC. It is obvious from the multitude of detailed descriptions of observers' accounts that considerable library research went into this section. While sometimes tedious, this chronology of Venus research is punctuated with amusing facts. While many may know about the Velikovsky theory of the cometary origin of the planet, few may know that Lowell drew pictures of Cytherian canals similar to the canals of Mars or that Frederick the Great of Prussia proposed to name the (once suspected) satellite of Venus D'Alembert, after the mathematician. An equally amusing appendix shows the ups and downs of the rotation period of this planet with the invisible surface. Much attention is focused on early telescope observations, the ashen light, and transits of Venus. At the end of this half, one appreciates that Venus has played a fairly important role in history in the areas of religion, science, and technology.

  16. Results from Multispectrum Retrieval of VIRTIS-M-IR Measurements of Venus' Nightside

    Kappel, David; Arnold, Gabriele; Haus, Rainer; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre


    A new retrieval approach is applied to Venus nightside measurements from VIRTIS-M-IR on Venus Express. This is used to improve former analyses in order to refine estimates on the surface emissivity and deep atmosphere of Venus.

  17. Dynamics and chemistry of Venus' large and complex cloud system : a science case for an in-situ long-term chemical laboratory

    Widemann, Thomas; Määttänen, Anni; Wilquet, Valérie; McGouldrick, Kevin; Jessup, Kandis Lea; Wilson, Colin; Limaye, Sanjay; EuroVenus Consortium, the


    The planet Venus is the closest to the planet Earth both geographically and geometrically, with an average solar distance only 0.3AU smaller than that of Earth and an equatorial radius that is only 5% smaller than Earth's. But the similarities appear to end there. How did the environments of Venus and Earth become so divergent? The answer to this question relies upon an understanding of Venus' origins, the nature of its present atmosphere, and the role that the clouds have played in evolution and current state of Venus. Venus' clouds are composed of highly concentrated solutions of sulfuric acid and water. The sulfuric acid is produced photochemically from reactions involving water vapor and various sulfur species such as SO2 in the upper atmosphere around 62 km. The region from 50-60 km altitude is convectively unstable, suggesting that most of the cloud formation here is convectively driven, as are cumulus clouds on Earth but with sulfuric acid taking the place of water as the main condensable species. The clouds of Venus are ubiquitous, play a significant role in the radiative balance of the planet, are used as tracers to probe the atmospheric circulation, and are a key part of a global sulfurohydrological cycle that redistributes key greenhouse gasses such as SO2 and H2O. Thus understanding the clouds of Venus holds the key to understanding how Venus itself came to be the world of extremes that it is today. ESA's Venus Express mission, launched in Nov. 2005, has significantly improved our knowledge about the atmosphere of Venus by providing global long-term remote sensing observations with complete coverage in latitude and local solar time. However major questions remain about key minor species and how they vary throughout the major atmospheric regimes in the upper atmosphere, near the cloud tops where photolysis and condensation processes occur, near the surface where coupling and interchange with the atmosphere occurs, and in the middle atmosphere where they

  18. Sampling the Cloudtop Region on Venus

    Limaye, Sanjay; Ashish, Kumar; Alam, Mofeez; Landis, Geoffrey; Widemann, Thomas; Kremic, Tibor


    The details of the cloud structure on Venus continue to be elusive. One of the main questions is the nature and identity of the ultraviolet absorber(s). Remote sensing observations from Venus Express have provided much more information about the ubiquitous cloud cover on Venus from both reflected and emitted radiation from Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) and Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) observations. Previously, only the Pioneer Venus Large Probe has measured the size distribution of the cloud particles, and other probes have measured the bulk optical properties of the cloud cover. However, the direct sampling of the clouds has been possible only below about 62 km, whereas the recent Venus Express observations indicate that the cloud tops extend from about 75 km in equatorial region to about 67 km in polar regions. To sample the cloud top region of Venus, other platforms are required. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) has been proposed previously (Landis et al., 2002). Another that is being looked into, is a semi-buoyant aerial vehicle that can be powered using solar cells and equipped with instruments to not only sample the cloud particles, but also to make key atmospheric measurements - e.g. atmospheric composition including isotopic abundances of noble and other gases, winds and turbulence, deposition of solar and infrared radiation, electrical activity. The conceptual design of such a vehicle can carry a much more massive payload than any other platform, and can be controlled to sample different altitudes and day and night hemispheres. Thus, detailed observations of the surface using a miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar are possible. Data relay to Earth will need an orbiter, preferably in a low inclination orbit, depending on the latitude region selected for emphasis. Since the vehicle has a large surface area, thermal loads on entry are low, enabling deployment without the use of an aeroshell. Flight characteristics of such a vehicle have been

  19. Some questions about the Venus atmosphere from past measurements

    Limaye, Sanjay


    The many missions undertaken in the past half a century to explore Venus with fly-by spacecraft, orbiters, descending probes, landers and floating balloons, have provided us with a wealth of data. These data have been supplemented by many ground based observations at reflected solar wavelengths, short and long wave infrared to radio waves. Inter-comparison of the results from such measurements provide a good general idea of the global atmosphere. However, re-visiting these observations also raises some questions about the atmosphere that have not received much attention lately but deserve to be explored and considered for future measurements.These questions are about the precise atmospheric composition in the deep atmosphere, the atmospheric state in the lower atmosphere, the static stability of the lower atmosphere, the clouds and hazes, the nature of the ultraviolet absorber and wind speed and direction near the surface from equator to the pole. The answers to these questions are important for a better understanding of Venus, its weather and climate. The measurements required to answer these questions require careful and sustained observations within the atmosphere and from surface based stations. Some of these measurements should and can be made by large missions such as Venera-D (Russia), Venus Climate Mission (Visions and Voyages - Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2013-2022 or the Venus Flagship Design Reference Mission (NASA) which have been studied in recent years, but some have not been addressed in such studies. For example, the fact that the two primary constituents of the Venus atmosphere - Carbon Dioxide and Nitrogen are supercritical has not been considered so far. It is only recently that properties of binary supercritical fluids are being studied theoretically and laboratory validation is needed.With the end of monitoring of Venus by Venus Express orbiter in November 2014 after nearly a decade of observations and the imminent insertion of JAXA

  20. Exploring the surface of Venus

    Helbert, J.; Mueller, N. T.; Smrekar, S. E.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.


    The VIRTIS instrument on the ESA mission Venus Express has produced the first in-orbit mapping of the surface of Venus using the atmospheric windows near 1 micron. Based on the data returned by VIRTIS a map of surface brightness variations could be obtained which are indicative of emissivity variations on the surface. The mapping in general indiactes three surface types, characterized by average, increased and decreased emissivity. These surface types show a good correlation with geological units identified by radar mapping. In general high emissivity units are found on very fresh lava flows, while tesserae terrain is typically associated with the low emissivity unit. This completely new dataset, that is highly complementary to the geological mapping based on radar data can provide significant support for the design and planning of future missions to Venus. For the first time there are strong indications for the heterogeneity of the surface composition of Venus. This is not only important for the selection of potential landing sites, but can provide important insights in the evolution of Venus. To support the mapping activity and the instrument development for future Venus missions we have started to obtain high temperature emissivity spectra of analog materials at Venus surface temperatures. This laboratory measurements will provide for the first time realistic near infrared spectral data for the surface of Venus. Obtaining data of samples at 500°C and taking emissivity measurements at 1 micron is a very challenging task. After more than 3 years of preparation the setup at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory in Berlin is near completion and first test measurements have been obtained successfully.

  1. In-situ exploration of Venus on a global scale : direct measurements of origins and evolution, meterology, dynamics, and chemistry by a long-duration aerial science station

    Baines, Kevin H.; Atreya, Sushi; Carlson, Robert W.; Chutjian, Ara; Crisp, David; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Jones, Dayton L.; Kerzhanovich, Victor V.; Limaye, Sanjay S.


    Drifting in the strong winds of Venus under benign Earth-like temperature and pressure conditions, an instrumented balloon-borne science station presents a viable means to explore, in-situ, the Venusian atmosphere on a global scale. Flying over the ground at speeds exceeding 240 km/hour while floating in the Venusian skies near 55 km altitude for several weeks, such an aerostat can conduct a 'world tour' of our neighboring planet, as it circumnavigates the globe multiple times during its flight from equatorial to polar latitudes. Onboard science sensors can repeatedly and directly sample gas compositions, atmospheric pressures and temperatures and cloud particle properties, giving unprecedented insight into the chemical processes occurring within the sulfuric clouds. Additionally, interferometric tracking via Earth-based radio observatories can yield positions and windspeeds to better than 10 cm/sec over one-hour periods, providing important information for understanding the planet's meridional circulation and enigmatic zonal super-rotation, as well as local dynamics associated with meteorological processes. As well, hundreds of GCMS spectra collected during the flight can provide measurements of noble gas compositions and their isotopes with unprecedented accuracy, thereby enabling fundamental new insights into Venus's origin and evolution.


    GERINI, Christian


    Pierre Bourdieu, Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, N° 2/3, 1976. Pierre Bourdieu, Article de Campagnes solidaires, n° 149, février 2001, mensuel de la Confédération Paysanne. Yves Gingras, Peter Keating, et Camille Limoges, Du Savant au Chercheur Entrepreneur, Revue Sciences Humaines, Hors série N°31, Décembre 2000-février 2001, p. 35. Andrei Sakharov, Science et Liberté, Discours du 27 septembre 1989, Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, Editions de Physique, Les Ulis, 1990, p. 18. Tho...

  3. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.


    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  4. The SPICAV-SOIR instrument probing the atmosphere of Venus: an overview

    Trompet, Loïc; Mahieux, Arnaud; Wilquet, Valérie; Robert, Séverine; Chamberlain, Sarah; Thomas, Ian; Carine Vandaele, Ann; Bertaux, Jean-Loup


    The Solar Occultation in the Infrared (SOIR) channel mounted on top of the SPICAV instrument of the ESA's Venus Express mission has observed the atmosphere of Venus during more than eight years. This IR spectrometer (2.2-4.3 μm) with a high spectral resolution (0.12 cm-1) combined an echelle grating with an acousto-optic tunable filter for order selection. SOIR performed more than 1500 solar occultation measurements leading to about two millions spectra. The Royal Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy (BIRA-IASB) was in charge of SOIR's development and operations as well as its data pipeline. BIRA-IASB carried out several studies on the composition of Venus mesosphere and lower thermosphere: carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen halide (HF, HCl, DF, DCl), sulfur dioxide, water (H2O, HDO) as well as sulphuric acid aerosols in the upper haze of Venus. Density and temperature profiles of the upper atmosphere of Venus (60 km to 170 km) at the terminator have been retrieved from SOIR's spectra using different assumptions, wherein the hydrostatic equilibrium and the local thermodynamical equilibrium in the radiative transfer calculations. These results allow us to produce an Atmospheric model of Venus called Venus Atmosphere from SOIR measurements at the Terminator (VAST). Data obtained by SOIR will also contribute to update the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA). Recently, the treatment of the raw data to transmittance has been optimized, and a new dataset of spectra has been produced. All raw spectra (PSA level 2) as well as calibrated spectra (PSA level 3) have been delivered to ESA's Planetary Science Archive (PDSPSA). Consequently the re-analysis of all spectra has been undergone. We will briefly present the improvements implemented in the data pipeline. We will also show a compilation of results obtained by the instrument considering the complete mission duration.

  5. Volcanic lightning on Venus and early Earth

    Airey, Martin; Aplin, Karen


    Lightning may have been crucial in the development of life, as it enables key chemical reactions to occur. We cannot directly observe early Earth's hot, CO2-rich, atmosphere; however, similar conditions exist today on Venus, where there may be volcanic and/or meteorological lightning. Recent observations made by ESA's Venus Express satellite have provided evidence for active volcanism [1-3] and lightning discharges [e.g. 4], which may be volcanic in origin. This study uses laboratory experiments to simulate ash generation and to measure its electrical charging under typical atmospheric conditions for Venus and the early Earth (specifically the Hadean eon, up to 4 billion years ago, and the Archean eon, from 4 billion to 2.5 billion years ago). Ultimately the work will address the following questions: (a) is volcanic activity a feasible mechanism for lightning generation on Venus and early Earth, (b) how would these extreme paleo-environmental conditions affect lightning, (c) can the similarities in atmospheric conditions inform us of planetary evolutionary concepts, (d) could volcanic lightning have been important in the emergence of life on Earth, and (e) what are the wider implications for the likelihood of the emergence of life on other planets? A 1-litre atmospheric simulation chamber will be used to simulate the high-pressure, high-temperature, CO2-dominated atmospheres of the surface of early Earth, and Venus at ~10 km altitude (~5 MPa, 650 K) (where ash plume-forming eruptions on Venus are more likely to occur [5]). The chamber contains temperature/pressure monitoring and logging equipment, a collision apparatus to generate the charged rock fragments, and electrodes for charge measurement with an electrometer [6]. The planned experimental programme will measure the effects of varying temperature, pressure, atmospheric, and sample composition under a range of conditions appropriate to Venus and early Earth. Comparative work with present day Earth conditions

  6. Venus in motion. [Mariner 10 television pictures

    Anderson, J. L.; Danielson, G. E.; Evans, N.; Soha, J. M.; Belton, M. J. S.


    A comprehensive set of television pictures of Venus taken by the Mariner 10 spacecraft is presented. Included is a chronological sequence of television images illustrating the development, variety, and circulation of Venus upper-atmospheric phenomena as viewed in the near-ultraviolet. The higher-resolution images have been assembled into global mosaics to facilitate comparison. Figures and tables describing the imaging sequences have been included to provide a guide to the more complete set of 3400 Venus images on file at the National Space Science Data Center.

  7. Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus Applications of Terrestrial Models to Our Sister Planet

    Bonnet, Roger-Maurice; Grinspoon, David; Koumoutsaris, Symeon; Lebonnois, Sebastien; Titov, Dmitri


    ESA’s Venus Express Mission has monitored Venus since April 2006, and scientists worldwide have used mathematical models to investigate its atmosphere and model its circulation. This book summarizes recent work to explore and understand the climate of the planet through a research program under the auspices of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland. Some of the unique elements that are discussed are the anomalies with Venus’ surface temperature (the huge greenhouse effect causes the surface to rise to 460°C, without which would plummet as low as -40°C), its unusual lack of solar radiation (despite being closer to the Sun, Venus receives less solar radiation than Earth due to its dense cloud cover reflecting 76% back) and the juxtaposition of its atmosphere and planetary rotation (wind speeds can climb up to 200 m/s, much faster than Venus’ sidereal day of 243 Earth-days).

  8. Studying Venus' atmosphere and ionosphere with Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE)

    Bocanegra-Bahamon, T. M.; Cimo, G.; Duev, D. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Marty, J. Ch.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Rosenblatt, P.


    The Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a technique that can provide a multi-disciplinary enhancement of the science return of planetary missions. By performing precise Doppler tracking of a spacecraft carrier radio signal, at Earth-based radio telescopes, and VLBI-style processing of these signals in phase-referencing mode, the technique allows the determination of the radial velocity and lateral coordinates of the spacecraft with very high accuracy[1]. Because of the accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of planetary research. The application of this technique for atmospheric studies has been assessed by observing ESA's Venus Express (VEX) during Venus occultation events in 2012 and 2014, and by participating in one of the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) campaigns in 2012. Both studies are contributing to the characterization efforts of the atmosphere and ionosphere of Venus. During the Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VExADE) campaigns VEX's orbit pericenter was lowered into an altitude range of approximately 165 to 175 km in order to probe Venus upper atmosphere above its north pole. The first VExADE campaigns were carried out between 2009-2010 using Doppler tracking data acquired by the VEX radio science experiment (VeRa), which provided the first in situ measurements of the density of Venus' polar thermosphere at solar minimum conditions [2]. In the December 2012 campaign the PRIDE-team participated by tracking VEX with several radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network (EVN) during pericenter passage. A Doppler frequency drop of ∼40 mHz was detected as VEX reached the lowest altitudes at around 170 km. The tracking data for each pericenter pass is fitted for precise orbit determination, from which drag acceleration estimates and the

  9. The Atmosphere and Climate of Venus

    Bullock, M. A.; Grinspoon, D. H.

    Venus lies just sunward of the inner edge of the Sun's habitable zone. Liquid water is not stable. Like Earth and Mars, Venus probably accreted at least an ocean's worth of water, although there are alternative scenarios. The loss of this water led to the massive, dry CO2 atmosphere, extensive H2SO4 clouds (at least some of the time), and an intense CO2 greenhouse effect. This chapter describes the current understanding of Venus' atmosphere, established from the data of dozens of spacecraft and atmospheric probe missions since 1962, and by telescopic observations since the nineteenth century. Theoretical work to model the temperature, chemistry, and circulation of Venus' atmosphere is largely based on analogous models developed in the Earth sciences. We discuss the data and modeling used to understand the temperature structure of the atmosphere, as well as its composition, cloud structure, and general circulation. We address what is known and theorized about the origin and early evolution of Venus' atmosphere. It is widely understood that Venus' dense CO2 atmosphere is the ultimate result of the loss of an ocean to space, but the timing of major transitions in Venus' climate is very poorly constrained by the available data. At present, the bright clouds allow only 20% of the sunlight to drive the energy balance and therefore determine conditions at Venus' surface. Like Earth and Mars, differential heating between the equator and poles drives the atmospheric circulation. Condensable species in the atmosphere create clouds and hazes that drive feedbacks that alter radiative forcing. Also in common with Earth and Mars, the loss of light, volatile elements to space produces long-term changes in composition and chemistry. As on Earth, geologic processes are most likely modifying the atmosphere and clouds by injecting gases from volcanos as well as directly through chemical reactions with the surface. The sensitivity of Venus' atmospheric energy balance is quantified in

  10. Hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus

    Ksanfomality, L. V.


    Hypothetical habitability of some of extrasolar planets is a fundamental question of science. Some of exoplanets possess physical conditions close to those of Venus. Therefore, the planet Venus, with its dense and hot (735 K) oxygen-free atmosphere of CO2, having a high pressure of 9.2 MPa at the surface, can be a natural laboratory for this kind of studies. The only existing data on the planet's surface are still the results obtained by the Soviet VENERA landers in the 1970s and 1980s. The TV experiments of Venera-9 and 10 (October, 1975) and Venera-13 and 14 (March, 1982) delivered 41 panoramas of Venus surface (or their fragments). There have not been any similar missions to Venus in the subsequent 39 and 32 years. In the absence of new landing missions to Venus, the VENERA panoramas have been re-processed. The results of these missions are studied anew. A dozen of relatively large objects, from a decimeter to half a meter in size, with an unusual morphology have been found which moved very slowly or changed slightly their shape. Their emergence by chance could hardly be explained by noise. Certain unusual findings that have similar structure were found in different areas of the planet. This paper presents the last results obtained of a search for hypothetical flora and fauna of Venus.

  11. Solar wind interaction with Venus and impact on its atmosphere

    Barabash, S.; Futaana, Y.; Wieser, G. S.; Luhmann, J.


    We present a review of the solar wind interaction with Venus and how the interaction affects the Venusian atmosphere. The Venus Express observations for more than 8 years (2005-present) and quantitatively new simulation codes substantially advanced physical understanding of the plasma processes in the near-Venus space since the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) mission (1978-1992). The near-Venus space can be divided into several plasma domains: the magnetotail with the plasmasheet, induced magnetosphere, and magnetosheath. The bow shock separates the undisturbed solar wind from the Venus-affected environment. We review the shapes and positions of the boundaries enveloping the main domains and discuss how they are formed by the current systems and pressure balance. In particular, we discuss the morphology and dynamics of the near-Venus magnetotail that was not accessible by PVO. Using the unique Venus Express measurements we discuss the ion acceleration processes and their links to the ionosphere. The focus is given to the Venus' atmosphere erosion associated with the solar wind interaction, both through the energy (ion acceleration) and momentum (atmospheric sputtering) transfer. We review the measurements of the escape rates, their variability with the upstream solar wind conditions and the solar cycle. We emphasize the measurements duirng extreme solar wind conditions as an analogue with nominal conditions for the young Sun. The modeling efforts in this area are also reviewed as they provide a quantitatively approach to understand the impact of the solar wind interaction on the atmospheric evolution. Finally, we compare Venus with other planets of the terrestrial planet group, the Earth and Mars. The Earth, a twin planet of the similar size, is magnetized. Mars, an unmagnetized planet like Venus, possesses by far weaker gravitation to hold its atmospheric gasses. This comparative magnetosphere approach based on the natural solar system laboratory of experiments gives

  12. The Venus Hypothesis

    Cartwright, Annabel


    Current models indicate that Venus may have been habitable. Complex life may have evolved on the highly irradiated Venus, and transferred to Earth on asteroids. This model fits the pattern of pulses of highly developed life appearing, diversifying and going extinct with astonishing rapidity through the Cambrian and Ordovician periods, and also explains the extraordinary genetic variety which appeared over this period.

  13. High Temperature Mechanisms for Venus Exploration

    Ji, Jerri; Narine, Roop; Kumar, Nishant; Singh, Sase; Gorevan, Steven

    Frontiers AO release. Scalable high temperature motor, resolver and bearing developments allow for creation of long lasting sample acquisition systems, booms, robot arms and even mobility systems that operate outside of an environment-controlled landed platform on the surface of Venus. The SR and BLDC motors are no longer expected to limit the life of Venus surface operations. With the accompanying high temperature bearing and other mechanisms development, surface operations will be limited only by available power. Therefore, the motor and resolver's capability to survive for hours (and potentially longer) in the environment is a major benefit to future Venus science missions and they also allow time for communication ground loops to optimize sample target selection and the possibility for acquiring multiple samples from the surface. The extreme temperature motors, resolver and other high temperature mechanisms therefore revolutionize the exploration of Venus.

  14. AKATSUKI returns to Venus

    Nakamura, Masato; Imamura, Takeshi; Ishii, Nobuaki; Abe, Takumi; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Chikako; Satoh, Takehiko; Suzuki, Makoto; Ueno, Munetaka; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Iwagami, Naomoto; Watanabe, Shigeto; Taguchi, Makoto; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Yamada, Manabu; Imai, Masataka; Ohtsuki, Shoko; Uemizu, Kazunori; Hashimoto, George L.; Takagi, Masahiro; Matsuda, Yoshihisa; Ogohara, Kazunori; Sato, Naoki; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kouyama, Toru; Hirata, Naru; Nakamura, Ryosuke; Yamamoto, Yukio; Horinouchi, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Masaru; Hayashi, Yoshi-Yuki; Kashimura, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Ko-ichiro; Sakanoi, Takeshi; Ando, Hiroki; Murakami, Shin-ya; Sato, Takao M.; Takagi, Seiko; Nakajima, Kensuke; Peralta, Javier; Lee, Yeon Joo; Nakatsuka, Junichi; Ichikawa, Tsutomu; Inoue, Kozaburo; Toda, Tomoaki; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Tachikawa, Sumitaka; Narita, Shinichiro; Hayashiyama, Tomoko; Hasegawa, Akiko; Kamata, Yukio


    AKATSUKI is the Japanese Venus Climate Orbiter that was designed to investigate the climate system of Venus. The orbiter was launched on May 21, 2010, and it reached Venus on December 7, 2010. Thrust was applied by the orbital maneuver engine in an attempt to put AKATSUKI into a westward equatorial orbit around Venus with a 30-h orbital period. However, this operation failed because of a malfunction in the propulsion system. After this failure, the spacecraft orbited the Sun for 5 years. On December 7, 2015, AKATSUKI once again approached Venus and the Venus orbit insertion was successful, whereby a westward equatorial orbit with apoapsis of ~440,000 km and orbital period of 14 days was initiated. Now that AKATSUKI's long journey to Venus has ended, it will provide scientific data on the Venusian climate system for two or more years. For the purpose of both decreasing the apoapsis altitude and avoiding a long eclipse during the orbit, a trim maneuver was performed at the first periapsis. The apoapsis altitude is now ~360,000 km with a periapsis altitude of 1000-8000 km, and the period is 10 days and 12 h. In this paper, we describe the details of the Venus orbit insertion-revenge 1 (VOI-R1) and the new orbit, the expected scientific information to be obtained at this orbit, and the Venus images captured by the onboard 1-µm infrared camera, ultraviolet imager, and long-wave infrared camera 2 h after the successful initiation of the VOI-R1.

  15. Global scale concentrations of volcanic activity on Venus: A summary of three 23rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference abstracts. 1: Venus volcanism: Global distribution and classification from Magellan data. 2: A major global-scale concentration of volcanic activity in the Beta-Atla-Themis region of Venus. 3: Two global concentrations of volcanism on Venus: Geologic associations and implications for global pattern of upwelling and downwelling

    Crumpler, L. S.; Aubele, Jayne C.; Head, James W.; Guest, J.; Saunders, R. S.


    As part of the analysis of data from the Magellan Mission, we have compiled a global survey of the location, dimensions, and subsidiary notes of all identified volcanic features on Venus. More than 90 percent of the surface area was examined and the final catalog comprehensively identifies 1548 individual volcanic features larger than approximately 20 km in diameter. Volcanic features included are large volcanoes, intermediate volcanoes, fields of small shield volcanoes, calderas, large lava channels, and lava floods as well as unusual features first noted on Venus such as coronae, arachnoids, and novae.

  16. IGFBP7基因慢病毒载体的构建及在K562细胞中的表达%Construction of Venus Vector Carrying IGFBP7 Gene and Its Expression in K562 Cells

    吴水燕; 胡绍燕; 岑建农; 陈子兴


    The aim of this study was to construct venus vector carrying the gene encoding insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) , which provides an effective platform for exploring the function of this gene in leukemia. After digestion by restriction endonuclease, the IGFBP7 gene was recombined with the transfer plasmid. The venus particles were packaged using 293T cells to transinfect K562 cells, and identification was performed by means of flow cytometry, RT-PCR and Western blot. The results showed that the sequence of cloned IGFBP7 gene was the same as that in GenBank. The size of product restricted by BamH I was same as the predicted one. GFP expression was observed in 293 T and K562 cells with the fluorescent microscopy and flow cytomety. The expression level of mRNA and protein of IGFBP7 was confirmed by RT-PCR and Western blotting in K562 cells. It is concluded that venus vector carrying IGFBP7 gene has been successfully constructed and provides basis for exploring function of IGFBP7 in K562 cells.%本研究构建胰岛素样生长因子结合蛋白7( IGFBP7)基因的慢病毒载体,为研究该基因在白血病中的作用提供基础.采用限制性内切酶酶切获得目的基因,基因重组构建慢病毒载体质粒venus-IGFBP7,用293T细胞包装慢病毒颗粒,感染K562细胞,并采用多种方法鉴定.结果表明,所获IGFBP7基因经测序与GenBank比对序列一致,慢病毒载体质粒venus-IGFBP7经BamH Ⅰ酶切鉴定片段大小正确,荧光显微镜及流式细胞术检测到绿色荧光蛋白在293T及K562细胞中表达,RT-PCR和Western blot检测到IGFBP7 mRNA和蛋白在K562细胞表达.结论:成功构建带有IGFBP7基因的慢病毒载体,为研究IGFBP7基因在K562细胞中的作用奠定了基础.

  17. Transits of Venus and Mercury as muses

    Tobin, William


    Transits of Venus and Mercury have inspired artistic creation of all kinds. After having been the first to witness a Venusian transit, in 1639, Jeremiah Horrocks expressed his feelings in poetry. Production has subsequently widened to include songs, short stories, novels, novellas, sermons, theatre, film, engravings, paintings, photography, medals, sculpture, stained glass, cartoons, stamps, music, opera, flower arrangements, and food and drink. Transit creations are reviewed, with emphasis on the English- and French-speaking worlds. It is found that transits of Mercury inspire much less creation than those of Venus, despite being much more frequent, and arguably of no less astronomical significance. It is suggested that this is primarily due to the mythological associations of Venus with sex and love, which are more powerful and gripping than Mercury's mythological role as a messenger and protector of traders and thieves. The lesson for those presenting the night sky to the public is that sex sells.

  18. Venus Landsailing Rover Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The surface of Venus is the most hostile environment in the solar system, with a surface temperature hotter than an oven, and a high-pressure, corrosive...

  19. Venus Crater Database

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This web page leads to a database of images and information about the 900 or so impact craters on the surface of Venus by diameter, latitude, and name.

  20. Multilayer modeling of the aureole photometry during the Venus transit: comparison between SDO/HMI and VEx/SOIR data

    Pere, C; Widemann, Th; Bendjoya, Ph; Mahieux, A; Wilquet, V; Vandaele, A C


    The mesosphere of Venus is a critical range of altitudes in which complex temperature variability has been extensively studied by the space mission Venus Express (Vex) during its eight-years mission (2006-2014). Data collected at different epochs and latitudes show evidence of short and medium timescale variability as well as latitudinal differences. Spatial and temporal variability is also predicted in mesospheric and thermosphere terminator models with lower boundary conditions at 70 km near cloud tops. The Venus transit on June 5-6 2012 was the first to occur with a spacecraft in orbit around Venus. It has been shown that sunlight refraction in the mesosphere of Venus is able to provide useful constraints on mesospheric temperatures at the time of the transit. The European Space Agency's Venus Express provided space-based observations of Venus during the transit. Simultaneously, the Venus aureole photometry was observed using ground-based facilities and solar telescopes orbiting Earth (NASA Solar Dynamic O...

  1. Construction of pB2R-Venus eukaryotic expression vectors and its expression in HEK293T cells%pB2 R-Venus 重组真核载体的构建及在 HEK293T细胞中的表达

    季丙元; 程葆华; 王春梅; 陈京; 白波


    目的:构建带有黄色荧光蛋白突变体 Venus标签的人缓激肽2型受体(bradykinin receptor 2, B2R)真核表达载体,用于B2R与相关受体及蛋白的相互作用、B2R受体介导的信号转导机制的研究等。方法根据人B2R基因序列设计引物,以质粒pcDNA3.1-B2R为模板,PCR扩增目的基因人B2R。EcoRⅠ和BamHⅠ双酶切扩增产物及质粒pVenus-N1,经回收、连接、转化,获取重组质粒。对重组质粒进行酶切、测序鉴定。转染重组质粒至 HEK293T细胞,荧光显微镜观察受体B2R的细胞定位,蛋白印迹法检测目的蛋白人B2R蛋白的表达。结果 PCR扩增出了1条长度为1176 bp的基因片段,测序结果与GenBank (AY275465)相同。荧光显示B2R表达于质膜。Western blot结果显示,实验组蛋白印迹条带与目的蛋白大小相同,为44kDa。结论成功构建了pB2R-Venus重组真核表达载体,瞬时转染成功,获得了转染有重组质粒的HEK293T细胞。成功构建的重组质粒pB2R-Venus可用于后续BRET、FRET等实验研究,有助于B2R介导的信号转导机制的探讨和药物靶点的寻找。%Objective To investigate the interaction between B2R and other receptors ,and signal transduction mechanism ,human eukaryotic expression vector that bradykinin receptor 2 fused with Venus was constructed . Methods The primer was designed based on human B2R gene sequence ,and B2R gene was then amplified by PCR using plasmid pcDNA3 .1-B2R as template .The PCR product was digested by enzyme EcoRⅠand BamH ,and cloned into plasmid pV enus-N1 .The construct was identified by DNA sequencing .The recombinant plasmid was transiently transfected into HEK293T cells .Cell location and protein expression was detected by confocal microscopy and Western blot ,respectively .Results The fragment of 1176bp was amplified by PCR ,and its sequence was identical with the gene in Genebank (AY275465) .It is shown that the B2R expressed on

  2. Plate tectonics on Venus

    Anderson, D. L.


    The high surface temperature of Venus implies a permanently buoyant lithosphere and a thick basaltic crust. Terrestrial-style tectonics with deep subduction and crustal recycling is not possible. Overthickened basaltic crust partially melts instead of converting to eclogite. Because mantle magmas do not have convenient access to the surface the Ar-40 abundance in the atmosphere should be low. Venus may provide an analog to Archean tectonics on the earth.

  3. Plate tectonics on Venus

    Anderson, Don L.


    The high surface temperature of Venus implies a permanently buoyant lithosphere and a thick basaltic crust. Terrestrial style tectonics with deep subduction and crustal recycling is not possible. Overthickened basaltic crust partially melts instead of converting to eclogite. Because mantle magmas do not have convenient access to the surface the ^(40)Ar abundance in the atmosphere should be low. Venus may provide an analog to Archean tectonics on the Earth.

  4. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Yamauchi, M.; Y. Futaana; Fedorov, A.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Dubinin, E.; R. Lundin; Barabash, S.; Holmström, M.; Mazelle, C.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; T. L. Zhang; W. Baumjohann; A. J. Coates; Fraenz, M.


    Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6 similar to 20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2 similar to 6 times the solar wind energy) that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the ...

  5. Commissioning of the superconducting ECR ion source VENUS

    Leitner, Daniela; Abbott, Steve R.; Dwinell, Roger D.; Leitner, Matthaeus; Taylor, Clyde; Lyneis, Claude M.


    VENUS (Versatile ECR ion source for NUclear Science) is a next generation superconducting ECR ion source, designed to produce high current, high charge state ions for the 88-Inch Cyclotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. VENUS also serves as the prototype ion source for the RIA (Rare Isotope Accelerator) front end. The magnetic confinement configuration consists of three superconducting axial coils and six superconducting radial coils in a sextupole configuration. The nomi...

  6. Chandra Captures Venus In A Whole New Light


    conducted the research. The Chandra observation of Venus was also a technological tour de force. The angular separation of Venus from the Sun, as seen from Earth, never exceeds 48 degrees. This relative proximity has prevented star trackers and cameras on other X-ray astronomy satellites from locking onto guide stars and pointing steadily in the direction of Venus to perform such an observation. Venus was observed on Jan. 10, 2001, with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector plus the Low Energy Transmission Grating and on Jan. 13, 2001, with the ACIS alone. Other members of the team were Vadim Burwitz and Jakob Engelhauser, Max Planck Institute; Carey Lisse, University of Maryland, College Park; and Scott Wolk, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, Mass. These results were presented at this week's "New Visions of X-ray universe in the XMM-Newton and Chandra Era" symposium in Noordwijk, Netherlands. The Low Energy Transmission Grating was built by the Space Research Organization of the Netherlands and the Max Planck Institute, and the ACIS instrument was developed for NASA by The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala., manages the Chandra program. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, Mass.

  7. Venus Altitude Cycling Balloon Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ISTAR Group ( IG) and team mate Thin Red Line Aerospace (TRLA) propose a Venus altitude cycling balloon (Venus ACB), an innovative superpressure balloon...

  8. Limb imaging of the Venus O2 visible nightglow with the Venus Monitoring Camera

    Muñoz, A García; Sánchez-Lavega, A; Markiewicz, W J; Titov, D V; Witasse, O; Opitz, A


    We investigated the Venus O2 visible nightglow with imagery from the Venus Monitoring Camera on Venus Express. Drawing from data collected between April 2007 and January 2011, we study the global distribution of this emission, discovered in the late 70s by the Venera 9 and 10 missions. The inferred limb-viewing intensities are on the order of 150 kiloRayleighs at the lower latitudes and seem to drop somewhat towards the poles. The emission is generally stable, although there are episodes when the intensities rise up to 500 kR. We compare a set of Venus Monitoring Camera observations with coincident measurements of the O2 nightglow at 1.27 {\\mu}m made with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer, also on Venus Express. From the evidence gathered in this and past works, we suggest a direct correlation between the instantaneous emissions from the two O2 nightglow systems. Possible implications regarding the uncertain origin of the atomic oxygen green line at 557.7 nm are noted.

  9. Chasing Venus: Putting the Transits of Venus on Exhibition

    Brashear, R. S.


    The upcoming 2004 transit of Venus provides a great opportunity to develop programs to educate the public about the history of the observations of the transits. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries is well-placed to take part in this effort with its collection of rare books that deal with the 17th- and 18th-century transits. The exhibition called ``Chasing Venus" will be on display at the National Museum of American History, Behring Center, from March 2004 to April 2005. The Museum will loan a number of its 19th-century artifacts and the US Naval Observatory is also cooperating with the loan of a telescope and some rare books from the USNO Library to flesh out the story of the 19th-century transits. The talk will take a closer look at the books and artifacts that will be used to tell the history of the transit observations in the special context of a library exhibition. Books from a wide variety of authors such as Kepler, Horrocks, Capt. Cook, Rittenhouse, Mason & Dixon, and even John Philip Sousa (!) will help express the authors' excitement about the event to the public at large.

  10. Wireless Seismometer for Venus

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Clougherty, Brian; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Hunter, Gary W.


    Measuring the seismic activity of Venus is critical to understanding its composition and interior dynamics. Because Venus has an average surface temperature of 462 C and the challenge of providing cooling to multiple seismometers, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents progress towards a seismometer sensor with wireless capabilities for Venus applications. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by a 1 cm movement of a ferrite probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 80 MHz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator sensor system at 420 C, which correlates to a 10 kHz mm sensitivity when the ferrite probe is located at the optimum location in the coil.

  11. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    T. L. Zhang; W. Baumjohann; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S D


    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly e...

  12. About the various contributions in Venus rotation rate and LOD

    Cottereau, L; Lebonnois, S; Souchay, J


    % context heading (optional) {Thanks to the Venus Express Mission, new data on the properties of Venus could be obtained in particular concerning its rotation.} % aims heading (mandatory) {In view of these upcoming results, the purpose of this paper is to determine and compare the major physical processes influencing the rotation of Venus, and more particularly the angular rotation rate.} % methods heading (mandatory) {Applying models already used for the Earth, the effect of the triaxiality of a rigid Venus on its period of rotation are computed. Then the variations of Venus rotation caused by the elasticity, the atmosphere and the core of the planet are evaluated.} % results heading (mandatory) {Although the largest irregularities of the rotation rate of the Earth at short time scales are caused by its atmosphere and elastic deformations, we show that the Venus ones are dominated by the tidal torque exerted by the Sun on its solid body. Indeed, as Venus has a slow rotation, these effects have a large amplit...

  13. Venus ionopause during solar minimum

    Mahajan, K. K.; Mayr, H. G.


    Pioneer Venus ion composition measurements are used to study the Venus ionosphere during solar minimum. It is suggested that the topside electron density profile at Venus during solar minimum has two distinct regimes. One beween 140 and 180 km is dominated by O2(+) ions which are in photochemical equilibrium. The other regime is above 180 km and is dominated by O(+) ions which are disturbed by the solar wind induced plasma transport. For Pioneer Venus, Mariner 10, and Venera 9 and 10 data, it is found that Venus exhibits a photodynamical type of ionopause during solar minimum.

  14. VERITAS: A mission to study the highest priority Decadal Survey questions for Venus

    Smrekar, S. E.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Hensley, S.; Campbell, B. A.; Gilmore, M. S.; Phillips, R. J.; Zebker, H. A.


    The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR, Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission, a proposed NASA Discovery mission, seeks to produce high-resolution altimetry and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging, thermal emissivity, and an improved gravity field. VERITAS addresses the highest priority Decadal survey questions: 1) Did Venus host ancient aqueous environments? 2) Can understanding the roles of physics, chemistry, geology, and dynamics in driving planetary atmospheres lead to a better understanding of climate change on Earth? 3) How have chemical and physical processes operated, interacted, and evolved? Using an interferometric mapping radar, a near infrared spectrometer, and radio science experiment, VERITAS will examine 1) the similarity of tessera plateau formation to continents on Earth, 2) the current forces driving tectonics and volcanism, and, perhaps most importantly, 3) inform our understanding of how stagnant lid planets evolve. Data from VIRTIS on Venus Express show that the highly deformed tessera plateaus, possible remnants of a prior regime on Venus, may be more felsic in composition than the surrounding plains, supporting the hypothesis they are similar to Earth's continents. However this interpretation is equivocal due to uncertainty in the available altimetry. VERITAS is designed to collect data with sufficient resolution to answer this question definitively, and also aid in the assessment of tesserae as a touchdown point for a future lander. Similarly, the enormous rift zones and mountain belts are manifestations of global scale tectonics within the last billion years on Venus, but present data are not adequate to determine the driving forces or whether they are presently active. VERITAS will provide such data through fine-resolution topographic maps and, if possible, measurements of any current-day crustal deformation. Finally, current data are highly suggestive of recent and active volcanism. VERITAS observations can tell us if

  15. Venus Transit 2004

    Mayo, L. A.; Odenwald, S. F.


    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the astronomical unit, calculation of longitudes on the earth, and detection of Venus' atmosphere. The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum in partnership with the Solar System Exploration Forum, DPS, and a number of NASA space missions is developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in the US and Europe will offer real time viewing of the transit and conduct educational programs through professional development seminars, public lectures, and planetarium shows. We are interested in soliciting advice from the research community to coordinate professional research interests with this program.

  16. Robotic exploration of the surface and atmosphere of Venus

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    Venus, the “greenhouse planet,” is a scientifically fascinating place. The US National Academies of Sciences listed a Venus surface in situ explorer as one of the highest priority planetary science missions. A mission concept for a robotic mission to study the surface and atmosphere of Venus has been designed. The mission includes both surface robots, designed with an operational lifetime of 50 days on the surface of Venus, and also solar-powered airplanes to probe the middle atmosphere. At 450C, and with 90 atmospheres of pressure of carbon-dioxide atmosphere, the surface of Venus is a hostile place for operation of a probe. The mission design trade-off looked at three options for surface operation: developing technology to operate at Venus surface temperatures, using an active refrigeration system to lower the temperature inside a “cool electronics enclosure,” or developing a hybrid system, where the computer system and the most temperature-sensitive electronics are on an aerial platform at lower temperature, and less sophisticated surface electronics operate at the ambient surface temperature. This paper presents the mission objectives, discusses the technology options for materials, power systems, electronics, and instruments, and presents a short summary of the mission.

  17. Characterizing Volcanic Eruptions on Venus: Some Realistic (?) Scenarios

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Grinspoon, D. H.


    When Pioneer Venus arrived at Venus in 1978, it detected anomalously high concentrations of SO2 at the top of the troposphere, which subsequently declined over the next five years. This decline in SO2 was linked to some sort of dynamic process, possibly a volcanic eruption. Observations of SO2 variability have persisted since Pioneer Venus. More recently, scientists from the Venus Express mission announced that the SPICAV (Spectroscopy for Investigation of Characteristics of the Atmosphere of Venus) instrument had measured varying amounts of SO2 in the upper atmosphere; VIRTIS (Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer) measured no similar variations in the lower atmosphere (ESA, 4 April, 2008). In addition, Fegley and Prinn stated that venusian volcanoes must replenish SO2 to the atmosphere, or it would react with calcite and disappear within 1.9 my. Fegley and Tremain suggested an eruption rate on the order of approx 1 cubic km/year to maintain atmospheric SO2; Bullock and Grinspoon posit that volcanism must have occurred within the last 20-50 my to maintain the sulfuric acid/water clouds on Venus. The abundance of volcanic deposits on Venus and the likely thermal history of the planet suggest that it is still geologically active, although at rates lower than Earth. Current estimates of resurfacing rates range from approx 0.01 cubic km/yr to approx 2 cubic km/yr. Demonstrating definitively that Venus is still volcanically active, and at what rate, would help to constrain models of evolution of the surface and interior, and help to focus future exploration of Venus.

  18. From CERN to VENUS Express


    Participants in the 'Schweizer Jugendforscht' projects at CERN under the supervision of Günther Dissertori, professor at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zürich) and other members of ETH Zürich, Werner Lustermann and Michael Dittmar. In Switzerland, as in many other countries, this year has seen a long list of activities, celebrating the centenary of Einstein's 'Annus mirabilis'. Having formerly employed Einstein, the Swiss Federal Institute of Intellectual Property in Bern made its contribution by sponsoring a special 'study week' for young high-school students, under the tutorship of 'Schweizer Jugendforscht', an organisation which supports the scientific activities of very talented young people. The organisers chose 'Mission to Jupiter's Moon, Europa' as the general theme for this study week. From 2 to 8 October 2005 several groups of students (between 16 and 19 years old) had to investigate some mission-related questions, ranging from the choice of the orbit and different ways of explor...

  19. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  20. Plains Tectonics on Venus

    Banerdt, W. B.; McGill, G. E.; Zuber, M. T.


    Tectonic deformation in the plains of Venus is pervasive, with virtually every area of the planet showing evidence for faulting or fracturing. This deformation can be classified into three general categories, defined by the intensity and areal extent of the surface deformation: distributed deformation, concentrated deformation, and local fracture patterns.

  1. Venus transit 2004: An international education program

    Mayo, L.; Odenwald, S.


    December 6th, 1882 was the last transit of the planet Venus across the disk of the sun. It was heralded as an event of immense interest and importance to the astronomical community as well as the public at large. There have been only six such occurrences since Galileo first trained his telescope on the heavens in 1609 and on Venus in 1610 where he concluded that Venus had phases like the moon and appeared to get larger and smaller over time. Many historians consider this the final nail in the coffin of the Ptolemaic, Earth centered solar system. In addition, each transit has provided unique opportunities for discovery such as measurement and refinement of the detection of Venus' atmosphere, calculation of longitudes, and calculation of the astronomical unit (and therefore the scale of the solar system). The NASA Sun Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) in partnership with the Solar System Exploration (SSE) and Structure and Evolution of the Universe (SEU) Forums, AAS Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS), and a number of NASA space missions and science centers are developing plans for an international education program centered around the June 8, 2004 Venus transit. The transit will be visible in its entirety from Europe and partially from the East Coast of the United States. We will use a series of robotic observatories including the Telescopes In Education (TIE) network distributed in latitude to provide observations of the transit that will allow middle and high school students to calculate the A.U. through application of parallax. We will compare the terrestrial planets in terms of the evolutionary processes that define their magnetic fields, their widely differing interactions with the solar wind, and the implications this has for life on Earth and elsewhere in the universe. We will also use Venus transit as a probe of episodes in American history (e.g. 1769: revolutionary era, 1882: post civil war era, and 2004: modern era). Museums and planetariums in

  2. Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) for studying the thermosphere of Venus

    Bocanegra Bahamón, T. M.; Cimò, G.; Duev, D. A.; Gurvits, L. I.; Marty, J. C.; Molera Calvés, G.; Pogrebenko, S. V.; Rosenblatt, P.


    Planetary Radio Interferometry and Doppler Experiment (PRIDE) is a generic experimental setup of on-board and Earth-based radio devices and facilities, which serves as an enhancement of the science return of planetary missions. The main goal of this technique is to provide precise estimates of the spacecraft state vectors, by performing precise Doppler tracking of the spacecraft carrier signal, at one or more Earth-based radio telescopes, and VLBI-style correlation of these signals in phase referencing mode [1]. By allowing an accurate examination of the changes in phase and amplitude of the radio signal propagating from the spacecraft to the multiple stations on Earth, the PRIDE technique can be used for several fields of research, among them: atmospheric and ionospheric structure of planets and their satellites, planetary gravity fields, planets' shapes, masses and ephemerides, solar plasma and different aspects of the theory of general relativity. The PRIDE-team is participating in the so-called Venus Express Atmospheric Drag Experiment (VEx-ADE) campaigns by tracking ESA's Venus Express with multiple radio telescopes on Earth. During each campaign, VEX's orbit pericenter is lowered into an altitude range of approximately 165 to 175 km in order to probe Venus upper atmosphere above its north pole. The first VExADE campaigns were carried out between 2009-2010 using Doppler tracking data acquired by the VEX radio science experiment (VeRa), which provided the first in situ measurements of the density of Venus' polar thermosphere at solar minimum conditions [2]. The last campaign was conducted in December 2012, in which the PRIDE-team participated by tracking VEX with several radio telescopes from the European VLBI Network (EVN) during pericenter passage. A Doppler frequency drop of ∼40 mHz was detected as VEX reached the lowest altitudes at around 170 km. The tracking data for each pericenter pass is fitted for precise orbit determination, from which drag


    Kane, Stephen R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar [Department of Geosciences, Penn State University, 443 Deike Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    The field of exoplanetary science has seen a dramatic improvement in sensitivity to terrestrial planets over recent years. Such discoveries have been a key feature of results from the Kepler mission which utilizes the transit method to determine the size of the planet. These discoveries have resulted in a corresponding interest in the topic of the Habitable Zone and the search for potential Earth analogs. Within the solar system, there is a clear dichotomy between Venus and Earth in terms of atmospheric evolution, likely the result of the large difference (approximately a factor of two) in incident flux from the Sun. Since Venus is 95% of the Earth's radius in size, it is impossible to distinguish between these two planets based only on size. In this Letter we discuss planetary insolation in the context of atmospheric erosion and runaway greenhouse limits for planets similar to Venus. We define a ''Venus Zone'' in which the planet is more likely to be a Venus analog rather than an Earth analog. We identify 43 potential Venus analogs with an occurrence rate (η{sub ♀}) of 0.32{sub −0.07}{sup +0.05} and 0.45{sub −0.09}{sup +0.06} for M dwarfs and GK dwarfs, respectively.

  4. Innovative Seismological Techniques for Investigating the Interior Structure of Venus

    Stevenson, D. J.; Cutts, J. A.; Mimoun, D.


    The formation, evolution and structure of Venus remain a mystery more than fifty years after the first visit by a robotic spacecraft. Radar images have revealed a surface that is much younger than those of the Moon, Mercury and Mars as well as a variety of enigmatic volcanic and tectonic features quite unlike those generated by plate tectonics on Earth. To understand how Venus works as a planet it is necessary to probe the interior of Venus. To accomplish this seismology must play a key role. Conventional seismology employs sensors in contact with the planetary surface but for Venus theses sensors must tolerate the Venus environment (460oC and 90 bars) for up to a year. The dense atmosphere of Venus, which efficiently couples seismic energy into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, enables an alternative: detection of infrasonic waves in the upper atmosphere using either high altitude balloons or orbiting spacecraft. In June 2014, the Keck Institute for Space Studies (KISS) at the California Institute of Technology sponsored a one week workshop with 30 specialists in the key techniques and technologies that can bring these technique to readiness. In this paper, we describe the key synergies with earth science drawing on methods from terrestrial seismology and oceanography and identify key technical issues that need to be solved as well as important precursor measurements that should be made.

  5. Tectonics and composition of Venus

    The uncompressed density of Venus is a few percent less than the Earth. The high upper mantle temperature of Venus deepens the eclogite stability field and inserts a partial melt field. A thick basaltic crust is therefore likely. The anomalous density of Venus relative to the progression from Mercury to Mars may therefore have a tectonic rather than a cosmochemical explanation. There may be no need to invoke differences in composition or oxidization state

  6. Tectonics and composition of Venus

    Anderson, Don L.


    The uncompressed density of Venus is a few percent less than the Earth. The high upper mantle temperature of Venus deepens the eclogite stability field and inserts a partial melt field. A thick basaltic crust is therefore likely. The anomalous density of Venus relative to the progression from Mercury to Mars may therefore have a tectonic rather than a cosmo-chemical explanation. There may be no need to invoke differences in composition or oxidization state.

  7. The Oldest Rocks on Venus: the Importance of Tessera Terrain for Venus Exploration (Invited)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Glaze, L. S.


    Venus tessera terrain is a major, yet unsampled, tectonic unit on Venus characterized by multiple sets of intersecting compressional and extensional structures. Tessera terrain is temporally, morphologically, and perhaps also compositionally unique on Venus. Stratigraphic studies of tessera terrain establish that they consistently appear locally, and perhaps even globally, as the oldest material on a planet with an average surface crater retention age of ~500 million years. Thus, the tesserae provide the best chance to access rocks that are derived from the first 80% of the history of the planet, an era obscured by the emplacement of voluminous (presumably basaltic) plains. Analysis of Magellan imagery, topography and gravity data show that tessera terrain is characterized by higher strain rates and a thinner lithosphere than at present and thus records an extinct geodynamical era on Venus. Yet very little is understood about the number, morphology and stratigraphy of geologic units within tessera terrain, nor mass wasting processes operating on the surface. Improved radar imagery at the 5-25 m scale, and optical images below the clouds (surface will help assess the geologic processes operating in the pre-plains era. Such data products are also essential for judicious landing site selection, since tessera meter-scale roughness will limit landing site safety and sample access. Improved topography data are required to quantify the deformation recorded by ubiquitous tesserae structures that are finer than Magellan resolution. Tessera terrain is unsampled, but recent analyses of radiance from the surface at 1 micron using instruments on Venus Express and Galileo are consistent with felsic compositions for tesserae. Silicic compositions likely require both water and a plate recycling mechanism (e.g., subduction) for formation. The high D/H ratio of the Venus atmosphere is consistent with the loss of a significant inventory of water over the history of the planet. Felsic

  8. Magellan unveils Venus

    Lerner, E.J.


    Images obtained after an eight month Venusian year, during which the radar mapper Magellan surveyed nearly all of Venus, are described. It is observed that, instead of rigid plates moving as on earth, Venus appears covered with plumes of hot upwellings that dome out over hundreds or thousands of kilometers, feeding a continuous volcanic resurfacing of the planet. Although the Venusian surface is changing relatively rapidly by vulcanism and tectonic processes, the Magellan images make it clear that erosion is very slow. It is seen that some of the lava flows are highly fluid, etching narrow channels for hundreds of kilometers through the crust. Magellan also revealed some peculiarly Venusian formations, the tesserated areas where ridges and faults crosshatch the region into large blocks.

  9. Decadal Periodicities in a Venus Atmosphere General Circulation Model

    Parish, Helen; Schubert, G.; Covey, C.; Walterscheid, R.; Grossman, A.; Lebonnois, S.


    We have modified a 3-dimensional Earth-based climate model, CAM (Community Atmosphere Model), to simulate the dynamics of Venus' atmosphere. We have removed Earth-related processes and introduced parameters appropriate for Venus. We use a simplified Newtonian cooling approximation for the radiation scheme, without seasonal or diurnal cycles or topography. We use a high resolution (1 degree in latitude and longitude) to take account of small-scale dynamical processes that might be important on Venus. Rayleigh friction is used to represent surface drag and to prevent upper boundary wave reflection. The simulations generate superrotation at cloud heights with wind velocities comparable to those found in measurements. We find a significant decadal oscillation in the zonal winds at cloud top heights and below. A vacillation cycle is seen in the cloud top mid-latitude zonal jets which wax and wane on an approximate 10 year cycle. The decadal oscillations we find may be excited by an instability near the surface, possibly a symmetric instability. Analyses of angular momentum transport show that the jets are built up by poleward transport by a meridional circulation while angular momentum is redistributed to lower latitudes primarily by transient eddies. Observations suggest that a cyclic variation similar to that found in the model might occur in the real Venus atmosphere. Observations by Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Venus Express reveal variability in cloud top wind magnitudes and in the structure of Venus' cloud level mid-latitude jets with timescales of 5 to 10 years. Oscillations in CO composition and in temperature above the cloud tops also exhibit a periodicity around 10 years and changes in the atmospheric SO2 content over 40 years show a periodicity around 20 to 25 years. Venus' atmosphere must be observed over multi-year time scales and below the clouds if we are to understand its dynamics.

  10. Three ages of Venus

    Wood, Charles A.; Coombs, Cassandra R.


    A central question for any planet is the age of its surface. Based on comparative planetological arguments, Venus should be as young and active as the Earth (Wood and Francis). The detection of probable impact craters in the Venera radar images provides a tool for estimating the age of the surface of Venus. Assuming somewhat different crater production rates, Bazilevskiy et al. derived an age of 1 + or - 0.5 billion years, and Schaber et al. and Wood and Francis estimated an age of 200 to 400 million years. The known impact craters are not randomly distributed, however, thus some area must be older and others younger than this average age. Ages were derived for major geologic units on Venus using the Soviet catalog of impact craters (Bazilevskiy et al.), and the most accessible geologic unit map (Bazilevskiy). The crater counts are presented for (diameters greater than 20 km), areas, and crater densities for the 7 terrain units and coronae. The procedure for examining the distribution of craters is superior to the purely statistical approaches of Bazilevskiy et al. and Plaut and Arvidson because the bins are larger (average size 16 x 10(6) sq km) and geologically significant. Crater densities define three distinct groups: relatively heavily cratered (Lakshmi, mountain belts), moderately cratered (smooth and rolling plains, ridge belts, and tesserae), and essentially uncratered (coronae and domed uplands). Following Schaber et al., Grieve's terrestrial cratering rate of 5.4 + or - 2.7 craters greater than 20 km/10(9) yrs/10(6) sq km was used to calculate ages for the geologic units on Venus. To improve statistics, the data was aggregated into the three crater density groups, deriving the ages. For convenience, the three similar age groups are given informal time stratigraphic unit names, from youngest to oldest: Ulfrunian, Sednaian, Lakshmian.

  11. The VENUS detector at TRISTAN

    The design of the VENUS detector is described. In this paper, emphasis is placed on the central tracking chamber and the electromagnetic shower calorimeters. Referring to computer simulations and test measurements with prototypes, the expected performance of our detector system is discussed. The contents are, for the most part, taken from the VENUS proposal /2/. (author)

  12. The transit of Venus enterprise in Victorian Britain

    Ratcliff, Jessica


    In nineteenth century, the British Government spent money measuring the distance between the earth and the sun using observations of the transit of Venus. This book presents a narrative of the two Victorian transit programmes. It draws out their cultural significance and explores the nature of 'big science' in late-Victorian Britain.

  13. Venus mapper resolution

    Reichhardt, Tony

    NASA program managers for the Venus Radar Mapper (VRM) mission have decided to make improvements to the spacecraft's Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system that will increase its mapping resolution by one and a half times over the original design. The changes, including a doubling of the system's range bandwidth, will add a total of about $5 million to a project budgeted at $350 million. VRM is scheduled for launch toward Venus in April 1988 and will map more than 90% of the cloud-veiled planet's surface during its 8-month mission.The decision by the VRM program office at NASA headquarters in Washington was based on recommendations from the mission's project office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. When VRM was included as a new start in this year's NASA budget, the stated goals for the mission were to provide a near-global map of Venus at resolutions better than 1 km, or roughly equivalent to the resolution of the Mariner 9 mission that first revealed the geological richness of the Martian surface. The actual best radar resolution was to have been about 180 m (equivalent to an optical line-pair resolution of 360 m) attainable for more than half the surface of the planet. VRM will travel an elliptical orbit and so will only be able to map the surface for a fraction of each day. The highest resolutions will come in the equatorial regions when the spacecraft is closest to periapsis and the radar “look angles” are the greatest.

  14. The Venus-1 subcritical experimental assembly and experiment results

    In 1995, a research group is established in China, focusing on the topic of ‘Accelerator Driven System’ and the conceptual studies]. In 2000, a project of ‘major state basic research programme (973)’ in energy domain sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) started to investigate the ADS physics and the related technologies. At the present, the design, construction and preliminary experiments of the China’s ADS subcritical assembly (Venus-1) have been completed. Detailed description of the design parameter of Venus-1 and experiment results is given below

  15. Recent progress on the superconducting ion source VENUS

    Benitez, J.Y.; Franzen, K.Y.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Lyneis, C.M.; Phair, L.; Saba, J.; Strohmeier, M.; Tarvainen, Olli


    The 28 GHz Ion Source VENUS (versatile ECR for nuclear science) is back in operation after the superconducting sextupole leads were repaired and a fourth cryocooler was added. VENUS serves as an R&D device to explore the limits of electron cyclotron resonance source performance at 28 GHz with its 10 kW gryotron and optimum magnetic fields and as an ion source to increase the capabilities of the 88-Inch Cyclotron both for nuclear physics research and applications. The development a...

  16. EBTB Venus F


    EBTB Venus F是两分频音箱,对于家庭影院或者Hi-Fi来说都是一个不错的选择。采用悬吊式设计,可依照需求不同而增减音箱的数量,每一个音箱的角度都可独立调整,可以达到最大的投射涵盖范围,不论是作为公共广播或家用系统都非常适合,用途广泛。

  17. Dynamics of Venus' Southern hemisphere and South Polar Vortex from VIRTIS data obtained during the Venus Expres Mission

    Hueso, R.; Garate-Lopez, I.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.


    The VIRTIS instrument onboard Venus Express observes Venus in two channels (visible and infrared) obtaining spectra and multi-wavelength images of the planet. The images have been used to trace the motions of the atmosphere at different layers of clouds [1-3]. We review the VIRTIS cloud image data and wind results obtained by different groups [1-3] and we present new results concerning the morphology and evolution of the South Polar Vortex at the upper and lower cloud levels with data covering the first 900 days of the mission. We present wind measurements of the South hemisphere obtained by cloud tracking individual cloud features and higher-resolution wind results of the polar region covering the evolution of the South polar vortex. The later were obtained by an image correlation algorithm run under human supervision to validate the data. We present day-side data of the upper clouds obtained at 380 and 980 nm sensitive to altitudes of 66-70 km, night-side data in the near infrared at 1.74 microns of the lower cloud (45-50 km) and day and night-side data obtained in the thermal infrared (wavelengths of 3.8 and 5.1 microns) which covers the dynamical evolution of Venus South Polar vortex at the cloud tops (66-70 km). We explore the different dynamics associated to the varying morphology of the vortex, its dynamical structure at different altitudes, the variability of the global wind data of the southern hemisphere and the interrelation of the polar vortex dynamics with the wind dynamics at subpolar and mid-latitudes. Acknowledgements: Work funded by Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER support and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. References [1] A. Sánchez-Lavega et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L13204, (2008). [2] D. Luz et al., Science, 332, 577-580 (2011). [3] R. Hueso, et al., Icarus doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.04.020 (2011)

  18. Clouds and aerosols on Venus: an overview

    Titov, Dmitri; Ignatiev, Nikolay; McGouldrick, Kevin; Wilquet, Valerie; Wilson, Colin


    The past decade demonstrated significant progress in understanding of the Venus cloud system. Venus Express observations revealed significant latitudinal variations and temporal changes in the global cloud top morphology. The cloud top altitude varies from ~72 km in the low and middle latitudes to ~64 km in the polar region, correlated with decrease of the aerosol scale height from 4 ± 1.6 km to 1.7 ± 2.4 km marking a vast polar depression. The UV imaging shows the middle latitudes and polar regions in unprecedented detail. The eye of the Southern polar vortex was found to be a strongly variable feature with complex morphology and dynamics. Solar and stellar occultations give access to a vertical profiling of the light absorption by the aerosols in the upper haze. The aerosol loading in the mesosphere of Venus investigated by SPICAV experiment onboard Venus Express between 2006 and 2010 was highly variable on both short and long time scales. The extinction at a given altitude can vary with a factor of 10 for occultations separated by a few Earth days. The extinction at a given altitude is also significantly lower towards the poles (by a factor 10 at least) compared to the values around the equator, while there is apparently no correlation between the extinction and the latitude in the region comprised between ±40° around the equator. Based on the Mie theory and on the observed spectral dependence of light extinction in spectra recorded simultaneously in the UV (SPICAV-UV), in the near IR (SPICAV-IR), and in the short-and mid-wavelength IR (SPICAV-SOIR), the size distribution of aerosols in the upper haze of Venus was retrieved, assuming H2SO4/water composition of the droplets. The optical model includes H2SO4 concentrations from 60% to 85%. A number of results are strikingly new: (1) an increase of the H2SO4 concentration with a decreasing altitude (from 70-75% at about 90 km to 85% at 70 km of altitude) and (2) Many SOIR/SPICAV data cannot be fitted when using

  19. Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) at Venus

    Collinson, G. A.; Wilson, L. B.; Sibeck, D. G.; Shane, N.; Zhang, T. L.; Moore, T. E.; Coates, A. J.; Barabash, S.


    We present the first observation of magnetic fluctuations consistent with Short Large-Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) in the foreshock of the planet Venus. Three monolithic magnetic field spikes were observed by the Venus Express on the 11th of April 2009. The structures were approx.1.5->11s in duration, had magnetic compression ratios between approx.3->6, and exhibited elliptical polarization. These characteristics are consistent with the SLAMS observed at Earth, Jupiter, and Comet Giacobini-Zinner, and thus we hypothesize that it is possible SLAMS may be found at any celestial body with a foreshock.

  20. On the Geological History of Venus

    Basilevsky, A. T.; Head, J. W.


    of which is crucial for working out reliable geodynamic models of the evolution of this planet, we need to have isotopic dating for absolute ages of major geologic units. The most promising in this respect is a sample return mission to Venus aiming to return to Earth material of unit pwr [25]. References: [1] Saunders R.S. et al. (1992) JGR, 97, 13067- 13091. [2] JGR (1992) 97, E8, E10. [3] Venus II (1997) Univ. Arizona Press. 1362 p. [4] Tanaka K.L. (1994) USGS Open-File Report 94-438. [5] Basilevsky A.T. & McGill G.E. (2007) In: Exploring Venus as a Terrestrial Planet, Geophysical Monograph 176. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC. 23-44. [6] Wilhelms D. (1990) in Planetary Mapping, NY, 208-260. [7] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (1998) JGR, 103, 8531-8544. [8] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (2000) PSS, 48, 75-111. [9] Ivanov & Head J.W. (2001) JGR, 106, 17515-17566. [10] Guest J.E. & Stofan E.E. [1999] Icarus, 139, 55-66. [11] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (2002a) Geology, 30, 1015-1018. [12] Ivanov M.A. (2008) LPSC XXXIX, abs. # 1017. [13] Ivanov M. A. & Basilevsky A.T. (1993) GRL, 20, 2579-2582. [14] Namiki, N. & Solomon S.C. (1994) Science, 265, 929-933. [15] Price, M. & Suppe J. (1994) Nature, 372, 756-759. [16] McKinnon W. et al. (1997) Venus II, Univ. Arizona Press, 969-1014. [17] Gilmore M.S. et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 13,357-13,368. [18] Collins G.C. (1999) JGR, 104, 24,121-24,139. [19] Basilevsky A.T. et al. (1999) GRL, 26, 2593-2596. [20] Pivchenkova E.V. & Kryuchkov V.P. (2001) Vernadsky- Brown Microsymposium 34, abs. MS057. [21] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (2002b) JGR, 107, doi: 10.1029/2000JE001471. [22] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (2002c) JGR, 107, 10.1029/2001JE001584, 2002. [23] McGill G.E. (2004) Icarus, 172, 603-612. [24] Basilevsky A.T. & Head J.W. (2006) JGR, 111, CiteID E03006. [25] Basilevsky A.T. et al. (2006) PSS, 55, 2097-2112.

  1. Recent hotspot volcanism on Venus from VIRTIS emissivity data.

    Smrekar, Suzanne E; Stofan, Ellen R; Mueller, Nils; Treiman, Allan; Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Helbert, Joern; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre


    The questions of whether Venus is geologically active and how the planet has resurfaced over the past billion years have major implications for interior dynamics and climate change. Nine "hotspots"--areas analogous to Hawaii, with volcanism, broad topographic rises, and large positive gravity anomalies suggesting mantle plumes at depth--have been identified as possibly active. This study used variations in the thermal emissivity of the surface observed by the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on the European Space Agency's Venus Express spacecraft to identify compositional differences in lava flows at three hotspots. The anomalies are interpreted as a lack of surface weathering. We estimate the flows to be younger than 2.5 million years and probably much younger, about 250,000 years or less, indicating that Venus is actively resurfacing. PMID:20378775

  2. Stagnation Point Radiative Heating Relations for Venus Entry

    Tauber, Michael E.; Palmer, Grant E.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.


    Improved analytic expressions for calculating the stagnation point radiative heating during entry into the atmosphere of Venus have been developed. These analytic expressions can be incorporated into entry trajectory simulation codes. Together with analytical expressions for convective heating at the stagnation point, the time-integrated total heat load at the stagnation point is used in determining the thickness of protective material required, and hence the mass of the fore body heatshield of uniform thickness.

  3. Circulation of Venus upper mesosphere.

    Zasova, Ludmila; Gorinov, Dmitry; Shakun, Alexey; Altieri, Francesca; Migliorini, Alessandra; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Drossart, Pierre


    Observation of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus is one of the methods of study of the circulation in upper mesosphere 90-100 km. VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express made these observations in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. Global map of the O2 night glow is published (Piccioni et al. 2009). In this work we use for analysis only data, obtained with exposure > 3 s to avoid high noisy data. It was found that intensity of emission decreases to poles and to terminators (similar to Piccioni et al.2009) in both hemispheres, which gives evidence for existence of SS-AS circulation with transport of the air masses through poles and terminators with ascending/descending flows at SS/AS areas. However, asymmetry of distribution of intensity of airglow is observed in both hemispheres. Global map for southern hemisphere (from nadir data) has good statistics at φ > 10-20° S and pretty poor at low latitude. Maximum emission is shifted from midnight by 1 - 2 hours to the evening (22-23h) and deep minimum of emission is found at LT=2-4 h at φ > 20° S. This asymmetry is extended up to equatorial region, however statistic is poor there. No evident indication for existence of the Retrograde Zonal Superrotation (RZS) is found: maximum emission in this case, which is resulting from downwards flow, should be shifted to the morning. The thermal tides, gravity waves are evidently influence on the night airglow distribution. VIRTIS limb observations cover the low northern latitudes and they are more sparse at higher latitudes. Intensity of airglow at φ = 0 - 20° N shows wide maximum, which is shifted by 1- 2 h from midnight to morning terminator. This obviously indicates that observed O2 night glow distribution in low North latitudes is explained by a superposition of SS-AS flow and RZS circulation at 95-100 km. This behavior is similar to the NO intensity distribution, obtained by SPICAV.

  4. Crustal deformation: Earth vs Venus

    It is timely to consider the possible tectonic regimes on Venus both in terms of what is known about Venus and in terms of deformation mechanisms operative on the earth. Plate tectonic phenomena dominate tectonics on the earth. Horizontal displacements are associated with the creation of new crust at ridges and destruction of crust at trenches. The presence of plate tectonics on Venus is debated, but there is certainly no evidence for the trenches associated with subduction on the earth. An essential question is what kind of tectonics can be expected if there is no plate tectonics on Venus. Mars and the Moon are reference examples. Volcanic constructs appear to play a dominant role on Mars but their role on Venus is not clear. On single plate planets and satellites, tectonic structures are often associated with thermal stresses. Cooling of a planet leads to thermal contraction and surface compressive features. Delamination has been propsed for Venus by several authors. Delamination is associated with the subduction of the mantle lithosphere and possibly the lower crust but not the upper crust. The surface manifestations of delamination are unclear. There is some evidence that delamination is occurring beneath the Transverse Ranges in California. Delamination will certainly lead to lithospheric thinning and is likely to lead to uplift and crustal thinning

  5. Possible Signs of Fauna and Flora on Venus

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.; Selivanov, Arnold S.; Gektin, Yuryi M.


    Habitability of planets is a fundamental question of science. Some of exoplanets possess physical conditions close to those of Venus. The planet Venus, despite its dense and hot (735 K) oxygen-free atmosphere of CO2, having a high pressure of 9.2 MPa at the surface, can be a natural laboratory for this kind of studies. The only existing data on the planet’s surface are still the results obtained by the Soviet VENERA landers.The TV experiments of Venera-9 and 10 (October, 1975) and Venera-13 and 14 (March, 1982) delivered 41 panoramas of Venus surface (or their fragments). The experiments were of extreme technical complexity. There have not been any similar missions to Venus in the subsequent 40 and 33 years. In the absence of new landing missions to Venus, the VENERA panoramas have been re-processed by modern means. The results of these missions are studied anew. A dozen of relatively large objects, from a decimeter to half a meter in size, with an unusual morphology have been found which moved very slowly or changed slightly their shape. Certain unusual findings that have a structure similar to the Earth’ fauna and flora were found in different areas of the planet. There are more then 30 papers on the topic published in 2012-2014 (e.g., “Acta Astronautica”, 2014, V. 105, pp. 521-533). Due to the availability of up to eight duplicates of the images obtained and their low level of masking noise, the VENERA archive panoramas permit identifying and exploring some types of hypothetical life forms of Venus. Analysis of treated once again VENERA panoramic images revealed objects that might indicate the presence of about 12 hypothetical forms of Venusian flora and fauna. Among them is ‘amisada’ that stands out with its unusual lizard shape against the stone plates surrounding it.

  6. LIBS Testing in a Venus Environment Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Configure LIBS system to view samples in the Venus chamber Confirm STP results for LIBS in Venus Chamber configuration Conduct high temperature/high pressure...

  7. The 2012 Transit of Venus for Cytherean Atmospheric Studies and as an Exoplanet Analog

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Schneider, G.; Babcock, B. A.; Lu, M.; Reardon, K. P.; Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.; Dantowitz, R.; Willson, R.; Kopp, G.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Sterling, A.; Scherrer, P.; Schou, J.; Golub, L.; Reeves, K.


    We worked to assemble as complete a dataset as possible for the Cytherean atmosphere in collaboration with Venus Express in situ and to provide an analog of spectral and total irradiance exoplanet measurements. From Haleakala, the whole transit was visible in coronal skies; our B images showed the evolution of the visibility of Venus's atmosphere and of the black-drop effect, as part of the Venus Twilight Experiment's 9 coronagraphs distributed worldwide with BVRI. We imaged the Cytherean atmosphere over two minutes before first contact, with subarcsecond resolution, with the coronagraph and a separate refractor. The IBIS imaging spectrometer at Sacramento Peak Observatory at H-alpha and carbon-dioxide also provided us high-resolution imaging. The NST of Big Bear Solar Observatory also provided high-resolution vacuum observations of the Cytherean atmosphere and black drop evolution. Our liaison with UH's Mees Solar Observatory scientists provided magneto-optical imaging at calcium and potassium. Spaceborne observations included the Solar Dynamics Observatory's AIA and HMI, and the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) and X-ray Telescope (XRT) on Hinode, and total-solar-irradiance measurements with ACRIMSAT and SORCE/TIM, to characterize the event as an exoplanet-transit analog. Our expedition was sponsored by the Committee for Research and Exploration/National Geographic Society. Some of the funds for the carbon-dioxide filter for IBIS were provided by NASA through AAS's Small Research Grant Program. We thank Rob Lucas, Aram Friedman, and Eric Pilger '82 for assistance with Haleakala observing, Rob Ratkowski of Haleakala Amateur Astronomers for assistance with equipment and with the site, Stan Truitt for the loan of his Paramount ME, and Steve Bisque/Software Bisque for TheSky X controller. We thank Joseph Gangestad '06 of Aerospace Corp., a veteran of our 2004 expedition, for assistance at Big Bear. We thank the Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory and

  8. Astrobiology: The Case for Venus

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    The scientific discipline of astrobiology addresses one of the most fundamental unanswered questions of science: are we alone? Is there life elsewhere in the universe, or is life unique to Earth? The field of astrobiology includes the study of the chemical precursors for life in the solar system; it also includes the search for both presently existing life and fossil signs of previously existing life elsewhere in our own solar system, as well as the search for life outside the solar system. Two of the promising environments within the solar system being currently considered are the surface of the planet Mars, and the hypothesized oceans underneath the ice covering the moon Europa. Both of these environments differ in several key ways from the environments where life is found on Earth; the Mars environment in most places too cold and at too low pressure for liquid water to be stable, and the sub-ice environment of Europa lacking an abundance of free energy in the form of sunlight. The only place in the solar system where we know that life exists today is the Earth. To look for life elsewhere in the solar system, one promising search strategy would be to find and study the environment in the solar system with conditions that are most similar to the environmental conditions where life thrives on the Earth. Specifically, we would like to study a location in the solar system with atmospheric pressure near one bar; temperature in the range where water is liquid, 0 to 100 C; abundant solar energy; and with the primary materials required for life, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, present. Other than the surface of the Earth, the only other place where these conditions exist is the atmosphere of Venus, at an altitude of about fifty kilometers above the surface.

  9. Episodic plate tectonics on Venus

    Turcotte, Donald


    Studies of impact craters on Venus from the Magellan images have placed important constraints on surface volcanism. Some 840 impact craters have been identified with diameters ranging from 2 to 280 km. Correlations of this impact flux with craters on the Moon, Earth, and Mars indicate a mean surface age of 0.5 +/- 0.3 Ga. Another important observation is that 52 percent of the craters are slightly fractured and only 4.5 percent are embayed by lava flows. These observations led researchers to hypothesize that a pervasive resurfacing event occurred about 500 m.y. ago and that relatively little surface volcanism has occurred since. Other researchers have pointed out that a global resurfacing event that ceased about 500 MYBP is consistent with the results given by a recent study. These authors carried out a series of numerical calculations of mantle convection in Venus yielding thermal evolution results. Their model considered crustal recycling and gave rapid planetary cooling. They, in fact, suggested that prior to 500 MYBP plate tectonics was active in Venus and since 500 MYBP the lithosphere has stabilized and only hot-spot volcanism has reached the surface. We propose an alternative hypothesis for the inferred cessation of surface volcanism on Venus. We hypothesize that plate tectonics on Venus is episodic. Periods of rapid plate tectonics result in high rates of subduction that cool the interior resulting in more sluggish mantle convection.

  10. VEM on VERITAS - Retrieval of global infrared surface emissivity maps of Venus and expectable retrieval uncertainties

    Kappel, David; Arnold, Gabriele; Haus, Rainer; Helbert, Jörn; Smrekar, Suzanne; Hensley, Scott


    Even though Venus is in many respects the most Earth-like planet we know today, its surface composition and geology are not well understood yet. The major obstacle is the extremely dense, hot, and opaque atmosphere that complicates both in situ measurements and infrared remote sensing, the wavelength range of the latter often being the range of choice due to its coverage of many spectral properties diagnostic to the surface material's composition and texture. Thermal emissions of the hot surface depend on surface temperature and on spectral surface emissivity. As this emitted radiation wells upward, it is strongly attenuated through absorption and multiple scattering by the gaseous and particulate components of the dense atmosphere, and it is superimposed by thermal atmospheric emissions. While surface information this way carried to space is completely lost in the scattered sunlight on the dayside, a few narrow atmospheric transparency windows around 1 μm allow the sounding of the surface with nightside measurements. The successfully completed VEX ('Venus Express') mission, although not dedicated to surface science, enabled a first glimpse at much of the southern hemisphere's surface through the nightside spectral transparency windows covered by VIRTIS-M-IR ('Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer, Mapping channel in the IR', 1.0-5.1 μm). Two complementary approaches, a fast semi-empiric technique on the one hand, and a more fundamental but resource-intensive method based on a fully regularized Bayesian multi-spectrum retrieval algorithm in combination with a detailed radiative transfer simulation program on the other hand, were both successfully applied to derive surface emissivity data maps. Both methods suffered from lack of spatial coverage and a small SNR as well as from surface topography maps not sufficiently accurate for the definition of suitable boundary conditions for surface emissivity retrieval. The recently proposed VERITAS mission

  11. Spaceborne radar studies of Venus

    Data obtained from the Pioneer Venus radar mapper experiment are discussed. The mission was primarily developed to study the atmosphere of Venus. A highly eccentric orbit (eccentricity of 0.84, period of 24 h) was selected. The instrumentation has two operating modes: altimetry and imaging. Three parameters were measured for every radar spot size: altitude, surface roughness and radar reflectivity at a normal incidence. The measurements have been extended to a topographic map. The results suggest that the Beta region consists of two large shields and that the equatorial region is dominated by Aphrodite Terra. It also appears that the surface of Venus is very smooth and that it lacks great basins and the global plate tectonics present on earth

  12. Error analysis for retrieval of Venus' IR surface emissivity from VIRTIS/VEX measurements

    Kappel, David; Haus, Rainer; Arnold, Gabriele


    Venus' surface emissivity data in the infrared can serve to explore the planet's geology. The only global data with high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution and coverage at present is supplied by nightside emission measurements acquired by the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer VIRTIS-M-IR (1.0-5.1 μm) aboard ESA's Venus Express. A radiative transfer simulation and a retrieval algorithm can be used to determine surface emissivity in the nightside spectral transparency wi...

  13. A Retrospective Look at the Collected Results on the Large Scale Ionospheric Magnetic Fields at Venus

    Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.-J.; Villarreal, M.; Russell, C. T.; Zhang, T.-L.; Alvarez, K.


    We revisit the collected large scale ionospheric magnetic field results obtained by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Venus Express (VEX) missions to ask how much we really understand about that field's global structure. To assist in this assessment we make use of several previously described MHD simulations of the solar wind interaction that reproduce its other observed features. These comparisons help to support our conceptual pictures in some cases, and to raise questions in others.

  14. 金星表面THz遥感探测%THz remote sensing for exploration Venus surface

    苏兴华; 于春香; 王瀚卿


    Based on High Resolution Transmission(HITRAN) database and the fact that the imaging spectrometer Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer(VIRTIS) on the "Venus Express" has observed thermal emissions from the surface of Venus, infrared atmosphere windows adapted to the Venus atmosphere model are simulated, and then the terahertz atmosphere windows of Venus are analyzed. By establishing scientific object that realizing all-weather remote sensing for exploration Venus surface, advantages of sensing the atmosphere windows of Venus in terahertz are given, and idea of multi-function Venus sensing is put forward.%从“金星快车可见光与红外热成像光谱仪(VIRTIS)载荷成功地实现了对金星表面辐射探测”事实出发,利用高分辨率传输分子光谱数据库(HITRAN),仿真验证了金星大气模型相适应的近红外大气窗口,从而分析并获取了金星 THz 大气窗口。与此相适应,从实现金星地表全天候遥感探测科学目标出发,系统阐述了金星大气 THz窗口下探测的优势,提出多功能金星遥感构想。

  15. Venus project : experimentation at ENEA's pilot site

    The document describes the ENEA's (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) experience in the Venus Project (Esprit III 6398). Venus is an advanced visual interface based on icon representation that permits to end-user to inquiry databases. VENUS interfaces to ENEA's databases: cometa materials Module, Cometa Laboratories Module and European Programs. This report contents the results of the experimentation and of the validation carried out in ENEA's related to the Venus generations. Moreover, the description of the architecture, the user requirements syntesis and the validation methodology of the VENUS systems have been included

  16. Themis Regio, Venus: Evidence for recent (?) volcanism from VIRTIS data

    Stofan, Ellen R.; Smrekar, Suzanne E.; Mueller, Nils; Helbert, Joern


    Themis Regio is interpreted to be a hotspot rise underlain by one or more mantle plumes. Many volcanic features in the Themis region have high emissivity anomalies in Venus Express Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (VIRTIS) data. Other high emissivity anomalies have been found to correspond to volcanic flows interpreted to be relatively recent (Smrekar et al. [2010a] Science 328, 605-608). Similarly, at Themis the majority of the high emissivity anomalies closely correspond to flows associated with coronae and volcanic edifices, consistent with the interpretation that they represent recent volcanism. These volcanic features also have negative Bouguer gravity anomalies indicating low density at depth, consistent with hot mantle upwellings leading to pressure release melting. In addition, several volcanic features at Themis have low emissivity anomalies, suggestive of more evolved compositions. Combining geologic mapping data with gravity and emissivity data provide support that Themis is an active hotspot swell, with associated long-lived, volcanoes and coronae that are likely associated with small-scale upwellings.

  17. Thermal structure and minor species distribution of Venus mesosphere by ALMA submm observations

    Piccialli, Arianna; Moreno, Raphael; Encrenaz, Therese; Fouchet, Thierry; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Moullet, Arielle; Widemann, Thomas


    Venus upper atmosphere (70-150 km altitude) is a transition region characterized by a complex dynamics: strong retrograde zonal winds dominate the lower mesosphere while a solar-to-antisolar circulation is observed in the upper mesosphere/lower thermosphere. In addition, photochemical processes play an important role at these altitudes and affect the thermal structure and chemical stability of the entire atmosphere. Sulfur dioxide and water vapor are key species in the photochemical cycles taking place in the troposphere and mesosphere of Venus. They are carried by convective transport, together with the Hadley circulation, up to about 60 km where SO2 is photodissociated and oxydated, leading to the formation of H2SO4 which condenses in the clouds enshrouding the planet. Previous observations obtained by several instruments on board Venus Express and during ground-based campaigns have shown evidence of strong temporal variations, both on day-to-day as well as longer timescales, of density, temperature and SO2 abundance. Such strong variability is still not well understood.Submillimeter observations obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) offer the possibility of probing Venus upper mesosphere and of monitoring minor species, winds and the thermal structure. A first set of observations was obtained on November 14, 15, 26 and 27, 2011 during the first ALMA Early Science observation cycle. These observations targeted SO2, SO, HDO and CO transitions around 345 GHz during four sequences of 30 minutes each. The Venus’ disk was about 11” with an illumination factor of 90%, so that mostly the dayside of the planet was mapped.Assuming nominal night-time and dayside CO abundance profiles from Clancy et al. 2013, we retrieved vertical temperature profiles over the entire disk as a function of latitude and local time for the four days of observation. Temperature profiles were later used to derive the abundances of minor species (HDO, SO, SO2) in each pixel

  18. Transmission spectrum of Venus as a transiting exoplanet

    Ehrenreich, David; Widemann, Thomas; Gronoff, Guillaume; Tanga, Paolo; Barthélemy, Mathieu; Lilensten, Jean; Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Arnold, Luc


    On 5-6 June 2012, Venus will be transiting the Sun for the last time before 2117. This event is an unique opportunity to assess the feasibility of the atmospheric characterisation of Earth-size exoplanets near the habitable zone with the transmission spectroscopy technique and provide an invaluable proxy for the atmosphere of such a planet. In this letter, we provide a theoretical transmission spectrum of the atmosphere of Venus that could be tested with spectroscopic observations during the 2012 transit. This is done using radiative transfer across Venus' atmosphere, with inputs from in-situ missions such as Venus Express and theoretical models. The transmission spectrum covers a range of 0.1-5 {\\mu}m and probes the limb between 70 and 150 km in altitude. It is dominated in UV by carbon dioxide absorption producing a broad transit signal of ~20 ppm as seen from Earth, and from 0.2 to 2.7 {\\mu}m by Mie extinction (~5 ppm at 0.8 {\\mu}m) caused by droplets of sulfuric acid composing an upper haze layer above th...

  19. Long-Lived Venus Lander Conceptual Design: How To Keep It Cool

    Dyson, Ridger W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Penswick, L. Barry; Bruder, Geoffrey A.


    Surprisingly little is known about Venus, our neighboring sister planet in the solar system, due to the challenges of operating in its extremely hot, corrosive, and dense environment. For example, after over two dozen missions to the planet, the longest-lived lander was the Soviet Venera 13, and it only survived two hours on the surface. Several conceptual Venus mission studies have been formulated in the past two decades proposing lander architectures that potentially extend lander lifetime. Most recently, the Venus Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) was commissioned by NASA to study a Venus Flagship Mission potentially launching in the 2020- 2025 time-frame; the reference lander of this study is designed to survive for only a few hours more than Venera 13 launched back in 1981! Since Cytherean mission planners lack a viable approach to a long-lived surface architecture, specific scientific objectives outlined in the National Science Foundation Decadal Survey and Venus Exploration Advisory Group final report cannot be completed. These include: mapping the mineralogy and composition of the surface on a planetary scale determining the age of various rock samples on Venus, searching for evidence of changes in interior dynamics (seismometry) and its impact on climate and many other key observations that benefit with time scales of at least a full Venus day (Le. daylight/night cycle). This report reviews those studies and recommends a hybrid lander architecture that can survive for at least one Venus day (243 Earth days) by incorporating selective Stirling multi-stage active cooling and hybrid thermoacoustic power.

  20. Enabling Venus In-Situ Science - Deployable Entry System Technology, Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT): A Technology Development Project funded by Game Changing Development Program of the Space Technology Program

    Wercinski, Paul F.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Gage, Peter J.; Yount, Bryan C.; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Smith, Brandon; Arnold, James O.; Makino, alberto; Peterson, Keith Hoppe; Chinnapongse, Ronald I.


    Venus is one of the important planetary destinations for scientific exploration, but: The combination of extreme entry environment coupled with extreme surface conditions have made mission planning and proposal efforts very challenging. We present an alternate, game-changing approach (ADEPT) where a novel entry system architecture enables more benign entry conditions and this allows for greater flexibility and lower risk in mission design

  1. Rotation of Venus high atmosphere

    A new study of 204 drawings and photographs of Venus made in 1892-1977 shows that the dark ultraviolet markings have a retrograde rotation with a synodic statistical period of 3.995 25 +- 0.000 01 days. With this period, 70% of the observed markings are in the same hemisphere; this accumulation was confirmed by Mariner 10

  2. Venus and Mercury as planets

    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described

  3. Venus and Mercury as Planets


    A general evolutionary history of the solar planetary system is given. The previously observed characteristics of Venus and Mercury (i.e. length of day, solar orbit, temperature) are discussed. The role of the Mariner 10 space probe in gathering scientific information on the two planets is briefly described.

  4. Change over a service learning experience in science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about elementary school students' ability to learn science

    Goebel, Camille A.

    This longitudinal investigation explores the change in four (3 female, 1 male) science undergraduates' beliefs expressed about low-income elementary school students' ability to learn science. The study sought to identify how the undergraduates in year-long public school science-teaching partnerships perceived the social, cultural, and economic factors affecting student learning. Previous service-learning research infrequently focused on science undergraduates relative to science and society or detailed expressions of their beliefs and field practices over the experience. Qualitative methodology was used to guide the implementation and analysis of this study. A sample of an additional 20 science undergraduates likewise involved in intensive reflection in the service learning in science teaching (SLST) course called Elementary Science Education Partners (ESEP) was used to examine the typicality of the case participants. The findings show two major changes in science undergraduates' belief expressions: (1) a reduction in statements of beliefs from a deficit thinking perspective about the elementary school students' ability to learn science, and (2) a shift in the attribution of students, underlying problems in science learning from individual-oriented to systemic-oriented influences. Additional findings reveal that the science undergraduates perceived they had personally and profoundly changed as a result of the SLST experience. Changes include: (1) the gain of a new understanding of others' situations different from their own; (2) the realization of and appreciation for their relative positions of privilege due to their educational background and family support; (3) the gain in ability to communicate, teach, and work with others; (4) the idea that they were more socially and culturally connected to their community outside the university and their college classrooms; and (5) a broadening of the way they understood or thought about science. Women participants stated

  5. Potential vorticity of the south polar vortex of Venus

    Garate-Lopez, I.; Hueso, R.; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; García Muñoz, A.


    Venus' atmosphere shows highly variable warm vortices over both of the planet's poles. The nature of the mechanism behind their formation and properties is still unknown. Potential vorticity is a conserved quantity when advective processes dominate over friction and diabatic heating and is a quantity frequently used to model balanced flows. As a step toward understanding the vortices' dynamics, we present maps of Ertel's potential vorticity (EPV) at Venus' south polar region. We analyze three configurations of the south polar vortex at the upper cloud level (P ~ 240 mbar; z ~ 58 km), based on our previous analyses of cloud motions and thermal structure from data acquired by the Visual and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer instrument on board Venus Express. Additionally, we tentatively estimate EPV at the lower cloud level (P ~ 2200 mbar; z ~ 43 km), based on our previous wind measurements and on static stability data from Pioneer Venus and the Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) model. Values of EPV are on the order of 10-6 and 10-8 K m2 kg-1 s-1 at the upper and lower cloud levels, respectively, being 3 times larger than the estimated errors. The morphology observed in EPV maps is mainly determined by the structures of the vertical component of the relative vorticity. This is in contrast to the vortex's morphology observed in 3.8 or 5 µm images which are related to the thermal structure of the atmosphere at the cloud top. Some of the EPV maps point to a weak ringed structure in the upper cloud, while a more homogenous EPV field is found in the lower cloud.

  6. Decadal variations in a Venus general circulation model

    Parish, Helen F.; Schubert, Gerald; Covey, Curtis; Walterscheid, Richard L.; Grossman, Allen; Lebonnois, Sebastien


    angular momentum is redistributed to lower latitudes primarily by transient eddies. Possible changes in the structure of Venus’ cloud level mid-latitude jets measured by Mariner 10, Pioneer Venus, and Venus Express suggest that a cyclic variation similar to that found in the model might occur in the real Venus atmosphere, although no subrotating winds below the cloud level have been observed to date. Venus’ atmosphere must be observed over multi-year timescales and below the clouds if we are to understand its dynamics.

  7. Models of the internal structure of Venus

    A survey is made of the physics of the interiors of Venus. The introduction explains the main concepts used in the construction of models of Venus and the history of the question; observational data are gathered and analyzed. The method of constructing the models of the planet is explained and earth-like models of Venus and parametrically simple PVM models are discussed. Within the compass of a physical model of Venus, the thermodynamics of the mantle and core is constructed and questions are discussed concerning the heat conduction, temperature distribution in the lithosphere and the thermal flux from the interior of Venus, the electrical conduction and mechanical quality, and large-scale steady stresses in the mantle of Venus. A rheological model of the crust and mantle is constructed. In conclusion, the question as to the distribution of radioactivity and convection in the interior of the planet is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Visualization of the Epiblast and Visceral Endodermal Cells Using Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Transgenic Mice and Epiblast Stem Cells

    Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Matsushita, Jun; Tsukiyama-Fujii, Setsuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Ema, Masatsugu


    Fibroblast growth factor 5 (Fgf5) has been widely used as a marker for the epiblast in the postimplantation embryo and epiblast stem cells (mEpiSCs) in the mouse, making it valuable for study of differentiation of various tissues and epiblast cells in vivo and in vitro. Here, we report for the first time the generation of Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC transgenic (Tg) mice and show that the BAC Tg can recapitulate endogenous Fgf5 expression in epiblast and visceral endodermal cells of E6.5 and 7.5 embryos. We also show that Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mEpiSCs in the undifferentiated state expressed abundant Venus, and upon reprogramming into naïve state, Venus was suppressed. Furthermore, while most Tg mEpiSCs expressed Venus abundantly, surprisingly the Tg mEpiSCs contained a minor subpopulation of Venus-negative cells that were capable of conversion to Venus-positive cells, indicating that even Fgf5 expression shows dynamic heterogeneity in mEpiSCs. Taken together, Fgf5-P2A-Venus BAC Tg mice and mEpiSCs generated in this study will be useful for developmental biology as well as stem cell biology research. PMID:27409080

  9. Signs of Life on Venus

    Ksanfomality, L.


    The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some

  10. Venus - Lavinia Region Impact Craters


    Three large meteorite impact craters, with diameters that range from 37 to 50 kilometers (23 to 31 miles), are seen in this image of the Lavinia region of Venus. The image is centered at 27 degrees south latitude and 339 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east), and covers an area 550 kilometers (342 miles) wide by about 500 kilometers (311 miles) long. Situated in a region of fractured plains, the craters show many features typical of meteorite impact craters, including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls and central peaks. Numerous domes, probably caused by volcanic activity, are seen in the southeastern corner of the mosaic. The domes range in diameter from 1 to 12 kilometers (0.6 to 7 miles). Some of the domes have central pits that are typical of some types of volcanoes. North is at the top of the image.

  11. Radar observation of Venus' terrestrial analogues using TecSAR X-band SAR

    Blumberg, D. G.


    Venus is shrouded in a dense CO2 atmosphere that prevents us from viewing the surface in visible light or with optronic sensors. Long wavelengths are required to 'see' through the dense atmosphere. In the early 1990s, the S-band synthetic aperture radar of the Magellan spacecraft acquired images of a variety of surface features on Venus, including morphologies attributed to wind processes. These include sand dunes, wind-sculpted hills (yardangs), and almost 6000 wind streaks. These aeolian landscapes were formed and shaped by near surface atmospheric circulation and local winds. These can serve as local markers, each providing an integrated wind direction. Since the Magellan mission, there were no missions to Venus until the Venus Express Mission of 2005 to examine the upper atmosphere. The future will probably include high-resolution SAR images of Venus. This poster will demonstrate high resolution SAR images in X-band from the TecSAR sensor launched by Israel in 2008. Observations of wind streaks, dunes and impact craters in desert areas will show the wealth of information that is extracted from high-res X-band data. Detailed images of Aurounga impact crater in Chad, Kelso dunes, California and Pisgah lava flow show immense detail of the morphologies associated with these features. These are compared with Magellan images of sites on Venus and SRL data in C and L-bands. The X-band provides extremely high resolution and resembles optical data much more than the longer wavelengths.

  12. Memristors in the Venus flytrap.

    Volkov, Alexander G; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon


    A memristor is a nonlinear element because its current-voltage characteristic is similar to that of a Lissajous pattern for nonlinear systems. We investigated the possible presence of memristors in the electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap's upper and lower leaves. The electrostimulation of this plant by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the upper and lower leaves of the Venus flytrap with fingerprints of memristors. The analysis was based on cyclic voltammetric characteristics where the memristor, a resistor with memory, should manifest itself. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K(+) channels, or NPPB, a blocker of voltage gated Cl(-) and K(+) channels, transform a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone (FCCP) decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic electrostimulating waves. Our results demonstrate that voltage gated K(+) channels in the Venus flytrap have properties of memristors of type 1 and type 2. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:24837439

  13. Investigating gravity waves evidences in the Venus upper atmosphere

    Migliorini, Alessandra; Altieri, Francesca; Shakun, Alexey; Zasova, Ludmila; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Bellucci, Giancarlo; Grassi, Davide


    We present a method to investigate gravity waves properties in the upper mesosphere of Venus, through the O2 nightglow observations acquired with the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS on board Venus Express. Gravity waves are important dynamical features that transport energy and momentum. They are related to the buoyancy force, which lifts air particles. Then, the vertical displacement of air particles produces density changes that cause gravity to act as restoring force. Gravity waves can manifest through fluctuations on temperature and density fields, and hence on airglow intensities. We use the O2 nightglow profiles showing double peaked structures to study the influence of gravity waves in shaping the O2 vertical profiles and infer the waves properties. In analogy to the Earth's and Mars cases, we use a well-known theory to model the O2 nightglow emissions affected by gravity waves propagation. Here we propose a statistical discussion of the gravity waves characteristics, namely vertical wavelength and wave amplitude, with respect to local time and latitude. The method is applied to about 30 profiles showing double peaked structures, and acquired with the VIRTIS/Venus Express spectrometer, during the mission period from 2006-07-05 to 2008-08-15.

  14. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere.

    Zhang, T L; Baumjohann, W; Russell, C T; Luhmann, J G; Xiao, S D


    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234

  15. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.


    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander. PMID:27009234

  16. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    Zhang, T. L.; Baumjohann, W.; Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Xiao, S. D.


    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth’s twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.

  17. Weak, Quiet Magnetic Fields Seen in the Venus Atmosphere

    Zhang, Tielong; Baumjohann, Wolfgang; Russell, Christopher; Luhmann, Janet


    The existence of a strong internal magnetic field allows probing of the interior through both long term changes of and short period fluctuations in that magnetic field. Venus, while Earth's twin in many ways, lacks such a strong intrinsic magnetic field, but perhaps short period fluctuations can still be used to probe the electrical conductivity of the interior. Toward the end of the Venus Express mission, an aerobraking campaign took the spacecraft below the ionosphere into the very weakly electrically conducting atmosphere. As the spacecraft descended from 150 to 140 km altitude, the magnetic field became weaker on average and less noisy. Below 140 km, the median field strength became steady but the short period fluctuations continued to weaken. The weakness of the fluctuations indicates they might not be useful for electromagnetic sounding of the atmosphere from a high altitude platform such as a plane or balloon, but possibly could be attempted on a lander.

  18. Substorm activity in Venus's magnetotail

    M. Volwerk


    Full Text Available The magnetotail of the induced magnetosphere of Venus is investigated through the magnetic field and plasma data of Venus Express. A comparison is made between two neutral sheet crossings. One crossing shows the magnetic field is rather quiet and the plasma instrument indicates a change from energetic (few 100 eV to low energy (few 10 eV ions. The other crossing shows more dynamics in the magnetic field, including signatures that are interpreted as characteristic of a reconnection site, and the plasma instrument indicates ions that are energized to 1500 to 2000 eV, in the same magnetospheric region where in the first crossing only low energy ions showed up.

  19. Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) Ionosphere Evidence for Atmospheric Escape

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Hoegy, W. R.


    An early estimate of escape of H2O from Venus [McElroy et al., 1982] using observed hot oxygen densities inferred by Nagy et al. [1981] from PVO OUVS 1304 Å dayglow and using ionization rates from photoionization and electron impact. This resulted in an estimated oxygen ionization rate planet-wide above the plasmapause of 3x1025 atoms/s. Based on the energetic O+ being swept up and removed by solar wind, McElroy et al. [1982] gave an estimate of a loss rate for O of 6x106 atoms/cm2/s. Using a different method of estimating escape based data in the ionotail of Venus, Brace et al. [1987] estimated a total planetary O+ escape rate of 5x1025 ions/s. Their estimate was based on PVO measurements of superthermal O+ (energy range 9-16 eV) in the tail ray plasma between 2000 and 3000 km. Their estimated global mean flux was 107 atoms/cm2/s. The two escape rates are remarkably close considering all the errors involved in such estimates of escape. A study of escape by Luhmann et al. [2008] using VEX observations at low solar activity finds modest escape rates, prompting the authors to reconsider the evidence from both PVO and VEX of the possibility of enhanced escape during extreme interplanetary conditions. We reexamine the variation of escape under different solar wind conditions using ion densities and plasma content in the dayside and nightside of Venus using PVO ionosphere density during times of high solar activity. Citations: Brace, L.H., W. T. Kasprzak, H.A. Taylor, R. F. Theis, C. T. Russess, A. Barnes, J. D. Mihalov, and D. M. Hunten, "The Ionotail of Venus: Its Configuration and Evidence for Ion Escape", J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15-26, 1987. Luhmann, J.G., A. Fedorov, S. Barabash, E. Carlsson, Y. Futaana, T.L. Zhang, C.T. Russell, J.G. Lyon, S.A. Ledvina, and D.A. Brain, “Venus Express observations of atmospheric oxygen escape during the passage of several coronal mass ejections”, J. Geophys. Res., 113, 2008. McElroy, M. B., M. J. Prather, J. M. Rodiquez, " Loss

  20. Oxygen airglow emission on Venus and Mars as seen by VIRTIS/VEX and OMEGA/MEX imaging spectrometers

    Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Zasova, L.; Piccioni, G.; Bellucci, G.; Cardesín Moinelo, A.; Drossart, P.; D'Aversa, E.; Carrozzo, F. G.; Gondet, B.; Bibring, J.-P.


    Imaging spectrometers are highly effective instruments for investigation of planetary atmospheres. They present the advantage of coupling the compositional information to the spatial distribution, allowing simultaneous study of chemistry and dynamics in the atmospheres of Venus and Mars. In this work, we summarize recent results about the O 2(a 1Δg) night and day glows, respectively obtained by VIRTIS/Venus Express and OMEGA/Mars Express, the imaging spectrometers currently in orbit around Venus and Mars. The case of the O 2(a 1Δg - X 3Σg-) IR emission at 1.27 μm on the night side of Venus and the day side of Mars is analyzed, pointing out dynamical aspects of these planets, like the detection of gravity waves in their atmospheres. The monitoring of seasonal and daily airglow variations provides hints about the photochemistry on these planets.

  1. Two-dimensional time-dependent model of the transport of minor species in the Venus night side upper atmosphere

    Collet, Arnaud; Cox, Cédric; Gérard, Jean-Claude


    We present a numerical tool developed to quantify the role of processes controlling the spatio-temporal distribution of the NO ultraviolet and O2 infrared nightglows in the Venus night side upper atmosphere, observed with the VIRTIS and SPICAV instruments on board Venus Express. This numerical tool consists in a two-dimensional chemical-transport time-dependent model which computes in a hypothetical rectangular solving domain the spatio-temporal distributions of the number densities of the fo...

  2. Carbon monoxide observed in Venus' atmosphere with SOIR/VEx

    Vandaele, A. C.; Mahieux, A.; Chamberlain, S.; Ristic, B.; Robert, S.; Thomas, I. R.; Trompet, L.; Wilquet, V.; Bertaux, J. L.


    The SOIR instrument on board the ESA Venus Express mission has been operational during the complete duration of the mission, from April 2006 up to December 2014. Spectra were recorded in the IR spectral region (2.2-4.3 μm) using the solar occultation geometry, giving access to a vast number of ro-vibrational lines and bands of several key species of the atmosphere of Venus. Here we present the complete set of vertical profiles of carbon monoxide (CO) densities and volume mixing ratios (vmr) obtained during the mission. These profiles are spanning the 65-150 km altitude range. We discuss the variability which is observed on the short term, but also the long term trend as well as variation of CO with solar local time and latitude. Short term variations can reach one order of magnitude on less than one month periods. SOIR does not observe a marked long term trend, except perhaps at the beginning of the mission where an increase of CO density and vmr has been observed. Evening abundances are systematically higher than morning values at altitudes above 105 km, but the reverse is observed at lower altitudes. Higher abundances are observed at the equator than at the poles for altitude higher than 105 km, but again the reverse is seen at altitudes lower than 90 km. This illustrates the complexity of the 90-100 km region of the Venus' atmosphere where different wind regimes are at play.

  3. New Analysis of Hydrogen and Deuterium Escape from Venus

    Donahue, Thomas M.


    This paper is concerned with the time required for escape of hydrogen and deuterium to produce the present D/ H ratio in Venus water, the sizes of the original hydrogen reservoirs and their sensitivity to the magnitude of the present escape fluxes, the characteristics of exogenous and endogenous hydrogen sources, and the D/ H ratio for primordial Venus hydrogen. The procedure followed allowed the H escape flux to vary over a large range, the ratio of input to escape flux to vary from 0 to 1, and the fractionation factor, which expresses the relative efficiency of D and H escape, to vary between 0.02 and 0.5. It was found that, unless deuterium escape is very efficient, the present H escape flux (averaged over a solar cycle) cannot be larger than about 10 7 cm -2 s -1 if today's water is to be the remnant of water deposited eons ago. On the other hand if the escape flux is as large as large as 3×10 7 cm -2 s -1, today's water would be the remnant of water outgassed only about 500 million years ago. These conclusions are relatively insensitive to factors other than the magnitude of the escape flux. Since recent analysis of escape fluxes indicates that the H escape fluxes may be in the neighborhood of 3×10 7 cm -2 s -1 and the fractionation factor may be 0.14 or larger, the suggestion of Grinspoon (1993, Nature 363, 1702-1704) that the water now on Venus was created during a recent massive resurfacing event is credible. However, since it is still possible that the average escape flux is as small as 7×10 6 cm -2 s -1, the choice between 4 and 0.5 Gyr must await a resolution of this conflict by reanalysis of Pioneer Venus Lyman α data (Paxton, L., D. E. Anderson, and A. I. F. Stewart 1988, J. Geophys. Res. 93, 1766-1772).

  4. Geologic Map of the Niobe Planitia Quadrangle (V-23), Venus

    Hansen, Vicki L.


    The Niobe Planitia quadrangle (V-23) encompasses approximately 8,000,000 km2 of the Venusian equatorial region extending from lat 0 deg to 25 deg N. and from long 90 deg to 120 deg E. (approximately 9,500 15-minute quadrangles on Earth). The map area lies along the north margin of the equatorial highland, Aphrodite Terra (V-35), and extends into the lowland region to the north, preserving a transition from southern highlands to northern lowlands (figs. 1, 2, map sheet). The northern parts of the crustal plateau, Ovda Regio and Haasttse-baad Tessera, mark the south margin of the map area; Niobe and Sogolon Planitiae make up the lowland region. The division between Niobe and Sogolon Planitiae is generally topographic, and Sogolon Planitia forms a relatively small elongate basin. Mesolands, the intermediate topographic level of Venus, are essentially absent or represented only by Gegute Tessera, which forms a slightly elevated region that separates Niobe Planitia from Llorona Planitia to the east (V-24). Lowlands within the map area host five features currently classified as coronae: Maya Corona (lat 23 deg N., long 97 deg E.) resides to the northwest and Dhisana, Allatu, Omeciuatl, and Bhumiya Coronae cluster loosely in the east-central area. Lowlands extend north, east, and west of the map area. Mapping the Niobe Planitia quadrangle (V-23) provides an excellent opportunity to examine a large tract of lowlands and the adjacent highlands with the express goal of clarifying the processes responsible for resurfacing this part of Venus and the resulting implications for Venus evolution. Although Venus lowlands are widely considered to have a volcanic origin, lowlands in the map area lack adjacent coronae or other obvious volcanic sources.

  5. Announcing the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme


    Rare Celestial Event to be Observed by Millions Summary On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - will pass in front of the Sun. This event, a 'transit', is extremely rare - the last one occurred in 1882, 122 years ago. Easily observable in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia, it is likely to attract the attention of millions of people on these continents and, indeed, all over the world. On this important occasion, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has joined forces with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic to establish the Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. It is supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week and takes advantage of this extraordinary celestial event to expose the public - in a well-considered, interactive and exciting way - to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. VT-2004 has several components, including an instructive and comprehensive website ( It is directed towards the wide public in general and the media, school students and their teachers, as well as amateur astronomers in particular. It invites all interested persons to participate actively in the intercontinental VT-2004 Observing Campaign (that reenacts historical Venus Transit observations) and the VT-2004 Video Contest. During the VT-2004 Final Event in November, the winners of the Video Contest will be chosen by an international jury. This meeting will also serve to discuss the project and its impact. The outcome of this rare celestial event and the overall experience from this unique public education project will clearly be of very wide interest, not just in the field of astronomy.

  6. Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus

    In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O+ of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O+ bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O+ component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux 7 ions cm-2 s-1. This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of 25 ions s-1; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O+ component is estimated as 105--106 K in order of magnitude

  7. Investigating the Origin and Evolution of Venus with in Situ Mass Spectrometry

    Trainer, M. G.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Johnson, N. M.; Glaze, L. S.


    The exploration of Venus continues to be a top priority of planetary science. The Planetary Decadal Survey goals for inner-planet exploration seek to discern the origin and diversity of terrestrial planets, understand how the evolution of terrestrial planets relates to the evolution of life, and explore the processes that control climate on Earth-like planets. These goals can only be realized through continued and extensive exploration of Venus, the most mysterious of the terrestrial planets, remarkably different from the Earth despite the gross similarities between these "twin planets". It is unknown if this apparent divergence was intrinsic, programmed during accretion from distinct nebular reservoirs, or a consequence of either measured or catastrophic processes during planetary evolution. Even if the atmosphere of Venus is a more "recent" development, its relationship to the resurfacing of the planet's enigmatic surface is not well understood. Resolving such uncertainties directly addresses the hypothesis of a more clement, possibly water-rich era in Venus' past as well as whether Earth could become more Venus-like in the future.

  8. Quantitative tests for plate tectonics on Venus

    Kaula, W. M.; Phillips, R. J.


    Quantitative comparisons are made between the characteristics of plate tectonics on the earth and those which are possible on Venus. Considerations of the factors influencing rise height and relating the decrease in rise height to plate velocity indicate that the rate of topographic dropoff from spreading centers should be about half that on earth due to greater rock-fluid density contrast and lower temperature differential between the surface and interior. Statistical analyses of Pioneer Venus radar altimetry data and global earth elevation data is used to identify 21,000 km of ridge on Venus and 33,000 km on earth, and reveal Venus ridges to have a less well-defined mode in crest heights and a greater concavity than earth ridges. Comparison of the Venus results with the spreading rates and associated heat flow on earth reveals plate creation rates on Venus to be 0.7 sq km/year or less and indicates that not more than 15% of Venus's energy is delivered to the surface by plate tectonics, in contrast to values of 2.9 sq km a year and 70% for earth.

  9. Summing Up the Unique Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) Programme


    On June 8, 2004, Venus - the Earth's sister planet - passed in front of the Sun. This rare event - the last one occurred in 1882 - attracted the attention of millions of people all over the world. In a few days' time, on November 5-7, 2004, about 150 educators, media representatives, as well as amateur and professional astronomers will gather in Paris (France) at the international conference "The Venus Transit Experience" to discuss the outcome of the related Venus Transit 2004 (VT-2004) public education programme. This unique project was set up by the European Southern Observatory (ESO), together with the European Association for Astronomy Education (EAAE), the Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Éphémérides (IMCCE) and the Observatoire de Paris in France, as well as the Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. It was also supported by the European Commission in the framework of the European Science and Technology Week, cf. ESO PR 03/04. The VT-2004 programme successfully exposed the broad public to a number of fundamental issues at the crucial interface between society and basic science. It ensured the most comprehensive real-time coverage of the event via an extremely dynamic Central Display that was updated a short intervals. Thanks to the prior establishment of hundreds of mirror sites, the VT-2004 website was easily accessible all through the transit, even though it experienced about 55 million webhits during a period of 8 hours. The VT-2004 programme established a wide international network of individuals (including school teachers and their students, amateur astronomers, interested laypeople, etc.) and educational institutions (astronomical observatories, planetaria, science centres, etc.), as well as 25 National Nodes with their own websites about the Venus Transit in as many local languages. It collected a large number of photos and drawings. It also included an international Video Contest, inviting all

  10. Zephyr: A Landsailing Rover for Venus

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.; Grantier, David


    With an average temperature of 450C and a corrosive atmosphere at a pressure of 90 bars, the surface of Venus is the most hostile environment of any planetary surface in the solar system. Exploring the surface of Venus would be an exciting goal, since Venus is a planet with significant scientific mysteries, and interesting geology and geophysics. Technology to operate at the environmental conditions of Venus is under development. A rover on the surface of Venus with capability comparable to the rovers that have been sent to Mars would push the limits of technology in high-temperature electronics, robotics, and robust systems. Such a rover would require the ability to traverse the landscape on extremely low power levels. We have analyzed an innovative concept for a planetary rover: a sail-propelled rover to explore the surface of Venus. Such a rover can be implemented with only two moving parts; the sail, and the steering. Although the surface wind speeds are low (under 1 m/s), at Venus atmospheric density even low wind speeds develop significant force. Under funding by the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts office, a conceptual design for such a rover has been done. Total landed mass of the system is 265 kg, somewhat less than that of the MER rovers, with a 12 square meter rigid sail. The rover folds into a 3.6 meter aeroshell for entry into the Venus atmosphere and subsequent parachute landing on the surface. Conceptual designs for a set of hightemperature scientific instruments and a UHF communication system were done. The mission design lifetime is 50 days, allowing operation during the sunlit portion of one Venus day. Although some technology development is needed to bring the high-temperature electronics to operational readiness, the study showed that such a mobility approach is feasible, and no major difficulties are seen.

  11. Venus : Observe it while it's hot !

    Jessup, Kandis Lea; Mills, Frank; Limaye, Sanjay; Marcq, Emmanuel; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Wilson, Colin; Imamura, T; Nakamura, M.


    International audience Venus' global-scale cloud and haze layers are composed of complexes of sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and water. Because the clouds play a critical role in Venus' energy balance and long-term climate evolution , accurate definition of their formation process is a high priority in Venus atmospheric studies. On a basic level it is understood that the H2SO4 clouds and haze form via the combination of SO3 and H2O, and SO3 forms via oxidation of SO2. Thus, sulfur-bearing and sulfu...

  12. Extreme Environment Simulation - Current and New Capabilities to Simulate Venus and Other Planetary Bodies

    Kremic, Tibor; Vento, Dan; Lalli, Nick; Palinski, Timothy


    Science, technology, and planetary mission communities have a growing interest in components and systems that are capable of working in extreme (high) temperature and pressure conditions. Terrestrial applications range from scientific research, aerospace, defense, automotive systems, energy storage and power distribution, deep mining and others. As the target environments get increasingly extreme, capabilities to develop and test the sensors and systems designed to operate in such environments will be required. An application of particular importance to the planetary science community is the ability for a robotic lander to survive on the Venus surface where pressures are nearly 100 times that of Earth and temperatures approach 500C. The scientific importance and relevance of Venus missions are stated in the current Planetary Decadal Survey. Further, several missions to Venus were proposed in the most recent Discovery call. Despite this interest, the ability to accurately simulate Venus conditions at a scale that can test and validate instruments and spacecraft systems and accurately simulate the Venus atmosphere has been lacking. This paper discusses and compares the capabilities that are known to exist within and outside the United States to simulate the extreme environmental conditions found in terrestrial or planetary surfaces including the Venus atmosphere and surface. The paper then focuses on discussing the recent additional capability found in the NASA Glenn Extreme Environment Rig (GEER). The GEER, located at the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio, is designed to simulate not only the temperature and pressure extremes described, but can also accurately reproduce the atmospheric compositions of bodies in the solar system including those with acidic and hazardous elements. GEER capabilities and characteristics are described along with operational considerations relevant to potential users. The paper presents initial operating results and concludes

  13. Novel Architecture for a Long-Life, Lightweight Venus Lander

    This paper describes a novel concept for an extended lifetime, lightweight Venus lander. Historically, to operate in the 480 deg. C, 90 atm, corrosive, mostly CO2 Venus surface environment, previous landers have relied on thick Ti spherical outer shells and thick layers of internal insulation. But even the most resilient of these landers operated for only about 2 hours before succumbing to the environment. The goal on this project is to develop an architecture that extends lander lifetime to 20-25 hours and also reduces mass compared to the Pioneer Venus mission architecture. The idea for reducing mass is to: (a) contain the science instruments within a spherical high strength lightweight polymer matrix composite (PMC) tank; (b) surround the PMC tank with an annular shell of high performance insulation pre-pressurized to a level that (after landing) will exceed the external Venus surface pressure; and (c) surround the insulation with a thin Ti outer shell that contains only a net internal pressure, eliminating buckling overdesign mass. The combination of the PMC inner tank and thin Ti outer shell is lighter than a single thick Ti outer shell. The idea for extending lifetime is to add the following three features: (i) an expendable water supply that is placed within the insulation or is contained in an additional vessel within the PMC tank; (ii) a thin spherical evaporator shell placed within the insulation a short radial distance from the outer shell; and (iii) a thin heat-intercepting liquid cooled shield placed inboard of the evaporator shell. These features lower the temperature of the insulation below what it would have been with the insulation alone, reducing the internal heat leak and lengthening lifetime. The use of phase change materials (PCMs) inside the PMC tank is also analyzed as a lifetime-extending design option. The paper describes: (1) analytical modeling to demonstrate reduced mass and extended life; (2) thermal conductivity testing of high

  14. Energetic Neutral Atom Emissions From Venus: VEX Observations and Theoretical Modeling

    Fok, M.-C.; Galli, A.; Tanaka, T.; Moore, T. E.; Wurz, P.; Holmstrom, M.


    Venus has almost no intrinsic magnetic field to shield itself from its surrounding environment. The solar wind thus directly interacts with the planetary ionosphere and atmosphere. One of the by-products of this close encounter is the production of energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions. Theoretical studies have shown that significant amount of ENAs are emanated from the planet. The launch of the Venus Express (VEX) in 2005 provided the first light ever of the Venus ENA emissions. The observed ENA flux level and structure are in pretty good agreement with the theoretical studies. In this paper, we present VEX ENA data and the comparison with numerical simulations. We seek to understand the solar wind interaction with the planet and the impacts on its atmospheres.

  15. The Venus-solar wind interaction: Is it purely ionospheric?

    Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y. J.; Villarreal, M. N.; Wei, H. Y.; Zhang, T. L.


    The Venus solar wind interaction is often regarded as the prototypical example of an induced magnetosphere. Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) observations during a period of moderate to strong solar EUV fluxes led to a fairly detailed picture in which the currents in the conducting ionosphere produce a nearly impenetrable obstacle to the incident magnetized plasma flow, resulting in a classical draped field magnetosheath region and a comet-like magnetotail. Inspired by the availability of Venus Express (VEX) observations from the north polar region, and their sometimes unexpected behavior, we reanalyzed the observed Venus wake magnetic fields in the altitude range ~150 to ~450 km to determine whether some signature of a weak planetary field could have been missed. Our results suggest the presence of a small (few nT) but persistent radial field direction bias in the deep nightside, low to mid-latitude range sampled on PVO. The bias has a hemispheric dependence, with the more positive (outward) fields in the south and the more negative (inward) fields in the north. However the VEX counterpart of these data, obtained just nightward of the north polar terminator, shows no significant bias. This observation raises several questions about our understanding of the fields at the surface of Venus. We investigate whether the PVO radial field bias could be the subtle signature of a weak global dipole with , higher by ~10× than the previously established upper limits. A weak dipole solar wind interaction model produces results in the center of the low altitude wake that compare favorably with the observed field bias seen by PVO; however, the lack of agreement with the higher latitude and VEX observations suggests other explanations need to be considered. For example, effects related to previously observed convection electric field-controlled hemispheric asymmetries provide a possible alternative, as are external fields that diffuse into and through the interior. This work points

  16. High Temperature, Wireless Seismometer Sensor for Venus

    Ponchak, George E.; Scardelletti, Maximilian C.; Taylor, Brandt; Beard, Steve; Meredith, Roger D.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Hunter Gary W.; Kiefer, Walter S.


    Space agency mission plans state the need to measure the seismic activity on Venus. Because of the high temperature on Venus (462? C average surface temperature) and the difficulty in placing and wiring multiple sensors using robots, a high temperature, wireless sensor using a wide bandgap semiconductor is an attractive option. This paper presents the description and proof of concept measurements of a high temperature, wireless seismometer sensor for Venus. A variation in inductance of a coil caused by the movement of an aluminum probe held in the coil and attached to a balanced leaf-spring seismometer causes a variation of 700 Hz in the transmitted signal from the oscillator/sensor system at 426? C. This result indicates that the concept may be used on Venus.

  17. Obliquity Variations of a Rapidly Rotating Venus

    Quarles, Billy L.; Barnes, Jason W.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John E.; Hedman, Matthew M.


    Venus clearly differs from Earth in terms of its spin and atmospheric composition, where the former is controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, this may have been different during earlier stages of planetary evolution, when the Sun was fainter and the Venusian atmosphere was less massive. We investigate how the axial tilt, or obliquity, would have varied during this epoch considering a rapidly rotating Venus. Through numerical simulation of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses, we find the obliquity variation to be simpler than a Moonless Earth (Lissauer et al., 2012). Most low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  18. Sapphire Viewports for a Venus Probe Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase 1 program will demonstrate that sapphire viewports are feasible for use in Venus probes. TvU's commercial viewport products have demonstrated...

  19. Venus and the Archean Earth: Thermal considerations

    The Archean Era of the Earth is not a direct analog of the present tectonics of Venus. In this regard, it is useful to review the state of the Archean Earth. Most significantly, the temperature of the adiabatic interior of the Earth was 200 to 300 C hotter than the current temperature. Preservation biases limit what can be learned from the Archean record. Archean oceanic crust, most of the planetary surface at any one time, has been nearly all subducted. More speculatively, the core of the Earth has probably cooled more slowly than the mantle. Thus the temperature contrast above the core-mantle boundary and the vigor of mantle plumes has increased with time on the Earth. The most obvious difference between Venus and the present Earth is the high surface temperature and hence a low effective viscosity of the lithosphere. In addition, the temperature contrast between the adiabatic interior and the surface, which drives convection, is less on Venus than on the Earth. It appears that the hot lithosphere enhanced tectonics on the early Venus significantly enough that its interior cooled faster than the Earth's. The best evidence for a cool interior of Venus comes from long wavelength gravity anomalies. The low interior temperatures retard seafloor spreading on Venus. The high surface temperatures on Venus enhance crustal deformation. That is, the lower crust may become ductile enough to permit significant flow between the upper crust and the mantle. There is thus some analogy to modern and ancient areas of high heat flow on the Earth. Archean crustal blocks typically remained stable for long intervals and thus overall are not good analogies to the deformation style on Venus

  20. Venus: uniformity of clouds, and photography.

    Keene, G T


    Photographs of Earth at a resolution of about 600 kilometers were compared to pictures of Venus taken from Earth at about the same resolution . Under these conditions Earth appear very heavily covered by clouds. Since details on the surface of Earth can be recorded from Earth orbit, it may be possible to phiotograph protions of the surface of Venus, through openings in the clouds, from an orbiting satellite. PMID:17799560

  1. Dynamic model of Venus's gravity field

    Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage

  2. Circulation in upper mesosphere of Venus in the Southern and Northern hemispheres from the O2 1.27 μm night glow (VIRTIS-M/VEX data)

    Zasova, L.; Shakun, A.; Khatuntsev, I.; Gorinov, D.; Migliorini, A.; Altieri, F.; Piccioni, G.; Drossart, P.


    Mapping spectrometer VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express [1] made observations of the O2 1.27 μm airglow intensity distribution on the night side of Venus in nadir and limb modes in Southern and Northern hemispheres respectively. The work is devoted to comparison of the results, obtained for both hemispheres.

  3. Science Letters: A robust statistical procedure to discover expression biomarkers using microarray genomic expression data

    ZOU Yang-yun; YANG Jian; ZHU Jun


    Microarray has become increasingly popular biotechnology in biological and medical researches, and has been widely applied in classification of treatment subtypes using expression patterns of biomarkers. We developed a statistical procedure to identify expression biomarkers for treatment subtype classification by constructing an F-statistic based on Henderson method Ⅲ.Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the robustness and efficiency of the proposed method. Simulation results showed that our method could provide satisfying power of identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) with false discovery rate (FDR) lower than the given type Ⅰ error rate. In addition, we analyzed a leukemia dataset collected from 38 leukemia patients with 27 samples diagnosed as acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 11 samples as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We compared our results with those from the methods of significance analysis of microarray (SAM) and microarray analysis of variance (MAANOVA). Among these three methods, only expression biomarkers identified by our method can precisely identify the three human acute leukemia subtypes.

  4. High Temperature Venus Drill and Sample Delivery System Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We proposed to design, build and test a high temperature Pneumatic Drill and Trencher system for Venus subsurface exploration. The Venus Drill and Trencher will be...

  5. Carl Sagan and the Exploration of Mars and Venus

    Toon, Owen B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)


    Inspired by childhood readings of books by Edgar Rice Burroughs, Carl Sagan's first interest in planetary science focused on Mars and Venus. Typical of much of his career he was skeptical of early views about these planets. Early in this century it was thought that the Martian wave of darkening, a seasonal albedo change on the planet, was biological in origin. He suggested instead that it was due to massive dust storms, as was later shown to be the case. He was the first to recognize that Mars has huge topography gradients across its surface. During the spacecraft era, as ancient river valleys were found on the planet, he directed studies of Mars' ancient climate. He suggested that changes in the planets orbit were involved in climate shifts on Mars, just as they are on Earth. Carl had an early interest in Venus. Contradictory observations led to a controversy about the surface temperature, and Carl was one of the first to recognize that Venus has a massive greenhouse effect at work warming its surface. His work on radiative transfer led to an algorithm that was extensively used by modelers of the Earth's climate and whose derivatives still dominate the calculation of radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres today. Carl inspired a vast number of young scientists through his enthusiasm for new ideas and discoveries, his skeptical approach, and his boundless energy. I had the privilege to work in Carl's laboratory during the peak of the era of Mars' initial exploration. It was an exciting time, and place. Carl made it a wonderful experience.

  6. Concept study for a Venus Lander Mission to Analyze Atmospheric and Surface Composition

    Kumar, K.; Banks, M. E.; Benecchi, S. D.; Bradley, B. K.; Budney, C. J.; Clark, G. B.; Corbin, B. A.; James, P. B.; O'Brien, R. C.; Rivera-Valentin, E. G.; Saltman, A.; Schmerr, N. C.; Seubert, C. R.; Siles, J. V.; Stickle, A. M.; Stockton, A. M.; Taylor, C.; Zanetti, M.; JPL Team X


    We present a concept-level study of a New Frontiers class, Venus lander mission that was developed during Session 1 of NASA's 2011 Planetary Science Summer School, hosted by Team X at JPL. Venus is often termed Earth's sister planet, yet they have evolved in strikingly different ways. Venus' surface and atmosphere dynamics, and their complex interaction are poorly constrained. A lander mission to Venus would enable us to address a multitude of outstanding questions regarding the geological evolution of the Venusian atmosphere and crust. Our proposed mission concept, VenUs Lander for Composition ANalysis (VULCAN), is a two-component mission, consisting of a lander and a carrier spacecraft functioning as relay to transmit data to Earth. The total mission duration is 150 days, with primary science obtained during a 1-hour descent through the atmosphere and a 2-hour residence on the Venusian surface. In the atmosphere, the lander will provide new data on atmospheric evolution by measuring dominant and trace gas abundances, light stable isotopes, and noble gas isotopes with a neutral mass spectrometer. It will make important meteorological observations of mid-lower atmospheric dynamics with pressure and temperature sensors and obtain unprecedented, detailed imagery of surface geomorphology and properties with a descent Near-IR/VIS camera. A nepholometer will provide new constraints on the sizes of suspended particulate matter within the lower atmosphere. On the surface, the lander will quantitatively investigate the chemical and mineralogical evolution of the Venusian crust with a LIBS-Raman spectrometer. Planetary differentiation processes recorded in heavy elements will be evaluated using a gamma-ray spectrometer. The lander will also provide the first stereo images for evaluating the geomorphologic/volcanic evolution of the Venusian surface, as well as panoramic views of the sample site using multiple filters, and detailed images of unconsolidated material and rock

  7. The Transit of Venus: an Opportunity to Promote Astronomy

    Ros, R. M.

    The transit of Venus was an excellent opportunity to promote Astronomy to everybody. In particular this occasion was used to encourage interest in Astronomy in schools. In our society, which has a good quality of life, interest in science has decreased. Every year the number of students interested in studying science degrees at university is smaller than in previous years. Our new generations do not seem to be motivated to study in the field of science. Probably this situation is a consequence of the lack of understanding of the true meaning of science. Of course, it is not possible that a student would decide to study a topic that they do not know about. In the media science appears less than sports, cinema, or business! In consequence, the general public is more concerned about items other than science. On June 8th we took advantage of an opportunity to introduce science and Astronomy into the lives of everybody, but especially in schools. This paper will show two projects related to the transit in schools: ”Pilla el Tránsito de Venus” and ”VT-2004” and a short appendix to another project for schools ”ALMA-ITP”

  8. Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M.


    Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Ea...

  9. Venus transit 2004: Illustrating the capability of exoplanet transmission spectroscopy

    Hedelt, P.; Alonso, R.; Brown, T; Collados Vera, M.; Rauer, H.; Schleicher, H.; Schmidt, W.; F. Schreier; Titz, R.


    The transit of Venus in 2004 offered the rare possibility to remotely sense a well-known planetary atmosphere using ground-based observations for absorption spectroscopy. Transmission spectra of Venus' atmosphere were obtained in the near infrared using the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) in Tenerife. Since the instrument was designed to measure the very bright photosphere of the Sun, extracting Venus' atmosphere was challenging. CO_2 absorption lines could be identified in the upper Venus atmos...

  10. Mars Express 10 years at Mars: Observations by the Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS)

    Pätzold, M.; Häusler, B.; Tyler, G. L.; Andert, T.; Asmar, S. W.; Bird, M. K.; Dehant, V.; Hinson, D. P.; Rosenblatt, P.; Simpson, R. A.; Tellmann, S.; Withers, P.; Beuthe, M.; Efimov, A. I.; Hahn, M.; Kahan, D.; Le Maistre, S.; Oschlisniok, J.; Peter, K.; Remus, S.


    The Mars Express spacecraft is operating in Mars orbit since early 2004. The Mars Express Radio Science Experiment (MaRS) employs the spacecraft and ground station radio systems (i) to conduct radio occultations of the atmosphere and ionosphere to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, pressure, neutral number densities and electron density, (ii) to conduct bistatic radar experiments to obtain information on the dielectric and scattering properties of the surface, (iii) to investigate the structure and variation of the crust and lithosphere in selected target areas, (iv) to determine the mass, bulk and internal structure of the moon Phobos, and (v) to track the MEX radio signals during superior solar conjunction to study the morphology of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Here we report observations, results and discoveries made in the Mars environment between 2004 and 2014 over almost an entire solar cycle.

  11. Geologic map of the Artemis Chasma quadrangle (V-48), Venus

    Bannister, Roger A.; Hansen, Vicki L.


    . So although it seems clear what Artemis is not, there is little consensus about what Artemis is, much less how Artemis formed. Debate during the past decade has resulted in the proposal of at least four hypotheses for Artemis' formation. The first (herein referred to as H1) is that Artemis Chasma represents a zone of northwest-directed convergence and subduction. The second hypothesis (herein referred to as H2) is that Artemis consists of a composite structure with a part of its interior region marking the exposure of deformed ductile deep-crustal rocks analogous to a terrestrial metamorphic core complex. The third (herein referred to as H3) is that Artemis reflects the surface expression of an ancient (>3.5 Ga) huge bolide impact event on cold strong lithosphere. The fourth hypothesis (herein referred to as H4) is that Artemis marks the surface expression of a deep mantle plume. Each of these hypotheses holds different implications for Venus geodynamics and evolution processes, and for terrestrial planet processes in general. Viability of H1 would provide support that terrestrial-like plate-tectonic processes once occurred on Earth's sister planet. The feasibility of H2 would require high values of crustal extension and therefore imply that significant horizontal displacements occurred on Venus-displacement that may or may not be related to terrestrial-like plate-tectonic processes. The possibility of H3 would suggest that Venus' surface is extremely old, and that Venus has experienced very little dynamic activity for the last 3.5 billion years or more; this would further imply that Venus is essentially tectonically dead, and has been for most of its history. This view contrasts strongly with studies that highlight a rich history of Venus including activity at least as young as 750 million years ago, and quite likely up to the present. If H4 has credibility, then Artemis could provide clues to cooling mechanisms of Earth's sister planet. Each of these hypotheses

  12. Extreme Environments Technologies for Probes to Venus and Jupiter

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James A.; Belz, Andrea P.


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the technologies that are used to mitigate extreme environments for probes at Venus and Jupiter. The contents include: 1) Extreme environments at Venus and Jupiter; 2) In-situ missions to Venus and Jupiter (past/present/future); and 3) Approaches to mitigate conditions of extreme environments for probes with systems architectures and technologies.

  13. Understanding Venus to understand the Earth

    Widemann, T.; Tanga, P.


    Despite having almost the same size and bulk composition as the Earth, Venus possesses an extreme climate with a surface pressure of 90 bars and temperatures of 740 K. At visible wavelengths the Venus disk appears covered by thick clouds.The core atmospheric processes of Venus and the Earth are similar, despite the different, extraordinary paths they took since their simultaneous formation in the solar system's habitable zone. There are several indications that the composition of the Venus atmosphere has undergone large changes, such as an early runaway climate, and it is likely that the planet has lost a large amount of water through dissociation in the upper atmosphere due to ultraviolet radiation and the subsequent escape of hydrogen. SO2 is thought to originate from volcanism. H2O and SO2 react to form H2SO4 which condenses to form clouds. In past centuries, astronomers and explorers including Captain James Cook observed transits to measure the scale of the solar system. On 5-6 June 2012 we observed the last transit of Venus in this century. Close to the ingress and egress phases, the fraction of Venus disk outside the solar photosphere appears outlined by a thin arc of light, called the aureole. We have shown that the deviation due to refraction and the luminosity of the aureole are related to the local density scale height and the altitude of the refraction layer. As different portions of the arc can yield different values of these parameters, the rare transit event thus provides a unique insight of the Venus mesosphere. The polar region, significantly brighter in initial phases due to larger scale height of the polar mesosphere, appears consistently offset toward morning terminator by about 15deg. latitude, peaking at 75N at 6:00 local time. This result reflects local latitudinal structure in the polar mesosphere, either in temperature or aerosol altitude distribution. Detailed comparative climatology of Venus, an Earth-size planet and understanding why it

  14. Properties of planetward ion flows in Venus' magnetotail

    Kollmann, P.; Brandt, P. C.; Collinson, G.; Rong, Z. J.; Futaana, Y.; Zhang, T. L.


    Venus is gradually losing some of its atmosphere in the form of ions through its induced magnetotail. Some of these ions have been reported previously to flow back to the planet. Proposed drivers are magnetic reconnection and deflection of pickup ions in the magnetic field. We analyze protons and oxygen ions with eV to keV energies acquired by the ASPERA-4/IMA instrument throughout the entire Venus Express mission. We find that venusward flowing ions are important in the sense that their density and deposition rate into the atmosphere is of the same order of magnitude as the density and escape rate of downtail flowing ions. Our analysis shows that during strong EUV irradiance, which occurs during solar maximum, the flux of venusward flowing protons is weaker and of oxygen ions is stronger than during weak irradiance. Since such a behavior was observed when tracing oxygen ions through a MHD model, the ultimate driver of the venusward flowing ions may simply be the magnetic field configuration around Venus. Although the pure downtail oxygen flux stays mostly unchanged for all observed EUV conditions, the increase in venusward oxygen flux for high irradiance results in a lower net atmospheric escape rate. Venusward bulk flows are mostly found in locations where the magnetic field is weak relative to the interplanetary conditions. Although a weak field is generally an indicator of proximity to the magnetotail current sheet, these flows do not cluster around current sheet crossings, as one may expect if they would be driven by magnetic reconnection.

  15. Chemical composition of Venus clouds

    Krasnopolsky, V. A.


    From estimates of drying effect in the cloud layer, data of the Venera 14 X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, and evaluation of photochemical production of sulfuric acid, it follows that sulfuric acid and/or products of its further conversion should constitute not only the Mode 2 particles but most of the Mode 3 particles as well. The eddy mixing coefficient equal 20,000 sq cm per sec in the cloud layer. The presence of ferric chloride in the cloud layer is indicated by the Venus u.v. absorption spectrum in the range of 3200-5000 A, by the Venera 12 X-ray fluorescent spectrum, by the coincidence of the calculated FeCl3 condensate density profile and that of the Mode 1 in the middle and lower cloud layer, as well as by the upward flux of FeCl3 from the middle cloud layer which provides the necessary concentration of FeCl3 in H2SO4 solution. FeCl3 as the second absorber explains the localization of absorption in the upper cloud layer due to the FeCl3 conversion to ferric sulfate near the boundary between the upper and middle cloud layers. Other possible absorbers such as sulfur, ammonium pyrosulfite, nitrosylsulfuric acid, etc. are discussed.

  16. (abstract) Venus Gravity Data Reduction

    Konopliv, A. S.; Sjogren, W. L.; Graat, E.; Arkani-Hamed, J.


    The Magellan spacecraft has provided high resolution gravity data to its very end, October 13, 1994, when it was consumed by the Venusian atmosphere. After aerobraking in August of 1993 to attain a near circular orbit, excellent high latitude data were acquired which previously were very weak during the elliptical orbit coverage. There are 1500 orbits during the near circular orbit, supplying redundant coverage at different geometries over many features. This allowed the relaxation of apriori constraints, so true amplitudes are being extracted from the data. In this paper we present the results of a 75(sup th) degree and order field that incorporates all the old Pioneer Venus Orbiter data as well as all the Magellan data to September 1994. The new results reflect even higher correlation with topography, higher amplitude values for the highs and lows, and global results that have essentially very little apriori constraint on the solution parameters. We also correlate our new model with the earlier ones based on 60(sup th) and 40(sup th) degree and order presentations.

  17. Meeting Venus: A Collection of Papers Presented at the Venus Transit Conference Tromsø 2012

    Aspaas, Per Pippin; Sterken, Christiaan


    On 2–3 June 2012, the University of Tromsø hosted a conference about the cultural and scientific history of the transits of Venus. The conference took place in Tromsø for two very specific reasons. First and foremost, the last transit of Venus of this century lent itself to be observed on the disc of the Midnight Sun in this part of Europe during the night of 5 to 6 June 2012. Second, several Venus transit expeditions in this region were central in the global enterprise of measuring the sc...

  18. Sapphire Viewports for a Venus Probe

    Bates, Stephen


    A document discusses the creation of a viewport suitable for use on the surface of Venus. These viewports are rated for 500 C and 100 atm pressure with appropriate safety factors and reliability required for incorporation into a Venus Lander. Sapphire windows should easily withstand the chemical, pressure, and temperatures of the Venus surface. Novel fixture designs and seals appropriate to the environment are incorporated, as are materials compatible with exploration vessels. A test cell was fabricated, tested, and leak rate measured. The window features polish specification of the sides and corners, soft metal padding of the sapphire, and a metal C-ring seal. The system safety factor is greater than 2, and standard mechanical design theory was used to size the window, flange, and attachment bolts using available material property data. Maintenance involves simple cleaning of the window aperture surfaces. The only weakness of the system is its moderate rather than low leak rate for vacuum applications.

  19. Magnetic field fluctuations in the Venus magnetosheath

    Luhmann, J. G.; Tatrallyay, M.; Russell, C. T.; Winterhalter, D.


    Using a model for the convection pattern of the shocked solar wind flow around the Venus obstacle, Pioneer Venus observations of ultra-low-frequency (about 10-40 s period) magnetic field fluctuations in the magnetosheath have been traced along streamlines to the regions of the quasi-parallel bow shock. The periods and polarizations of the sinusoidal fluctuations are similar to those observed upstream of the quasi-parallel bow shock, where streaming superthermal particles are believed to produce MHD waves by a beam-plasma instability. The results suggest that both disturbances at the ionopause at Venus and the earth's magnetopause may be caused by convection of turbulent magnetic fields from the subsolar bow shock when the interplanetary field direction produces a quasi-parallel shock there.

  20. Venus project : experimentation at ENEA`s pilot site

    Bargellini, M.L.; Fontana, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Innovazione; Bucci, C.; Ferrara, F.; Sottile, P.A. [GESI s.r.l., Rome (Italy); Niccolai, L.; Scavino, G. [Rome Univ. Sacro Cuore (Italy); Mancini, R.; Levialdi, S. [Rome Univ. La Sapienza (Italy). Dip. di Scienze dell`Informazione


    The document describes the ENEA`s (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) experience in the Venus Project (Esprit III ). Venus is an advanced visual interface based on icon representation that permits to end-user to inquiry databases. VENUS interfaces to ENEA`s databases: cometa materials Module, Cometa Laboratories Module and European Programs. This report contents the results of the experimentation and of the validation carried out in ENEA`s related to the Venus generations. Moreover, the description of the architecture, the user requirements syntesis and the validation methodology of the VENUS systems have been included.

  1. Are the clouds of Venus sulfuric acid.

    Young, A. T.


    It is shown that strong aqueous sulfuric acid solutions have the right refractive index and freeze at Venusian cloud temperature, explain the dryness of the Venusian stratosphere, are consistent with some features of the Venusian IR spectrum, and do not absorb in highly reflecting areas of Venus. It is also indicated that such solutions should be produced by reactions between known atmospheric constituents and most sulfur-bearing rock at the Venusian surface temperature, and require only small amounts of sulfur consistent with its cosmic abundance and with the amounts of other volatile elements present in the atmosphere. It is believed therefore that the clouds of Venus consist of sulfuric acid solutions.

  2. Emplacement Scenarios for Volcanic Domes on Venus

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Steve M.; Stofan, Ellen R.


    One key to understanding the history of resurfacing on Venus is better constraints on the emplacement timescales for the range of volcanic features visible on the surface. A figure shows a Magellan radar image and topography for a putative lava dome on Venus. 175 such domes have been identified with diameters ranging from 19 - 94 km, and estimated thicknesses as great as 4 km. These domes are thought to be volcanic in origin and to have formed by the flow of viscous fluid (i.e., lava) on the surface.

  3. Venus: Mantle convection, hotspots, and tectonics

    The putative paradigm that planets of the same size and mass have the same tectonic style led to the adaptation of the mechanisms of terrestrial plate tectonics as the a priori model of the way Venus should behave. Data acquired over the last decade by Pioneer Venus, Venera, and ground-based radar have modified this view sharply and have illuminated the lack of detailed understanding of the plate tectonic mechanism. For reference, terrestrial mechanisms are briefly reviewed. Venusian lithospheric divergence, hotspot model, and horizontal deformation theories are proposed and examined

  4. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.


    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  5. Investigating the Geophysics of Venus: Result of the post-Alpbach Summer School 2014

    Koopmans, Robert-Jan; Łosiak, Anna; Białek, Agata; Donohoe, Anthony; Fernández Jiménez, María; Frasl, Barbara; Gurciullo, Antonio; Kleinschneider, Andreas; Mannel, Thurid; Muñoz Elorza, Iñigo; Nilsson, Daniel; Oliveira, Marta; Sørensen-Clark, Paul; Timoney, Ryan; van Zelst, Iris


    heat signatures from volcanoes. By using the previous landers as reference points it will also be possible to accurately determine the spin rate with the radar. The nominal mission duration is planned to be five years starting from the release of the balloon. The balloon will operate for 25 days during which it oscillates vertically in the atmosphere between an altitude of 40 and 60 kilometres in a period of about six hours. At the same time, due to prevailing wind directions on Venus, it will gradually spiral from the equator towards higher latitudes. During the balloon science phase the orbiter will be in an elliptical orbit to maximise the time of visibility of the balloon with the orbiter. After this phase, the orbiter will be brought into a circular orbit at an altitude of 250 kilometres. To save fuel, apoapsis lowering will be achieved by aerobreaking in Venus' atmosphere. In the presentation further details about the mission timeline will be given. Particular engineering problems such as thermal control and data communication and the proposed solutions will be presented.

  6. Investigating the Origin and Evolution of Venus with In Situ Mass Spectrometry

    Trainer, M. G.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Johnson, N. M.; Glaze, L. S.


    Measurement of noble gas abundances on Venus remain a high priority for planetary science [1,2]. These studies are only possible through in situ measurement, and can be accomplished by a modern neutral mass spectrometer (NMS) such as that developed at NASA Goddard, based on flight-proven technology. Here we show how the measurement of noble gases can be secured using demonstrated enrichment techniques.

  7. Intermittency of solar system plasma turbulence near Venus and Earth

    Teodorescu, Eliza; Echim, Marius; Chang, Tom


    We analyze magnetic field data from Venus Express (VEX) and CLUSTER to investigate the turbulent properties of the solar wind and the Earth's and Venus' magnetosheaths. A systematic study of the PDFs (Probability Distribution Functions) of the measured magnetic fluctuations and their fourth order moments (kurtosis) reveals numerous intermittent time series. The presence of intermittency is marked by non-Gaussian PDFs with heavy wings and a scale dependent kurtosis. Higher order analyses on the scale dependence of several moment orders of the PDFs, the structure functions, along with the scaling of the kurtosis allow for a selection of scales that pertain to different scaling regimes, governed by different physics. On such sub-ranges of scales we investigate the fractal structure of fluctuations through the Rank Ordered Multifractal Analysis - ROMA (Chang and Wu, 2008). ROMA is applied to a selection of intermittent magnetic field time series in the solar wind and planetary magnetosheaths and helps to quantify the turbulence properties through the estimation of a spectrum of local Hurst exponents. Research supported by the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement no 313038/STORM, and a grant of the Romanian Ministry of National Education, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-ID-PCE-2012-4-0418.

  8. Acoustic properties in the low and middle atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

    Petculescu, Andi


    Generic predictions for acoustic dispersion and absorption in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus are presented. For Mars, Pathfinder and Mars Express ambient data and averaged thermophysical parameters are used as inputs to a preliminary model based on the continuum approximation for Mars' thin atmosphere-the need for Boltzmann-based treatment is discussed in the context of Knudsen numbers. Strong absorption constrains acoustic sensing within the Martian planetary boundary layer. For the dense atmosphere of Venus, the van der Waals equation of state is used. The thermophysical and transport parameters were interpolated at the ambient conditions. Acoustic sensing is discussed at 50 km above Venus' surface, a level where aerostats (e.g., European Space Agency's EVE) and manned airships (e.g., NASA's HAVOC) may be deployed in the future. The salient atmospheric characteristics are described in terms of temperature, pressure, and convective stability profiles, followed by wavenumber predictions, and discussions of low- and high-frequency sensing applications. At low frequencies, emphasis is placed on infrasound. A simple generation mechanism by Martian dust devils is presented, yielding fundamental frequencies between 0.1 and 10 Hz. High-frequency sensing is exemplified by ultrasonic anemometry. Of the two environments, Venus is notably more dispersive in the ultrasonic range. PMID:27586769

  9. Mesospheric vertical thermal structure and winds on Venus from HHSMT CO spectral-line observations

    Rengel, M; Jarchow, C


    We report vertical thermal structure and wind velocities in the Venusian mesosphere retrieved from carbon monoxide (12CO J=2-1 and 13CO J=2-1) spectral line observations obtained with the Heinrich Hertz Submillimeter Telescope (HHSMT). We observed the mesosphere of Venus from two days after the second Messenger flyby of Venus (on June 5 2007 at 23:10 UTC) during five days. Day-to-day and day-to-night temperature variations and short-term fluctuations of the mesospheric zonal flow were evident in our data. The extensive layer of warm air detected recently by SPICAV at 90 - to 100 km altitude is also detected in the temperature profiles reported here. These data were part of a coordinated ground-based Venus observational campaign in support of the ESA Venus Express mission. Furthermore, this study attempts to cross-calibrate space- and ground-based observations, to constrain radiative transfer and retrieval algorithms for planetary atmospheres, and to contribute to a more thorough understanding of the global pa...

  10. A Cubesat Mission to Venus: A Low-Cost Approach to the Investigation of Venus Lightning

    Majid, W.; Duncan, C.; Kuiper, T.; Russell, C. T.; Hart, R. A.; Lightsey, E.


    The occurrence of Venus lightning has been detected by atmospheric probes and landers on Venus; by ionospheric satellites; by an orbiting visible spectrometer; at radio frequencies by the Galileo spacecraft while flying by Venus; and by an Earth-based telescope. However, none of these detectors has enabled us to determine the global occurrence rate of lightning in the atmosphere of Venus, nor the altitude at which this lightning is generated. Such measurements are needed in order to determine the processes that generate Venus lightning and to establish the importance of Venus lightning in controlling the chemical composition of the Venus atmosphere. A simple and affordable mission to perform this mapping could be achieved with CubeSat technology. A mother spacecraft with at least three CubeSat partners using RF detection could map the occurrence of lightning globally and determine its altitude of origin, with triangulation of precisely timed RF event arrivals. Such a mission would provide space for complementary investigations and be affordable under the Discovery mission program. We are embarking on a program to develop CubeSat-based instrumentation for such a mission. The initial task is to develop a lightning detector in a CubeSat development kit using a software defined radio (SDR) operating at decameter wavelengths (5-50 MHz). This involves algorithm development as well as selecting or developing radio hardware for a CubeSat. Two units will be tested on the ground in a lightning zone such as New Mexico, where the Long Wavelength Array operates in the same frequency range. When the concept has been proven, flight subsystems such as solar panels, attitude sensing and communication radios will be added to the CubeSats to test performance in low Earth orbit. Experience gained from flight would enable a cluster of sensors to be proposed for a future Venus mission.

  11. Vesper - Venus Chemistry and Dynamics Orbiter - A NASA Discovery Mission Proposal: Submillimeter Investigation of Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics

    Chin, Gordon


    Vesper conducts a focused investigation of the chemistry and dynamics of the middle atmosphere of our sister planet- from the base of the global cloud cover to the lower thermosphere. The middle atmosphere controls the stability of the Venus climate system. Vesper determines what processes maintain the atmospheric chemical stability, cause observed variability of chemical composition, control the escape of water, and drive the extreme super-rotation. The Vesper science investigation provides a unique perspective on the Earth environment due to the similarities in the middle atmosphere processes of both Venus and the Earth. Understanding key distinctions and similarities between Venus and Earth will increase our knowledge of how terrestrial planets evolve along different paths from nearly identical initial conditions.

  12. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    Clegg, Sanuel M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Barefield, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Humphries, Seth D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wiens, Roger C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vaniman, D. T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sharma, S. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Misra, A. K. [UNIV OF HAWAII; Dyar, M. D. [MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE; Smrekar, S. E. [JET PROPULSION LAB.


    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to

  13. Solar Airplane Concept Developed for Venus Exploration

    Landis, Geoffrey A.


    An airplane is the ideal vehicle for gathering atmospheric data over a wide range of locations and altitudes, while having the freedom to maneuver to regions of scientific interest. Solar energy is available in abundance on Venus. Venus has an exoatmospheric solar flux of 2600 W/m2, compared with Earth's 1370 W/m2. The solar intensity is 20 to 50 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at the bottom of the cloud layer, and it increases to nearly 95 percent of the exoatmospheric intensity at 65 km. At these altitudes, the temperature of the atmosphere is moderate, in the range of 0 to 100 degrees Celsius, depending on the altitude. A Venus exploration aircraft, sized to fit in a small aeroshell for a "Discovery" class scientific mission, has been designed and analyzed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. For an exploratory aircraft to remain continually illuminated by sunlight, it would have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed, about 95 m/sec at the cloud-top level. The analysis concluded that, at typical flight altitudes above the cloud layer (65 to 75 km above the surface), a small aircraft powered by solar energy could fly continuously in the atmosphere of Venus. At this altitude, the atmospheric pressure is similar to pressure at terrestrial flight altitudes.

  14. Sulfuric acid in the Venus clouds.

    Sill, G. T.


    The extremely dry nature of the Venus upper atmosphere appears to demand the presence of an efficient desiccating agent as the chief constituent of the clouds of Venus. On the basis of polarization measures it is to be expected that this substance is present as spherical droplets, 1 to 2 microns in diameter, with a refractive index n of 1.46 plus or minus 0.02 at 3500A in the observed region of the atmosphere, with T about equal to 235 K. This substance must have ultraviolet, visible, and infrared reflection properties not inconsistent with the observed spectrum of Venus. Sulfuric acid, of about 86% by weight composition, roughly fulfills the first of these properties. The visible and ultraviolet transmission features of a thin layer of elemental bromine and hydrobromic acid dissolved in sulfuric acid somewhat resemble the Venus spectrum, up to 14 microns. The chemical process postulated for forming sulfuric acid involves the oxidation of sulfur and its compounds to sulfuric acid through the agency of elemental bromine produced by the photolytic decomposition of hydrogen bromide.

  15. The Venus-new-world project

    Marchal, C.

    The search for life is one of the major domains of space research, but it is also the most disappointing. There remains a small hope of success near the southern tropic of Mars. The installation of large human communities is possible on some planets and satellites. For Venus the major problem is to cool down that very hot planet (460°C); it can be done through the interposition of a dust cloud between the Sun and Venus. An efficient dust cloud must be very heavy (billions of tons) and it can be obtained through the pulverization of a well chosen asteroid at a proper place. Thousands of asteroids cross the Venus orbit; it is possible to move some of them with atom bombs and to lead them to the desired place. When Venus will be cold its gaseous CO 2 will disappear into the rocks, the corresponding "greenhouse effect" will be destroyed and we will thus reach a new stable equilibrium. The most pleasant Venusian regions will certainly be the polar regions without night; the Venusian equator is indeed almost exactly in the orbital plane of the planet.

  16. The guinevere project at the venus facility

    The GUINEVERE project is a European project in the framework of FP6 IP-EUROTRANS. The IP-EUROTRANS project aims at addressing the main issues for ADS development in the framework of partitioning and transmutation for nuclear waste volume and radiotoxicity reduction. The GUINEVERE project is carried out in the context of Domain 2 of IP-EUROTRANS, ECATS, devoted to specific experiments for the coupling of an accelerator, a target and a subcritical core. These experiments should provide an answer to the questions of on-line reactivity monitoring, subcriticality determination and operational procedures (loading, start-up, shutdown, etc.) in an ADS by 2009-2010. The GUINEVERE project will make use of the VENUS reactor, serving as a lead fast critical facility, coupled to a continuous beam accelerator. In order to achieve this goal, the VENUS facility has to be adapted and a modified GENEPI-C accelerator has to be designed and constructed. During the years 2007 and 2008, the VENUS facility will he modified in order to allow the experimental programme to start in 2009. The paper describes the main achievements with regard to the modifications for the VENUS facility. (authors)

  17. Venus In Situ Explorer Mission design using a mechanically deployed aerodynamic decelerator

    Smith, B.; Venkatapathy, E.; Wercinski, P.; Yount, B.; Prabhu, D.; Gage, P.; Glaze, L.; Baker, C.

    The Venus In Situ Explorer (VISE) Mission addresses the highest priority science questions within the Venus community outlined in the National Research Council's Decadal Survey. The heritage Venus atmospheric entry system architecture, a 45° sphere-cone rigid aeroshell with a carbon phenolic thermal protection system, may no longer be the preferred entry system architecture compared to other viable alternatives being explored at NASA. A mechanically-deployed aerodynamic decelerator, known as the Adaptive Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT), is an entry system alternative that can provide key operational benefits and risk reduction compared to a rigid aeroshell. This paper describes a mission feasibility study performed with the objectives of identifying potential adverse interactions with other mission elements and establishing requirements on decelerator performance. Feasibility is assessed through a launch-to-landing mission design study where the Venus Intrepid Tessera Lander (VITaL), a VISE science payload designed to inform the Decadal Survey results, is repackaged from a rigid aeroshell into the ADEPT decelerator. It is shown that ADEPT reduces the deceleration load on VITaL by an order of magnitude relative to a rigid aeroshell. The more benign entry environment opens up the VISE mission design environment for increased science return, reduced risk, and reduced cost. The ADEPT-VITAL mission concept of operations is presented and details of the entry vehicle structures and mechanisms are given. Finally, entry aerothermal analysis is presented that defines the operational requirements for a revolutionary structural-TPS material employed by ADEPT: three-dimensionally woven carbon cloth. Ongoing work to mitigate key risks identified in this feasibility study is presented.

  18. OSG-GEM: Gene Expression Matrix Construction Using the Open Science Grid.

    Poehlman, William L; Rynge, Mats; Branton, Chris; Balamurugan, D; Feltus, Frank A


    High-throughput DNA sequencing technology has revolutionized the study of gene expression while introducing significant computational challenges for biologists. These computational challenges include access to sufficient computer hardware and functional data processing workflows. Both these challenges are addressed with our scalable, open-source Pegasus workflow for processing high-throughput DNA sequence datasets into a gene expression matrix (GEM) using computational resources available to U.S.-based researchers on the Open Science Grid (OSG). We describe the usage of the workflow (OSG-GEM), discuss workflow design, inspect performance data, and assess accuracy in mapping paired-end sequencing reads to a reference genome. A target OSG-GEM user is proficient with the Linux command line and possesses basic bioinformatics experience. The user may run this workflow directly on the OSG or adapt it to novel computing environments. PMID:27499617

  19. Communications Transceivers for Venus Surface Missions

    Force, Dale A.


    The high temperature of the surface of Venus poses many difficulties. Previous Venus landers have only operated for short durations before succumbing to the heat. NASA Glenn Research Center conducted a study on communications for long duration Venus surface missions. I report the findings in this presentation. Current technology allows production of communications transceivers that can operate on the surface of Venus, at temperatures above 450 C and pressures of over 90 atmospheres. While these transceivers would have to be relatively simple, without much of the advanced signal processing often used in modern transceivers, since current and near future integrated circuits cannot operate at such high temperatures, the transceivers will be able to meet the requirements of proposed Venus Surface mission. The communication bands of interest are High Frequency or Very High Frequency (HFNHF) for communication between Venus surface and airborne probes (including surface to surface and air to air), and Ultra High Frequency (UHF) to Microwave bands for communication to orbiters. For HFNHF, transceivers could use existing vacuum tube technology. The packaging of the vacuum tubes may need modification, but the internal operating structure already operates at high temperatures. Using metal vacuum structures instead of glass, allows operation at high pressure. Wide bandgap transistors and diodes may be able to replace some of the thermionic components. VHF communications would be useful for line-of- sight operations, while HF would be useful for short-wave type communications using the Venusian ionosphere. UHF and microwave communications use magnetically focused thermionic devices, such as traveling wave tubes (TWTs), magnetron (M-type) amplifiers, and klystrons for high power amplifiers, and backward wave oscillators (BWOs) and reflex klystrons for oscillators. Permanent magnets are already in use in industry that can operate at 500 C. These magnets could focus electron beam

  20. Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    Barnes, Jason W; Lissauer, Jack J; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M


    Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Earth would have if it lacked its large Moon (Lissauer et al., 2012), having just one primary chaotic regime at high prograde obliquities. We note an unexpected long-term variability of up to $\\pm7^\\circ$ for retrograde Venuses. Low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability over billion-year timescales -- comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  1. Obliquity Variability of a Potentially Habitable Early Venus

    Barnes, Jason W.; Quarles, Billy; Lissauer, Jack J.; Chambers, John; Hedman, Matthew M.


    Venus currently rotates slowly, with its spin controlled by solid-body and atmospheric thermal tides. However, conditions may have been far different 4 billion years ago, when the Sun was fainter and most of the carbon within Venus could have been in solid form, implying a low-mass atmosphere. We investigate how the obliquity would have varied for a hypothetical rapidly rotating Early Venus. The obliquity variation structure of an ensemble of hypothetical Early Venuses is simpler than that Earth would have if it lacked its large Moon (Lissauer et al., 2012), having just one primary chaotic regime at high prograde obliquities. We note an unexpected long-term variability of up to $\\pm7^\\circ$ for retrograde Venuses. Low-obliquity Venuses show very low total obliquity variability over billion-year timescales -- comparable to that of the real Moon-influenced Earth.

  2. The Venus Transit, the Mayan Calendar and Astronomy Education in Guanajuato, Mexico

    Bravo-Alfaro, H.; Caretta, C. A.; Brito, E. M. S.; Campos, P.; Macias, F.


    In this work we present two aspects of the Astronomy education activities carried out in 2012 by a multidisciplinary group at Universidad de Guanajuato, including specialists in Astronomy, Social Sciences and Environmental Engineering. The first program linked the Venus Transit, occurred in June 2012, with a national campaign of vulgarization of both modern and ancient (Mayan) Astronomy. Professional astronomers all around the country took advantage of the recent myth linked to the end of a large Mayan calendar cycle (13 baktuns, or some 5125 years) happening, after certain authors, in December 2012. In Guanajuato, the Astronomy Department organized live observations of the Venus Transit at two different locations, and complemented with conferences about astronomical events and the fake predictions of disasters linked to the ``end`` of the Mayan calendar. This program was very successful not only in Guanajuato but throughout the country, with several thousands of people attending live observations, conferences, expositions, etc.

  3. Experimental comparison studies with the VENUS-II disassembly code

    The Kiwi-TNT, SNAPTRAN-2 and SNAPTRAN-3 reactor disassembly experiments have been analyzed using the VENUS-II disassembly code. Modifications to the basic VENUS-II model required for the analysis of these tests are discussed. Key results from the analyses are compared to the experimental data and conclusions are drawn concerning the experimental validation of VENUS-II afforded by these comparisons

  4. The escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    It is suggested that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus may be connected with the absence of natural satellites around them. If Mercury or Venus possessed a satellite at the time of formation, the tidal evolution would have caused the satellite to recede. At a sufficiently large distance from the planet, the Sun's gravitational influence makes the satellite orbit unstable. The natural satellites of Mercury and Venus might have escaped as a consequence of this instability. (Auth.)

  5. Search for a Venus halo effect during 1970.

    Ward, D.; O'Leary, B.


    Photometric observations of Venus during 1970 inferior conjunction, in contrast to observations made during the 1969 inferior conjunction, show no evidence of a Venus halo effect at 158 phase angle. The upper limit to brightening is about 0.005 mag but can still be reconciled with earlier results. Because of the importance of the question of H2O-ice in the Venus clouds, further observations are encouraged to remove the marginality of most observations to date.

  6. Solar wind interaction with comets - lessons from Venus

    Data on the solar wind interaction with Venus are examined for the purpose of comparison with similar processes that may occur in comets. Attention is given to bow shock, magnetosheath, ionopause, ionosphere, and magnetotail of Venus. These features are compared with, respectively, the bow shock, magnetosheath, contact surface, coma, and plasma tail of a comet. It is concluded that observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus should provide new insight into the solar wind interaction with comets

  7. Solar wind interaction with comets - Lessons from Venus

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Elphic, R. C.; Neugebauer, M.


    Data on the solar wind interaction with Venus are examined for the purpose of comparison with similar processes that may occur in comets. Attention is given to bow shock, magnetosheath, ionopause, ionosphere, and magnetotail of Venus. These features are compared with, respectively, the bow shock, magnetosheath, contact surface, coma, and plasma tail of a comet. It is concluded that observations of the solar wind interaction with Venus should provide new insight into the solar wind interaction with comets.

  8. X-Raying the Dark Side of Venus - Scatter from Venus Magnetotail?

    Afshari, M; Jibben, P R; Petralia, A; Reale, F; Weber, M


    This work analyzes the X-ray, EUV and UV emission apparently coming from the Earth-facing (dark) side of Venus as observed with Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA during a transit across the solar disk occurred in 2012. We have measured significant X-Ray, EUV and UV flux from Venus dark side. As a check we have also analyzed a Mercury transit across the solar disk, observed with Hinode/XRT in 2006. We have used the latest version of the Hinode/XRT Point Spread Function (PSF) to deconvolve Venus and Mercury X-ray images, in order to remove possible instrumental scattering. Even after deconvolution, the flux from Venus shadow remains significant while in the case of Mercury it becomes negligible. Since stray-light contamination affects the XRT Ti-poly filter data from the Venus transit in 2012, we performed the same analysis with XRT Al-mesh filter data, which is not affected by the light leak. Even the Al-mesh filter data show residual flux. We have also found significant EUV (304 A, 193 A, 335 A) and UV (1700 A) flux in ...

  9. Changes in Latitude, Changes in Attitude: U. S. Naval Observatory Observations of the Transit of Venus 1874-2012

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chester, G.; Bosken, S.; Barron, E. G.


    Of the seven transits of Venus for which unambiguous observations exist, four have occurred since the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) was established in 1844. With the Transit of Venus Commission, the USNO was heavily involved in observing the December 8, 1874, and December 6, 1882, events to establish an accurate value for the astronomical unit. In the 1960s, radar measurements began providing reliable Solar System distances. Scientific interest in these transits has now moved towards studies of the Venusian atmosphere and understanding transiting extrasolar planets, subjects in which the USNO is less active. In 1874, American Transit of Venus expeditions to Siberia, China, Japan, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Kerguelen and Chatham Islands returned with 350 photographic plates. The 1882 missions collected 1,487 plates from Washington, DC; Florida; Texas; New Mexico; South Africa; Patagonia; Chile; and New Zealand. From the 1882 photographs, Harkness determined the astronomical unit to be 92,455,000 ± 123,400 miles (148,790,000 ± 198,600 km). On June 8, 2004, and June 5, 2012, the USNO hosted friends and family interested in seeing the transits of Venus. Both events were partially visible from Washington, DC while the Flagstaff station was only able to watch a portion of 2012 transit. The surviving 19th century equipment was returned to service to view this scientific curiosity. In 2012, one 5-inch (0.1-m) Alvan Clark refractor (#856) was able to observe its fourth transit of Venus from Washington despite clouds. Between the two locations, approximately 570 people participated. Other USNO astronomers made personal trips west to Hawaii and Alaska to share the event with the public. In 1882, Harkness mused on the scientific advances that had and would occur between transits of Venus. Like him, we can only wonder “What will be the state of science when the next transit season arrives” on December 11, 2117.

  10. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  11. Low-emissivity impact craters on Venus

    Weitz, C. M.; Elachi, C.; Moore, H. J.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Ivanov, B. A.; Schaber, G. G.


    An analysis of 144 impact craters on Venus has shown that 11 of these have floors with average emissivities lower than 0.8. The remaining craters have emissivities between 0.8 and 0.9, independent of the specific backscatter cross section of the crater floors. These 144 impact craters were chosen from a possible 164 craters with diameters greater than 30 km as identified by researchers for 89 percent of the surface of Venus. We have only looked at craters below 6053.5 km altitude because a mineralogical change causes high reflectivity/low emissivity above the altitude. We have also excluded all craters with diameters smaller than 30 km because the emissivity footprint at periapsis is 16 x 24 km and becomes larger at the poles.

  12. Probing the Interior Structure of Venus

    Stevenson, David J.; Cutts, James A.; Mimoun, David; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Blom, Philip; Brageot, Emily; Brissaud, Quentin; Chin, Gordon; Gao, Peter; Garcia, Raphael; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Hunter, Gary; Jackson, Jennifer M.; Kerzhanovich, V. V.


    The formation, evolution, and structure of Venus remain a mystery more than 50 years after the first visit by a robotic spacecraft. Radar images have revealed a surface that is much younger than those of the Moon, Mercury, and Mars as well as a variety of enigmatic volcanic and tectonic features quite unlike those we are familiar with on Earth. What are the dynamic processes that shape these features, in the absence of any plate tectonics? What is their relationship with the de...

  13. Comparing Volcanic Terrains on Venus and Earth: How Prevalent are Pyroclastic Deposits on Venus?

    Carter, Lynn M.; Campbell, B. A.; Glaze, L. S.


    In the last several years, astronomers have discovered several exoplanets with masses less than 10 times that of the Earth [1]. Despite the likely abundance of Earth-sized planets, little is known about the pathways through which these planets evolve to become habitable or uninhabitable. Venus and Earth have similar planetary radii and solar orbital distance, and therefore offer a chance to study in detail the divergent evolution of two objects that now have radically different climates. Understanding the extent, duration, and types of volcanism present on Venus is an important step towards understanding how volatiles released from the interior of Venus have influenced the development of the atmosphere. Placing constraints on the extent of explosive volcanism on Venus can provide boundary conditions for timing, volumes, and altitudes for atmospheric injection of volatiles. In addition, atmospheric properties such as near-surface temperature and density affect how interior heat and volatiles are released. Radar image data for Venus can be used to determine the physical properties of volcanic deposits, and in particular, they can be used to search for evidence of pyroclastic deposits that may result from explosive outgassing of volatiles. For explosive volcanism to occur with the current high atmospheric pressure, magma volatile contents must be higher than is typical on Earth (at least 2-4% by weight) [2,3]. In, addition, pyroclastic flows should be more prevalent on Venus than convective plumes and material may not travel as far from the vent source as it would on Earth [3]. Areas of high radar backscatter with wispy margins that occur near concentric fractures on Sapho Patera [4] and several coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio [5] have been attributed to collapse of eruption columns and runout of rough materials.

  14. Signs of hypothetical fauna of Venus

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.


    On March 1 and 5, 1982, experiments in television photography instrumented by the landers VENERA-13 and -14, yielded 37 panoramas (or their fragments) of the Venus surface at the landing site. Over the past 31 years, no similar missions have been sent to Venus. Using a modern technique the VENERA panoramas were re-examined. A new analysis of Venusian surface panoramas' details has been made. A few relatively large objects of hypothetical fauna of Venus were found with size ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology. Treated once again VENERA-14 panoramic images revealed `amisada' object about 15 cm in size possessing apparent terramorphic features. The amisada's body stands out with its lizard-like shape against the stone plates close by. The amisada can be included into the list of the most significant findings of the hypothetical Venusian fauna. The amisada's body show slow movements, which is another evidence of the Venusian fauna's very slow style of activity, which appears to be associated with its energy constraints or, and that is more likely, with the properties of its internal medium. The terramorphic features of the Venusian fauna, if they are confirmed, may point out at outstandingly important and yet undiscovered general laws of the animated nature on different planets.

  15. Dike emplacement on Venus and on earth

    Mckenzie, Dan; Mckenzie, James M.; Saunders, R. S.


    Attention is given to long linear features visible in SAR images of the surface of Venus. They are shallow graben a few kilometers across. Calculations show that dike emplacement can account for such features if the top of the dikes is a few kilometers below the surface of the planet. The dikes are often curved near their probable sources, and the magnitude of the regional stress field estimated from this curvature is about 3 MPa, or similar to that of earth. On both Venus and earth, dikes often form intersecting patterns. Two-dimensional calculations show that this behavior can occur only if the stress field changes with time. Transport of melt over distances as large as 2000 km in dikes whose width is 30 m or more occurs in some continental shields on earth and can also account for linear features on Venus that extend for comparable distances. Such transport is possible because the viscosity and thermal conductivity of both the melt and the wall rock are small.

  16. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    M. Yamauchi


    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  17. Comparison of measurements of electromagnetic induction in the magnetosphere of Venus with laboratory simulations

    Analysis of Venera 9 and 10 data suggest a comingled excitation of the ionosphere of Venus by the time dependent component of the interplanetary magnetic field, upon which may be superimposed a contribution from the interplanetary electric field. The inductive contributions correspond respectively to generation of eddy currents and to unipolar induction, i.e., the TE and TM modes of classical electromagnetism. The former is suggested when the interplanetary magnetic field exhibits significant changes in intensity or orientation, but could also have contributions from fluctuations in plasma pressure expressed through the frozen-in field. The magnetic field measured near Venus by Venera 9 and 10 is considered within this framework and with respect to laboratory simulation using both conducting and insulated (but internally conducting) spheres. (Auth.)

  18. Carbonate-sulfate volcanism on Venus?

    Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Kirk, Randolph L.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.


    Venusian canali, outflow channels, and associated volcanic deposits resemble fluvial landforms more than they resmeble volcanic features on Earth and Mars. Some canali have meandering habits and features indicative of channel migration that are very similar to meandering river channels and flood plains on Earth, venusian outflow channels closely resemble water-carved outflow channels on Mars and the Channeled Scabland in Washington, collapsed terrains at the sources of some venusian channels resemble chaotic terrains at the sources of martian outflow channels, venusian lava deltas are similar to bird's-foot deltas such as the Mississippi delta, and venusian valley networks indicate sapping. We have developed an alternative possibility that the lava had a water-like rheology and a melting point slightly greater than Venus' surface temperature, thus accounting for the unusual behavior of the lava. Unlike silicate lavas, some carbonatites (including carbonate-sulfate-rich liquids) have these properties; thus they can flow great distances while retaining a high fluidity, significant mechanical erosiveness, and substantial capacity to transport and deposit sediment. Venusian geochemistry and petrology are consistent with extensive eruptions of carbonatite lavas, which could have crustal and/or mantle origins. Venus' atmosphere (especially CO2, HCl, and HF abundances) and rocks may be in local chemical equilibrium, which suggests that the upper crust contains large amounts of calcite, anhydrite, and other salts. Chemical analyses indicate, according to some models, that Venusian rocks may contain 4-19% calcite and anhydrite. Mixtures of crustal salts could melt at temperatures a few tens to a few hundred Kelvins higher than Venus' surface temperature; hence, melting may be induced by modest endogenetic or impact heating. Salts may have many of the same geologic roles on Venus as water and ice have on Mars. A molten salt (carbonatite) 'aquifer' may exist beneath a few

  19. VERITAS: A Mission Concept for the High Resolution Topographic Mapping and Imaging of Venus

    Hensley, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Pollard, B.


    Magellan, a NASA mission to Venus in the early 1990's, mapped nearly the entire surface of Venus with an S-band (12 cm) synthetic aperture radar and microwave radiometer and made radar altimeter measurements of the topography. These measurements revolutionized our understanding of the geomorphology, geology and geophysical processes that have shaped the evolution of the surface of Venus. The Magellan spacecraft had an elliptical orbit with an apoapsis of approximately 8000 km and a periapsis of 257 km and an orbital inclination of 86°. In this way the radar was able to collect long strips of data approximately 10000 km in length running north to south with altitudes varying from 3000 km to 257 km. During the remainder of the orbit the collected data was down linked to earth. The SAR mode operated in burst mode fashion whereby it transmitted a small string of pulses up to a couple of hundred pulses in length followed by a quiescent period when the radar ceased transmission and allowed interleaved operation of the altimeter and radiometer modes. This mode of operation allowed for a significant reduction in downlinked SAR imaging data at the expense of azimuth (i.e. along-track) resolution. However, the lack of finer resolution imagery and topography of the surface than that obtained by the Magellan mission has hampered the definitive answer to key questions concerning the processes and evolution of the surface of Venus. The Venus Emissivity, Radio Science, InSAR Topography And Spectroscopy (VERITAS) Mission is a proposed mission to Venus designed to obtain high resolution imagery and topography of the surface using an X-band radar configured as a single pass radar interferometer coupled with a multispectral NIR emissivity mapping capability. VERITAS would map surface topography with a spatial resolution of 250 m and 5 m vertical accuracy and generate radar imagery with 30 m spatial resolution. These capabilities represent an order of magnitude or better improvement

  20. Venus High Temperature Atmospheric Dropsonde and Extreme-Environment Seismometer (HADES)

    Boll, Nathan J.; Salazar, Denise; Stelter, Christopher J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.


    The atmospheric composition and geologic structure of Venus have been identified by the US National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Planetary Science as priority targets for scientific exploration, however the high temperature and pressure at the surface, along with the highly corrosive chemistry of the Venus atmosphere, present significant obstacles to spacecraft design that have severely limited past and proposed landed missions. Following the methodology of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) proposal regime and the Collaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design protocol, this paper presents a conceptual study and initial feasibility analysis for a Discovery-class Venus lander capable of an extended-duration mission at ambient temperature and pressure, incorporating emerging technologies within the field of high temperature electronics in combination with novel configurations of proven, high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) systems. Radioisotope Thermal Power (RTG) systems and silicon carbide (SiC) communications and data handling are examined in detail, and various high-temperature instruments are proposed, including a seismometer and an advanced photodiode imager. The study combines this technological analysis with proposals for a descent instrument package and a relay orbiter to demonstrate the viability of an integrated atmospheric and in-situ geologic exploratory mission that differs from previous proposals by greatly reducing the mass, power requirements, and cost, while achieving important scientific goals.

  1. Photogenic Venus. The "cinematographic turn" and its alternatives in nineteenth-century France

    Canales, Jimena


    During the late nineteenth century, scientists around the world disagreed as to the types of instruments and methods that should be used for determining the most important constant of celestial mechanics: the solar parallax. Venus's 1874 transit across the sun was seen as the best opportunity for ending decades of debate. However, a mysterious "black drop" that appeared between Venus and the sun and individual differences in observations of the phenomenon brought traditional methods into disrepute. To combat these difficulties, the astronomer Jules Janssen devised a controversial new instrument, the "photographic revolver", that photographed Venus at regular intervals. Another solution came from physicists, who rivaled the astronomers' dominance in precision measurements by deducing the solar parallax from physical measurements of the speed of light. Yet other astronomers relied on drawings and well-trained observers. The new space emerging from this debate was characterized by a decline in faith in (nonstandardized, nonreproducible) photography and in (pure) geometry and by the growing realization of the importance of alternative elements needed for establishing scientific truths: power and authority, skill and discipline, standardization, mechanical reproducibility, and theoreticality. By examining the "cinematographic turn" in science and its alternatives, this essay brings to light unexplored multi-disciplinary connections that contribute to the histories of psychology, philosophy, physics, and film studies.

  2. Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G


    Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability. PMID:16379531

  3. Venus high temperature atmospheric dropsonde and extreme-environment seismometer (HADES)

    Boll, Nathan J.; Salazar, Denise; Stelter, Christopher J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.


    The atmospheric composition and geologic structure of Venus have been identified by the US National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Planetary Science as priority targets for scientific exploration; however, the high temperature and pressure at the surface, along with the highly corrosive chemistry of the Venus atmosphere, present significant obstacles to spacecraft design that have severely limited past and proposed landed missions. Following the methodology of the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) proposal regime and the Collaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) design protocol, this paper presents a conceptual study and initial feasibility analysis for a Discovery-class Venus lander capable of an extended-duration mission at ambient temperature and pressure, incorporating emerging technologies within the field of high temperature electronics in combination with novel configurations of proven, high Technology Readiness Level (TRL) systems. Radioisotope Thermal Power (RTG) systems and silicon carbide (SiC) communications and data handling are examined in detail, and various high-temperature instruments are proposed, including a seismometer and an advanced photodiode imager. The study combines this technological analysis with proposals for a descent instrument package and a relay orbiter to demonstrate the viability of an integrated atmospheric and in-situ geologic exploratory mission that differs from previous proposals by greatly reducing the mass, power requirements, and cost, while achieving important scientific goals.

  4. USGS Magellan stereomapping of Venus

    Howington-Kraus, E.; Kirk, R. L.; Galuszka, D.; Redding, B.

    Introduction: The Magellan spacecraft went into Venus orbit in 1990 and by 1992 had made three complete cycles of polar orbits, each cycle covering the full range of longitudes. During this time the spacecraft obtained synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of >96% of the planet at a resolution of 75 m/pixel [1]. Images taken with a decreased look angle from vertical, primarily during Cycle 3, provide stereo coverage of 17% of the planet when combined with images with same-side illumination from earlier in the mission. The stereo geometry of these images is extremely favorable, allowing elevation measurements with an estimated vertical precision (EP) of ˜10 m [2]. Magellan also obtained radar altimetry data at a horizontal resolution of 10x25 km, but photogrammetric analysis of the stereoimagery can yield topographic maps with a horizontal resolution more than an order of magnitude superior to that of the altimeter. We therefore developed software needed to utilize Magellan stereomagery on our photogrammetric workstation running commercial (SOCET SET R BAE) software [3,4]. The special hardware and SOCET SET software of this system provide many useful capabilities for stereomapping which can be extended by programming with the SOCET SET Developer's Toolkit (DEVKIT). The unique properties of the Magellan SAR data made it necessary to develop both translation software (of image data and supporting geometric information) and a sensor model [5]. Sensor Model: A sensor model is a function that specifies the transformation between image space (lines, samples) and object or ground coordinates (latitude, longitude, elevation). Our Magellan SAR sensor model includes all the physics of the Magellan imaging process, and accounts for the fact that during the Magellan imaging process, the images have been partially orthorectified as part of the correlation process: distortions attributable to topography were removed (but only those accounted for in the very low resolution pre

  5. Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters

    Automatic calibration system for VENUS lead glass counters has been constructed. It consists of a moving table, position sensors, control electronics and a master minicomputer, (micro-11 of DEC). The system has been well operated for six months and one third of VENUS lead glass counters have been calibrated. (author)

  6. The escape of natural satellites from Mercury and Venus

    Kumar's (1977) suggestion that the slow rotations of Mercury and Venus are in part due to natural satellites that subsequently escaped is discussed. A more useful criterion for the escape of such satellites than the previously proposed is derived, and it is shown that this distance is sufficiently small for Mercury and Venus to make the escape of satellites a likely possibility. (Auth.)

  7. Helium on Venus - Implications for uranium and thorium

    Prather, M. J.; Mcelroy, M. B.


    Helium is removed at an average rate of 10 to the 6th atoms per square centimeter per second from Venus's atmosphere by the solar wind following ionization above the plasmapause. The surface source of helium-4 on Venus is similar to that on earth, suggesting comparable abundances of crustal uranium and thorium.

  8. Helium on Venus: Implications for uranium and thorium

    Prather, MJ; McElroy, MB


    Helium is removed at an average rate of 106 atoms per square centimeter per second from Venus's atmosphere by the solar wind following ionization above the plasmapause. The surface source of helium-4 on Venus is similar to that on Earth, suggesting comparable abundances of crustal uranium and thorium.

  9. A Unique Approach for Studying Venus’s Atmosphere: Technology Development for the Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP)

    Samuele, Rocco; Lee, Greg; Sokol, Daniel; Polidan, Ron; Griffin, Kristen; Bolisay, Linden; Michi, Yuki; Barnes, Nathan


    We are investigating a novel, reduced-risk approach to long-duration upper atmosphere exploration of Venus. The Venus Atmospheric Maneuverable Platform (VAMP) concept is a semi-buoyant plane with a science payload that can perform in situ measurements of Venus’s atmosphere. VAMP is also capable of revisiting scientifically interesting locations. Designed with a low ballistic coefficient, VAMP deploys in space and enters Venus’s atmosphere without an aeroshell. Once in the atmosphere, it can engage in a variety of science campaigns while varying its altitude between 50 and 68 km as it circumnavigates Venus. During daytime, VAMP will be able to make continuous science measurements at a range of latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes, while at night the vehicle will descend to a fully-buoyant, lower-power state, capable of performing modest science measurements at the float altitude. Near the end of VAMP’s mission life, the vehicle may attempt an end-of-life trajectory into higher latitudes or descend to lower altitudes. This presentation focuses on the technology roadmap that will allow the vehicle to accomplish these science measurements. The roadmap is driven by high priority science measurements and the technology needed to implement VAMP’s main mission phases: deployment, entry into Venus’s atmosphere, and the transition to flight and science flight performance. The roadmap includes materials tests, planform aerodynamic characterization, various subscale and full-scale packaging and deployment tests, and a full-scale suborbital flight and is being produced with extensive science community interaction to define the science measurements that would be uniquely possible with this new science platform.

  10. Average dimension and magnetic structure of the distant Venus magnetotail

    Saunders, M. A.; Russell, C. T.


    The first major statistical investigation of the far wake of an unmagnetized object embedded in the solar wind is reported. The investigation is based on Pioneer Venus Orbiter magnetometer data from 70 crossings of the Venus wake at altitudes between 5 and 11 Venus radii during reasonably steady IMF conditions. It is found that Venus has a well-developed-tail, flaring with altitude and possibly broader in the direction parallel to the IMF cross-flow component. Tail lobe field polarities and the direction of the cross-tail field are consistent with tail accretion from the solar wind. Average values for the cross-tail field (2 nT) and the distant tail flux (3 MWb) indicate that most distant tail field lines close across the center of the tail and are not rooted in the Venus ionosphere. The findings are illustrated in a three-dimensional schematic.